Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20988

Search results for: discourse analysis

20988 Argumentative and Enunciative Analysis of Spanish Political Discourse

Authors: Cristina Diez

Abstract:

One of the most important challenges of discourse analysis is to find the linguistic mechanisms of subjectivity. The present article aims to raise the need for an argumentative and enunciative analysis to reach the subjective tissue of language. The intention is to prove that the instructions inscribed in the own language are those that indicate how a statement is to be interpreted and that the argumentative value is implied at the semantic level. For that, the theory of argumentation from Ducrot and Anscombre will be implemented. First, a reflection on the study about subjectivity and enunciation in language will be exposed, followed by concrete proposals on the linguistic mechanisms that speakers use either consciously or unconsciously, to finally focus on those argumentative tools that political discourse uses in order to influence the audience.

Keywords: argumentation, enunciation, discourse analysis, subjectivity

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20987 Sfard’s Commognitive Framework as a Method of Discourse Analysis in Mathematics

Authors: Dong-Joong Kim, Sangho Choi, Woong Lim

Abstract:

This paper discusses Sfard’s commognitive approach and provides an empirical study as an example to illustrate the theory as method. Traditionally, research in mathematics education focused on the acquisition of mathematical knowledge and the didactic process of knowledge transfer. Through attending to a distinctive form of language in mathematics, as well as mathematics as a discursive subject, alternative views of making meaning in mathematics have emerged; these views are therefore “critical,” as in critical discourse analysis. The commognitive discourse analysis method has the potential to bring more clarity to our understanding of students’ mathematical thinking and the process through which students are socialized into school mathematics.

Keywords: commognitive framework, discourse analysis, mathematical discourse, mathematics education

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20986 An Analysis of Discourse Markers Awareness in Writing Undergraduate Thesis of English Education Student in Sebelas Maret University

Authors: Oktanika Wahyu Nurjanah, Anggun Fitriana Dewi

Abstract:

An undergraduate thesis is one of the academic writings which should fulfill some characteristics, one of them is coherency. Moreover, a coherence of a text depends on the usage of discourse markers. In other word, discourse markers take an essential role in writing. Therefore, the researchers aim to know the awareness of the discourse markers usage in writing the under-graduate thesis of an English Education student at Sebelas Maret University. This research uses a qualitative case study in order to obtain a deep analysis. The sample of this research is an under-graduate thesis of English Education student in Sebelas Maret University which chosen based on some criteria. Additionally, the researchers were guided by some literature attempted to group the discourse markers based on their functions. Afterward, the analysis was held based on it. From the analysis, it found that the awareness of discourse markers usage is moderate. The last point, the researcher suggest undergraduate students to familiarize themselves with discourse markers, especially for those who want to write thesis.

Keywords: discourse markers, English education, thesis writing, undergraduate student

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20985 Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Egyptian Political Movies: A Case Study of 'People at the Top Ahl Al Kemma' Movie

Authors: Mariam Waheed Mekheimar

Abstract:

Nascent research is conducted to the advancement of discourse analysis to include different modes as images, sound, and text. The focus of this study will be to elucidate how images are embedded with texts in an audio-visual medium as cinema to send political messages; it also seeks to broaden our understanding of politics beyond a relatively narrow conceptualization of the 'political' through studying non-traditional discourses as the cinematic discourse. The aim herein is to develop a systematic approach to film analysis to capture political meanings in films. The method adopted in this research is Multimodal Discourse Analysis (MDA) focusing on embedding visuals with texts. As today's era is the era of images and that necessitates analyzing images. Drawing on the writings of O'Halloran, Kress and Van Leuween, John Bateman and Janina Wildfeuer, different modalities will be studied to understand how those modes interact in the cinematic discourse. 'People at the top movie' is selected as an example to unravel the political meanings throughout film tackling the cinematic representation of the notion of social justice.

Keywords: Egyptian cinema, multimodal discourse analysis, people at the top, social justice

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20984 Popularization of Persian Scientific Articles in the Public Media: An Analysis Based on Experimental Meta-function View Point

Authors: Behnaz Zolfaghari

Abstract:

In civilized societies, linguists seek to find suitable equivalents for scientific terms in the common language of their society. Many researches have conducted surveys about language of science on one hand and media discourse on the other, but the goal of this research is the comparative analysis of science discourse in Persian academic media and public discourse in the general Persian media by applying experimental meta-function as one of the four theoretical tools introduced by Holiday’s Systemic Functional Grammar .The said analysis aims to explore the processes that can convert the language in which scientific facts are published to a language well suited to the interested layman. The results of comparison show that these two discourses use differently six processes of experimental meta-function. Comparing the redundancy of different processes, the researcher tried to re-identify these differences in these two discourses and present a model for the procedures of converting science discourse to popularized discourse. This model can be useful for those journalists and textbook authors who want to restate scientific technical texts in a simple style for inexpert addresser including general people and students.

Keywords: systemic functional grammar, discourse analysis, science language, popularization, media discourse

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20983 A Discourse Study of Multimodal Intertextuality in Egyptian Social Media Memes

Authors: Ola Hafez

Abstract:

This study examines the way selected Egyptian digitally mediated memes utilize intertextuality as a means of expression. It is motivated by the emerging digital socio-political humorous practice using various forms of political commentary in Egyptian social media. One of these forms involves the use of memes incorporating (often doctored) video frames taken from Egyptian plays, films and songs, and relocated in a different socio-political context, often with a caption that re-appropriates the frame for the purpose of critical commentary, thus juxtaposing the socio-political phenomena being addressed and the Egyptian artistic and cultural heritage. The paper presents a discourse study of a convenience sample of a recent social media campaign and carries out two levels of analysis. At the micro level, the study pinpoints the various modes of intertextuality employed, including verbal as well as visual intertextuality in the light of the work of social semiotics by Kress and van Leeuwen. At the macro level, the paper sheds light on the socio-political implications of such practice in the light of Political Discourse Analysis.

Keywords: digitally mediated discourse, discourse analysis, Egyptian Arabic, intertextuality, memes, multimodality, political discourse analysis

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20982 Parental Discourse on Childhood Vaccination Programme: A Case Study

Authors: Tengku Farah Petri Tengku Mahmood, Shameem Rafik-Galea, Zalina Mohd Kasim, Norlijah Othman

Abstract:

Childhood vaccination programme is mandatory in Malaysia. However, the decision to vaccinate or not vaccinate children is still left to the parents. Presently, there are parents who are opting out of vaccination claiming that it causes autism and other chronic disorders despite inconclusive evidence. There appears to be a dangerous trend among some Malaysian parents to not vaccinate their children and to not participate in the childhood vaccination programme. This study presents preliminary findings of parental discourse on childhood vaccination programme through the perspective of the Integrated Threat Theory. An in-depth interview was carried out to investigate a parent’s concern of the effects of childhood vaccination on children. A thematic discourse analysis was used to analyse the transcribed data. The emerging themes based on the analysis and their relevance to our understanding of a parent’s concerns of the effects of childhood vaccination on children are discussed.

Keywords: case study, parental discourse, thematic discourse analysis, childhood vaccination

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20981 A Discourse Analysis of Menopause for Thai Women

Authors: Prapaipan Phingchim

Abstract:

The number of women approaching menopausal age in Thailand is increasing, making menopause an important health topic. In order to understand Thai women's different ways of interpreting menopausal experiences and the way they construct meaning relating to menopause, it is necessary to include the context in which meaning is constructed as well as the background of cultural attitudes to menopause existing in the Thai society. The aim of this study was to describe different discourses on menopause in Thailand that present themselves to menopausal women through the use of language and to analyze linguistic strategies used to represent such identity. This study adopts discourse theory and a close pragmatic analysis to examine the discursive construction of menopause for Thai women. Two hundreds and fifteen pieces of text under the heading or subject of `menopause' or `becoming a middle-aged woman', published from 2010 to 2019, were included. All material was addressed to Thai women, and consisted of booklets and informational material, articles from newspapers and magazines and popular science books. Five different discourses on menopause were identified: the biomedical discourse; the health-promotion discourse; the consumer discourse; the alternative discourse; and the feminist/ critical discourse. The biomedical discourse on menopause was found to be dominant, but was expanded or challenged by other discourses by offering different scopes of action and/or resting on different fundamental values. The discourses constructed and positioned individual women differently; thus, the women's position varied noticeably from one discourse to another. There are seven major linguistic strategies used to construct those identities. That is, lexical selection, presupposition manipulation, presupposition denial, the use of implication, the use of passive construction, using the cause and effect sentence structure, and rhetoric questions.

Keywords: discourse analysis, discursive construction, menopause, Thai women

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20980 Classroom Discourse and English Language Teaching: Issues, Importance, and Implications

Authors: Rabi Abdullahi Danjuma, Fatima Binta Attahir

Abstract:

Classroom discourse is important, and it is worth examining what the phenomena is and how it helps both the teacher and students in a classroom situation. This paper looks at the classroom as a traditional social setting which has its own norms and values. The paper also explains what discourse is, as extended communication in speech or writing often interactively dealing with some particular topics. It also discusses classroom discourse as the language which teachers and students use to communicate with each other in a classroom situation. The paper also looks at some strategies for effective classroom discourse. Finally, implications and recommendations were drawn.

Keywords: classroom, discourse, learning, student, strategies, communication

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20979 Analyzing Conflict Text; ‘Akunyili Memo: State of the Nation’: an Approach from CDA

Authors: Nengi A. H. Ejiobih

Abstract:

Conflict is one of the defining features of human societies. Often, the use or misuse of language in interaction is the genesis of conflict. As such, it is expected that when people use language they do so in socially determined ways and with almost predictable social effects. The objective of this paper was to examine the interest at work as manifested in language choice and collocations in conflict discourse. It also scrutinized the implications of linguistic features in conflict discourse as it concerns ideology and power relations in political discourse in Nigeria. The methodology used for this paper is an approach from Critical discourse analysis because of its multidisciplinary model of analysis, linguistic features and its implications were analysed. The datum used is a text from the Sunday Sun Newspaper in Nigeria, West Africa titled Akunyili Memo: State of the Nation. Some of the findings include; different ideologies are inherent in conflict discourse, there is the presence of power relations being produced, exercised, maintained and produced throughout the discourse and the use of pronouns in conflict discourse is valuable because it is used to initiate and maintain relationships in social context. This paper has provided evidence that, taking into consideration the nature of the social actions and the way these activities are translated into languages, the meanings people convey by their words are identified by their immediate social, political and historical conditions.

Keywords: conflicts, discourse, language, linguistic features, social context

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20978 Collision Theory Based Sentiment Detection Using Discourse Analysis in Hadoop

Authors: Anuta Mukherjee, Saswati Mukherjee

Abstract:

Data is growing everyday. Social networking sites such as Twitter are becoming an integral part of our daily lives, contributing a large increase in the growth of data. It is a rich source especially for sentiment detection or mining since people often express honest opinion through tweets. However, although sentiment analysis is a well-researched topic in text, this analysis using Twitter data poses additional challenges since these are unstructured data with abbreviations and without a strict grammatical correctness. We have employed collision theory to achieve sentiment analysis in Twitter data. We have also incorporated discourse analysis in the collision theory based model to detect accurate sentiment from tweets. We have also used the retweet field to assign weights to certain tweets and obtained the overall weightage of a topic provided in the form of a query. Hadoop has been exploited for speed. Our experiments show effective results.

Keywords: sentiment analysis, twitter, collision theory, discourse analysis

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20977 South Korean Discourse on Bioecomomy in the Sector of Agriculture

Authors: Mi Sun Park

Abstract:

Biotechnology provides us with technological solutions to resource-based challenges facing the global society. A bioeconomy or bio-based economy emerged as all economic activities derived from biotechnology. This paper aims to understand discourses on bioeconomy in the sector of agriculture with three dimensions; media discourse, science discourse, and policy discourse. For achieving research goals, content analysis was applied to this research. Media articles, academic journal articles and policy documents published from 2000 to 2016 were collected in South Korea. The text was coded and analyzed with the categories of speakers and their arguments. The research findings indicate that powerful actors and key messages of bioeconomy in South Korean agriculture. Differences and similarities among media, science, and policy were examined. Therefore this case study can contribute to understanding dynamic interaction and interfaces of media, science and policy discourse on biotechnology in the sector of agriculture.

Keywords: media, discourse, bioeconomy, agriculture

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20976 Towards an Analysis of Rhetoric of Digital Arabic Discourse

Authors: Gameel Abdelmageed

Abstract:

Arabs have a rhetorical heritage which has greatly contributed to the monitoring and analyzing of the rhetoric of the Holy Quran, Hadith, and Arabic texts on poetry and oratory. But Arab scholars - as far as the researcher knows – have not contributed to monitoring and analyzing the rhetoric of digital Arabic discourse although it has prominence, particularly in social media and has strong effectiveness in the political and social life of Arab society. This discourse has made its impact by using very new rhetorical techniques in language, voice, image, painting and video clips which are known as “Multimedia” and belong to “Digital Rhetoric”. This study suggests that it is time to draw the attention of Arab scholars and invite them to monitor and analyze the rhetoric of digital Arabic discourse.

Keywords: digital discourse, digital rhetoric, Facebook, social media

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20975 Teaching Science Content Area Literacy to 21st Century Learners

Authors: Melissa C. Ingram

Abstract:

The use of new literacies within science classrooms needs to be balanced by teachers to both teach different forms of communication while assessing content area proficiency. Using new literacies such as Twitter and Facebook needs to be incorporated into science content area literacy studies in addition to continuing to use generally-accepted forms of scientific content area presentation, which include scientific papers and textbooks. The research question this literature review seeks to answer is “What are some ways in which new forms of literacy are better suited to teach scientific content area literacy to 21st Century learners?” The research question is addressed through a literature review that highlights methods currently being used to educate the next wave of learners in the world of science content area literacy. Both temporal discourse analysis (TDA) and critical discourse analysis (CDA) were used to determine the need to use new literacies to teach science content area literacy. Increased use of digital technologies and a change in science content area pedagogy were explored.

Keywords: science content area literacy, new literacies, critical discourse analysis, temporal discourse analysis

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20974 Comparison of Dubbing and Subtitling through Critical Discourse Analysis: Detecting Lexical Differences and Similarities in the Movie 'The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo'

Authors: Saber Noie, F. Jafarpour

Abstract:

Translation of the movies was one of important issues of the translators. In this study, the notions of ‘foreignization’, ‘domestication’, and ‘critical discourse analysis’ (CDA) in translation studies were discussed. This study is a comparative study and attempts towards clarifying the lexical differences and similarities between dubbing and subtitling in audiovisual translation through CDA. The strategies proposed by Venuti (1995) and Newmark (1988) used first by researcher and then, the researcher went back to the Van Dijk’s CDA (1995), in the part dominance. This study shows that according to CDA, the dominant strategy in subtitling is foreignization and dominant strategy in dubbing is domestication.

Keywords: critical discourse analysis, CDA, dub, subtitle, foreignization, domestication

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20973 A Corpus-Based Discourse Analysis of the Disappearance of MH370 in Malaysia and United Kingdom Newspapers: A Pilot Study

Authors: Theng Theng Ong

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This pilot study adopts a corpus-based discourse analysis to explore the construction of Malaysia airline tragedy MH370 in the selected Malaysian and United Kingdom (UK) newspapers. Fairclough’s three-dimensional model is adopted in the study to support the corpus-based analysis. The analysis aims to determine the ways in which Malaysian Airline tragedy MH370 is linguistically defined and constructed in terms of keywords and collocation. The study also seeks to identify the types of discourse that are presented in the news articles. In addition, the differences or similarities in terms of keywords, topics or issues covered by the selected Malaysian and UK news media are examined.

Keywords: corpus, CDA, newspapers, airline tragedies

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20972 Discourse Analysis and Semiotic Researches: Using Michael Halliday's Sociosemiotic Theory

Authors: Deyu Yuan

Abstract:

Discourse analysis as an interdisciplinary approach has more than 60-years-history since it was first named by Zellig Harris in 'Discourse Analysis' on Language in 1952. Ferdinand de Saussure differentiated the 'parole' from the 'langue' that established the principle of focusing on language but not speech. So the rising of discourse analysis can be seen as a discursive turn for the entire language research that closely related to the theory of Speech act. Critical discourse analysis becomes the mainstream of contemporary language research through drawing upon M. A. K. Halliday's socio-semiotic theory and Foucault, Barthes, Bourdieu's views on the sign, discourse, and ideology. So in contrast to general semiotics, social semiotics mainly focuses on parole and the application of semiotic theories to some applicable fields. The article attempts to discuss this applicable sociosemiotics and show the features of it that differ from the Saussurian and Peircian semiotics in four aspects: 1) the sign system is about meaning-generation resource in the social context; 2) the sign system conforms to social and cultural changes with the form of metaphor and connotation; 3) sociosemiotics concerns about five applicable principles including the personal authority principle, non-personal authority principle, consistency principle, model demonstration principle, the expertise principle to deepen specific communication; 4) the study of symbolic functions is targeted to the characteristics of ideational, interpersonal and interactional function in social communication process. Then the paper describes six features which characterize this sociosemiotics as applicable semiotics: social, systematic, usable interdisciplinary, dynamic, and multi-modal characteristics. Thirdly, the paper explores the multi-modal choices of sociosemiotics in the respects of genre, discourse, and style. Finally, the paper discusses the relationship between theory and practice in social semiotics and proposes a relatively comprehensive theoretical framework for social semiotics as applicable semiotics.

Keywords: discourse analysis, sociosemiotics, pragmatics, ideology

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20971 Discourse Analysis: Where Cognition Meets Communication

Authors: Iryna Biskub

Abstract:

The interdisciplinary approach to modern linguistic studies is exemplified by the merge of various research methods, which sometimes causes complications related to the verification of the research results. This methodological confusion can be resolved by means of creating new techniques of linguistic analysis combining several scientific paradigms. Modern linguistics has developed really productive and efficient methods for the investigation of cognitive and communicative phenomena of which language is the central issue. In the field of discourse studies, one of the best examples of research methods is the method of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). CDA can be viewed both as a method of investigation, as well as a critical multidisciplinary perspective. In CDA the position of the scholar is crucial from the point of view exemplifying his or her social and political convictions. The generally accepted approach to obtaining scientifically reliable results is to use a special well-defined scientific method for researching special types of language phenomena: cognitive methods applied to the exploration of cognitive aspects of language, whereas communicative methods are thought to be relevant only for the investigation of communicative nature of language. In the recent decades discourse as a sociocultural phenomenon has been the focus of careful linguistic research. The very concept of discourse represents an integral unity of cognitive and communicative aspects of human verbal activity. Since a human being is never able to discriminate between cognitive and communicative planes of discourse communication, it doesn’t make much sense to apply cognitive and communicative methods of research taken in isolation. It is possible to modify the classical CDA procedure by means of mapping human cognitive procedures onto the strategic communicative planning of discourse communication. The analysis of the electronic petition 'Block Donald J Trump from UK entry. The signatories believe Donald J Trump should be banned from UK entry' (584, 459 signatures) and the parliamentary debates on it has demonstrated the ability to map cognitive and communicative levels in the following way: the strategy of discourse modeling (communicative level) overlaps with the extraction of semantic macrostructures (cognitive level); the strategy of discourse management overlaps with the analysis of local meanings in discourse communication; the strategy of cognitive monitoring of the discourse overlaps with the formation of attitudes and ideologies at the cognitive level. Thus, the experimental data have shown that it is possible to develop a new complex methodology of discourse analysis, where cognition would meet communication, both metaphorically and literally. The same approach may appear to be productive for the creation of computational models of human-computer interaction, where the automatic generation of a particular type of a discourse could be based on the rules of strategic planning involving cognitive models of CDA.

Keywords: cognition, communication, discourse, strategy

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20970 A Critical Discourse Analysis of President Muhammad Buhari's Speeches

Authors: Joy Aworo-Okoroh

Abstract:

Politics is about trust and trust is challenged by the speaker’s ability to manipulate language before the electorate. Critical discourse analysis investigates the role of language in constructing social relationships between a political speaker and his audience. This paper explores the linguistic choices made by President Muhammad Buhari that enshrines his ideologies as well as the socio-political relations of power between him and Nigerians in his speeches. Two speeches of President Buhari –inaugural and Independence Day speeches are analyzed using Norman Fairclough’s perspective on Halliday’s Systemic functional grammar. The analysis is at two levels. The first level of analysis is the identification of transitivity and modality choices in the speeches and how they reveal the covert ideologies. The second analysis is premised on Normal Fairclough’s model, the clauses are analyzed to identify elements of power, hesistation, persuasion, threat and religious statement. It was discovered that Buhari is a dominant character who manipulates the material processes a lot.

Keywords: politics, critical discourse analysis, Norman Fairclough, systemic functional grammar

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20969 Women-Hating Masculinities: How the Demand for Prostitution Fuels Sex Trafficking

Authors: Rosa M. Senent

Abstract:

Over the centuries, prostitution has been problematized from many sides, with women always at the center of the debate. However, prostitution is a gendered, demand-driven phenomenon. Thus, a focus must be put on the men who demand it, as an increasing number of studies have been done in the last few decades. The purpose of this paper is to expose how men's discourse online reveals the link between their demand for paid sex in prostitution and sex trafficking. The methodological tool employed was Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). A critical analysis of sex buyers' discourse online showed that online communities of sex buyers are a useful tool in researching their behavior towards women, that their knowledge of sex trafficking and exploitation do not work as a deterrent for them to buy sex, and that the type of masculinity that sex buyers endorse is characterized by attitudes linked to the perpetuation of violence against women.

Keywords: masculinities, prostitution, sex trafficking, violence

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20968 A Corpus-Assisted Discourse Analysis of Adjectival Collocation of the Word 'Education' in the American Context

Authors: Ngan Nguyen

Abstract:

The study analyses adjectives collocating with the word ‘education’ in the American language of the Corpus of Global Web-based English using a combination of corpus linguistic and discourse analytical methods to examine not only language patterns but also social political ideologies around the topic. Significant conclusions are deduced: (1) there are a large number of adjectival collocates of the word education which have been identified and classified into four categories representing four different aspects of education: level, quality, forms and types of education; (2) education, as in combination with three first categories, carries the meaning as the act and process of teaching and learning while with the last category having the meaning of a particular kind of teaching or training; (3) higher education is the topic that gains most concerns from the American public; (4) five most significant ideologies are discovered from the corpus: higher education associates with financial affairs, higher education is an industry, monetary policy of the government on higher education, people require greater accessibility to higher education and people value higher education. The study contributes to the field of developing meanings of words through corpus analysis and the field of discourse analysis.

Keywords: adjectival collocation, American context, corpus linguistics, discourse analysis, education

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20967 Reading and Teaching Poetry as Communicative Discourse: A Pragma-Linguistic Approach

Authors: Omnia Elkommos

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Language is communication on several discourse levels. The target of teaching a language and the literature of a foreign language is to communicate a message. Reading, appreciating, analysing, and interpreting poetry as a sophisticated rhetorical expression of human thoughts, emotions, and philosophical messages is more feasible through the use of linguistic pragmatic tools from a communicative discourse perspective. The poet's intention, speech act, illocutionary act, and perlocutionary goal can be better understood when communicative situational context as well as linguistic discourse structure theories are employed. The use of linguistic theories in the teaching of poetry is, therefore, intrinsic to students' comprehension, interpretation, and appreciation of poetry of the different ages. It is the purpose of this study to show how both teachers as well as students can apply these linguistic theories and tools to dramatic poetic texts for an engaging, enlightening, and effective interpretation and appreciation of the language. Theories drawn from areas of pragmatics, discourse analysis, embedded discourse level, communicative situational context, and other linguistic approaches were applied to selected poetry texts from the different centuries. Further, in a simple statistical count of the number of poems with dialogic dramatic discourse with embedded two or three levels of discourse in different anthologies outweighs the number of descriptive poems with a one level of discourse, between the poet and the reader. Poetry is thus discourse on one, two, or three levels. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers and students in the area of ESL/EFL use the linguistics theories for a better understanding of poetry as communicative discourse. The practice of applying these linguistic theories in classrooms and in research will allow them to perceive the language and its linguistic, social, and cultural aspect. Texts will become live illocutionary acts with a perlocutionary acts goal rather than mere literary texts in anthologies.

Keywords: coda, commissives, communicative situation, context of culture, context of reference, context of utterance, dialogue, directives, discourse analysis, dramatic discourse interaction, duologue, embedded discourse levels, language for communication, linguistic structures, literary texts, poetry, pragmatic theories, reader response, speech acts (macro/micro), stylistics, teaching literature, TEFL, terms of address, turn-taking

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20966 Assessing Role of Newspapers in Creating Awareness of HIV/AIDS in Pakistan

Authors: Fatima Kiran

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This study investigates the HIV/AIDS coverage in the selected newspapers. The premises of the study depend upon the fact that informing public about any social issue that effects people’s life is among one of the fundamental functions of media, such as HIV/AIDS is one of prime importance. In this study two most prime newspapers of Pakistan Daily Jang and Daily Dawn were analyzed. This paper adopted two approaches for investigation one is content analysis and another is discourse analysis. The content analysis was used to determine the frequency of HIV/AIDS content coverage. Discourse analysis was used to determine consciousness of these newspapers on covering HIV/AIDS stories with correct language and terminologies according to the given media guideline of UNICEF. Total 368 editions from 1st July 2017 to 31st December 2017 were sampled for the study. The result of the study indicates that newspapers have severely underestimated the severity of HIV/AIDS. The coverage given by newspapers is dissatisfactory. Selected newspapers used inappropriate terminologies and language in the stories which shows negligence of newspapers regarding HIV/AIDS issue.

Keywords: Pakistani newspapers, HIV/AIDS, coverage, public awareness, content analysis, discourse analysis, press consciousness

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20965 Critical Discourse Analysis of President Mamnoon Hussain Speech in the Joint Session of Parliament.

Authors: Saeed Qaisrani

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This article briefly reviews the rise of Critical Discourse Analysis about the Pakistani President Mamnoon Hussain speech which delivered in the joint session of Parliament and teases out a detailed analysis of the various critiques that have been levelled at CDA and its practitioners over the last twenty years, both by scholars working within the “critical” paradigm and by other critics. A range of criticisms are discussed which target the underlying premises, the analytical methodology and the disputed areas of reader response and the integration of contextual factors. Controversial issues such as the predominantly negative focus of much CDA scholarship, and the status of CDA as an emergent “intellectual orthodoxy”, are also reviewed. The conclusions offer a summary of the principal criticisms that emerge from this overview, and suggest some ways in which these problems could be attenuated. It also focused on the different views about president speech and how it is presented in the Pakistani print and electronic media.

Keywords: Critical Discourse Analysis, Analytical methodology, Corpus linguistics, Reader response theory, Critical paradigm, Contextualization.

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20964 The Discursive Representation of the Marxist Reality: A Comparative Analysis of the South Asian-Indian and African-American Writers

Authors: Wajid Hussain

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The paper draws upon the study of socioeconomic reality as associated with discursively manipulative strategies in the representative fictional works from the South Asian Indian and the Afro-American literature. The study determines the context to which power functions behind the discourse of the powerful social groups, investigates how the socially established identities, such as constituted by caste and race, serve the vested interests of these elites, and, finally, ascertains the reaction which this socioeconomic monopoly of the few incurs from the socioeconomically dominated majority of the society. The study examines this notion in the selected fictional works by applying the methodological theory of Dialectical Materialism, which is the philosophical foundation of Marxism, and the concept of Discourse and Manipulation, a perspective form of Critical Discourse Analysis. The study adds a new dimension to the existing literature in that it not only focuses on the tussle between the social classes as based on the socioeconomic disparity but also traces out the emergence of the individuals from the socioeconomically victimized groups. Besides, it studies this endless socioeconomic process, as based on class distinction, from the perspective of discourse as well.

Keywords: dialectical materialism, discourse and manipulation, caste, race

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20963 Political Discourse and Linguistic Manipulation in Nigerian Politics

Authors: Kunle Oparinde, Ernestina Maleshoane Rapeane-Mathonsi, Gift Mheta

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Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and Multimodal Discourse Analysis (MDA), the research seeks to deconstruct politically-motivated discourse as observed from Nigerian politics. This is intended to be achieved by analysing linguistic (mis)representation and manipulation in Nigerian political settings, drawing from instances of language use as observed from different political campaigns. Since language in itself is generally meaningless without context, it is therefore paramount to analyse the (mis)representation and manipulation in Nigerian political sceneries within their contextual basis. The study focuses on political language used by Nigerian politicians emanating from printed and social media forms such as posters, pamphlets, speeches, billboards, and internet sources purposely selected across Nigeria. The research further aims at investigating the discursive strategies used by politicians to gain more audience, and, as a result, shape opinions that result in votes. The study employs a qualitative approach. Two parties are intentionally selected because they have been essentially strong at the national level namely: All Progressive Congress (APC) and the People’s Democratic Party (PDP). The study finds out that politicians in Nigeria, as in many parts of the world, use language to manipulate the electorate. Comprehensive discussion of these instances of political manipulation remains the thrust of this paper.

Keywords: communication, discourse, manipulation, misrepresentation

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20962 Analyzing Apposition and the Typology of Specific Reference in Newspaper Discourse in Nigeria

Authors: Monday Agbonica Bello Eje

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The language of the print media is characterized by the use of apposition. This linguistic element function strategically in journalistic discourse where it is communicatively necessary to name individuals and provide information about them. Linguistic studies on the language of the print media with bias for apposition have largely dwelt on other areas but the examination of the typology of appositive reference in newspaper discourse. Yet, it is capable of revealing ways writers communicate and provide information necessary for readers to follow and understand the message. The study, therefore, analyses the patterns of appositional occurrences and the typology of reference in newspaper articles. The data were obtained from The Punch and Daily Trust Newspapers. A total of six editions of these newspapers were collected randomly spread over three months. News and feature articles were used in the analysis. Guided by the referential theory of meaning in discourse, the appositions identified were subjected to analysis. The findings show that the semantic relation of coreference and speaker coreference have the highest percentage and frequency of occurrence in the data. This is because the subject matter of news reports and feature articles focuses on humans and the events around them; as a result, readers need to be provided with some form of detail and background information in order to identify as well as follow the discourse. Also, the non-referential relation of absolute synonymy and speaker synonymy no doubt have fewer occurrences and percentages in the analysis. This is tied to a major feature of the language of the media: simplicity. The paper concludes that appositions is mainly used for the purpose of providing the reader with much detail. In this way, the writer transmits information which helps him not only to give detailed yet concise descriptions but also in some way help the reader to follow the discourse.

Keywords: apposition, discourse, newspaper, Nigeria, reference

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20961 Lexical Bundles in the Alexiad of Anna Comnena: Computational and Discourse Analysis Approach

Authors: Georgios Alexandropoulos

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to examine the historical text of Alexiad by Anna Comnena using computational tools for the extraction of lexical bundles containing the name of her father, Alexius Comnenus. For this reason, in this research we apply corpus linguistics techniques for the automatic extraction of lexical bundles and through them we will draw conclusions about how these lexical bundles serve her support provided to her father.

Keywords: lexical bundles, computational literature, critical discourse analysis, Alexiad

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20960 A Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis of Selected Marvel Comics

Authors: Onaza Ajmal

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to explore the power relations linguistically and visually with reference to the representation of gender, race, violence, and empowerment through male characters and female superheroes from the two selected Marvel comics, Ms. Marvel (2014) and Captain Marvel (2019-). The study also aims to elaborate on the different cultural backgrounds of female superheroes and their choices and behaviors concerning the male characters. Moreover, it also seeks to explore whether the female superheroes reassert or resists the established gender roles. Using the tenets of critical discourse analysis (CDA) and feminist critical discourse analysis (FCDA) by Lazar (2005), the study analyzed the power relations from a feminist viewpoint. The linguistic analysis of textual features such as ‘adjectives’, ‘lexical items’, ‘metaphors’, and ‘use of pronouns’, etc., found in the selected comics is carried out under the framework of CDA given by Fairclough (1989). Kress and van Leeuwen's model of reading images (2006) are used to analyze the visual images in this study. The findings of the study show that despite the empowering nature of female superheroes, the unequal power relations between male and female characters are established linguistically and visually, which further sustains and reinforces the racial and patriarchal gender ideologies in the selected comics. Moreover, it is recommended that the female representations in the feminist themes of empowerment with respect to the Pakistani female superheroes should also be explored for further research.

Keywords: feminist critical discourse analysis, patriarchal gender ideology, power relations, superhero comics

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20959 A Functional Analysis of the 2016 United States Presidential Debates through the Application of the Functional Theory of Political Campaign Discourse

Authors: Maryam Vaezi

Abstract:

In this study, the Functional Theory of Political Campaign Discourse has been applied in order to investigate the 2016 Clinton-Trump presidential debates. All three kinds of utterances (acclaims, attacks, and defenses) were produced by the candidates supporting the usefulness of the Functional Theory of Political Campaign Discourse for the analysis of the presidential debates as a type of political discourse. Attacks comprised 45% of the candidates’ utterances, followed by acclaims at 33%; defenses were the least common function at 22%. The candidate from the Democratic Party, Hillary Clinton, acclaimed more, whereas the Republican Party presidential candidate, Donald Trump, attacked more. Simple denial was the most common form of defense used by the candidates. Both candidates directed more of their utterances to policy (past deeds, future plans, and general goals) than character (personal qualities, leadership abilities, and ideals). Analyzing debates in terms of the functions performed by the candidates to increase their desirability and chance of winning the election, can lead to a better understanding of these significant political events as well as other forms of political discourse.

Keywords: acclaim, attack, defend, character, Democratic Party, Donald Trump, Hillary Clinton, policy, presidential debates, Republican Party

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