Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 320

Search results for: cognition

320 The Application of Conceptual Metaphor Theory to the Treatment of Depression

Authors: Uma Kanth, Amy Cook

Abstract:

Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) proposes that metaphor is fundamental to human thought. CMT utilizes embodied cognition, in that emotions are conceptualized as effects on the body because of a coupling of one’s bodily experiences and one’s somatosensory system. Time perception is a function of embodied cognition and conceptual metaphor in that one’s experience of time is inextricably dependent on one’s perception of the world around them. A hallmark of depressive disorders is the distortion in one’s perception of time, such as neurological dysfunction and psychomotor retardation, and yet, to the author’s best knowledge, previous studies have not before linked CMT, embodied cognition, and depressive disorders. Therefore, the focus of this paper is the investigation of how the applications of CMT and embodied cognition (especially regarding time perception) have promise in improving current techniques to treat depressive disorders. This paper aimed to extend, through a thorough review of literature, the theoretical basis required to further research into CMT and embodied cognition’s application in treating time distortion related symptoms of depressive disorders. Future research could include the development of brain training technologies that capitalize on the principles of CMT, with the aim of promoting cognitive remediation and cognitive activation to mitigate symptoms of depressive disorder.

Keywords: depression, conceptual metaphor theory, embodied cognition, time

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319 Association Between Swallowing Disorders and Cognitive Disorders in Adults: Systematic Review and Metaanalysis

Authors: Shiva Ebrahimian Dehaghani, Afsaneh Doosti, Morteza Zare

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Background: There is no consensus regarding the association between dysphagia and cognition. Purpose: The aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the available evidence on the direction and strength of association between dysphagia and cognition. Methodology: PubMed, Scopus, Embase and Web of Science were searched about the association between dysphagia and cognition. A random-effects model was used to determine weighted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the impact of each individual study on the pooled results. Results: A total of 1427 participants showed that some cognitive disorders were significantly associated with dysphagia (OR = 3.23; 95% CI, 2.33–4.48). Conclusion: The association between cognition and swallowing disorders suggests that multiple neuroanatomical systems are involved in these two functions.

Keywords: adult, association, cognitive impairment, dysphagia, systematic review

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318 Effect of Ausubel's Advance Organizer Model to Enhancing Meta-Cognition of Students at Secondary Level

Authors: Qaisara Parveen, M. Imran Yousuf

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The purpose of this study was to find the effectiveness of the use of advance organizer model for enhancing meta-cognition of students in the subject of science. It was hypothesized that the students of experimental group taught through advance organizer model would show the better cognition than the students of control group taught through traditional teaching. The population of the study consisted of all secondary school students studying in government high school located in Rawalpindi. The sample of the study consisted of 50 students of 9th class of humanities group. The sample was selected on the basis of their pretest scores through matching, and the groups were randomly assigned for the treatment. The experimental group was taught through advance organizer model while the control group was taught through traditional teaching. The self-developed achievement test was used for the purpose of pretest and posttest. After collecting the pre-test score and post-test score, the data was analyzed and interpreted by use of descriptive statistics as mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics t-test. The findings indicate that students taught using advance organizers had a higher level of meta-cognition as compared to control group. Further, meta cognition level of boys was found higher than that of girls students. This study also revealed the fact that though the students at different meta-cognition level approached learning situations in a different manner, Advance organizer model is far superior to Traditional method of teaching.

Keywords: descriptive, experimental, humanities, meta-cognition, statistics, science

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317 Human Thinking Explained with Basic Drives

Authors: Peter Pfeifer, Julian Pfeifer, Niko Pfeifer

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Information processing is the focus of brain and cognition research. This work has a different perspective; it starts with behaviors. The detailed analysis of behaviors leads to the discovery that a significant proportion of them are based on only five basic drives. These basic drives are combinable, and the combinations result in the diversity of human behavior and thinking. The key elements are drive memories. They collect memories of drive-related situations and feelings. They contain variations of basic drives in numerous areas of life and build combinations with different meanings depending on the area. Human thinking could be explained with variations on these nested combinations of basic drives.

Keywords: cognition, psycholinguistics, psychology, psychophysiology of cognition

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316 Genome-Wide Significant SNPs Proximal to Nicotinic Receptor Genes Impact Cognition in Schizophrenia

Authors: Mohammad Ahangari

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Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with symptoms that include cognitive deficits and nicotine has been suggested to have an effect on cognition. In recent years, the advents of Genome-Wide Association Studies(GWAS) has evolved our understanding about the genetic causes of complex disorders such as schizophrenia and studying the role of genome-wide significant genes could potentially lead to the development of new therapeutic agents for treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The current study identified six Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) from schizophrenia and smoking GWAS that are located on or in close proximity to the nicotinic receptor gene cluster (CHRN) and studied their association with cognition in an Irish sample of 1297 cases and controls using linear regression analysis. Further on, the interaction between CHRN gene cluster and Dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) during working memory was investigated. The effect of these polymorphisms on nicotinic and dopaminergic neurotransmission, which is disrupted in schizophrenia, have been characterized in terms of their effects on memory, attention, social cognition and IQ as measured by a neuropsychological test battery and significant effects in two polymorphisms were found across global IQ domain of the test battery.

Keywords: cognition, dopamine, GWAS, nicotine, schizophrenia, SNPs

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315 A Phenomenological Framework of Unconscious Cognition on Judicial Decision Making

Authors: Mariam Shah

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This paper will examine the potential influence and role of unconscious cognition on judicial decision making. The theoretical underpinnings of this paper rest on phenomenological theory grounded predominantly in Schutzian phenomenology. Aspects of Husserlian and Gadamerian phenomenology will be included within the phenomenological framework put forward in this paper, in an attempt to provide a more complete and thorough account of how unconscious cognition can influence judicial decision making. This paper has far reaching implications, as the framework provides a foundation for unconscious cognitive factors which can work to influence decision making more generally.

Keywords: decision making, Gadamer, Gadamerian, Husserl, Husserlian, judicial decision making, phenomenology, Schutz, Schutzian

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
314 The influence of Personality Traits on Appearance Evaluation among Chinese Teenagers

Authors: Yichen Liu, Gexing Ding

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Past research seeking to understand our ability to update social impressions in light of behavioral inconsistencies has shown that morality is more dominant in impression formation and updating than ability (e.g. friendly vs. efficient). In this study, we aim to test whether this pattern holds among the teenage population in an eastern society. Our findings revealed that competency and moral judgments go beyond impression formation in social cognition by influencing physical attractiveness evaluation. Moreover, our results confirmed that moral description has a leading role over the other basic dimensions of human social cognition (i.e., competency) in driving the impression formation process in an eastern society. However, competency information was generally perceived as more favorable than moral information, regardless of valence. Further investigation is needed to understand the mechanism of such effects.

Keywords: impression formation, social cognition, moral judgment, cross-cultural

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313 The Effects of Affections and of Personality on Metacognition

Authors: Patricia Silva, Iolanda Costa Galinha, Cristina Costa-Lobo

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The present research aims to evaluate, in the context of formal learning, the influence of affections, through subjective well-being, as well as the influence of personality, in the metacognition levels. There are few studies that analyze the influence of affection and personality on metacognition. The sample of this study consists of 300 Portuguese adolescents, male and female, aged between 15 and 17 years. The main variables of this study are affections, personality, ascertained through neuroticism and extraversion, and metacognition, namely the knowledge of cognition and the regulation of cognition. Initially, the sociodemographic questionnaire was constructed and administered to characterize the sample in its variables. To evaluate the affective experience in adolescents was administered PANAS-N, that is a measure of self-assessment of positive and negative affectivity in children and adolescents. To evaluate the personality, in its variables extroversion and neuroticism, the NEO-FFI was applied. The Metacognitive Awareness Inventory, MAI, was used to assess knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. The data analysis was performed using the statistical software IBM SPSS 22.0. After analyzing and discussing the results, a set of theoretical interdisciplinary reflection, between the sciences of education and psychology, is concretized, contributing to the reflection on psychoeducational intervention, opening the way for future studies.

Keywords: affections, personality, metacognition, psychoeducational intervention

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312 Myth in Political Discourse as a Form of Linguistic Consciousness

Authors: Kuralay Kenzhekanova, Akmaral Dalelbekkyzy

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The article is devoted to the problem of political discourse and its reflection on mass cognition. This article is dedicated to describe the myth as one of the main features of political discourse. The dominance of an expressional and emotional component in the myth is shown. Precedent phenomenon plays an important role in distinguishing the myth from the linguistic point of view. Precedent phenomena show the linguistic cognition, which is characterized by their fame and recognition. Four types of myths such as master myths, a foundation myth, sustaining myth, eschatological myths are observed. The myths about the national idea are characterized by national specificity. The main aim of the political discourse with the help of myths is to influence on the mass consciousness in order to motivate the addressee to certain actions so that the target purpose is reached owing to unity of forces.

Keywords: cognition, myth, linguistic consciousness, types of myths, political discourse, political myth, precedent phenomena

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311 Investigating the Impact of Job-Related and Organisational Factors on Employee Engagement: An Emotionally Relevant Approach Based on Psychological Climate and Organisational Emotional Intelligence (OEI)

Authors: Nuno Da Camara, Victor Dulewicz, Malcolm Higgs

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Factors on employee engagement: In particular, although theorists have described the critical role of emotional cognition of the workplace environment as antecedents to employee engagement, empirical research on the impact of emotional cognition on employee engagement is limited. However, previous researchers have typically provided evidence of the link between emotional cognition of the workplace environment and workplace attitudes such as job satisfaction and organisational commitment. This study therefore aims to investigate the impact of emotional cognition of job, role, leader and organisation domains of the work environment – as represented by measures of psychological climate and organizational emotional intelligence (OEI) - on employee engagement. The research is based on a quantitative cross-sectional survey of employees in a UK charity organization (n=174). The research instruments applied include the psychological climate scale, the organisational emotional intelligence questionnaire (OEIQ) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES). The data were analysed using hierarchical regression and partial least squares (PLS) analytical techniques. The results of the study show that both psychological climate and OEI, which represent emotional cognition of job, role, leader and organisation domains in the workplace are significant drivers of employee engagement. In particular, the study found that a sense of contribution and challenge at work are the strongest drivers of vigour, dedication and absorption and highlights the importance of emotionally relevant approaches in furthering our understanding of workplace engagement.

Keywords: employee engagement, organisational emotional intelligence, psychological climate, workplace attitudes

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310 Embodied Cognition as a Concept of Educational Neuroscience and Phenomenology

Authors: Elham Shirvani-Ghadikolaei

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In this paper, we examine the connection between the human mind and body within the framework of Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology. We study the role of this connection in designing more efficient learning environments, alongside the findings in physical recognition and educational neuroscience. Our research shows the interplay between the mind and the body in the external world and discusses its implications. Based on these observations, we make suggestions as to how the educational system can benefit from taking into account the interaction between the mind and the body in educational affairs.

Keywords: educational neurosciences, embodied cognition, pedagogical neurosciences, phenomenology

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
309 A Meta-Analysis of Handwriting and Visual-Motor Integration (VMI): The Moderating Effect of Handwriting Dimensions

Authors: Hong Lu, Xin Chen, Zhengcheng Fan

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Prior research has claimed a close association between handwriting and mathematics attainment with the help of spatial cognition. However, the exact mechanism behind this relationship remains un-investigated. Focusing on visual-motor integration (VMI), one critical spatial skill, this meta-analysis aims to estimate the size of the handwriting- visual-motor integration relationship and examine the moderating effect of handwriting dimensions on the link. With a random effect model, a medium relation (r=.26, 95%CI [.22, .30]) between handwriting and VMI was summarized in 38 studies with 55 unique samples and 141 effect sizes. Findings suggested handwriting dimensions significantly moderated the handwriting- VMI relationship, with handwriting legibility showing a substantial correlation with VMI, but neither handwriting speed nor pressure. Identifying the essential relationship between handwriting legibility and VMI, this study adds to the literature about the key cognitive processing needs underlying handwriting, and spatial cognition thus highlights the cognitive mechanism regarding handwriting, spatial cognition, and mathematics performances.

Keywords: handwriting, visual-motor integration, legibility, meta-analysis

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308 Embodied Cognition and Its Implications in Education: An Overview of Recent Literature

Authors: Panagiotis Kosmas, Panayiotis Zaphiris

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Embodied Cognition (EC) as a learning paradigm is based on the idea of an inseparable link between body, mind, and environment. In recent years, the advent of theoretical learning approaches around EC theory has resulted in a number of empirical studies exploring the implementation of the theory in education. This systematic literature overview identifies the mainstream of EC research and emphasizes on the implementation of the theory across learning environments. Based on a corpus of 43 manuscripts, published between 2013 and 2017, it sets out to describe the range of topics covered under the umbrella of EC and provides a holistic view of the field. The aim of the present review is to investigate the main issues in EC research related to the various learning contexts. Particularly, the study addresses the research methods and technologies that are utilized, and it also explores the integration of body into the learning context. An important finding from the overview is the potential of the theory in different educational environments and disciplines. However, there is a lack of an explicit pedagogical framework from an educational perspective for a successful implementation in various learning contexts.

Keywords: embodied cognition, embodied learning, education, technology, schools

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307 Relationship of Entrepreneurial Ecosystem Factors and Entrepreneurial Cognition: An Exploratory Study Applied to Regional and Metropolitan Ecosystems in New South Wales, Australia

Authors: Sumedha Weerasekara, Morgan Miles, Mark Morrison, Branka Krivokapic-Skoko

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This paper is aimed at exploring the interrelationships among entrepreneurial ecosystem factors and entrepreneurial cognition in regional and metropolitan ecosystems. Entrepreneurial ecosystem factors examined include: culture, infrastructure, access to finance, informal networks, support services, access to universities, and the depth and breadth of the talent pool. Using a multivariate approach we explore the impact of these ecosystem factors or elements on entrepreneurial cognition. In doing so, the existing body of knowledge from the literature on entrepreneurial ecosystem and cognition have been blended to explore the relationship between entrepreneurial ecosystem factors and cognition in a way not hitherto investigated. The concept of the entrepreneurial ecosystem has received increased attention as governments, universities and communities have started to recognize the potential of integrated policies, structures, programs and processes that foster entrepreneurship activities by supporting innovation, productivity and employment growth. The notion of entrepreneurial ecosystems has evolved and grown with the advancement of theoretical research and empirical studies. Importance of incorporating external factors like culture, political environment, and the economic environment within a single framework will enhance the capacity of examining the whole systems functionality to better understand the interaction of the entrepreneurial actors and factors within a single framework. The literature on clusters underplays the role of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial management in creating and co-creating organizations, markets, and supporting ecosystems. Entrepreneurs are only one actor following a limited set of roles and dependent upon many other factors to thrive. As a consequence, entrepreneurs and relevant authorities should be aware of the other actors and factors with which they engage and rely, and make strategic choices to achieve both self and also collective objectives. The study uses stratified random sampling method to collect survey data from 12 different regions in regional and metropolitan regions of NSW, Australia. A questionnaire was administered online among 512 Small and medium enterprise owners operating their business in selected 12 regions in NSW, Australia. Data were analyzed using descriptive analyzing techniques and partial least squares - structural equation modeling. The findings show that even though there is a significant relationship between each and every entrepreneurial ecosystem factors, there is a weak relationship between most entrepreneurial ecosystem factors and entrepreneurial cognition. In the metropolitan context, the availability of finance and informal networks have the largest impact on entrepreneurial cognition while culture, infrastructure, and support services having the smallest impact and the talent pool and universities having a moderate impact on entrepreneurial cognition. Interestingly, in a regional context, culture, availability of finance, and the talent pool have the highest impact on entrepreneurial cognition, while informal networks having the smallest impact and the remaining factors – infrastructure, universities, and support services have a moderate impact on entrepreneurial cognition. These findings suggest the need for a location-specific strategy for supporting the development of entrepreneurial cognition.

Keywords: academic achievement, colour response card, feedback

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306 Evaluation of P300 and CNV Changes in Patients with Essential Tremor

Authors: Sehur Sibel Ozkaynak, Zakir Koc, Ebru Barcın

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Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common movement disorders and has long been considered a monosymptomatic disorder. While ET has traditionally been categorized as a pure motor disease, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of cognition in ET have been demonstrated that these patients may have cognitive dysfunction. We investigated the neuro physiological aspects of cognition in ET, using event-related potentials (ERPs).Twenty patients with ET and 20 age-education and sex matched healthy controls underwent a neuro physiological evaluation. P300 components and Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) were recorded. The latencies and amplitudes of the P300 and CNV were evaluated. P200-N200 amplitude was significantly smaller in the ET group, while no differences emerged between patients and controls in P300 latencies. CNV amplitude was significantly smaller at Cz electrode site in the ET group. No differences were observed between in the two groups in CNV latencies. As a result, P300 and CNV parameters did not show significant differences between in the two groups, does not mean that there aren't mild cognitive changes in ET patients. In this regard, there is a need to further studies using electro physiological tests related to cognitive changes in ET patients.

Keywords: cognition, essential tremor, event related potentials

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305 Dual-Task–Immersion in the Interactions of Simultaneously Performed Tasks

Authors: M. Liebherr, P. Schubert, S. Kersten, C. Dietz, L. Franz, C. T. Haas

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With a long history, dual-task has become one of the most intriguing research fields regarding human brain functioning and cognition. However, findings considering effects of task-interrelations are limited (especially, in combined motor and cognitive tasks). Therefore, we aimed at developing a measurement system in order to analyse interrelation effects of cognitive and motor tasks. On the one hand, the present study demonstrates the applicability of the measurement system and on the other hand first results regarding a systematization of different task combinations are shown. Future investigations should combine imagine technologies and this developed measurement system.

Keywords: dual-task, interference, cognition, measurement

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304 Functional Vision of Older People with Cognitive Impairment Living in Galician Nursing Homes

Authors: C. Vázquez, L. M. Gigirey, C. P. del Oro, S. Seoane

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Poor vision is common among older people, and several studies show connections between visual impairment and cognitive function. 15 older adult live in Galician Government nursing homes, and cognitive decline is one of the main reasons of admission. Objectives: (1) To evaluate functional far and near vision of older people with cognitive impairment. (2) To determine connections between visual and cognitive state of “our” residents. Methodology: A total of 364 older adults (aged 65 years or more) underwent a visual and cognitive screening. We tested presenting visual acuity (binocular visual acuity with habitual correction if warn) for distance and near vision (E-Snellen, usual working distance for near vision). Binocular presenting visual acuity less than 0.3 was used as cut point for diagnosis of visual impairment. Exclusion criteria included immobilized residents unable to reach the USC Dual Sensory Loss Unit for visual screening. To screen cognition we employed the mini-mental examination test (Spanish version). Analysis of categorical variables was performed using chi-square tests. We utilized Pearson and Spearman correlation tests and the variance analysis to determine differences between groups of interest (SPSS 19.0 version). Results: the percentage of residents with cognitive decline reaches 32.2% Prevalence of visual impairment for distance and near vision increases among those subjects with cognitive impairment respect those with normal cognition. Shift correlation exists between distance visual acuity and mini-mental test (age and sex controlled), and moderate association was found in case of near vision (p<0.01). Conclusion: First results shows that people with cognitive impairment have poor functional distance and near vision than those with normal cognition. Next step will be to analyse the individual contribution of distance and near vision loss on cognition.

Keywords: visual impairment, cognition, aging, nursing homes

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303 EFL Teacher Cognition and Learner Autonomy: An Exploratory Study into Algerian Teachers’ Understanding of Learner Autonomy

Authors: Linda Ghout

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The main aim of the present case study was to explore EFL teachers’ understanding of learner autonomy. Thus, it sought to uncover how teachers at the de Department of English, University of Béjaia, Algeria view the process of language learning, their learners’ roles, their own roles and their practices to promote learner autonomy. For data collection, firstly, a questionnaire was designed and administered to all the teachers in the department. Secondly, interviews were conducted with some volunteers for the sake of clarifying emerging issues and digging deeper into some of the teachers’ answers to the questionnaire. The analysis revealed interesting data pertaining to the teachers’ cognition and its effects on their teaching practices. With regard to their views of language learning, it seems that the participants hold discrete views which are in opposition with the principles of learner autonomy. The teachers seemed to have a limited knowledge of the characteristics of autonomous learners and autonomy- based methodology. When it comes to teachers’ practices to promote autonomy in their classes, the majority reported that the most effective way is to ask students to search for information on their own. However, in defining their roles in the EFL learning process, most of the respondents claimed that teachers should play the role of facilitators.

Keywords: English, learner autonomy, learning process, teacher cognition

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302 Changes in Cognition of Elderly People: A Longitudinal Study in Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand

Authors: Natchaphon Auampradit, Patama Vapattanawong, Sureeporn Punpuing, Malee Sunpuwan, Tawanchai Jirapramukpitak

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Longitudinal studies related to cognitive impairment in elderly are necessary for health promotion and development. The purposes of this study were (1) to examine changes in cognition of elderly over time and (2) to examine the impacts of changes in social determinants of health (SDH) toward changes in cognition of elderly by using the secondary data derived from the Kanchanaburi Demographic Surveillance System (KDSS) by the Institute for Population and Social Research (IPSR) which contained longitudinal data on individuals, households, and villages. Two selected projects included the Health and Social Support for Elderly in KDSS in 2007 and the Population, Economic, Social, Cultural, and Long-term Care Surveillance for Thai Elderly People’s Health Promotion in 2011. The samples were 586 elderly participated in both projects. SDH included living arrangement, social relationships with children, relatives, and friends, household asset-based wealth index, household monthly income, loans for livings, loans for investment, and working status. Cognitive impairment was measured by category fluency and delayed recall. This study employed Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) model to investigate changes in cognition by taking SDH and other variables such as age, gender, marital status, education, and depression into the model. The unstructured correlation structure was selected to use for analysis. The results revealed that 24 percent of elderly had cognitive impairment at baseline. About 13 percent of elderly still had cognitive impairment during 2007 until 2011. About 21 percent and 11 percent of elderly had cognitive decline and cognitive improvement, respectively. The cross-sectional analysis showed that household asset-based wealth index, social relationship with friends, working status, age, marital status, education, and depression were significantly associated with cognitive impairment. The GEE model revealed longitudinal effects of household asset-based wealth index and working status against cognition during 2007 until 2011. There was no longitudinal effect of social conditions against cognition. Elderly living with richer household asset-based wealth index, still being employed, and being younger were less likely to have cognitive impairment. The results strongly suggested that poorer household asset-based wealth index and being unemployed were served as a risk factor for cognitive impairment over time. Increasing age was still the major risk for cognitive impairment as well.

Keywords: changes in cognition, cognitive impairment, elderly, KDSS, longitudinal study

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301 Can We Develop a Practical and Applicable Ethic in Veterinary Health Care with a Universal Application and without Dogma?

Authors: Theodorus Holtzhausen

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With a growing number of professionals in healthcare moving freely between countries and also in general a more mobile global workforce, awareness of cultural differences have become more urgent for health care workers to apply proper care. There is a slowly emerging trend in health care due to globalisation that may create a more uniform cultural base for administering healthcare, but it is still very vulnerable to being hijacked and misdirected by major commercial interests. Veterinary clinics and medical clinics promoting alternative remedies lacking evidence based support and simultaneously practicing medicine as a science have become more common. Such ‘holistic’ clinics see these remedies more as a belief system causing no harm with minimal impact but with added financial benefit to the facility. With the inarguable acceptance and realisation of the interconnection between evolutionary aspects of cognition, knowledge and culture as a global but vulnerable cognition-gaining process affecting us all, we can see the enormous responsibility we carry. Such a responsibility for creating global well-being calling for an universally applicable ethic. Such an ethic with the potential of having significant impact on our cognition gaining process.

Keywords: veterinary health care, ethics, wellbeing, veterinary clinics

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300 Neuroecological Approach for Anthropological Studies in Archaeology

Authors: Kalangi Rodrigo

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The term Neuroecology elucidates the study of customizable variation in cognition and the brain. Subject marked the birth since 1980s, when researches began to apply methods of comparative evolutionary biology to cognitive processes and the underlying neural mechanisms of cognition. In Archaeology and Anthropology, we observe behaviors such as social learning skills, innovative feeding and foraging, tool use and social manipulation to determine the cognitive processes of ancient mankind. Depending on the brainstem size was used as a control variable, and phylogeny was controlled using independent contrasts. Both disciplines need to enriched with comparative literature and neurological experimental, behavioral studies among tribal peoples as well as primate groups which will lead the research to a potential end. Neuroecology examines the relations between ecological selection pressure and mankind or sex differences in cognition and the brain. The goal of neuroecology is to understand how natural law acts on perception and its neural apparatus. Furthermore, neuroecology will eventually lead both principal disciplines to Ethology, where human behaviors and social management studies from a biological perspective. It can be either ethnoarchaeological or prehistoric. Archaeology should adopt general approach of neuroecology, phylogenetic comparative methods can be used in the field, and new findings on the cognitive mechanisms and brain structures involved mating systems, social organization, communication and foraging. The contribution of neuroecology to archaeology and anthropology is the information it provides on the selective pressures that have influenced the evolution of cognition and brain structure of the mankind. It will shed a new light to the path of evolutionary studies including behavioral ecology, primate archaeology and cognitive archaeology.

Keywords: Neuroecology, Archaeology, Brain Evolution, Cognitive Archaeology

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299 Envy and Schadenfreude Domains in a Model of Neurodegeneration

Authors: Hernando Santamaría-García, Sandra Báez, Pablo Reyes, José Santamaría-García, Diana Matallana, Adolfo García, Agustín Ibañez

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The study of moral emotions (i.e., Schadenfreude and envy) is critical to understand the ecological complexity of everyday interactions between cognitive, affective, and social cognition processes. Most previous studies in this area have used correlational imaging techniques and framed Schadenfreude and envy as monolithic domains. Here, we profit from a relevant neurodegeneration model to disentangle the brain regions engaged in three dimensions of Schadenfreude and envy: deservingness, morality, and legality. We tested 20 patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 24 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), as a contrastive neurodegeneration model, and 20 healthy controls on a novel task highlighting each of these dimensions in scenarios eliciting Schadenfreude and envy. Compared with the AD and control groups, bvFTD patients obtained significantly higher scores on all dimensions for both emotions. Interestingly, the legal dimension for both envy and Schadenfreude elicited higher emotional scores than the deservingness and moral dimensions. Furthermore, correlational analyses in bvFTD showed that higher envy and Schadenfreude scores were associated with greater deficits in social cognition, inhibitory control, and behavior. Brain anatomy findings (restricted to bvFTD and controls) confirmed differences in how these groups process each dimension. Schadenfreude was associated with the ventral striatum in all subjects. Also, in bvFTD patients, increased Schadenfreude across dimensions was negatively correlated with regions supporting social-value rewards, mentalizing, and social cognition (frontal pole, temporal pole, angular gyrus and precuneus). In all subjects, all dimensions of envy positively correlated with the volume of the anterior cingulate cortex, a region involved in processing unfair social comparisons. By contrast, in bvFTD patients, the intensified experience of envy across all dimensions was negatively correlated with a set of areas subserving social cognition, including the prefrontal cortex, the parahippocampus, and the amygdala. Together, the present results provide the first lesion-based evidence for the multidimensional nature of the emotional experiences of envy and Schadenfreude. Moreover, this is the first demonstration of a selective exacerbation of envy and Schadenfreude in bvFTD patients, probably triggered by atrophy to social cognition networks. Our results offer new insights into the mechanisms subserving complex emotions and moral cognition in neurodegeneration, paving the way for groundbreaking research on their interaction with other cognitive, social, and emotional processes.

Keywords: social cognition, moral emotions, neuroimaging, frontotemporal dementia

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298 The Postcognitivist Era in Cognitive Psychology

Authors: C. Jameke

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During the cognitivist era in cognitive psychology, a theory of internal rules and symbolic representations was posited as an account of human cognition. This type of cognitive architecture had its heyday during the 1970s and 80s, but it has now been largely abandoned in favour of subsymbolic architectures (e.g. connectionism), non-representational frameworks (e.g. dynamical systems theory), and statistical approaches such as Bayesian theory. In this presentation I describe this changing landscape of research, and comment on the increasing influence of neuroscience on cognitive psychology. I then briefly review a few recent developments in connectionism, and neurocomputation relevant to cognitive psychology, and critically discuss the assumption made by some researchers in these frameworks that higher-level aspects of human cognition are simply emergent properties of massively large distributed neural networks

Keywords: connectionism, emergentism, postocgnitivist, representations, subsymbolic archiitecture

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297 Evaluation of Cognitive Benefits among Differently Abled Subjects with Video Game as Intervention

Authors: H. Nagendra, Vinod Kumar, S. Mukherjee

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In this study, the potential benefits of playing action video game among congenitally deaf and dumb subjects is reported in terms of EEG ratio indices. The frontal and occipital lobes are associated with development of motor skills, cognition, and visual information processing and color recognition. The sixteen hours of First-Person shooter action video game play resulted in the increase of the ratios β/(α+θ) and β/θ in frontal and occipital lobes. This can be attributed to the enhancement of certain aspect of cognition among deaf and dumb subjects.

Keywords: cognitive enhancement, video games, EEG band powers, deaf and dumb subjects

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296 Effectively Improving Cognition, Behavior, and Attitude of Diabetes Inpatients through Nutritional Education

Authors: Han Chih Feng, Yi-Cheng Hou, Jing-Huei Wu

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Diabetes is a chronic disease. Nutrition knowledge and skills enable individuals with type 2 diabetes to optimize metabolic self-management and quality of life. This research studies the effect of nutritional education on diabetes inpatients in terms of their cognition, behavior, and attitude. The participants are inpatients diagnosed with diabetes at Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital. A total of 103 participants, 58 male, and 45 females, enrolled in the research between January 2018 and July 2018. The research evaluates cognition, behavior, and attitude level before and after nutritional education conducted by dietitians. The result shows significant improvement in actual consumption (2.5 ± 1.4 vs 3.8 ± 0.7; p<.001), diet control motivation (2.7 ± 0.8 vs 3.4 ± 0.6; p<.001), correct nutrition concept (1.2± 0.4 vs 2.4 ± 0.5; p<.001), learning willingness (2.7± 0.9 vs 3.4 ± 0.6; p<.001), cognitive behaviors (1.4 ± 0.5 vs 2.9 ± 0.7; p<.001). AC sugar (278.5 ± 321.5 vs 152.2 ± 49.1; p<.001) and HbA1C (10.3 ± 2.6 vs 8.6 ± 1.9; p<.001) are significant improvement after nutritional education. After nutritional education, participants oral hypoglycemic agents increased from 16 (9.2%) to 33 (19.0%), insulin decreased from 75 (43.1%) to 68 (39.1%), and hypoglycemic drugs combined with insulin decreased from 83 (47.7%) to 73 (42.0%).Further analysis shows that female inpatients have significant improvement in diet control motivation (3.91 ± 0.85 vs 4.44 ± 0.59; p<0.000), correct nutrition concept (3.24± 0.48 vs 4.47± 0.51; p<0.000), learning willingness (3.89 ± 0.86 vs 4.44 ± 0.59; p<0.000) and cognitive behaviors (2.42 ± 0.58 vs 4.02 ± 0.69; p<0.000); male inpatients have significant improvement in actual food intake (4.41± 0.92 vs 3.97 ± 0.42; p<0.000), diet control motivation (3.62 ± 0.86 vs 4.29 ± 0.62; p<0.000), correct nutrition concept (3.26 ± 0.44 vs 4.36 ± 0.49; p<0.000), learning willingness (3.72± 0.93 vs 4.33± 0.63; p<0.000) and cognitive behaviors (2.45± 0.54 vs 4.03± 0.77; p<0.000). In conclusion, nutritional education proves effective, regardless of gender, in improving an inpatient’s cognition, behavior, and attitude toward diabetes self-management.

Keywords: diabetes, nutrition education, actual consumption, diet control motivation, nutrition concept, learning willingness, cognitive behaviors

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295 Developing a Discourse Community of Doctoral Students in a Multicultural Context

Authors: Jinghui Wang, Minjie Xing

Abstract:

The increasing number of international students for doctoral education has brought vitality and diversity to the educational environment in China, and at the same time constituted a new challenge to the English teaching in the higher education as the majority of international students come from developing countries where English is not their first language. To make their contribution to knowledge development and technical innovation, these international doctoral students need to present their research work in English, locally and globally. This study reports an exploratory study with an emphasis on the cognition and construction of academic discourse in the multicultural context. The present study aims to explore ways to better prepare them for international academic exchange in English. Voluntarily, all international doctoral students (n = 81) from 35 countries enrolled in the English Course: Speaking and Writing as a New Scientist, participated in the study. Two research questions were raised: 1) What did these doctoral students say about their cognition and construction of English academic discourses? 2) How did they manage to develop their productive skills in a multicultural context? To answer the research questions, data were collected from self-reports, in-depth interviews, and video-recorded class observations. The major findings of the study suggest that the participants to varying degrees benefitted from the cognition and construction of English academic discourse in the multicultural context. Specifically, 1) The cognition and construction of meta-discourse allowed them to construct their own academic discourses in English; 2) In the light of Swales’ CARS Model, they became sensitive to the “moves” involved in the published papers closely related to their study, and learned to use them in their English academic discourses; 3) Multimodality-driven presentation (multimedia modes) enabled these doctoral student to have their voice heard for technical innovation purposes; 4) Speaking as a new scientist, every doctoral student felt happy and able to serve as an intercultural mediator in the multicultural context, bridging the gap between their home culture and the global culture; and most importantly, 5) most of the participants reported developing an English discourse community among international doctoral students, becoming resourceful and productive in the multicultural context. It is concluded that the cognition and construction of academic discourse in the multicultural context proves to be conducive to the productivity and intercultural citizenship education of international doctoral students.

Keywords: academic discourse, international doctoral students, meta-discourse, multicultural context

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294 Dynamic-cognition of Strategic Mineral Commodities; An Empirical Assessment

Authors: Carlos Tapia Cortez, Serkan Saydam, Jeff Coulton, Claude Sammut

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Strategic mineral commodities (SMC) both energetic and metals have long been fundamental for human beings. There is a strong and long-run relation between the mineral resources industry and society's evolution, with the provision of primary raw materials, becoming one of the most significant drivers of economic growth. Due to mineral resources’ relevance for the entire economy and society, an understanding of the SMC market behaviour to simulate price fluctuations has become crucial for governments and firms. For any human activity, SMC price fluctuations are affected by economic, geopolitical, environmental, technological and psychological issues, where cognition has a major role. Cognition is defined as the capacity to store information in memory, processing and decision making for problem-solving or human adaptation. Thus, it has a significant role in those systems that exhibit dynamic equilibrium through time, such as economic growth. Cognition allows not only understanding past behaviours and trends in SCM markets but also supports future expectations of demand/supply levels and prices, although speculations are unavoidable. Technological developments may also be defined as a cognitive system. Since the Industrial Revolution, technological developments have had a significant influence on SMC production costs and prices, likewise allowing co-integration between commodities and market locations. It suggests a close relation between structural breaks, technology and prices evolution. SCM prices forecasting have been commonly addressed by econometrics and Gaussian-probabilistic models. Econometrics models may incorporate the relationship between variables; however, they are statics that leads to an incomplete approach of prices evolution through time. Gaussian-probabilistic models may evolve through time; however, price fluctuations are addressed by the assumption of random behaviour and normal distribution which seems to be far from the real behaviour of both market and prices. Random fluctuation ignores the evolution of market events and the technical and temporal relation between variables, giving the illusion of controlled future events. Normal distribution underestimates price fluctuations by using restricted ranges, curtailing decisions making into a pre-established space. A proper understanding of SMC's price dynamics taking into account the historical-cognitive relation between economic, technological and psychological factors over time is fundamental in attempting to simulate prices. The aim of this paper is to discuss the SMC market cognition hypothesis and empirically demonstrate its dynamic-cognitive capacity. Three of the largest and traded SMC's: oil, copper and gold, will be assessed to examine the economic, technological and psychological cognition respectively.

Keywords: commodity price simulation, commodity price uncertainties, dynamic-cognition, dynamic systems

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293 Intuitional Insight in Islamic Mysticism

Authors: Maryam Bakhtyar, Pegah Akrami

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Intuitional insight or mystical cognition is a different insight from common, concrete and intellectual insights. This kind of insight is not achieved by visionary contemplation but by the recitation of God, self-purification, and mystical life. In this insight, there is no distance or medium between the subject of cognition and its object, and they have a sort of unification, unison, and incorporation. As a result, knowledgeable consider this insight as direct, immediate, and personal. The goal of this insight is God, cosmos’ creatures, and the general inner and hidden aspect of the world that is nothing except God’s manifestations in the view of mystics. AS our common cognitions have diversity and stages, intuitional insight also has diversity and levels. As our senses are divided into concrete and rational, mystical discovery is divided into superficial discovery and spiritual one. Based on Islamic mystics, the preferable way to know God and believe in him is intuitional insight. There are two important criteria for evaluating mystical intuition, especially for beginner mystics of intellect and revelation. Indeed, the conclusion and a brief evaluation of Islamic mystics’ viewpoint is the main subject of this paper.

Keywords: intuition, discovery, mystical insight, personal knowledge, superficial discovery, spiritual discovery

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292 Effects of Turkish Classical Music on Cognitive Function, Depression and Quality of Life in Elderly

Authors: Rukiye Pinar Boluktas

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According to 2015 statistics, in Turkey, 46% of older people live alone in their homes, 55% have poor health perceptions, 18% face poverty, and 43% are unhappy. Prevalence of depression is between 14% and 20%. In 2013, rate of suicide was 6.5. However, the most of older people prefer to live in their community although they are lonely, they face poverty, and face limitations as a result of chronic diseases and disabilities. Community based care for older people is also encouraged by Ministry of Health as it is more cost-effective. Music therapy is a simple, effective, safe, and nonpharmacologic intervention that may be used to decrease depression and to improve cognition, and health related quality of life (HRQOL). In Turkish culture, music is typically described as ‘food for soul’. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Turkish classical music songs in 32 community dwelling older people. Participants were received interventions two or three times per week, 50-60 min per session, for 8 weeks at a day health center. Each intervention session started listening music for 15-20 min to get remember songs, then followed singing songs as a group. Participants were assessed at baseline (week 0), and two follow-up at month 1 and month 2. Compared to baseline, at two follow-up, we observed that cognition improved, depression decreased, and SF-36 scores, including 8 domains and two summary scores increased. We conclude that an intervention comprising listening and singing Turkish classical music improve cognition, depression and HRQOL in older people.

Keywords: cognitive function, depression, elderly, quality of life, Turkish classical music

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291 A Study of Lurking Behavior: The Desire Perspective

Authors: Hsiu-Hua Cheng, Chi-Wei Chen

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Lurking behaviour is common in information-seeking oriented communities. Transferring users with lurking behaviour to be contributors can assist virtual communities to obtain competitive advantages. Based on the ecological cognition framework, this study proposes a model to examine the antecedents of lurking behaviour in information-seeking oriented virtual communities. This study argues desire for emotional support, desire for information support, desire for performance-approach, desire for performance -avoidance, desire for mastery-approach, desire for mastery-avoidance, desire for ability trust, desire for benevolence trust, and desire for integrity trust effect on lurking behaviour. This study offers an approach to understanding the determinants of lurking behaviour in online contexts.

Keywords: lurking behaviour, the ecological cognition framework, Information-seeking oriented virtual communities, desire

Procedia PDF Downloads 208