Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2068

Search results for: hormone replacement therapy

2068 Is Hormone Replacement Therapy Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Hongxin Zhao, Shibing Yang, Bingming Yi, Yi Ning

Abstract:

Background: A few studies have found evidence that exposure to endogenous or postmenopausal exogenous estrogens may be associated with a lower prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but dispute over this association is ongoing due to inconsistent results reported by different studies. Objectives: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use and AMD. Methods: Relevant studies that assessed the association between HRT and AMD were searched through four databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment were conducted by three independent reviewers. The fixed-effect meta-analyses were performed to estimate the association between HRT ever-use and AMD by pooling risk ratio (RR) or odds ratio (OR) across studies. Results: The review identified 2 prospective and 7 cross-sectional studies with 93992 female participants that reported an estimate of the association between HRT ever-use and presence of early AMD or late AMD. Meta-analyses showed that there were no statistically significant associations between HRT ever-use and early AMD (pooled RR for cohort studies was 1.04, 95% CI 0.86 - 1.24; pooled OR for cross-sectional studies was 0.91, 95% CI 0.82 - 1.01). The pooled results from cross-sectional studies also showed no statistically significant association between HRT ever-use and late AMD (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.89 - 1.15). Conclusions: The pooled effects from observational studies published to date indicate that HRT use is associated with neither early nor late AMD. Exposure to HRT may not protect women from developing AMD.

Keywords: hormone replacement therapy, age-related macular degeneration, meta-analysis, systematic review

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2067 Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) and Its Impact on the All-Cause Mortality of UK Women: A Matched Cohort Study 1984-2017

Authors: Nurunnahar Akter, Elena Kulinskaya, Nicholas Steel, Ilyas Bakbergenuly

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Although Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) is an effective treatment in ameliorating menopausal symptoms, it has mixed effects on different health outcomes, increasing, for instance, the risk of breast cancer. Because of this, many symptomatic women are left untreated. Untreated menopausal symptoms may result in other health issues, which eventually put an extra burden and costs to the health care system. All-cause mortality analysis may explain the net benefits and risks of the HRT therapy. However, it received far less attention in HRT studies. This study investigated the impact of HRT on all-cause mortality using electronically recorded primary care data from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) that broadly represents the female population in the United Kingdom (UK). The study entry date for this study was the record of the first HRT prescription from 1984, and patients were followed up until death or transfer to another GP practice or study end date, which was January 2017. 112,354 HRT users (cases) were matched with 245,320 non-users by age at HRT initiation and general practice (GP). The hazards of all-cause mortality associated with HRT were estimated by a parametric Weibull-Cox model adjusting for a wide range of important medical, lifestyle, and socio-demographic factors. The multilevel multiple imputation techniques were used to deal with missing data. This study found that during 32 years of follow-up, combined HRT reduced the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality by 9% (HR: 0.91; 95% Confidence Interval, 0.88-0.94) in women of age between 46 to 65 at first treatment compared to the non-users of the same age. Age-specific mortality analyses found that combined HRT decreased mortality by 13% (HR: 0.87; 95% CI, 0.82-0.92), 12% (HR: 0.88; 95% CI, 0.82-0.93), and 8% (HR: 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-0.98), in 51 to 55, 56 to 60, and 61 to 65 age group at first treatment, respectively. There was no association between estrogen-only HRT and women’s all-cause mortality. The findings from this study may help to inform the choices of women at menopause and to further educate the clinicians and resource planners.

Keywords: hormone replacement therapy, multiple imputations, primary care data, the health improvement network (THIN)

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2066 Impact of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Body Composition Analysis of Women during Perimenopause: A Framework for Action

Authors: Varsha Chorsiya, Pooja Aneja, Dhananjay Kaushik, Abhinav Yadav

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Intoduction: Women’s Health Initiatives (WHI) focuses on defining the risks and benefits of strategies that could potentially reduce the incidence of obesity, heart disease, breast cancer and colorectal cancer, and fractures in menopause women. The utility of the present research work determines to find the role of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) in changing the different component of body composition during perimenopause period. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study included 30 subjects, aged between 40 and 50 years which were assigned into 2 groups i.e. 15 subjects in HRT (Group A) and 15 subjects in non-HRT (Group B). The subjects were taken from the hospitals and clinics of Faridabad undergoing HRT in supervision of the consultant gynecologist. The informed consents were signed before including the participants in the study. The body composition and lipid profile were evaluated for all the subjects. Result and Discussion: The BMI, body density, percent body fats and fat mass in both groups showed statistically significant differences i.e. p < 0.05. Our study did not reveal any statistically significant difference between non-HRT and HRT for lipid profile composition of HDL, LDL, VLDL, ratio, triglycerides and total cholesterol although these indicators (LDL, VLDL, ratio, triglycerides and total cholesterol) showed difference clinically with a higher mean values for non-HRT as compared to HRT group. The mean value for HDL was higher for HRT group in contrast to non-HRT group. The result clearly showed that HRT group has a good lipid profile composition. Conclusion: In conclusion, our data show that HRT has statistically significant role in determining BMI, fat percent mass and fat mass. The lipid profile including LDL, HDL, VLDL, ratio, triglycerides and total cholesterol found to be clinically better in HRT group as compared to the non-HRT group. The rationale for non-significant lipid profile probably lie in the fact that hormonal changes need a particular time period and might become significant in post-menopausal period.

Keywords: body composition, hormone replacement therapy, perimenopause, women health

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2065 Estrogen Controls Hepatitis C Virus Entry and Spread through the GPR30 Pathway

Authors: Laura Ulitzky, Dougbeh-Chris Nyan, Manuel M. Lafer, Erica Silberstein, Nicoleta Cehan, Deborah R. Taylor

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Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrosis and cirrhosis are more frequent in men and postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women and women receiving hormone replacement therapy, suggesting that β-estradiol (estrogen) plays an innate role in preventing viral infection and liver disease. Estrogen classically acts through nuclear estrogen receptors or, alternatively, through the membrane-bound G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30 or GPER). We observed a marked decrease in detectable virus when HCV-infected human hepatoma cells were treated with estrogen. The effect was mimicked by both Tamoxifen (Tam) and G1, a GPR30-specific agonist, and was reversed by the GPR30-specific antagonist, G15. Through GPR30, estrogen-mediated the down-regulation of occludin; a tight junction protein and HCV receptor, by promoting activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Activated MMP-9 was secreted in response to estrogen, cleaving occludin in the extracellular Domain D, the motif required for HCV entry and spread. This pathway gives new insight into a novel innate immune pathway and the disparate host-virus responses to HCV demonstrated by the two sexes. Moreover, these data suggest that hormone replacement therapy may have beneficial antiviral properties for HCV-infected postmenopausal women and show promise for new antiviral treatments for both men and women.

Keywords: HCV, estrogen, occludin, MMPs

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2064 Comparing Breast Cancer Risk and the Risk Factors between Heterosexual Women and Sexual Minority Women in Taiwan: A Preliminary Result

Authors: Ya-Ching Wang, Yi-Maun Subeq

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Background: There is a lack of evidence to understand differences in risk for developing breast cancer between sexual minority women and heterosexual women in Taiwan. The purpose of this study is to compare differences in risk for developing breast cancer between the two groups of Taiwanese women. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was used to collect data. A total of 238 Taiwanese women (mean age 30.69 years old, SD=8.231, range 20-60) were recruited between December 2016 and February 2017, including 115 heterosexual women and 123 sexual minority women. Results: There were no significant differences between heterosexual women and sexual minority women in body mass index, history of non-malignant breast disease, age at menarche and menopause, use of hormone replacement therapy, use of hormone replacement therapy, nor the prevalence of breast cancer. The sexual minority women had higher rates of current drinking, smoking and using breast-bindings and also reported exercise more a week; the heterosexual women had higher rates of pregnancy, children, breastfeed, miscarriages, abortion and use of birth control pills. Discussion/Conclusion: There were significant differences between heterosexual women and sexual minority women in reproductive factors and behavioral risk factors for the development of breast cancer. In particular, the finding that the sexual minority women had higher rate of using breast-bindings (56.6%) than the heterosexual women (4.7%) should be further explore, in order to understand whether long-term breast compression is associated with the development of breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, risk, sexual orientation, Taiwan

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2063 The Relationship between Level of Anxiety and the Development of Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency

Authors: Ewa Mojs, Katarzyna Wiechec, Maia Kubiak, Wlodzimierz Samborski

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Interactions between mother’s psychological condition and child’s health status are complex and derive from the nature of the mother-child relationship. The aim of the study was to analyze the issue of anxiety amongst mothers of short children in the aspect of growth hormone therapy. The study was based on a group of 101 mothers of originally short-statured children – 70 with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) treated with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and 31 undergoing the diagnostic process, without any treatment. Collected medical data included child's gender, height and weight, chronological age, bone age delay, and rhGH therapy duration. For all children, the height SDS and BMI SDS were calculated. To evaluate anxiety in mothers, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used. Obtained results revealed low trait anxiety levels, with no statistically significant differences between the groups. State anxiety levels were average when mothers of all children were analyzed together, but when divided into groups, statistical differences appeared. Mothers of children without diagnosis and treatment had significantly higher levels of state anxiety than mothers of children with GHD receiving appropriate therapy. These results show, that the occurrence of growth failure in children is not related to high maternal trait anxiety, but the lack of diagnosis and lack of appropriate treatment generates higher levels of maternal state anxiety than the process of rh GH therapy in the offspring. Commencement of growth hormone therapy induce a substantial reduction of the state anxiety in mothers, and the duration of treatment causes its further decrease.

Keywords: anxiety, development, growth hormone deficiency, motherhood

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2062 Stabilization of Clay Soil Using A-3 Soil

Authors: Mohammed Mustapha Alhaji, Sadiku Salawu

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A clay soil which classified under A-7-6 soil according to AASHTO soil classification system and CH according to the unified soil classification system was stabilized using A-3 soil (AASHTO soil classification system). The clay soil was replaced with 0%, 10%, 20% to 100% A-3 soil, compacted at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy level and using unconfined compressive strength as evaluation criteria. The MDD of the compactions at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy levels showed increase in MDD from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The trend of the OMC with varied A-3 soil replacement is similar to that of MDD but in a reversed order. The OMC reduced from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. This trend was attributed to the observed reduction in the void ratio from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the void ratio increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The maximum UCS for clay at varied A-3 soil replacement increased from 272 and 770kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level at 0% A-3 soil replacement to 295 and 795kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 10% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 22 and 60kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 70% A-3 soil replacement. Beyond 70% A-3 soil replacement, the mixture cannot be moulded for UCS test.

Keywords: A-3 soil, clay minerals, pozzolanic action, stabilization

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2061 Lower Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Hormone Therapy Users with Use of Chinese Herbal Medicine

Authors: Shu-Hui Wen, Wei-Chuan Chang, Hsien-Chang Wu

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Background: Little is known about the benefits and risks of use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in conditions related to hormone therapy (HT) use on the risk of ischemic stroke (IS). The aim of this study is to explore the risk of IS in menopausal women treated with HT and CHM. Materials and methods: A total of 32,441 menopausal women without surgical menopause aged 40- 65 years were selected from 2003 to 2010 using the 2-million random samples of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. According to the medication usage of HT and CHM, we divided the current and recent users into two groups: an HT use-only group (n = 4,989) and an HT/CHM group (n = 9,265). Propensity-score matching samples (4,079 pairs) were further created to deal with confounding by indication. The adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of IS during HT or CHM treatment were estimated by the robust Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The incidence rate of IS in the HT/CHM group was significantly lower than in the HT group (4.5 vs. 12.8 per 1000 person-year, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis results indicated that additional CHM use was significant with a lower risk of IS (HR = 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.21-0.43). Further subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses had similar findings. Conclusion: We found that combined use of HT and CHM was associated with a lower risk for IS than HT use only. Further study is needed to examine possible mechanism underlying this association.

Keywords: Chinese herbal medicine, hormone therapy, ischemic stroke, menopause

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2060 Comparisons of Individual and Group Replacement Policies for a Series Connection System with Two Machines

Authors: Wen Liang Chang, Mei Wei Wang, Ruey Huei Yeh

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This paper studies the comparisons of individual and group replacement policies for a series connection system with two machines. Suppose that manufacturer’s production system is a series connection system which is combined by two machines. For two machines, when machines fail within the operating time, minimal repair is performed for machines by the manufacturer. The manufacturer plans to a preventive replacement for machines at a pre-specified time to maintain system normal operation. Under these maintenance policies, the maintenance cost rate models of individual and group replacement for a series connection system with two machines is derived and further, optimal preventive replacement time is obtained such that the expected total maintenance cost rate is minimized. Finally, some numerical examples are given to illustrate the influences of individual and group replacement policies to the maintenance cost rate.

Keywords: individual replacement, group replacement, replacement time, two machines, series connection system

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2059 Saliva Cortisol and Yawning as a Predictor of Neurological Disease

Authors: Simon B. N. Thompson

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Cortisol is important to our immune system, regulates our stress response, and is a factor in maintaining brain temperature. Saliva cortisol is a practical and useful non-invasive measurement that signifies the presence of the important hormone. Electrical activity in the jaw muscles typically rises when the muscles are moved during yawning and the electrical level is found to be correlated with the cortisol level. In two studies using identical paradigms, a total of 108 healthy subjects were exposed to yawning-provoking stimuli so that their cortisol levels and electrical nerve impulses from their jaw muscles was recorded. Electrical activity is highly correlated with cortisol levels in healthy people. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Yawning Susceptibility Scale, General Health Questionnaire, demographic, health details were collected and exclusion criteria applied for voluntary recruitment: chronic fatigue, diabetes, fibromyalgia, heart condition, high blood pressure, hormone replacement therapy, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Significant differences were found between the saliva cortisol samples for the yawners as compared with the non-yawners between rest and post-stimuli. Significant evidence supports the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis that suggests rises in cortisol levels are associated with yawning. Ethics approval granted and professional code of conduct, confidentiality, and safety issues are approved therein.

Keywords: cortisol, diagnosis, neurological disease, thompson cortisol hypothesis, yawning

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2058 On Performance of Cache Replacement Schemes in NDN-IoT

Authors: Rasool Sadeghi, Sayed Mahdi Faghih Imani, Negar Najafi

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The inherent features of Named Data Networking (NDN) provides a robust solution for Internet of Thing (IoT). Therefore, NDN-IoT has emerged as a combined architecture which exploits the benefits of NDN for interconnecting of the heterogeneous objects in IoT. In NDN-IoT, caching schemes are a key role to improve the network performance. In this paper, we consider the effectiveness of cache replacement schemes in NDN-IoT scenarios. We investigate the impact of replacement schemes on average delay, average hop count, and average interest retransmission when replacement schemes are Least Frequently Used (LFU), Least Recently Used (LRU), First-In-First-Out (FIFO) and Random. The simulation results demonstrate that LFU and LRU present a stable performance when the cache size changes. Moreover, the network performance improves when the number of consumers increases.

Keywords: NDN-IoT, cache replacement, performance, ndnSIM

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2057 Sitagliptin-AntiCD4 Mab Conjugated T Cell Targeting Therapy for the Effective Treatment of Type I Diabetes

Authors: T. Mahesh, M. K. Samanta

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Antibody dug conjugate (ADC’s) concept is a less explored and more trustable for the treatment of Type 1 diabetes (T1D). T1D is thought to arise from selective immunologically mediated destruction of the insulin- producing β-cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans with consequent insulin deficiency. It is evident that type 1 diabetes can be conquered, by 1) to stop immune destruction of βcells, 2) to replace or regenerate β-cells, and 3) to preserve β-cell function and mass. Many studies found that the regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial for the maintenance of immunological tolerance. Immune tolerance is liable for the activation of the Th1 response. The important role of Th1 response in pathology of T1D entails the depletion of CD4+ T cells, which initiated the use of anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CD4+ T cells to interfere with induction of T1D.Insulin is regulated by Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 hormone (GLP-1) which also stimulates β-cells proliferation as the half-life of GLP-1 harmone is less due to rapid degradation by DPP-IV enzyme an alternative DPP-IV-inhibitors can increase the half-life of GLP-1 through which it conquers the replacement and reserve β-cells mass. Thus in the present study Anti-CD4 mAb was conjugated with Sitagliptin which is a DPP-IV inhibitor Drug loaded in Nanoparticles through Sulfo-MBS cross-linkers. The above study can be an effective approach for treatment to overcome the Passive subcutaneous insulin therapy.

Keywords: antibody drug conjugates, anti-CD4 Mab, DPP IV inhibitors, GLP-1

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2056 Vitamin D Intoxication with Hypercalcemia Due to Overuse of Supplement

Authors: Sara Ataei, Mohammad Bagher Oghazian, Mania Radfar

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We describe a patient with hypercalcemia associated with the injection of high doses vitamin D as supplement for a period of six months. A 76-year-old woman had been taking an intramuscular injection of vitamin D 300,000 IU every ten days for six months. She was hospitalized with symptoms of hypercalcemia: chronic constipation, unstable gait, a chronic generalized musculoskeletal pain and increased fatigue. On admission her 25 (OH) vitamin D and Calcium levels were 559 nmol/L and 13.85 mg/dL respectively, and Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) level was 7.1 pg/mL. Immediately she received diuresis therapy with saline and furosemide in conjunction with calcitonin and pamidronate. At discharge her serum calcium level was 11.5 mg/dL. To lower endogenous overproduction of calcitriol, prednisolone 20 mg/day for 10 days was administered at discharge time.

Keywords: vitamin D, hypercalcemia, vitamin D toxicity, parathyroid hormone

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2055 Cementing Efficiency of Low Calcium Fly Ash in Fly Ash Concretes

Authors: T. D. Gunneswara Rao, Mudimby Andal

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Research on the utilization of fly ash will no longer refer the fly ash as a waste material of thermal power plants. Use of fly ash in concrete making, makes the concrete economical as well as durable. The fly ash is being added to the concrete in three ways namely, as partial replacement to cement, partial replacement to fine aggregates and admixture. Addition of fly ash to the concrete in each one of the form mentioned above, makes the concrete more workable and durable than the conventional concrete. Studies on fly ash as partial replacement to cement gained momentum as such replacement makes the concrete economical. In the present study, an attempt has been made to understand the effects of fly ash on the workability characteristics and strength aspects of fly ash concretes. In India, major number of thermal power plants are producing low calcium fly ash. Hence, in the present investigation, low calcium fly ash has been used. Fly ash in concrete was considered for the partial replacement of cement. The percentage replacement of cement by fly ash varied from 0% to 40% at regular intervals of 10%. Moreover the fine aggregate to coarse aggregate ratio also has been varied as 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The workability tests revealed that up to 30% replacement of cement by fly ash in concrete mixes water demand for reduces and beyond 30% replacement of cement by fly ash demanded more water content for constant workability.

Keywords: cementing efficiency, compressive strength, low calcium fly ash, workability

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2054 Prevalence of Menopausal Women with Clinical Symptoms of Allergy and Evaluation the Effect of Sex Hormone Combined with Anti-Allergy Treatment

Authors: Yang Wei, Xueyan Wang, Hui Zou

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Objective: Investigation the prevalence of menopausal symptoms in patients with allergic symptoms, evaluation of the effect of sex hormones combined with anti-allergic therapy in these patients. Method: Age of 45-65 years old women with allergic symptoms at the same time in gynecological-endocrinology clinic in our hospital were selected from Feb 1 to May 31, 2010, randomly. The patients were given oral estradiol valerate plus progestin pills combined with anti-allergy treatment and then evaluated twice a week and one month later. Evaluation criterion: Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and the degree of clinical symptoms were used to evaluate menopause and allergy separately. Results: 1) There were 195 cases of patients with menopausal symptoms at the age. Their MRS were all over 15. 2) Among them 45 patients were with allergic symptom accounted for 23% which were diagnosed by allergic department. 3) Evaluated after one week: the menopausal symptoms were improved and MRS were less than or equal to 5 in all these patients; the skin symptom of allergic symptoms vanished completely. 4) Evaluated after one month: Menopause symptoms were improved steadily; other clinical symptoms of allergy were also improved or without recurrence. Conclusion: The incidence rate of menopausal women with clinical symptoms of allergic diseases is high and it needs attention. The effect of sex hormones combined with anti-allergic therapy is obvious.

Keywords: menopausal, allergy, sex hormone, anti-allergy treatment

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2053 Application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Diabetic Therapy

Authors: K. J. Keerthi, Vasundhara Kamineni, A. Ravi Shanker, T. Rammurthy, A. Vijaya Lakshmi, Q. Hasan

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Pancreatic β-cells are the predominant insulin-producing cell types within the Islets of Langerhans and insulin is the primary hormone which regulates carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Apoptosis of β-cells or insufficient insulin production leads to Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Current therapy for diabetes includes either medical management or insulin replacement and regular monitoring. Replacement of β- cells is an attractive treatment option for both Type-1 and Type-2 DM in view of the recent paper which indicates that β-cells apoptosis is the common underlying cause for both the Types of DM. With the development of Edmonton protocol, pancreatic β-cells allo-transplantation became possible, but this is still not considered as standard of care due to subsequent requirement of lifelong immunosuppression and the scarcity of suitable healthy organs to retrieve pancreatic β-cell. Fetal pancreatic cells from abortuses were developed as a possible therapeutic option for Diabetes, however, this posed several ethical issues. Hence, in the present study Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were differentiated into insulin producing cells which were isolated from Human Umbilical cord (HUC) tissue. MSCs have already made their mark in the growing field of regenerative medicine, and their therapeutic worth has already been validated for a number of conditions. HUC samples were collected with prior informed consent as approved by the Institutional ethical committee. HUC (n=26) were processed using a combination of both mechanical and enzymatic (collagenase-II, 100 U/ml, Gibco ) methods to obtain MSCs which were cultured in-vitro in L-DMEM (Low glucose Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, Sigma, 4.5 mM glucose/L), 10% FBS in 5% CO2 incubator at 37°C. After reaching 80-90% confluency, MSCs were characterized with Flowcytometry and Immunocytochemistry for specific cell surface antigens. Cells expressed CD90+, CD73+, CD105+, CD34-, CD45-, HLA-DR-/Low and Vimentin+. These cells were differentiated to β-cells by using H-DMEM (High glucose Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium,25 mM glucose/L, Gibco), β-Mercaptoethanol (0.1mM, Hi-Media), basic Fibroblast growth factor (10 µg /L,Gibco), and Nicotinamide (10 mmol/L, Hi-Media). Pancreatic β-cells were confirmed by positive Dithizone staining and were found to be functionally active as they released 8 IU/ml insulin on glucose stimulation. Isolating MSCs from usually discarded, abundantly available HUC tissue, expanding and differentiating to β-cells may be the most feasible cell therapy option for the millions of people suffering from DM globally.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, human umbilical cord, mesenchymal stem cells, differentiation

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2052 Battery Replacement Strategy for Electric AGVs in an Automated Container Terminal

Authors: Jiheon Park, Taekwang Kim, Kwang Ryel Ryu

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Electric automated guided vehicles (AGVs) are becoming popular in many automated container terminals nowadays because they are pollution-free and environmentally friendly vehicles for transporting the containers within the terminal. Since efficient operation of AGVs is critical for the productivity of the container terminal, the replacement of batteries of the AGVs must be conducted in a strategic way to minimize undesirable transportation interruptions. While a too frequent replacement may lead to a loss of terminal productivity by delaying container deliveries, missing the right timing of battery replacement can result in a dead AGV that causes a severer productivity loss due to the extra efforts required to finish post treatment. In this paper, we propose a strategy for battery replacement based on a scoring function of multiple criteria taking into account the current battery level, the distances to different battery stations, and the progress of the terminal job operations. The strategy is optimized using a genetic algorithm with the objectives of minimizing the total time spent for battery replacement as well as maximizing the terminal productivity.

Keywords: AGV operation, automated container terminal, battery replacement, electric AGV, strategy optimization

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2051 Detection of Polymorphism of Growth Hormone Gene in Holstein Cattle

Authors: Emine Şahin, Murat Soner Balcıoğlu

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The aim of this study was to determine the growth hormone (bGH) gene polymorphism in the Holstein cattle growing around Antalya in Turkey. In order to determine the bGH-AluI polymorphism, polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was performed. A 891 bp fragment of bGH was amplified and two types of alleles C and D for bGH were observed. In this study, the frequencies of C and D alleles were 0.8438 and 0.1562, respectively. The genotype frequencies for CC, CD and DD were 0.787, 0.191 and 0.022, respectively. According to the results of the chi-square test, a significant deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not determined for the bGH locus in the population.

Keywords: Growth Hormone Gene, Holstein , Polymorphism, RFLP

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2050 Replacement Time and Number of Preventive Maintenance Actions for Second-Hand Device

Authors: Wen Liang Chang

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In this study, the optimal replacement time and number of preventive maintenance (PM) actions were investigated for a second-hand device. Suppose that a user intends to use a second-hand device for manufacturing products, and that the device is replaced with a new one. Any device failure is rectified through minimal repair, thereby incurring a fixed repair cost to the user. If the new device fails within the FRW period, minimal repair is performed at no cost to the user. After the FRW expires, a failed device is repaired and the cost of repair is incurred by the user. In this study, two profit models were developed, and the optimal replacement time and number of PM actions were determined to maximize profits. Finally, the influence of the optimal replacement time and number of PM actions were elaborated on, using numerical examples.

Keywords: second-hand device, preventive maintenance, replacement time, device failure

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2049 Puereria mirifica Replacement Improves Skeletal Muscle Performance Associated with Increasing Parvalbumin Levels in Ovariectomized Rat

Authors: Uraporn Vongvatcharanon, Kochakorn Sukjan, Wandee Udomuksorn, Ekkasit Kumarnsit, Surapong Vongvatcharanon

Abstract:

Sarcopenia is a loss of muscle mass, and strength frequently found in menopause. Estrogen replacement has been shown to improve such a loss of muscle functions. However, there is an increased risk of cancer that has to be considered because of the estrogen replacement therapy. Thus, phytoestrogen supplementation has been suggested as an alternative therapy. Pueraria mirifica (PM) is a plant in the family Leguminosae, that is known to be phytoestrogen-rich and has been traditionally used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. It contains isoflavones and other compounds such as miroestrol and its derivatives. Parvalbumin (PV) is a calcium binding protein and functions as a relaxing factor in fast twitch muscle fibers. A decrease of the PV level results in a reduction of the speed of the twitch relaxation. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of an ethanolic extract from Pueraria mirifica on the estrogen levels, skeletal muscle functions and PV levels in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and gastrocnemius of ovariectomized rats. Twelve-week old female Wistar rats (200-250 g) were divided into 6 groups: SHAM (un-ovariectomized rats, that received double distilled water), PM-0 (ovariectomized rats, OVX, receiving double distilled water), E (OVX, receiving an estradiol benzoate dose of 0.04 mg/kg), PM-50 (OVX receiving PM 50 mg/kg), PM-500 (OVX receiving PM 500 mg/kg), PM-1000 (OVX receiving PM 1000 mg/kg) all for 90 days. The PM-0 group had estrogen levels, uterus weights, muscle mass, myofiber cross-section areas, peak tension, fatigue resistance, speed of relaxation and parvalbumin levels of both EDL and gastrocnemius that were significantly reduced compared to those of the SHAM group (p<0.05). Also the α and β estrogen receptor immunoreactivities and the parvalbumin immunoreactivities of both EDL and gastrocnemius were decreased in the PM-0 group. In contrast the E, PM-50, PM-500 and PM-1000 group had estrogen levels, uterus weights, muscle mass, myofiber cross-section areas, peak tension, fatigue resistance, speed of relaxation of both EDL and gastrocnemius that were significantly increased compared with PM-0 group (p<0.05). In addition, the α and β estrogen receptor immunoreactivities and parvalbumin immunoreactivity of both the EDL and gastrocnemius were increased in the E, PM-50, PM-500 and PM-1000 group. In addition the extract of Pueraria mirifica replacement group at 50 and 500 mg/kg had significantly increased parvalbumin levels in the EDL muscle but in the gastrocnemius, only the dose of 500 mg/kg increased the parvalbumin levels (p<0.05). These results have demonstrated that the use of the Pueraria mirifica extract as a replacement therapy for estrogen produced estrogenic activity that was similar to that produced by the estradiol benzoate replacement. It seems that the phytoestrogens could bind with the estrogen receptors and stimulate the transcriptional activity to synthesise muscle protein that caused an increase in muscle mass and parvalbumin levels. Thus, muscle synthesis may restore parvalbumin levels resulting in an enhanced relaxation efficiency that would lead to a shortened latent period before the next contraction.

Keywords: Puereria mirifica, Parvalbumin, estrogen, ovariectomized rats

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2048 Sense Environmental Hormones in Elementary School Teachers and Their in Service Learning Motivation

Authors: Fu-Chi Chuang, Yu-Liang, Chang, Wen-Der Wang

Abstract:

Our environment has been contaminated by many artificial chemicals, such as plastics, pesticides. Many of them have hormone-like activity and are classified as 'environmental hormone (also named endocrine disruptors)'. These chemicals interfere with or mimic hormones have adverse effects that persist into adulthood. Environmental education is an important way to teach students to become engaged in real-world issues that transcend classroom walls. Elementary education is the first stage to perform environmental education and it is an important component to help students develop adequate environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. However, elementary teachers' knowledge plays a critical role in this mission. Therefore, we use a questionnaire to survey the knowledge of environmental hormone of elementary school teachers and their learning motivation of the environmental hormone-regarding knowledge. We collected 218 questionnaires from Taiwanese elementary teachers and the results indicate around 73% of elementary teachers do not have enough knowledge about environmental hormones. Our results also reveal the in-service elementary teachers’ learning motivation of environmental hormones knowledge is positively enhanced once they realized their insufficient cognitive ability of environmental hormones. We believe our study will provide the powerful reference for Ministry of Education to set up the policy of environmental education to enrich all citizens sufficient knowledge of the effects of the environmental hormone on organisms, and further to enhance our correct environmental behaviors.

Keywords: elementary teacher, environmental hormones, learning motivation, questionnaire

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2047 Combination of Diane-35 and Metformin to Treat Early Endometrial Carcinoma in PCOS Women with Insulin Resistance

Authors: Xin Li, Yan-Rong Guo, Jin-Fang Lin, Yi Feng, Håkan Billig, Ruijin Shao

Abstract:

Background: Young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a high risk of developing endometrial carcinoma. There is a need for the development of new medical therapies that can reduce the need for surgical intervention so as to preserve the fertility of these patients. The aim of the study was to describe and discuss cases of PCOS and insulin resistance (IR) women with early endometrial carcinoma while being co-treated with Diane-35 and metformin. Methods: Five PCOS-IR women who were scheduled for diagnosis and therapy for early endometrial carcinoma were recruited. The hospital records and endometrial pathology reports were reviewed. All patients were co-treated with Diane-35 and metformin for 6 months to reverse the endometrial carcinoma and preserve their fertility. Before, during, and after treatment, endometrial biopsies and blood samples were obtained and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Endometrial pathology was evaluated. Body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), insulin area under curve (IAUC), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were determined. Results: Clinical stage 1a, low grade endometrial carcinoma was confirmed before treatment. After 6 months of co-treatment, all patients showed normal epithelia. No evidence of atypical hyperplasia or endometrial carcinoma was found. Co-treatment resulted in significant decreases in BW, BMI, TT, FAI, IAUC, and HOMA-IR in parallel with a significant increase in SHBG. There were no differences in the FSH and LH levels after co-treatment. Conclusions: Combined treatment with Diane-35 and metformin has the potential to revert the endometrial carcinoma into normal endometrial cells in PCOS-IR women. The cellular and molecular mechanisms behind this effect merit further investigation.

Keywords: PCOS, progesterone resistance, insulin resistance, steroid hormone receptors, endometrial carcinoma

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2046 Yawning and Cortisol as a Potential Biomarker for Early Detection of Multiple Sclerosis

Authors: Simon B. N. Thompson

Abstract:

Cortisol is essential to the regulation of the immune system and yawning is a pathological symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). Electromyography activity (EMG) in the jaw muscles typically rises when the muscles are moved and with yawning is highly correlated with cortisol levels in healthy people. Saliva samples from 59 participants were collected at the start and after yawning, or at the end of the presentation of yawning-provoking stimuli, in the absence of a yawn, together with EMG data and questionnaire data: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Yawning Susceptibility Scale, General Health Questionnaire, demographic, health details. Exclusion criteria: chronic fatigue, diabetes, fibromyalgia, heart condition, high blood pressure, hormone replacement therapy, multiple sclerosis, stroke. Significant differences were found between the saliva cortisol samples for the yawners, t (23) = -4.263, p = 0.000, as compared with the non-yawners between rest and post-stimuli, which was non-significant. Significant evidence was found to support the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis suggesting that rises in cortisol levels are associated with yawning. Further research is exploring the use of cortisol as an early diagnostic tool for MS. Ethics approval granted and professional code of conduct, confidentiality, and safety issues are approved therein.

Keywords: cortisol, multiple sclerosis, yawning, thompson cortisol hypothesis

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2045 Pre-Malignant Breast Lesions, Methods of Treatment and Outcome

Authors: Ahmed Mostafa, Mohamed Mahmoud, Nesreen H. Hafez, Mohamed Fahim

Abstract:

This retrospective study includes 60 patients with pre-invasive breast cancer. Aim of the study: Evaluation of premalignant lesions of the breast (DCIS), different treatment methods and outcome. Patients and methods: 60 patients with DCIS were studied from the period between 2005 to 2012, for 38 patients the primary surgical method was wide local resection (WLE) (63.3%) and the other cases (22 patients, 36.7%) had mastectomy, fourteen cases from those who underwent local excision received radiotherapy, while no adjuvant radiotherapy was given for those who underwent mastectomy. In case of hormonal receptor positive DCIS lesions hormonal treatment (Tamoxifen) was given after local control. Results: No difference in overall survival between mastectomy & breast conserving therapy (wide local excision and adjuvant radiotherapy), however local recurrence rate is higher in case of breast conserving therapy, also no role of Axillary evacuation in case of DCIS. The use of hormonal therapy decreases the incidence of local recurrence by about 98%. Conclusion: The main management of DCIS is local treatment (wide local excision and radiotherapy) with hormonal treatment in case of hormone receptor positive lesions.

Keywords: ductal carcinoma in situ, surgical treatment, radiotherapy, breast conserving therapy, hormonal treatment

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2044 Optimal Continuous Scheduled Time for a Cumulative Damage System with Age-Dependent Imperfect Maintenance

Authors: Chin-Chih Chang

Abstract:

Many manufacturing systems suffer failures due to complex degradation processes and various environment conditions such as random shocks. Consider an operating system is subject to random shocks and works at random times for successive jobs. When successive jobs often result in production losses and performance deterioration, it would be better to do maintenance or replacement at a planned time. A preventive replacement (PR) policy is presented to replace the system before a failure occurs at a continuous time T. In such a policy, the failure characteristics of the system are designed as follows. Each job would cause a random amount of additive damage to the system, and the system fails when the cumulative damage has exceeded a failure threshold. Suppose that the deteriorating system suffers one of the two types of shocks with age-dependent probabilities: type-I (minor) shock is rectified by a minimal repair, or type-II (catastrophic) shock causes the system to fail. A corrective replacement (CR) is performed immediately when the system fails. In summary, a generalized maintenance model to scheduling replacement plan for an operating system is presented below. PR is carried out at time T, whereas CR is carried out when any type-II shock occurs and the total damage exceeded a failure level. The main objective is to determine the optimal continuous schedule time of preventive replacement through minimizing the mean cost rate function. The existence and uniqueness of optimal replacement policy are derived analytically. It can be seen that the present model is a generalization of the previous models, and the policy with preventive replacement outperforms the one without preventive replacement.

Keywords: preventive replacement, working time, cumulative damage model, minimal repair, imperfect maintenance, optimization

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2043 The Effect of Blue Lighting on Feeding Behaviour, Growth, and Corticosterone of Broiler Chickens

Authors: Sri Harimurti, Diah Reni Asih

Abstract:

This study was designated to investigate the effect of intermittent and continuous blue lighting on the feeding behaviour, growth and corticosterone hormone concentration of broiler. Two thousands and seven hundreds unsexed day-old broiler were divided into three groups of lighting treatment. Each treatment consisted of three replicates of 300 birds. The treatments were ordinary lighting (C), intermittent blue lighting (IBL) and continuous blue lighting (CBL). The data were collected in the study were feeding behaviour such as feeding duration and frequency of feeding, growth rate of birds and corticosterone hormone concentration. Results showed that the CBL have significant effect (P<0,05) on duration and frequency of feeding and growth rate of birds. The CBL have the highest feeding duration, the lowest frequency of feeding that those 290.33±1.52 minutes/day, 35.58±0.50 times/day at 15 to 28 days of age.The concentration of corticosterone hormone of IBL and CBL were a significant (P<0.05) decrease. The conclusion of this study indicated that continuous blue lighting may be a good tool for improving welfare management of broiler.

Keywords: blue light, broiler chickens, corticosterone hormone, feeding behaviour, growth rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
2042 Properties of Triadic Concrete Containing Rice Husk Ash and Wood Waste Ash as Partial Cement Replacement

Authors: Abdul Rahman Mohd. Sam, Olukotun Nathaniel, Dunu Williams

Abstract:

Concrete is one of the most popular materials used in construction industry. However, one of the setbacks is that concrete can degrade with time upon exposure to an aggressive environment that leads to decrease in strength. Thus, research works and innovative ways are needed to enhance the strength and durability of concrete. This work tries to look into the potential use of rice husk ash (RHA) and wood waste ash (WWA) as cement replacement material. These are waste materials that may not only enhance the properties of concrete but also can serves as a viable method of disposal of waste for sustainability. In addition, a substantial replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with these pozzolans will mean reduction in CO₂ emissions and high energy requirement associated with the production of OPC. This study is aimed at assessing the properties of triadic concrete produced using RHA and WWA as a partial replacement of cement. The effects of partial replacement of OPC with 10% RHA and 5% WWA on compressive and tensile strength of concrete among other properties were investigated. Concrete was produced with nominal mix of 1:2:4 and 0.55 water-cement ratio, prepared, cured and subjected to compressive and tensile strength test at 3, 7, 14, 28 and 90days. The experimental data demonstrate that concrete containing RHA and WWA produced lighter weight in comparison with OPC sample. Results also show that combination of RHA and WWA help to prolong the initial and final setting time by about 10-30% compared to the control sample. Furthermore, compressive strength was increased by 15-30% with 10% RHA and 5% WWA replacement, respectively above the control, RHA and WWA samples. Tensile strength test at the ages of 3, 7, 14, 28 and 90 days reveals that a replacement of 15% RHA and 5% WWA produced samples with the highest tensile capacity compared to the control samples. Thus, it can be concluded that RHA and WWA can be used as partial cement replacement materials in concrete.

Keywords: concrete, rice husk ash, wood waste ash, ordinary Portland cement, compressive strength, tensile strength

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2041 Equity Investment Restrictions and Pension Replacement Rates in Nigeria: A Ruin-Risk Analysis

Authors: Uche A. Ibekwe

Abstract:

Pension funds are pooled assets which are established to provide income for retirees. The funds are usually regulated to check excessive risk taking by fund managers. In Nigeria, the current defined contribution (DC) pension scheme appears to contain some overly stringent restrictions which might be hampering its successful implementation. Notable among these restrictions is the 25 percent maximum limit on investment in ordinary shares of quoted companies. This paper examines the extent to which these restrictions affect pension replacement rates at retirement. The study made use of both simulated and historical asset return distributions using mean-variance, regression analysis and ruin-risk analyses, the study found that the current equity investment restriction policy in Nigeria reduces replacement rates at retirement.

Keywords: equity investment, replacement rates, restrictions, ruin-risk

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2040 Design of Soil Replacement under Axial Centric Load Isolated Footing by Limit State Method

Authors: Emad A. M. Osman, Ahmed M. Abu-Bakr

Abstract:

Compacted granular fill under shallow foundation is one of the oldest, cheapest, and easiest techniques to improve the soil characteristics to increase the bearing capacity and decrease settlement under footing. There are three main factors affecting the design of soil replacement to gain these advantages. These factors are the type of replaced soil, characteristics, and thickness. The first two factors can be easily determined by laboratory and field control. This paper emphasizes on how to determine the thickness accurately for footing under centric axial load by limit state design method. The advantages of the method are the way of determining the thickness (independent of experience) and it takes into account the replaced and original or underneath soil characteristics and reaches the goals of replaced soils economically.

Keywords: design of soil replacement, LSD method, soil replacement, soil improvement

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2039 Erectile Dysfunction in A Middle Aged Man 6 Years After Bariatric Surgery: A Case Report

Authors: Thaminda Liyanage, Chamila Shamika Kurukulasuriya

Abstract:

Introduction: Morbid obesity has been successfully treated with bariatric surgery for over 60 years. Although operative procedures have improved and associated complications have reduced substantially, surgery still carries the risk of post-operative malabsorption, malnutrition and a range of gastrointestinal disorders. Overweight by itself can impair libido in both sexes and cause erectile dysfunction in males by inducing a state of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, proportional to the degree of obesity. Impact of weight reduction on libido and sexual activity remains controversial, however it is broadly accepted that weight loss improves sexual drive. Zinc deficiency, subsequent to malabsorption, may lead to impaired testosterone synthesis in men while excessive and/or rapid weight loss in females may result in reversible amenorrhoea leading to sub-fertility. Methods: We describe a 37 year old male, 6 years post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, who presented with erectile dysfunction, loss of libido, worsening fatigue and generalized weakness for 4 months. He also complained of constipation and frequent muscle cramps but denied having headache, vomiting or visual disturbances. Patient had lost 38 kg of body weight post gastric bypass surgery over four years {135kg (BMI 42.6 kg/m2) to 97 kg (BMI 30.6 kg/m2)} and the weight had been stable for past two years. He had no recognised co-morbidities at the time of the surgery and noted marked improvement in general wellbeing, physical fitness and psychological confident post surgery, up until four months before presentation. Clinical examination revealed dry pale skin with normal body hair distribution, no thyroid nodules or goitre, normal size testicles and normal neurological examination with no visual field defects or diplopia. He had low serum testosterone, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), T3, T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and 24-hour urine cortisol levels. Serum cortisol demonstrated an appropriate rise to ACTH stimulation test but growth hormone (GH) failed increase on insulin tolerance test. Other biochemical and haematological studies were normal, except for low zinc and folate with minimally raised liver enzymes. MRI scan of the head confirmed a solid pituitary mass with no mass effect on optic chiasm. Results: In this patient clinical, biochemical and radiological findings were consistent with anterior pituitary dysfunction. However, there were no features of raised intracranial pressure or neurological compromise. He was commenced on appropriate home replacement therapy and referred for neurosurgical evaluation. Patient reported marked improvement in his symptoms, specially libido and erectile dysfunction, on subsequent follow up visits. Conclusion: Sexual dysfunction coupled with non specific constitutional symptoms has multiple aetiologies. Clinical symptoms out of proportion to nutritional deficiencies post bariatric surgery should be thoroughly investigated. Close long term follow up is crucial for overall success.

Keywords: obesity, bariatric surgery, erectile dysfunction, loss of libido

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