Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3767

Search results for: combination therapy

3767 Potency Interaction using Simvastatin and Herbs Cholesterol Lowering Agent, Prevention of Unwanted Effect in Combination Hyperlipidemia Therapy

Authors: Agung A. Ginanjar, Lilitasari, Indra Prasetya, Rizal R. Hanif, Yusrina Rismandini, Atina Hussaana, Nurita P. Sari

Abstract:

Hyperlipidemia is an increase of lipids and cholesterol in the blood that causes the formation of atherosklerosis. The recent pharmacological therapy nowadays is statin. Many Indonesian people use of medicinal plants. There are several medical plants that people always use to cure hyperlipidemia such as bulbs onion sabrang, areca nuts, and seed of fenugreek. Most people often use a combination therapy of conventional medicine and herbs to achieve the desired therapeutic effect of combination therapy. The use of combination therapy might cause the interaction of pharmacodynamic from those medicines so that it influences the pharmacological effect of one of medicine. The aim of this study is to know the interaction of simvastatin and a cholesterol-lowering herb seen in rats pharmacodynamic simvastatin phase. This research used post-test only controlled group design. Analysis of statistical data normality and homogenity were tested by Kolmogorov Smirnov. The ANOVA test is used when the data is obtained homogeneous but if it is found that the data are not homogeneous then kruskal-wallis test is used. Normal (63.196 mg/dl), negative (70.604 mg/dl), positive (62.512 mg/dl), areca nuts (56.564 mg/dl), fenugreek seed (47.538 ,g/dl), onion sabrang (62.312 mg/dl). The results prove that the combination of herbs and simvastatin did not have a significant difference (P>0,05). The conclusion of this study is that the combination of simvastatin and a cholesterol-lowering herb can cause some pharmacodynamic interactions such as a synergistic effect, antagonist, and a powerful additive, so that combination therapy is not more effective than single simvastatin therapy. The use of the combination therapy is not given in the same time. It would be better if there are some period of time when the combination therapy is applied.

Keywords: onion bulb sabrang, areca nuts, seed of fenugreek, interaction medicine, hyperlipidemia

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3766 Nanoscale Metal-Organic Framework Coated Carbon Nitride Nanosheet for Combination Cancer Therapy

Authors: Rui Chen, Jinfeng Zhang, Chun-Sing Lee

Abstract:

In the past couple of decades, nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs) have been highlighted as promising delivery platforms for biomedical applications, which combine many potent features such as high loading capacity, progressive biodegradability and low cytotoxicity. While NMOF has been extensively used as carriers for drugs of different modalities, so far there is no report on exploiting the advantages of NMOF for combination therapy. Herein, we prepared core-shell nanoparticles, where each nanoparticle contains a single graphitic-phase carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheet encapsulated by a zeolitic-imidazolate frameworks-8 (ZIF-8) shell. The g-C3N4 nanosheets are effective visible-light photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT). When hosting DOX (doxorubicin), the as-synthesized core-shell nanoparticles could realize combinational photo-chemo therapy and provide dual-color fluorescence imaging. Therefore, we expect NMOFs-based core-shell nanoparticles could provide a new way to achieve much-enhanced cancer therapy.

Keywords: carbon nitride, combination therapy, drug delivery, nanoscale metal-organic frameworks

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3765 Antihyperlipidemia Combination of Simvastatin and Herbal Drink (Conventional Drug Interaction Potential Study and Herbal As Prevention Adverse Effect on Combination Therapy Hyperlipidemia)

Authors: Gesti Prastiti, Maylina Adani, Yuyun darma A. N., M. Khilmi F., Yunita Wahyu Pratiwi

Abstract:

Combination therapy may allow interaction on two drugs or more that can give adverse effects on patients. Simvastatin is a drug of antihyperlipidemia it can interact with drugs which work on cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 because it can interfere the performance of simvastatin. Flavonoid found in plants can inhibit the cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 if taken with simvastatin and can increase simvastatin levels in the body and increases the potential side effects of simvastatin such as myopati and rhabdomyolysis. Green tea leaves and mint are herbal medicine which has the effect of antihiperlipidemia. This study aims to determine the potential interaction of simvastatin with herbal drinks (green tea leaves and mint). This research method are experimental post-test only control design. Test subjects were divided into 5 groups: normal group, negative control group, simvastatin group, a combination of green tea group and the combination group mint leaves. The study was conducted over 32 days and total cholesterol levels were analyzed by enzymatic colorimetric test method. Results of this study is the obtainment of average value of total cholesterol in each group, the normal group (65.92 mg/dL), the negative control group the average total cholesterol test in the normal group was (69.86 mg/dL), simvastatin group (58.96 mg/dL), the combination of green tea group (58.96 mg/dL), and the combination of mint leaves (63.68 mg/dL). The conclusion is between simvastatin combination therapy with herbal drinks have the potential for pharmacodynamic interactions with a synergistic effect, antagonist, and a powerful additive, so the combination therapy are no more effective than a single administration of simvastatin therapy.

Keywords: hyperlipidemia, simvastatin, herbal drinks, green tea leaves, mint leaves, drug interactions

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3764 Psychosocial Determinants of School Violent Behavior and the Efficacy of Covert Sensitization in Combination with Systematic approach Therapy among Male Students in Lagos Metropolis: Implications for Student Counselors

Authors: Fidel O. Okopi, Aminu Kazeem Ibrahim

Abstract:

The study investigated psychosocial determinants ‘attitudes and self-esteem’ of school violent behaviors and the efficacy of covert sensitization therapy in combination with systematic approach therapy among male students in Lagos metropolis. Ex-post facto experimental research design was adopted for the study. The samples consisted of 39 school violent behavior students identified through the School Disciplinary Record Books and another 39 non-school violent behavior students identified through randomization. The two groups were from four randomly selected Public Senior Secondary Schools. School Violent Behavior Attitudes Scale (SVBAS) and School Violent Behavior Self-Esteem Scale (SVBSES) were used to collect data for the study. Face and Content validity with the Reliability coefficient of 0.772 for SVBAS and 0.813 for SVBSES were obtained. The results showed that the attitude of school violent behavior students do not significantly differ from that of school non-violent behavior students; the self-esteem of school violent behavior students differs significantly from that of school non-violent behavior students and that Covert Sensitization therapy in combination with Systematic Approach therapy were effective in modifying the self-esteem and attitude of school violent behavior students as surf iced in the pre-test and post-test analysis of school violent behavior students’ responses. The School counselors can modify male school violent behaviors that are traced to attitude and self-esteem with Covert Sensitization therapy in combination with Systematic Approach therapy in metropolitan areas.

Keywords: psychosocial determinants, violent behavior, covert sensitization therapy, systematic approach therapy

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3763 Development and in vitro Evaluation of Polymer-Drug Conjugates Containing Potentiating Agents for Combination Therapy

Authors: Blessing A. Aderibigbe

Abstract:

Combination therapy is a treatment approach that is used to prevent the emergence of drug resistance. This approach is used for the treatment of many chronic and infectious diseases. Potentiating agents are currently explored in combination therapy, resulting in excellent therapeutic outcomes. Breast cancer and malaria are two chronic conditions responsible globally for high death rates. In this research, a class of polymer-drug conjugates containing potentiating agents with either antimalarial or anticancer drugs were prepared by Michael Addition Polymerization reaction and ring-opening polymerization reaction. Conjugation of potentiating agents with bioactive compounds into the polymers resulted in conjugates with good water solubility, highly selective and non-toxic. In vitro cytotoxicity and in vitro antiplasmodial evaluation on the conjugates revealed that the conjugates were more effective when compared to the free drugs. The drug release studies further showed that the release profile of the drugs from the conjugates was sustained. The findings revealed the potential of polymer-drug conjugates to overcome drug toxicity and drug resistance, which is common with the currently used antimalarial and anticancer drugs.

Keywords: anticancer, antimalarials, combination therapy, polymer-drug conjugates

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3762 Clinical Efficacy of Nivolumab and Ipilimumab Combination Therapy for the Treatment of Advanced Melanoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials

Authors: Zhipeng Yan, Janice Wing-Tung Kwong, Ching-Lung Lai

Abstract:

Background: Advanced melanoma accounts for the majority of skin cancer death due to its poor prognosis. Nivolumab and ipilimumab are monoclonal antibodies targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes antigen 4 (CTLA-4). Nivolumab and ipilimumab combination therapy has been proven to be effective for advanced melanoma. This systematic review and meta-analysis are to evaluate its clinical efficacy and adverse events. Method: A systematic search was done on databases (Pubmed, Embase, Medline, Cochrane) on 21 June 2020. Search keywords were nivolumab, ipilimumab, melanoma, and randomised controlled trials. Clinical trials fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected to evaluate the efficacy of combination therapy in terms of prolongation of progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and objective response rate (ORR). The odd ratios and distributions of grade 3 or above adverse events were documented. Subgroup analysis was performed based on PD-L1 expression-status and BRAF-mutation status. Results: Compared with nivolumab monotherapy, the hazard ratios of PFS, OS and odd ratio of ORR in combination therapy were 0.64 (95% CI, 0.48-0.85; p=0.002), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.74-0.95; p=0.007) and 1.76 (95% CI, 1.51-2.06; p < 0.001), respectively. Compared with ipilimumab monotherapy, the hazard ratios of PFS, OS and odd ratio of ORR were 0.46 (95% CI, 0.37-0.57; p < 0.001), 0.54 (95% CI, 0.48-0.61; p < 0.001) and 6.18 (95% CI, 5.19-7.36; p < 0.001), respectively. In combination therapy, the odds ratios of grade 3 or above adverse events were 4.71 (95% CI, 3.57-6.22; p < 0.001) compared with nivolumab monotherapy, and 3.44 (95% CI, 2.49-4.74; p < 0.001) compared with ipilimumab monotherapy, respectively. High PD-L1 expression level and BRAF mutation were associated with better clinical outcomes in patients receiving combination therapy. Conclusion: Combination therapy is effective for the treatment of advanced melanoma. Adverse events were common but manageable. Better clinical outcomes were observed in patients with high PD-L1 expression levels and positive BRAF-mutation.

Keywords: nivolumab, ipilimumab, advanced melanoma, systematic review, meta-analysis

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3761 Management Practices in Hypertension: Results of Win-Over-A Pan India Registry

Authors: Abhijit Trailokya, Kamlesh Patel

Abstract:

Background: Hypertension is a common disease seen in clinical practice and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Many patients require combination therapy for the management of hypertension. Objective: To evaluate co-morbidities, risk factors and management practices of hypertension in Indian population. Material and methods: A total of 1596 hypertensive adult patients received anti-hypertensive medications were studied in a cross-sectional, multi-centric, non-interventional, observational registry. Statistical analysis: Categories or nominal data was expressed as numbers with percentages. Continuous variables were analyzed by descriptive statistics using mean, SD, and range Chi square test was used for in between group comparison. Results: The study included 73.50% males and 26.50% females. Overweight (50.50%) and obesity (30.01%) was common in the hypertensive patients (n=903). A total of 54.76% patients had history of smoking. Alcohol use (33.08%), sedentary life style (32.96%) and history of tobacco chewing (17.92%) were the other lifestyle habits of hypertensive patients. Diabetes (36.03%) and dyslipidemia (39.79%) history was common in these patients. Family history of hypertension and diabetes was seen in 82.21% and 45.99% patients respectively. Most (89.16%) patients were treated with combination of antihypertensive agents. ARBs were the by far most commonly used agents (91.98%) followed by calcium channel blockers (68.23%) and diuretics (60.21%). ARB was the most (80.35%) preferred agent as monotherapy. ARB was also the most common agent as a component of dual therapy, four drug and five drug combinations. Conclusion: Most of the hypertensive patients need combination treatment with antihypertensive agents. ARBs are the most preferred agents as monotherapy for the management of hypertension. ARBs are also very commonly used as a component of combination therapy during hypertension management.

Keywords: antihypertensive, hypertension, management, ARB

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3760 Ozone Therapy and Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Interplay in Controlling Tumor Growth, Symptom and Pain Management: A Case Report

Authors: J. F. Pollo Gaspary, F. Peron Gaspary, E. M. Simão, R. Concatto Beltrame, G. Orengo de Oliveira, M. S. Ristow Ferreira, F. Sartori Thies, I. F. Minello, F. dos Santos de Oliveira

Abstract:

Background: The immune system has evolved several mechanisms to protect the host against cancer, and it has now been suggested that the expansion of its functions may prevent tumor growth and control the symptoms of cancer patients. Two techniques, ozone therapy and pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF), are independently associated with an increase in the immune system functions and they maybe help palliative care of patients in these conditions. Case Report: A patient with rectal adenocarcinoma with metastases decides to interrupt the clinical chemotherapy protocol due to refractoriness and side effects. As a palliative care alternative treatment it is suggested to the patient the use of ozone therapy associated with PEMF techniques. Results: The patient reports an improvement in well-being, in autonomy and in pain control. Imaging tests confirm a pause in tumor growth despite more than 60 days without using classic treatment. These results associated with palliative care alternative treatment stimulate the return to the chemotherapy protocol. Discussion: This case illustrates that these two techniques can contribute to the control of tumor growth and refractory symptoms, such as pain, probably by enhancing the immune system. Conclusions: The potential use of the combination of these two therapies, ozone therapy and PEMF therapy, can contribute to palliation of cancer patients, alone or in combination with pharmacological therapies. The conduct of future investigations on this paradigm can elucidate how much these techniques contribute to the survival and well-being of these patients.

Keywords: cancer, complementary and alternative medicine , ozone therapy, palliative care, PEMF therapy

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3759 The Effect of Thymoquinone and Sorafenib Combination on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line

Authors: Nabila N. El-Maraghy, Amany Essa, Yousra Abdel–Mottaleb, Nada Ismail

Abstract:

The use of combination of chemotherapy and natural products to influence the cell death with low doses of chemotherapeutic agents and few side effects has recently emerged as a new method of cancer therapy. Aim: Evaluation the modulatory effect of Thymoquinone on HepG2 cells treated with Sorafenib. Methods: Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 cell line was treated with Sorafenib and TQ individually and in combination. The effect of these treatments on cell viability (MTT assay), apoptosis (Expression of Caspase-3) and oxidative markers (GSH content and extent of lipid peroxidation) was determined. Results: When compared the effect of both agents alone and the combination of the IC50 of Sorafenib and the IC50 TQ, the combination resulted in reduction of cell inhibition and apoptosis and antagonize their actions on GSH content and extent of lipid peroxidation which are increased. This study showed potent anti-tumor activity of both TQ and Sorafenib separately on HepG2 but upon combination surprisingly they interacted and give antagonistic effect. Conclusion: Co-treatment resulted in antagonistic interaction between Sorafenib and Thymoquinone.

Keywords: antagonism, hepatocellular carcinoma, sorafenib, thymoquinone

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3758 Effectiveness of Exercise and TENS in the Treatment of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders

Authors: Arben Murtezani, Shefqet Mrasori, Vančo Spirov, Bukurije Rama, Oliver Dimitrovski, Visar Bunjaku

Abstract:

Overview: Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions. Clinical indicators of discomfort are related to the use of the joint stiffness during first motions after extended rest and restricted joint range of motion can cause substantial pain and disability. There is little evidence that physical therapy methods of management cause long-lasting reduction in signs and symptoms. Exercise programs premeditated to improve physical fitness have beneficial effects on chronic pain and disability of the musculoskeletal system. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of physical therapy interventions in the management of temporomandibular disorders. Materials and Methods: A prospective comparative study with a 2-month follow-up period was conducted between April 2016 and June 2016 at the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic in Prishtina. Forty six patients with TMDs, (more than three months duration of symptoms) were randomized into two groups: the TENS therapy group (n=24) and combination of active exercise and manual therapy group (n=22). The TENS therapy group patients were treated with twelve sessions of TENS. The treatment period of both groups was 3 weeks at an outpatient clinic. Following main outcome measures were evaluated: (1) pain at rest (2) pain at stress (3) impairment (4) mouth opening at base-line, before and after treatment and at 3 month follow-up. Results: Significant reduction in pain was observed in both treatment groups. In the TENS group 73% (16/22) achieved at least 80% improvement from baseline in TMJ pain at 2 months compared with 54% (13/24) in the exercise group (difference of 19%; 95% confidence interval 220 to 30%). Active and passive maximum mouth opening has been greater in the TENS group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Exercise therapy in combination with TENS seems to be useful in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders.

Keywords: temporomandibular joint disorders, TENS, manual therapy, exercise

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3757 Dual Drug Piperine-Paclitaxel Nanoparticles Inhibit Migration and Invasion in Human Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Monika Verma, Renuka Sharma, B. R. Gulati, Namita Singh

Abstract:

In combination therapy, two chemotherapeutic agents work together in a collaborative action. It has appeared as one of the promising approaches to improve anti-cancer treatment efficacy. In the present investigation, piperine (P-NPS), paclitaxel (PTX NPS), and a combination of both, piperine-paclitaxel nanoparticle (Pip-PTX NPS), were made by the nanoprecipitation method and later characterized by PSA, DSC, SEM, TEM, and FTIR. All nanoparticles exhibited a monodispersed size distribution with a size of below 200 nm, zeta potential ranges from (-30-40mV) and a narrow polydispersity index (>0.3) of the drugs. The average encapsulation efficiency was found to be between 80 and 90%. In vitro release of drugs for nanoparticles was done spectrophotometrically. FTIR and DSC results confirmed the presence of the drug. The Pip-PTX NPS significantly inhibit cell proliferation as compared to the native drugs nanoparticles in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. In addition, Pip-PTX NPS suppresses cells in colony formation and soft gel agar assay. Scratch migration and Transwell chamber invasion assays revealed that combined nanoparticles reduce the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Morphological studies showed that Pip-PTX NPS penetrates the cells and induces apoptosis, which was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation, SEM, and western blot analysis. Taken together, Pip-PTX NPS inhibits cell proliferation, anchorage dependent and anchorage independent cell growth, reduces migration and invasion, and induces apoptosis in cells. These findings support that combination therapy using Pip-PTX NPS represents a potential approach and could be helpful in the future for breast cancer therapy.

Keywords: piperine, paclitaxel, breast cancer, apoptosis

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3756 Gastro-Protective Actions of Melatonin and Murraya koenigii Leaf Extract Combination in Piroxicam Treated Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Syed Benazir Firdaus, Debosree Ghosh, Aindrila Chattyopadhyay, Kuladip Jana, Debasish Bandyopadhyay

Abstract:

Gastro-toxic effect of piroxicam, a classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), has restricted its use in arthritis and similar diseases. The present study aims to find if a combination of melatonin and Murraya koenigii leaf extract therapy can protect against piroxicam induced ulcerative damage in rats. For this study, rats were divided into four groups namely control group where rats were orally administered distilled water, only combination treated group, piroxicam treated group and combination pre-administered piroxicam treated group. Each group of rats consisted of six animals. Melatonin at a dose of 20mg/kg body weight and antioxidant rich Murraya koenigii leaf extract at a dose of 50 mg /kg body weight were successively administered at 30 minutes interval one hour before oral administration of piroxicam at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight to Wistar rats in the combination pre-administered piroxicam treated group. The rats of the animal group which was only combination treated were administered both the drugs respectively without piroxicam treatment whereas the piroxicam treated animal group was administered only piroxicam at 30mg/kg body weight without any pre-treatment with the combination. Macroscopic examination along with histo-pathological study of gastric tissue using haemotoxylin-eosin staining and alcian blue dye staining showed protection of the gastric mucosa in the combination pre-administered piroxicam treated group. Determination of adherent mucus content biochemically and collagen content through Image J analysis of picro-sirius stained sections of rat gastric tissue also revealed protective effects of the combination in piroxicam mediated toxicity. Gelatinolytic activity of piroxicam was significantly reduced by pre-administration of the drugs which was well exhibited by the gelatin zymography study of the rat gastric tissue. Mean ulcer index determined from macroscopic study of rat stomach reduced to a minimum (0±0.00; Mean ± Standard error of mean and number of animals in the group=6) indicating the absence of ulcer spots on pre-treatment of rats with the combination. Gastro-friendly prostaglandin (PGE2) which otherwise gets depleted on piroxicam treatment was also well protected when the combination was pre-administered in the rats prior to piroxicam treatment. The requirement of the individual drugs in low doses in this combinatorial therapeutic approach will possibly minimize the cost of therapy as well as it will eliminate the possibility of any pro-oxidant side effects on the use of high doses of antioxidants. Beneficial activity of this combination therapy in the rat model raises the possibility that similar protective actions might be also observed if it is adopted by patients consuming NSAIDs like piroxicam. However, the introduction of any such therapeutic approach is subject to future studies in human.

Keywords: gastro-protective action, melatonin, Murraya koenigii leaf extract, piroxicam

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3755 Effects of Virtual Reality on the Upper Extremity Spasticity and Motor Function in Patients with Stroke: A Single Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Kasra Afsahi, Maryam Soheilifar, S. Hossein Hosseini, Omid Seyed Esmaeili, Rouzbeh Kezemi, Noushin Mehrbod, Nazanin Vahed, Tahereh Hajiahmad, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari

Abstract:

Background: Stroke is a disabling neurological disease. Rehabilitative therapies are important treatment methods. This clinical trial was done to compare the effects of VR beside conventional rehabilitation versus conventional rehabilitation alone on spasticity and motor function in stroke patients. Materials and Methods: In this open-label randomized controlled clinical trial, 40 consecutive patients with stable first-ever ischemic stroke in the past three to 12 months that were referred to a rehabilitation clinic in Tehran, Iran, in 2020 were enrolled. After signing the informed written consent form, subjects were randomly assigned by block randomization of five in each block as cases with 1:1 into two groups of 20 cases; conventional plus VR therapy group: 45-minute conventional therapy session plus 15-minute VR therapy, and conventional group: 60-minute conventional therapy session. VR rehabilitation is designed and developed with different stages. Outcomes were modified Ashworth scale, recovery stage score for motor function, range of motion (ROM) of shoulder abduction/wrist extension, and patients’ satisfaction rate. Data were compared after study termination. Results: The satisfaction rate among the patients was significantly better in the combination group (P=0.003). Only wrist extension was varied between groups and was better in the combination group. The variables generally had a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Virtual reality plus conventional rehabilitation therapy is superior versus conventional rehabilitation alone on the wrist and elbow spasticity and motor function in patients with stroke.

Keywords: stroke, virtual therapy, rehabilitation, treatment

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3754 Predictors of Response to Interferone Therapy in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

Authors: Ali Kassem, Ehab Fawzy, Mahmoud Sef el-eslam, Fatma Salah- Eldeen, El zahraa Mohamed

Abstract:

Introduction: The combination of interferon (INF) and ribavirin is the preferred treatment for chronic hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection. However, nonresponse to this therapy remains common and is associated with several factors such as HCV genotype and HCV viral load in addition to host factors such as sex, HLA type and cytokine polymorphisms. Aim of the work: The aim of this study was to determine predictors of response to (INF) therapy in chronic HCV infected patients treated with INF alpha and ribavirin combination therapy. Patients and Methods: The present study included 110 patients (62 males, 48 females) with chronic HCV infection. Their ages ranged from 20-59 years. Inclusion criteria were organized according to the protocol of the Egyptian National Committee for control of viral hepatitis. Patients included in this study were recruited to receive INF ribavirin combination therapy; 54 patients received pegylated NF α-2a (180 μg) and weight based ribavirin therapy (1000 mg if < 75 kg, 1200 mg if > 75 kg) for 48 weeks and 53 patients received pegylated INF α-2b (1.5 ug/kg/week) and weight based ribavirin therapy (800 mg if < 65 kg, 1000 mg if 65-75 kg and 1200 mg if > 75kg). One hundred and seven liver biopsies were included in the study and submitted to histopathological examination. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections were done to assess both the grade and the stage of chronic viral hepatitis, in addition to the degree of steatosis. Modified hepatic activity index (HAI) grading, modified Ishak staging and Metavir grading and staging systems were used. Laboratory follow up including: HCV PCR at the 12th week to assess the early virologic response (EVR) and at the 24th week were done. At the end of the course: HCV PCR was done at the end of the course and tested 6 months later to document end virologic response (ETR) and sustained virologic response (SVR) respectively. Results One hundred seven patients; 62 males (57.9 %) and 45 females (42.1%) completed the course and included in this study. The age of patients ranged from 20-59 years with a mean of 40.39±10.03 years. Six months after the end of treatment patients were categorized into two groups: Group (1): patients who achieved sustained virological response (SVR). Group (2): patients who didn't achieve sustained virological response (non SVR) including non-responders, breakthrough and relapsers. In our study, 58 (54.2%) patients showed SVR, 18 (16.8%) patients were non-responders, 15 (14%) patients showed break-through and 16 (15 %) patients were relapsers. Univariate binary regression analysis of the possible risk factors of non SVR showed that the significant factors were higher age, higher fasting insulin level, higher Metavir stage and higher grade of hepatic steatosis. Multivariate binary regression analysis showed that the only independent risk factor for non SVR was high fasting insulin level. Conclusion: Younger age, lower Metavir stage, lower steatosis grade and lower fasting insulin level are good predictors of SVR and could be used in predicting the treatment response of pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy.

Keywords: chronic HCV infection, interferon ribavirin combination therapy, predictors to antiviral therapy, treatment response

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3753 Predictor Factors for Treatment Failure among Patients on Second Line Antiretroviral Therapy

Authors: Mohd. A. M. Rahim, Yahaya Hassan, Mathumalar L. Fahrni

Abstract:

Second line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen is used when patients fail their first line regimen. There are many factors such as non-adherence, drug resistance as well as virological and immunological failure that lead to second line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen treatment failure. This study was aimed at determining predictor factors to treatment failure with second line HAART and analyzing median survival time. An observational, retrospective study was conducted in Sungai Buloh Hospital (HSB) to assess current status of HIV patients treated with second line HAART regimen. Convenience sampling was used and 104 patients were included based on the study’s inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data was collected for six months i.e. from July until December 2013. Data was then analysed using SPSS version 18. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to measure median survival times and predictor factors for treatment failure. The study population consisted mainly of male subjects, aged 30-45 years, who were heterosexual, and had HIV infection for less than 6 years. The most common second line HAART regimen given was lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based combination. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients on LPV/r demonstrated longer median survival times than patients on indinavir/ritonavir (IDV/r) based combination (p<0.001). The commonest reason for a treatment to fail with second line HAART was non-adherence. Based on Cox regression analysis, other predictor factors for treatment failure with second line HAART regimen were age and mode of HIV transmission.

Keywords: adherence, antiretroviral therapy, second line, treatment failure

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3752 The Activity of Polish Propolis and Cannabidiol Oil Extracts on Glioblastoma Cell Lines

Authors: Sylwia K. Naliwajko, Renata Markiewicz-Zukowska, Justyna Moskwa, Krystyna Gromkowska-Kepka, Konrad Mielcarek, Patryk Nowakowski, Katarzyna Socha, Anna Puscion-Jakubik, Maria H. Borawska

Abstract:

Glioblastoma (grade IV WHO) is a rapidly progressive brain tumor with very high morbidity and mortality. The vast malignant gliomas are not curable despite the therapy (surgical, radiotherapy, chemotherapy) and patients seek alternative or complementary treatments. Patients often use cannabidiol (CBD) oil as an alternative therapy of glioblastoma. CBD is one of the cannabinoids, an active component of Cannabis sativa. THC (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) can be addictive, and in many countries CBD oil without THC ( < 0,2%) is available. Propolis produced by bees from the resin collected from trees has antiglioma properties in vitro and can be used as a supplement in complementary therapy of gliomas. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of extract from CBD oil in combination with propolis extract on two glioblastoma cell lines. The MTT (Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide) test was used to determine the influence of CBD oil extract and polish propolis extract (PPE) on the viability of glioblastoma cell lines – U87MG and LN18. The cells were incubated (24, 48 and 72 h) with CBD oil extract and PPE. CBD extract was used in concentration 1, 1.5 and 3 µM and PPE in 30 µg/mL. The data were presented compared to the control. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica v. 13.0 software. CBD oil extract in concentrations 1, 1.5 and 3 µM did not inhibit the viability of U87MG and LN18 cells (viability more than 90% cells compared to the control). There was no dose-response viability, and IC50 value was not recognized. PPE in the concentration of 30 µg/mL time-dependently inhibited the viability of U87MG and LN18 cell line (after 48 h the viability as a percent of the control was 59,7±6% and 57,8±7%, respectively). In a combination of CBD with PPE, the viability of the treated cells was similar to PPE used alone (58,2±7% and 56,5±9%, respectively). CBD oil extract did not show anti-glioma activity and in combination with PPE did not change the activity of PPE.

Keywords: anticancer, cannabidiol, cell line, glioblastoma

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3751 Cardiopulmonary Disease in Bipolar Disorder Patient with History of SJS: Evidence Based Case Report

Authors: Zuhrotun Ulya, Muchammad Syamsulhadi, Debree Septiawan

Abstract:

Patients with bipolar disorder are three times more likely to suffer cardiovascular disorders than the general population, which will influence their level of morbidity and rate of mortality. Bipolar disorder also affects the pulmonary system. The choice of long term-monotherapy and other combinative therapies have clinical impacts on patients. This study investigates the case of a woman who has been suffering from bipolar disorder for 16 years, and who has a history of Steven Johnson Syndrome. At present she is suffering also from cardiovascular and pulmonary disorder. An analysis of the results of this study suggests that there is a relationship between cardiovascular disorder, drug therapies, Steven Johnson Syndrome and mood stabilizer obtained from the PubMed, Cochrane, Medline, and ProQuest (publications between 2005 and 2015). Combination therapy with mood stabilizer is recommended for patients who do not have side effect histories from these drugs. The replacement drugs and combinations may be applied, especially for those with bipolar disorders, and the combination between atypical antipsychotic groups and mood stabilizers is often made. Clinicians, however, should be careful with the patients’ physical and metabolic changes, especially those who have experienced long-term therapy and who showed a history of Steven Johnson Syndrome (for which clinicians probably prescribed one type of medicine).

Keywords: cardiopulmonary disease, bipolar disorder, SJS, therapy

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3750 Hypertensive Response to Maximal Exercise Test in Young and Middle Age Hypertensive on Blood Pressure Lowering Medication: Monotherapy vs. Combination Therapy

Authors: James Patrick A. Diaz, Raul E. Ramboyong

Abstract:

Background: Hypertensive response during maximal exercise test provides important information on the level of blood pressure control and evaluation of treatment. Method: A single center retrospective descriptive study was conducted among 117 young (aged 20 to 40) and middle age (aged 40 to 65) hypertensive patients, who underwent treadmill stress test. Currently on maintenance frontline medication either monotherapy (Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/Angiotensin receptor blocker [ACEi/ARB], Calcium channel blocker [CCB], Diuretic - Hydrochlorthiazide [HCTZ]) or combination therapy (ARB+CCB, ARB+HCTZ), who attained a maximal exercise on treadmill stress test (TMST) with hypertensive response (systolic blood pressure: male >210 mm Hg, female >190 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure >100 mmHg, or increase of >10 mm Hg at any time during the test), on Bruce and Modified Bruce protocol. Exaggerated blood pressure response during exercise (systolic [SBP] and diastolic [DBP]), peak exercise blood pressure (SBP and DBP), recovery period (SBP and DBP) and test for ischemia and their antihypertensive medication/s were investigated. Analysis of variance and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Hypertensive responses on maximal exercise test were seen mostly among female population (P < 0.000) and middle age (P < 0.000) patients. Exaggerated diastolic blood pressure responses were significantly lower in patients who were taking CCB (P < 0.004). A longer recovery period that showed a delayed decline in SBP was observed in patients taking ARB+HCTZ (P < 0.036). There were no significant differences in the level of exaggerated systolic blood pressure response and during peak exercise (both systolic and diastolic) in patients using either monotherapy or combination antihypertensives. Conclusion: Calcium channel blockers provided lower exaggerated diastolic BP response during maximal exercise test in hypertensive middle age patients. Patients on combination therapy using ARB+HCTZ exhibited a longer recovery period of systolic blood pressure.

Keywords: antihypertensive, exercise test, hypertension, hyperytensive response

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3749 Toxicities associated with EBRT and Brachytherapy for Intermediate and High Risk Prostate Cancer, Correlated with Intra-operative Dosing

Authors: Rebecca Dunne, Cormac Small, Geraldine O'Boyle, Nazir Ibrahim, Anisha

Abstract:

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers. It is estimated that approximately 12% of men will develop prostate cancer during their lifetime. Patients with intermediate, high risk, and very-high risk prostate cancer often undergo a combination of radiation treatments. These treatments include external beam radiotherapy with a low-dose rate or high-dose rate brachytherapy boost, often with concomitant androgen deprivation therapy. The literature on follow-up of patients that receive brachytherapy is scarce, particularly follow-up of patients that undergo high-dose rate brachytherapy. This retrospective study aims to investigate the biochemical failure and toxicities associated with triple therapy and external beam radiotherapy given in combination with brachytherapy. Reported toxicities and prostate specific antigen (PSA) were retrospectively evaluated in eighty patients that previously underwent external beam radiotherapy with a low-dose rate or high dose-rate brachytherapy boost. The severity of toxicities were correlated with intra-operative dosing during brachytherapy on ultrasound and CT scan. The results of this study will provide further information for clinicians and patients when considering treatment options.

Keywords: toxicities, combination, brachytherapy, intra-operative dosing, biochemical failure

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3748 Formulation and Evaluation of Curcumin-Zn (II) Microparticulate Drug Delivery System for Antimalarial Activity

Authors: M. R. Aher, R. B. Laware, G. S. Asane, B. S. Kuchekar

Abstract:

Objective: Studies have shown that a new combination therapy with Artemisinin derivatives and curcumin is unique, with potential advantages over known ACTs. In present study an attempt was made to prepare microparticulate drug delivery system of Curcumin-Zn complex and evaluate it in combination with artemether for antimalarial activity. Material and method: Curcumin Zn complex was prepared and encapsulated using sodium alginate. Microparticles thus obtained are further coated with various enteric polymers at different coating thickness to control the release. Microparticles are evaluated for encapsulation efficiency, drug loading and in vitro drug release. Roentgenographic Studies was conducted in rabbits with BaSO 4 tagged formulation. Optimized formulation was screened for antimalarial activity using P. berghei-infected mice survival test and % paracetemia inhibition, alone (three oral dose of 5mg/day) and in combination with arthemether (i.p. 500, 1000 and 1500µg). Curcumin-Zn(II) was estimated in serum after oral administration to rats by using spectroflurometry. Result: Microparticles coated with Cellulose acetate phthalate showed most satisfactory and controlled release with 479 min time for 60% drug release. X-ray images taken at different time intervals confirmed the retention of formulation in GI tract. Estimation of curcumin in serum by spectroflurometry showed that drug concentration is maintained in the blood for longer time with tmax of 6 hours. The survival time (40 days post treatment) of mice infected with P. berghei was compared to survival after treatment with either Curcumin-Zn(II) microparticles artemether combination, curcumin-Zn complex and artemether. Oral administration of Curcumin-Zn(II)-artemether prolonged the survival of P.berghei-infected mice. All the mice treated with Curcumin-Zn(II) microparticles (5mg/day) artemether (1000µg) survived for more than 40 days and recovered with no detectable parasitemia. Administration of Curcumin-Zn(II) artemether combination reduced the parasitemia in mice by more than 90% compared to that in control mice for the first 3 days after treatment. Conclusion: Antimalarial activity of the curcumin Zn-artemether combination was more pronounced than mono therapy. A single dose of 1000µg of artemether in curcumin-Zn combination gives complete protection in P. berghei-infected mice. This may reduce the chances of drug resistance in malaria management.

Keywords: formulation, microparticulate drug delivery, antimalarial, pharmaceutics

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3747 Efficacy of Music for Improving Language in Children with Special Needs

Authors: Louisa Han Lin Tan, Poh Sim Kang, Wei Ming Loi, Susan Jane Rickard Liow

Abstract:

The efficacy of music for improving speech and language has been shown across ages and diagnoses. Across the world, the wide range of therapy settings and increasing number of children diagnosed with special needs demand more cost and time effective service delivery. However, research exploring co-treatment models on children other than those with Autism Spectrum Disorder remains sparse. The aim of this research was to determine the efficacy of music for improving language in children with special needs, and generalizability of therapy effects. 25 children (7 to 12 years) were split into three groups – A, B and control. A cross-over design with direct therapy (storytelling) with or without music, and indirect therapy was applied with two therapy phases lasting 6 sessions each. Therapy targeted three prepositions in each phase. Baseline language abilities were assessed, with re-assessment after each phase. The introduction of music in therapy led to significantly greater improvement (p=.046, r=.53) in associated language abilities, with case studies showing greater effectiveness in developmentally appropriate target prepositions. However, improvements were not maintained once direct therapy ceased. As such, the incorporation of music could lead to greater efficiency and effectiveness of language therapy in children with special needs, but sustainability and generalizability of therapy effects both require further exploration.

Keywords: music, language therapy, children, special needs

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3746 High Efficacy of Combined Therapy with Microbicide BASANT and Triple Combination of Selected Probiotics for Treatment of Vaginosis and Restoration of Vaginal Health

Authors: Nishu Atrey, Priyanka Singh, G. P. Talwar, Jagdish Gupta, Alka Kriplani, Rohini Sehgal, Indrani Ganguli, Soni Sinha

Abstract:

Background: Vaginosis is a widely prevalent syndrome in India and elsewhere. Recurrence is frequent in women treated with antibiotics, whose vagina pH remains above 5.0 indicative of the loss of resident lactobacilli. The objective of the present trial was to determine whether a Polyherbal microbicide BASANT can regress Vaginosis. Another objective was to determine whether the three selected strains of Probiotics endowed with making high amounts of lactic acid can colonise and restore the pH of the vagina to the acidic healthy range. Materials and Procedure: BASANT, was employed in powder form in veg (cellulose) capsules. TRF#36 strain of Lactobacillus fermentum, TRF#8 strain of L.gasseri, and TRF#30 strain of L.salivarius (combination termed as Pro-vag-Health) were employed at 3x109 bacilli lyophilized, packaged in capsules. The trials were conducted in women suffering from vaginosis with vaginal pH above 5.0. Women were given intravaginally either BASANT, Pro-vag-Health or a combination of the two intravaginally for seven days and thereafter once weekly as a maintenance dose. Results: BASANT cleared vaginosis in 14/20 women and Pro-vag-Health in 13/20 women. Interestingly, the combination of BASANT plus Pro-vag-Health was effective in 19/20 women, in contrast to Placebo capsules effective only in 1/20 women. Interpretation and Conclusion: The combination of BASANT and Pro-veg-Health Probiotics taken together intravaginally for seven days relieves 19 out of 20 women from vaginosis to restore acidic pH and healthy vagina. Extension of trial with this combination in larger number is indicated.

Keywords: microbicide, probiotics, vaginal pH, vaginosis

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3745 Efficacy and Safety of Combination Therapy in Androgenetic Alopecia: Randomized Uncontrolled Evaluator, Blind Study

Authors: Shivani Dhande, Sanjiv Choudhary, Adarshlata Singh

Abstract:

Introduction: Early age of onset of baldness has marked psychological impact on personality. Combination therapies have better efficacy than monotherapy in androgenetic alopecia. Although medical, surgical treatment and cosmetic aids are available for treatment of pattern baldness, medical is first preferred the line of treatment. Although only 5% topical minoxidil is USFDA approved, 10% is available in India since 2007. Efficacy of tablet finasteride is well established in male pattern baldness. 5% topical minoxidil is effective and safe in female pattern baldness. There is a role of saw palmetto in regrowth of scalp hair. With this background research was undertaken to study efficacy and safety of topical minoxidil 10% + tab. Finesteride (1mg) + dermaroller in male pattern baldness and topical minoxidil 5% + cap. Saw palmetto (320 mg) + dermaroller in female pattern baldness. Methods and Materials: It was a randomized uncontrolled evaluator blind study consisting of total 21 patients, 15 of male pattern baldness and 6 of female pattern baldness within 20-35 yrs of age were enrolled. Male patients had Hamilton grade 2-4 MPB and females had Ludwig grade 2 FPB. Male patients were treated with Tab Finesteride 1mg once daily + 10% topical Minoxidil 1ml twice daily for 6 months. Female patients were treated with Cap. Saw palmetto 320 mg once daily + 5% topical Minoxidil twice daily for 6 months. In both male & female patients dermaroller therapy was used once in 10 days for 4 sittings followed by once in 15 days for next 5 months. Blood pressure and possible side effects were monitored in every follow up visits. Pre and post treatment photographs were taken. Assessment of hair growth was done at baseline and at the end of 6 months. Patients satisfactory grading scale and Physician assessment of hair growth scale were used to assessing the results. Trichoscan was done for assessment of hair-shaft diameter and density. Pre and post treatment photographs and Trichoscan hair growth analysis (by diameter and density) was done by physician (dermatologist) not directly involved in this study (evaluator blind). Result: This combination therapy showed moderate response in female pattern alopecia and good to excellent results in male pattern alopecia at the end of 6 months. During therapy none of the patients showed side effects like hypotension, headache and loss of libido, hirsuitism. Mild irritation due to crystal deposition was noted by 3 patients. Conclusion: Effective and early treatment using combination therapy with higher percent of Minoxidil for rapid hair growth is necessary in initial period since it will boost up the self-confidence in patients leading to better treatment compliance. Subsequent maintenance of hair growth can be done with lower concentration. No significant side effects with treatment are observed in both group of patients.

Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, dermaroller, finasteride, minoxidil, saw palmetto

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3744 Efficacy of Combined CHAp and Lanthanum Carbonate in Therapy for Hyperphosphatemia

Authors: Andreea Cârâc, Elena Morosan, Ana Corina Ionita, Rica Bosencu, Geta Carac

Abstract:

Lanthanum carbonate exhibits a considerable ability to bind phosphate and the substitution of Ca2+ ions by divalent or trivalent lanthanide metal ions attracted attention during the past few years. Although Lanthanum carbonate has not been approved by the FDA for treatment of hyperphosphatemia, we prospectively evaluated the efficacy of the combination of Calcium hydroxyapatite and Lanthanum carbonate for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia on mice. Calcium hydroxyapatite commonly referred as CHAp is a bioceramic material and is one of the most important implantable materials due to its biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. We prepared calcium hydroxyapatite and lanthanum carbonate. CHAp was prepared by co-precipitation method using Ca(OH)2, H3PO4, NH4OH with calcination at 1200ºC. Lanthanum carbonate was prepared by chemical method using NaHCO3 and LaCl3 at low pH environment , ph below 4.0 The confirmation of both substances structures was made using XRD characterization, FTIR spectra and SEM /EDX analysis. The study group included 20 subjects-mice divided into four groups according to the administered substance: lanthanum carbonate (group A), lanthanum carbonate + CHAp (group B), CHAp (group C) and salt water (group D). The results indicate a phosphate decrease when subjects (mice) were treated with CHAp and lanthanum carbonate (0.5 % CMC), in a single dose of 1500 mg/kg. Serum phosphate concentration decreased [from 4.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL) to 4.05 ± 0.2 mg/dL), P < 0.01] in group A and to 3.6 ± 0.2 mg/dL] only after the 24 hours of combination therapy. The combination of CHAp and lanthanum carbonate is a suitable regimen for hyperphosphatemia treatment subjects because it avoids both the hypercalcemia of CaCO3 and the adverse effects of CHAp. The ability of CHAp to decrease the serum phosphate concentration is 1/3 that of lanthanum carbonate.

Keywords: calcium hydroxyapatite, hyperphosphatemia, lanthanum carbonate, phosphate, structures

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3743 Eclectic Therapy in Approach to Clients’ Problems and Application of Multiple Intelligence Theory

Authors: Mohamed Sharof Mostafa, Atefeh Ahmadi

Abstract:

Most of traditional single modality psychotherapy and counselling approaches to clients’ problems are based on the application of one therapy in all sessions. Modern developments in these sciences focus on eclectic and integrative interventions to consider all dimensions of an issue and all characteristics of the clients. This paper presents and overview eclectic therapy and its pros and cons. In addition, multiple intelligence theory and its application in eclectic therapy approaches are mentioned.

Keywords: eclectic therapy, client, multiple intelligence theory, dimensions

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
3742 Two Cases of VACTERL Association in Pregnancy with Lymphocyte Therapy

Authors: Seyed Mazyar Mortazavi, Masod Memari, Hasan Ali Ahmadi, Zhaleh Abed

Abstract:

Introduction: VACTERL association is a rare disorder with various congenital malformations. The aetiology remains unknown. Combination of at least three congenital anomalies of the following criteria is required for diagnosis: vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac anomalies, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb defects. Case presentation: The first case was 1-day old male neonate with multiple congenital anomalies was bore from 28 years old mother. The mother had history of pregnancy with lymphocyte therapy. His anomalies included: defects in thoracic and lumbar vertebral, anal atresia, bilateral hydronephrosis, atrial septal defect, and lower limb abnormality. Other anomalies were cryptorchidism and nasal canal narrowing. The second case was born with 32 weeks gestational age from mother with history of pregnancy with lymphocyte therapy. He had thoracic vertebral defect, cardiac anomalies and renal defect. Conclusion: diagnosis based on clinical finding is VACTERL association. Early diagnosis is very important to investigation and treatment of other coexistence anomalies. VACTERL association in mothers with history of pregnancy with lymphocyte therapy has suggested possibly of relationship between VACTERL association and this method of pregnancy.

Keywords: anal atresia, tracheo-esophageal fistula, atrial septal defect, lymphocyte therapy

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3741 The Use of Stochastic Gradient Boosting Method for Multi-Model Combination of Rainfall-Runoff Models

Authors: Phanida Phukoetphim, Asaad Y. Shamseldin

Abstract:

In this study, the novel Stochastic Gradient Boosting (SGB) combination method is addressed for producing daily river flows from four different rain-runoff models of Ohinemuri catchment, New Zealand. The selected rainfall-runoff models are two empirical black-box models: linear perturbation model and linear varying gain factor model, two conceptual models: soil moisture accounting and routing model and Nedbør-Afrstrømnings model. In this study, the simple average combination method and the weighted average combination method were used as a benchmark for comparing the results of the novel SGB combination method. The models and combination results are evaluated using statistical and graphical criteria. Overall results of this study show that the use of combination technique can certainly improve the simulated river flows of four selected models for Ohinemuri catchment, New Zealand. The results also indicate that the novel SGB combination method is capable of accurate prediction when used in a combination method of the simulated river flows in New Zealand.

Keywords: multi-model combination, rainfall-runoff modeling, stochastic gradient boosting, bioinformatics

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
3740 E-Survey: Cancer Treatment with Proton Beam Therapy in USA

Authors: Auj-E Taqaddas

Abstract:

The use of proton beam therapy is increasing globally. It seems to offer dosimetric advantages, especially in paediatric central nervous system (CNS) and brain tumours. A short E-survey was conducted to assess the clinical, technical, and educational resources and strategies employed in the state of the art proton beam therapy (PBT) centres in the USA to determine the current status of proton beam therapy. The study also aimed at finding out which PBT skills are in demand as well as what improvements are needed to ensure efficient treatment planning, delivery, and dosimetry. The study resulted in identifying areas for future research and development and in identifying cancers for which PBT is most suitable compared to other modalities to facilitate the implementation and use of PBT in clinical settings for cancer treatment.

Keywords: cancer, intensity modulated proton therapy, proton beam therapy, single field uniform scanning

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3739 Psychological Nano-Therapy: A New Method in Family Therapy

Authors: Siamak Samani, Nadereh Sohrabi

Abstract:

Psychological nano-therapy is a new method based on systems theory. According to the theory, systems with severe dysfunctions are resistant to changes. Psychological nano-therapy helps the therapists to break this ice. Two key concepts in psychological nano-therapy are nano-functions and nano-behaviors. The most important step in psychological nano-therapy in family therapy is selecting the most effective nano-function and nano-behavior. The aim of this study was to check the effectiveness of psychological nano-therapy for family therapy. One group pre-test-post-test design (quasi-experimental Design) was applied for research. The sample consisted of ten families with severe marital conflict. The important character of these families was resistance for participating in family therapy. In this study, sending respectful (nano-function) text massages (nano-behavior) with cell phone were applied as a treatment. Cohesion/respect sub scale from self-report family processes scale and family readiness for therapy scale were used to assess all family members in pre-test and post-test. In this study, one of family members was asked to send a respectful text massage to other family members every day for a week. The content of the text massages were selected and checked by therapist. To compare the scores of families in pre-test and post-test paired sample t-test was used. The results of the test showed significant differences in both cohesion/respect score and family readiness for therapy between per-test and post-test. The results revealed that these families have found a better atmosphere for participation in a complete family therapy program. Indeed, this study showed that psychological nano-therapy is an effective method to make family readiness for therapy.

Keywords: family therapy, family conflicts, nano-therapy, family readiness

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3738 Comparative Study of Music-Therapy Types on Anxiety in Early Stage Cancer Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Authors: Farnaz Dehkhoda

Abstract:

This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of active and receptive music-therapy on anxiety in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy. 184 young adult patients, who were diagnosed with early stage cancer and were undergoing treatment, were divided into three groups. Two groups received music therapy as a parallel treatment and the third group was control group. In active music-therapy, a music specialist helped the patients to play guitar and sing. In the receptive music-therapy, patients preferred pre-recorded music played by MP3 player. The level of anxiety was measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory as pre-test and post-test. ANCOVA revealed that both types of music-therapy reduced anxiety level of patients and the active music-therapy intervention found to be more effective. The results suggest that music-therapy can be applied as an intervention method contemporary with cancer medical treatment, for improving quality of life in cancer patients by reducing their anxiety.

Keywords: Anxiety, Cancer, Chemotherapy, Music-therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 73