Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7739

Search results for: heart rate variability

7739 Poincare Plot for Heart Rate Variability

Authors: Mazhar B. Tayel, Eslam I. AlSaba

Abstract:

The heart is the most important part in any body organisms. It effects and affected by any factor in the body. Therefore, it is a good detector of any matter in the body. When the heart signal is non-stationary signal, therefore, it should be study its variability. So, the Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has attracted considerable attention in psychology, medicine and have become important dependent measure in psychophysiology and behavioral medicine. Quantification and interpretation of heart rate variability. However, remain complex issues are fraught with pitfalls. This paper presents one of the non-linear techniques to analyze HRV. It discusses 'What Poincare plot is?', 'How it is work?', 'its usage benefits especially in HRV', 'the limitation of Poincare cause of standard deviation SD1, SD2', and 'How overcome this limitation by using complex correlation measure (CCM)'. The CCM is most sensitive to changes in temporal structure of the Poincaré plot as compared to SD1 and SD2.

Keywords: heart rate variability, chaotic system, poincare, variance, standard deviation, complex correlation measure

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7738 Heart Rate Variability as a Measure of Dairy Calf Welfare

Authors: J. B. Clapp, S. Croarkin, C. Dolphin, S. K. Lyons

Abstract:

Chronic pain or stress in farm animals impacts both on their welfare and productivity. Measuring chronic pain or stress can be problematic using hormonal or behavioural changes because hormones are modulated by homeostatic mechanisms and observed behaviour can be highly subjective. We propose that heart rate variability (HRV) can quantify chronic pain or stress in farmed animal and represents a more robust and objective measure of their welfare.

Keywords: dairy calf, welfare, heart rate variability, non-invasive, biomonitor

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7737 The Effect of Heart Rate and Valence of Emotions on Perceived Intensity of Emotion

Authors: Madeleine Nicole G. Bernardo, Katrina T. Feliciano, Marcelo Nonato A. Nacionales III, Diane Frances M. Peralta, Denise Nicole V. Profeta

Abstract:

This study aims to find out if heart rate variability and valence of emotion have an effect on perceived intensity of emotion. Psychology undergraduates (N = 60) from the University of the Philippines Diliman were shown 10 photographs from the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database, along with a corresponding questionnaire with a Likert scale on perceived intensity of emotion. In this 3 x 2 mixed subjects factorial design, each group was either made to do a simple exercise prior to answering the questionnaire in order to increase the heart rate, listen to a heart rate of 120 bpm, or colour a drawing to keep the heart rate stable. After doing the activity, the participants then answered the questionnaire, providing a rating of the faces according to the participants’ perceived emotional intensity on the photographs. The photographs presented were either of positive or negative emotional valence. The results of the experiment showed that neither an induced fast heart rate or perceived fast heart rate had any significant effect on the participants’ perceived intensity of emotion. There was also no interaction effect of heart rate variability and valence of emotion. The insignificance of results was explained by the Philippines’ high context culture, accompanied by the prevalence of both intensely valenced positive and negative emotions in Philippine society. Insignificance in the effects were also attributed to the Cannon-Bard theory, Schachter-Singer theory and various methodological limitations.

Keywords: heart rate variability, perceived intensity of emotion, Philippines , valence of emotion

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7736 Optimal ECG Sampling Frequency for Multiscale Entropy-Based HRV

Authors: Manjit Singh

Abstract:

Multiscale entropy (MSE) is an extensively used index to provide a general understanding of multiple complexity of physiologic mechanism of heart rate variability (HRV) that operates on a wide range of time scales. Accurate selection of electrocardiogram (ECG) sampling frequency is an essential concern for clinically significant HRV quantification; high ECG sampling rate increase memory requirements and processing time, whereas low sampling rate degrade signal quality and results in clinically misinterpreted HRV. In this work, the impact of ECG sampling frequency on MSE based HRV have been quantified. MSE measures are found to be sensitive to ECG sampling frequency and effect of sampling frequency will be a function of time scale.

Keywords: ECG (electrocardiogram), heart rate variability (HRV), multiscale entropy, sampling frequency

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7735 Percentile Norms of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) of Indian Sportspersons Withdrawn from Competitive Games and Sports

Authors: Pawan Kumar, Dhananjoy Shaw

Abstract:

Heart rate variability (HRV) is the physiological phenomenon of variation in the time interval between heartbeats and is alterable with fitness, age and different medical conditions including withdrawal/retirement from games/sports. Objectives of the study were to develop (a) percentile norms of heart rate variability (HRV) variables derived from time domain analysis of the Indian sportspersons withdrawn from competitive games/sports pertaining to sympathetic and parasympathetic activity (b) percentile norms of heart rate variability (HRV) variables derived from frequency domain analysis of the Indian sportspersons withdrawn from competitive games/sports pertaining to sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. The study was conducted on 430 males. Ages of the sample ranged from 30 to 35 years of same socio-economic status. Date was collected using ECG polygraphs. Data were processed and extracted using frequency domain analysis and time domain analysis. Collected data were computed with percentile from one to hundred. The finding showed that the percentile norms of heart rate variability (HRV) variables derived from time domain analysis of the Indian sportspersons withdrawn from competitive games/sports pertaining to sympathetic and parasympathetic activity namely, NN50 count (ranged from 1 to 189 score as percentile range). pNN50 count (ranged from .24 to 60.80 score as percentile range). SDNN (ranged from 17.34 to 167.29 score as percentile range). SDSD (ranged from 11.14 to 120.46 score as percentile range). RMMSD (ranged from 11.19 to 120.24 score as percentile range) and SDANN (ranged from 4.02 to 88.75 score as percentile range). The percentile norms of heart rate variability (HRV) variables derived from frequency domain analysis of the Indian sportspersons withdrawn from competitive games/sports pertaining to sympathetic and parasympathetic activity namely Low Frequency (Normalized Power) ranged from 20.68 to 90.49 score as percentile range. High Frequency (Normalized Power) ranged from 14.37 to 81.60 score as percentile range. LF/ HF ratio(ranged from 0.26 to 9.52 score as percentile range). LF (Absolute Power) ranged from 146.79 to 5669.33 score as percentile range. HF (Absolute Power) ranged from 102.85 to 10735.71 score as percentile range and Total Power (Absolute Power) ranged from 471.45 to 25879.23 score as percentile range. Conclusion: The analysis documented percentile norms for time domain analysis and frequency domain analysis for versatile use and evaluation.

Keywords: RMSSD, Percentile, SDANN, HF, LF

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7734 Development of Sleep Quality Index Using Heart Rate

Authors: Dongjoo Kim, Chang-Sik Son, Won-Seok Kang

Abstract:

Adequate sleep affects various parts of one’s overall physical and mental life. As one of the methods in determining the appropriate amount of sleep, this research presents a heart rate based sleep quality index. In order to evaluate sleep quality using the heart rate, sleep data from 280 subjects taken over one month are used. Their sleep data are categorized by a three-part heart rate range. After categorizing, some features are extracted, and the statistical significances are verified for these features. The results show that some features of this sleep quality index model have statistical significance. Thus, this heart rate based sleep quality index may be a useful discriminator of sleep.

Keywords: sleep, sleep quality, heart rate, statistical analysis

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7733 Erectile Function and Heart Rate Variability in Men under 40 Years Old

Authors: Rui Miguel Costa, Jose Pestana, David Costa, Paula Mangia, Catarina Correia, Mafalda Pinto Coelho

Abstract:

There is lack of studies examining the relation of different heart rate variability (HRV) parameters with the risk of erectile dysfunction (ED) in younger men. Thus, the present study aimed at examining, in a nonclinical sample of men aged 19-39 years old (mean age = 23.98 years, SD = 4.90), the relations of risk of ED with the standard deviation of the heart rate (SD of HR), high and low frequency power of HRV, and low-to-high frequency HRV ratio. Eighty-three heterosexual Portuguese men completed the 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and HRV parameters were calculated from a 5-minute resting period. Risk of ED was determined by IIEF-5 scores of 21 or less. Fifteen men (18.1%) reported symptoms of ED (14 with mild and one with mild to moderate symptoms). Univariate analyses of variance revealed that risk of ED was related to lesser SD of HR and lesser low-frequency power, the two HRV parameters that express a coupling of higher vagal and sympathetic tone. Risk of ED was unrelated to high-frequency power and low-to-high frequency HRV ratio. Further, in a logistic regression, the risk of ED was independently predicted by older age and lower SD of HR, but not by low-frequency power, having a regular sexual partner, and cohabiting. The results provide preliminary evidence that, in younger men, a coupling of higher vagal and sympathetic tone, as indexed by the SD of HR, is important for erections. Greater resting SD of HR might reflect better vascular and interpersonal function via vagal tone coupled with greater motor mobilization to pursue sexual intercourse via sympathetic tone. Many interventions can elevate HRV; future research is warranted on how they can be tailored to treat ED in younger men.

Keywords: erectile dysfunction, heart rate variability, standard deviation of the heart rate, younger men

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7732 Wharton's Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modulate Heart Rate Variability and Improve Baroreflex Sensitivity in Septic Rats

Authors: Cóndor C. José, Rodrigues E. Camila, Noronha L. Irene, Dos Santos Fernando, Irigoyen M. Claudia, Andrade Lúcia

Abstract:

Sepsis induces alterations in hemodynamics and autonomic nervous system (ASN). The autonomic activity can be calculated by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) that represents the complex interplay between ASN and cardiac pacemaker cells. Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) are known to express genes and secreted factors involved in neuroprotective and immunological effects, also to improve the survival in experimental septic animals. We hypothesized, that WJ-MSCs present an important role in the autonomic activity and in the hemodynamic effects in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis. Methods: We used flow cytometry to evaluate WJ-MSCs phenotypes. We divided Wistar rats into groups: sham (shamoperated); CLP; and CLP+MSC (106 WJ-MSCs, i.p., 6 h after CLP). At 24 h post-CLP, we recorded the systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and heart rate (HR) over 20 min. The spectral analysis of HR and SAP; also the spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (measure by bradycardic and tachycardic responses) were evaluated after recording. The one-way ANOVA and the post hoc Student– Newman– Keuls tests (P< 0.05) were used to data comparison Results: WJ-MSCs were negative for CD3, CD34, CD45 and HLA-DR, whereas they were positive for CD73, CD90 and CD105. The CLP group showed a reduction in variance of overall variability and in high-frequency power of HR (heart parasympathetic activity); furthermore, there is a low-frequency reduction of SAP (blood vessels sympathetic activity). The treatment with WJ-MSCs improved the autonomic activity by increasing the high and lowfrequency power; and restore the baroreflex sensitive. Conclusions: WJ-MSCs attenuate the impairment of autonomic control of the heart and vessels and might therefore play a protective role in sepsis. (Supported by FAPESP).

Keywords: baroreflex response, heart rate variability, sepsis, wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells

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7731 Effects of Acute Exposure to WIFI Signals (2,45 GHz) on Heart Variability and Blood Pressure in Albinos Rabbit

Authors: Linda Saili, Amel Hanini, Chiraz Smirani, Iness Azzouz, Amina Azzouz, Hafedh Abdemelek, Zihad Bouslama

Abstract:

Electrocardiogram and arterial pressure measurements were studied under acute exposures to WIFI (2.45 GHz) during one hour in adult male rabbits. Antennas of WIFI were placed at 25 cm at the right side near the heart. Acute exposure of rabbits to WIFI increased heart frequency (+ 22%) and arterial blood pressure (+14%). Moreover, analysis of ECG revealed that WIFI induced a combined increase of PR and QT intervals. By contrast, the same exposure failed to alter the maximum amplitude and P waves. After intravenously injection of dopamine (0.50 ml/kg) and epinephrine (0.50ml/kg) under acute exposure to RF we found that WIFI alter catecholamines(dopamine, epinephrine) action on heart variability and blood pressure compared to control. These results suggest for the first time, as far as we know, that exposure to WIFI affect heart rhythm, blood pressure, and catecholamines efficacy on cardiovascular system; indicating that radio frequency can act directly and/or indirectly on the cardiovascular system.

Keywords: heart rate (HR), arterial pressure (PA), electrocardiogram (ECG), the efficacy of catecholamines, dopamine, epinephrine

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7730 Heart Rate Variability Analysis for Early Stage Prediction of Sudden Cardiac Death

Authors: Reeta Devi, Hitender Kumar Tyagi, Dinesh Kumar

Abstract:

In present scenario, cardiovascular problems are growing challenge for researchers and physiologists. As heart disease have no geographic, gender or socioeconomic specific reasons; detecting cardiac irregularities at early stage followed by quick and correct treatment is very important. Electrocardiogram is the finest tool for continuous monitoring of heart activity. Heart rate variability (HRV) is used to measure naturally occurring oscillations between consecutive cardiac cycles. Analysis of this variability is carried out using time domain, frequency domain and non-linear parameters. This paper presents HRV analysis of the online dataset for normal sinus rhythm (taken as healthy subject) and sudden cardiac death (SCD subject) using all three methods computing values for parameters like standard deviation of node to node intervals (SDNN), square root of mean of the sequences of difference between adjacent RR intervals (RMSSD), mean of R to R intervals (mean RR) in time domain, very low-frequency (VLF), low-frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and ratio of low to high frequency (LF/HF ratio) in frequency domain and Poincare plot for non linear analysis. To differentiate HRV of healthy subject from subject died with SCD, k –nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier has been used because of its high accuracy. Results show highly reduced values for all stated parameters for SCD subjects as compared to healthy ones. As the dataset used for SCD patients is recording of their ECG signal one hour prior to their death, it is therefore, verified with an accuracy of 95% that proposed algorithm can identify mortality risk of a patient one hour before its death. The identification of a patient’s mortality risk at such an early stage may prevent him/her meeting sudden death if in-time and right treatment is given by the doctor.

Keywords: early stage prediction, heart rate variability, linear and non-linear analysis, sudden cardiac death

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7729 Heart Rate Variability Responses Pre-, during, and Post-Exercise among Special Olympics Athletes

Authors: Kearney Dover, Viviene Temple, Lynneth Stuart-Hill

Abstract:

Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is the beat-to-beat variation in adjacent heartbeats. HRV is a non-invasive measure of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and provides information about the sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) nervous systems. The HRV of a well-conditioned heart is generally high at rest, whereas low HRV has been associated with adverse outcomes/conditions, including congestive heart failure, diabetic neuropathy, depression, and hospital admissions. HRV has received very little research attention among individuals with intellectual disabilities in general or Special Olympic athletes. Purpose: 1) Having a longer post-exercise rest and recovery time to establish how long it takes for the athletes’ HRV components to return to pre-exercise levels, 2) To determine if greater familiarization with the testing processes influences HRV. Participants: Two separate samples of 10 adult Special Olympics athletes will be recruited for 2 separate studies. Athletes will be between 18 and 50 years of age and will be members of Special Olympics BC. Anticipated Findings: To answer why the Special Olympics athletes display poor cardiac responsiveness to changes in autonomic modulation during exercise. By testing the cortisol levels in the athletes, we can determine their stress levels which will then explain their measured HRV.

Keywords: 6MWT, autonomic modulation, cortisol levels, intellectual disability

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7728 Gender Based Variability Time Series Complexity Analysis

Authors: Ramesh K. Sunkaria, Puneeta Marwaha

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Nonlinear methods of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis are becoming more popular. It has been observed that complexity measures quantify the regularity and uncertainty of cardiovascular RR-interval time series. In the present work, SampEn has been evaluated in healthy Normal Sinus Rhythm (NSR) male and female subjects for different data lengths and tolerance level r. It is demonstrated that SampEn is small for higher values of tolerance r. Also SampEn value of healthy female group is higher than that of healthy male group for short data length and with increase in data length both groups overlap each other and it is difficult to distinguish them. The SampEn gives inaccurate results by assigning higher value to female group, because male subject have more complex HRV pattern than that of female subjects. Therefore, this traditional algorithm exhibits higher complexity for healthy female subjects than for healthy male subjects, which is misleading observation. This may be due to the fact that SampEn do not account for multiple time scales inherent in the physiologic time series and the hidden spatial and temporal fluctuations remains unexplored.

Keywords: heart rate variability, normal sinus rhythm group, RR interval time series, sample entropy

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7727 HRV Analysis Based Arrhythmic Beat Detection Using kNN Classifier

Authors: Onder Yakut, Oguzhan Timus, Emine Dogru Bolat

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Health diseases have a vital significance affecting human being's life and life quality. Sudden death events can be prevented owing to early diagnosis and treatment methods. Electrical signals, taken from the human being's body using non-invasive methods and showing the heart activity is called Electrocardiogram (ECG). The ECG signal is used for following daily activity of the heart by clinicians. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a physiological parameter giving the variation between the heart beats. ECG data taken from MITBIH Arrhythmia Database is used in the model employed in this study. The detection of arrhythmic heart beats is aimed utilizing the features extracted from the HRV time domain parameters. The developed model provides a satisfactory performance with ~89% accuracy, 91.7 % sensitivity and 85% specificity rates for the detection of arrhythmic beats.

Keywords: arrhythmic beat detection, ECG, HRV, kNN classifier

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7726 Classification of ECG Signal Based on Mixture of Linear and Non-Linear Features

Authors: Mohammad Karimi Moridani, Mohammad Abdi Zadeh, Zahra Shahiazar Mazraeh

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In recent years, the use of intelligent systems in biomedical engineering has increased dramatically, especially in the diagnosis of various diseases. Also, due to the relatively simple recording of the electrocardiogram signal (ECG), this signal is a good tool to show the function of the heart and diseases associated with it. The aim of this paper is to design an intelligent system for automatically detecting a normal electrocardiogram signal from abnormal one. Using this diagnostic system, it is possible to identify a person's heart condition in a very short time and with high accuracy. The data used in this article are from the Physionet database, available in 2016 for use by researchers to provide the best method for detecting normal signals from abnormalities. Data is of both genders and the data recording time varies between several seconds to several minutes. All data is also labeled normal or abnormal. Due to the low positional accuracy and ECG signal time limit and the similarity of the signal in some diseases with the normal signal, the heart rate variability (HRV) signal was used. Measuring and analyzing the heart rate variability with time to evaluate the activity of the heart and differentiating different types of heart failure from one another is of interest to the experts. In the preprocessing stage, after noise cancelation by the adaptive Kalman filter and extracting the R wave by the Pan and Tampkinz algorithm, R-R intervals were extracted and the HRV signal was generated. In the process of processing this paper, a new idea was presented that, in addition to using the statistical characteristics of the signal to create a return map and extraction of nonlinear characteristics of the HRV signal due to the nonlinear nature of the signal. Finally, the artificial neural networks widely used in the field of ECG signal processing as well as distinctive features were used to classify the normal signals from abnormal ones. To evaluate the efficiency of proposed classifiers in this paper, the area under curve ROC was used. The results of the simulation in the MATLAB environment showed that the AUC of the MLP and SVM neural network was 0.893 and 0.947, respectively. As well as, the results of the proposed algorithm in this paper indicated that the more use of nonlinear characteristics in normal signal classification of the patient showed better performance. Today, research is aimed at quantitatively analyzing the linear and non-linear or descriptive and random nature of the heart rate variability signal, because it has been shown that the amount of these properties can be used to indicate the health status of the individual's heart. The study of nonlinear behavior and dynamics of the heart's neural control system in the short and long-term provides new information on how the cardiovascular system functions, and has led to the development of research in this field. Given that the ECG signal contains important information and is one of the common tools used by physicians to diagnose heart disease, but due to the limited accuracy of time and the fact that some information about this signal is hidden from the viewpoint of physicians, the design of the intelligent system proposed in this paper can help physicians with greater speed and accuracy in the diagnosis of normal and patient individuals and can be used as a complementary system in the treatment centers.

Keywords: neart rate variability, signal processing, linear and non-linear features, classification methods, ROC Curve

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7725 Comparison of the Effect of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback and Slow Breathing Training on Promoting Autonomic Nervous Function Related Performance

Authors: Yi Jen Wang, Yu Ju Chen

Abstract:

Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback can promote autonomic nervous function, sleep quality and reduce psychological stress. In HRV biofeedback training, it is hoped that through the guidance of machine video or audio, the patient can breathe slowly according to his own heart rate changes so that the heart and lungs can achieve resonance, thereby promoting the related effects of autonomic nerve function; while, it is also pointed out that if slow breathing of 6 times per minute can also guide the case to achieve the effect of cardiopulmonary resonance. However, there is no relevant research to explore the comparison of the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resonance by using video or audio HRV biofeedback training and metronome-guided slow breathing. Purpose: To compare the promotion of autonomic nervous function performance between using HRV biofeedback and slow breathing guided by a metronome. Method: This research is a kind of experimental design with convenient sampling; the cases are randomly divided into the heart rate variability biofeedback training group and the slow breathing training group. The HRV biofeedback training group will conduct HRV biofeedback training in a four-week laboratory and use the home training device for autonomous training; while the slow breathing training group will conduct slow breathing training in the four-week laboratory using the mobile phone APP breathing metronome to guide the slow breathing training, and use the mobile phone APP for autonomous training at home. After two groups were enrolled and four weeks after the intervention, the autonomic nervous function-related performance was repeatedly measured. Using the chi-square test, student’s t-test and other statistical methods to analyze the results, and use p <0.05 as the basis for statistical significance. Results: A total of 27 subjects were included in the analysis. After four weeks of training, the HRV biofeedback training group showed significant improvement in the HRV indexes (SDNN, RMSSD, HF, TP) and sleep quality. Although the stress index also decreased, it did not reach statistical significance; the slow breathing training group was not statistically significant after four weeks of training, only sleep quality improved significantly, while the HRV indexes (SDNN, RMSSD, TP) all increased. Although HF and stress indexes decreased, they were not statistically significant. Comparing the difference between the two groups after training, it was found that the HF index improved significantly and reached statistical significance in the HRV biofeedback training group. Although the sleep quality of the two groups improved, it did not reach that level in a statistically significant difference. Conclusion: HRV biofeedback training is more effective in promoting autonomic nervous function than slow breathing training, but the effects of reducing stress and promoting sleep quality need to be explored after increasing the number of samples. The results of this study can provide a reference for clinical or community health promotion. In the future, it can also be further designed to integrate heart rate variability biological feedback training into the development of AI artificial intelligence wearable devices, which can make it more convenient for people to train independently and get effective feedback in time.

Keywords: autonomic nervous function, HRV biofeedback, heart rate variability, slow breathing

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7724 Development of Soft-Core System for Heart Rate and Oxygen Saturation

Authors: Caje F. Pinto, Jivan S. Parab, Gourish M. Naik

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This paper is about the development of non-invasive heart rate and oxygen saturation in human blood using Altera NIOS II soft-core processor system. In today's world, monitoring oxygen saturation and heart rate is very important in hospitals to keep track of low oxygen levels in blood. We have designed an Embedded System On Peripheral Chip (SOPC) reconfigurable system by interfacing two LED’s of different wavelengths (660 nm/940 nm) with a single photo-detector to measure the absorptions of hemoglobin species at different wavelengths. The implementation of the interface with Finger Probe and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) was carried out using NIOS II soft-core system running on Altera NANO DE0 board having target as Cyclone IVE. This designed system is used to monitor oxygen saturation in blood and heart rate for different test subjects. The designed NIOS II processor based non-invasive heart rate and oxygen saturation was verified with another Operon Pulse oximeter for 50 measurements on 10 different subjects. It was found that the readings taken were very close to the Operon Pulse oximeter.

Keywords: heart rate, NIOS II, oxygen saturation, photoplethysmography, soft-core, SOPC

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7723 Assessment of Five Photoplethysmographic Methods for Estimating Heart Rate Variability

Authors: Akshay B. Pawar, Rohit Y. Parasnis

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Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a widely used indicator of the regulation between the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the cardiovascular system. Besides being non-invasive, it also has the potential to predict mortality in cases involving critical injuries. The gold standard method for determining HRV is based on the analysis of RR interval time series extracted from ECG signals. However, because it is much more convenient to obtain photoplethysmogramic (PPG) signals as compared to ECG signals (which require the attachment of several electrodes to the body), many researchers have used pulse cycle intervals instead of RR intervals to estimate HRV. They have also compared this method with the gold standard technique. Though most of their observations indicate a strong correlation between the two methods, recent studies show that in healthy subjects, except for a few parameters, the pulse-based method cannot be a surrogate for the standard RR interval- based method. Moreover, the former tends to overestimate short-term variability in heart rate. This calls for improvements in or alternatives to the pulse-cycle interval method. In this study, besides the systolic peak-peak interval method (PP method) that has been studied several times, four recent PPG-based techniques, namely the first derivative peak-peak interval method (P1D method), the second derivative peak-peak interval method (P2D method), the valley-valley interval method (VV method) and the tangent-intersection interval method (TI method) were compared with the gold standard technique. ECG and PPG signals were obtained from 10 young and healthy adults (consisting of both males and females) seated in the armchair position. In order to de-noise these signals and eliminate baseline drift, they were passed through certain digital filters. After filtering, the following HRV parameters were computed from PPG using each of the five methods and also from ECG using the gold standard method: time domain parameters (SDNN, pNN50 and RMSSD), frequency domain parameters (Very low-frequency power (VLF), Low-frequency power (LF), High-frequency power (HF) and Total power or “TP”). Besides, Poincaré plots were also plotted and their SD1/SD2 ratios determined. The resulting sets of parameters were compared with those yielded by the standard method using measures of statistical correlation (correlation coefficient) as well as statistical agreement (Bland-Altman plots). From the viewpoint of correlation, our results show that the best PPG-based methods for the determination of most parameters and Poincaré plots are the P2D method (shows more than 93% correlation with the standard method) and the PP method (mean correlation: 88%) whereas the TI, VV and P1D methods perform poorly (<70% correlation in most cases). However, our evaluation of statistical agreement using Bland-Altman plots shows that none of the five techniques agrees satisfactorily well with the gold standard method as far as time-domain parameters are concerned. In conclusion, excellent statistical correlation implies that certain PPG-based methods provide a good amount of information on the pattern of heart rate variation, whereas poor statistical agreement implies that PPG cannot completely replace ECG in the determination of HRV.

Keywords: photoplethysmography, heart rate variability, correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman plot

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7722 Portable System for the Acquisition and Processing of Electrocardiographic Signals to Obtain Different Metrics of Heart Rate Variability

Authors: Daniel F. Bohorquez, Luis M. Agudelo, Henry H. León

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Heart rate variability (HRV) is defined as the temporary variation between heartbeats or RR intervals (distance between R waves in an electrocardiographic signal). This distance is currently a recognized biomarker. With the analysis of the distance, it is possible to assess the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. These systems are responsible for the regulation of the cardiac muscle. The analysis allows health specialists and researchers to diagnose various pathologies based on this variation. For the acquisition and analysis of HRV taken from a cardiac electrical signal, electronic equipment and analysis software that work independently are currently used. This complicates and delays the process of interpretation and diagnosis. With this delay, the health condition of patients can be put at greater risk. This can lead to an untimely treatment. This document presents a single portable device capable of acquiring electrocardiographic signals and calculating a total of 19 HRV metrics. This reduces the time required, resulting in a timelier intervention. The device has an electrocardiographic signal acquisition card attached to a microcontroller capable of transmitting the cardiac signal wirelessly to a mobile device. In addition, a mobile application was designed to analyze the cardiac waveform. The device calculates the RR and different metrics. The application allows a user to visualize in real-time the cardiac signal and the 19 metrics. The information is exported to a cloud database for remote analysis. The study was performed under controlled conditions in the simulated hospital of the Universidad de la Sabana, Colombia. A total of 60 signals were acquired and analyzed. The device was compared against two reference systems. The results show a strong level of correlation (r > 0.95, p < 0.05) between the 19 metrics compared. Therefore, the use of the portable system evaluated in clinical scenarios controlled by medical specialists and researchers is recommended for the evaluation of the condition of the cardiac system.

Keywords: biological signal análisis, heart rate variability (HRV), HRV metrics, mobile app, portable device.

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7721 Heart-Rate Resistance Electrocardiogram Identification Based on Slope-Oriented Neural Networks

Authors: Tsu-Wang Shen, Shan-Chun Chang, Chih-Hsien Wang, Te-Chao Fang

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For electrocardiogram (ECG) biometrics system, it is a tedious process to pre-install user’s high-intensity heart rate (HR) templates in ECG biometric systems. Based on only resting enrollment templates, it is a challenge to identify human by using ECG with the high-intensity HR caused from exercises and stress. This research provides a heartbeat segment method with slope-oriented neural networks against the ECG morphology changes due to high intensity HRs. The method has overall system accuracy at 97.73% which includes six levels of HR intensities. A cumulative match characteristic curve is also used to compare with other traditional ECG biometric methods.

Keywords: high-intensity heart rate, heart rate resistant, ECG human identification, decision based artificial neural network

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7720 Real-Time Nonintrusive Heart Rate Measurement: Comparative Case Study of LED Sensorics' Accuracy and Benefits in Heart Monitoring

Authors: Goran Begović

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In recent years, many researchers are focusing on non-intrusive measuring methods when it comes to human biosignals. These methods provide solutions for everyday use, whether it’s health monitoring or finessing the workout routine. One of the biggest issues with these solutions is that the sensors’ accuracy is highly variable due to many factors, such as ambiental light, skin color diversity, etc. That is why we wanted to explore different outcomes under those kinds of circumstances in order to find the most optimal algorithm(s) for extracting heart rate (HR) information. The optimization of such algorithms can benefit the wider, cheaper, and safer application of home health monitoring, without having to visit medical professionals as often when it comes to observing heart irregularities. In this study, we explored the accuracy of infrared (IR), red, and green LED sensorics in a controlled environment and compared the results with a medically accurate ECG monitoring device.

Keywords: data science, ECG, heart rate, holter monitor, LED sensors

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7719 Relatively High Heart-Rate Variability Predicts Greater Survival Chances in Patients with Covid-19

Authors: Yori Gidron, Maartje Mol, Norbert Foudraine, Frits Van Osch, Joop Van Den Bergh, Moshe Farchi, Maud Straus

Abstract:

Background: The worldwide pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV2), which began in 2019, also known as Covid-19, has infected over 136 million people and tragically took the lives of over 2.9 million people worldwide. Many of the complications and deaths are predicted by the inflammatory “cytokine storm.” One way to progress in the prevention of death is by finding a predictive and protective factor that inhibits inflammation, on the one hand, and which also increases anti-viral immunity on the other hand. The vagal nerve does precisely both actions. This study examined whether vagal nerve activity, indexed by heart-rate variability (HRV), predicts survival in patients with Covid-19. Method: We performed a pseudo-prospective study, where we retroactively obtained ECGs of 271 Covid-19 patients arriving at a large regional hospital in The Netherlands. HRV was indexed by the standard deviation of the intervals between normal heartbeats (SDNN). We examined patients’ survival at 3 weeks and took into account multiple confounders and known prognostic factors (e.g., age, heart disease, diabetes, hypertension). Results: Patients’ mean age was 68 (range: 25-95) and nearly 22% of the patients had died by 3 weeks. Their mean SDNN (17.47msec) was far below the norm (50msec). Importantly, relatively higher HRV significantly predicted a higher chance of survival, after statistically controlling for patients’ age, cardiac diseases, hypertension and diabetes (relative risk, H.R, and 95% confidence interval (95%CI): H.R = 0.49, 95%CI: 0.26 – 0.95, p < 0.05). However, since HRV declines rapidly with age and since age is a profound predictor in Covid-19, we split the sample by median age (40). Subsequently, we found that higher HRV significantly predicted greater survival in patients older than 70 (H.R = 0.35, 95%CI: 0.16 – 0.78, p = 0.01), but HRV did not predict survival in patients below age 70 years (H.R = 1.11, 95%CI: 0.37 – 3.28, p > 0.05). Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that higher vagal nerve activity, as indexed by HRV, is an independent predictor of higher chances for survival in Covid-19. The results are in line with the protective role of the vagal nerve in diseases and extend this to a severe infectious illness. Studies should replicate these findings and then test in controlled trials whether activating the vagus nerve may prevent mortality in Covid-19.

Keywords: Covid-19, heart-rate Variability, prognosis, survival, vagal nerve

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
7718 Identifying Physiological Markers That Are Sensitive to Cognitive Load in Preschoolers

Authors: Priyashri Kamlesh Sridhar, Suranga Nanayakkara

Abstract:

Current frameworks in assessment follow lesson delivery and rely heavily on test performance or teacher’s observations. This, however, neglects the underlying cognitive load during the learning process. Identifying the pivotal points when the load occurs helps design effective pedagogies and tools that respond to learners’ cognitive state. There has been limited research on quantifying cognitive load in preschoolers, real-time. In this study, we recorded electrodermal activity and heart rate variability (HRV) from 10 kindergarteners performing executive function tasks and Johnson Woodcock test of cognitive abilities. Preliminary findings suggest that there are indeed sensitive task-dependent markers in skin conductance (number of SCRs and average amplitude of SCRs) and HRV (mean heart rate and low frequency component) captured during the learning process.

Keywords: early childhood, learning, methodologies, pedagogies

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
7717 Effect of Tai-Chi and Cyclic Meditation on Hemodynamic Responses of the Prefrontal Cortex: A Functional near Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Singh Deepeshwar, N. K. Manjunath, M. Avinash

Abstract:

Meditation is a self-regulated conscious process associated with improved awareness, perception, attention and overall performance. Different traditional origin of meditation technique may have different effects on autonomic activity and brain functions. Based on this quest, the present study evaluated the effect of Tai-Chi Chuan (TCC, a Chines movement based meditation technique) and Cyclic Meditation (CM, an Indian traditional based stimulation and relaxation meditation technique) on the hemodynamic responses of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and autonomic functions (such as R-R interval of heart rate variability and respiration). These two meditation practices were compared with simple walking. Employing 64 channel near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), we measured hemoglobin concentration change (i.e., Oxyhemoglobin [ΔHbO], Deoxyhemoglobin [ΔHbR] and Total hemoglobin change [ΔTHC]) in the bilateral PFC before and after TCC, CM and Walking in young college students (n=25; average mean age ± SD; 23.4 ± 3.1 years). We observed the left PFC activity predominantly modulates sympathetic activity effects during the Tai-Chi whereas CM showed changes on right PFC with vagal dominance. However, the changes in oxyhemoglobin and total blood volume change after Tai-Chi was significant higher (p < 0.05, spam t-maps) on the left hemisphere, whereas after CM, there was a significant increase in oxyhemoglobin (p < 0.01) with a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (p < 0.05) on right PFC. The normal walking showed decrease in Oxyhemoglobin with an increase in deoxyhemoglobin on left PFC. The autonomic functions result showed a significant increase in RR- interval (p < 0.05) along with significant reductions in HR (p < 0.05) in CM, whereas Tai-chi session showed significant increase in HR (p < 0.05) when compared to walking session. Within a group analysis showed a significant reduction in RR-I and significant increase in HR both in Tai-chi and walking sessions. The CM showed there were a significant improvement in the RR - interval of HRV (p < 0.01) with the reduction of heart rate and breath rate (p < 0.05). The result suggested that Tai-Chi and CM both have a positive effect on left and right prefrontal cortex and increase sympathovagal balance (alertful rest) in autonomic nervous system activity.

Keywords: brain, hemodynamic responses, yoga, meditation, Tai-Chi Chuan (TCC), walking, heart rate variability (HRV)

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
7716 Intelligent Prediction System for Diagnosis of Heart Attack

Authors: Oluwaponmile David Alao

Abstract:

Due to an increase in the death rate as a result of heart attack. There is need to develop a system that can be useful in the diagnosis of the disease at the medical centre. This system will help in preventing misdiagnosis that may occur from the medical practitioner or the physicians. In this research work, heart disease dataset obtained from UCI repository has been used to develop an intelligent prediction diagnosis system. The system is modeled on a feedforwad neural network and trained with back propagation neural network. A recognition rate of 86% is obtained from the testing of the network.

Keywords: heart disease, artificial neural network, diagnosis, prediction system

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
7715 Gender Differences in Walking Capacity and Cardiovascular Regulation in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

Authors: Gabriel Cucato, Marilia Correia, Wagner Domingues, Aline Palmeira, Paulo Longano, Nelson Wolosker, Raphael Ritti-Dias

Abstract:

Women with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) present lower walking capacity in comparison with men. However, whether cardiovascular regulation is also different between genders is unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare walking capacity and cardiovascular regulation between men and women with PAD. A total of 23 women (66±7 yrs) and 31 men (64±9 yrs) were recruited. Patients performed a 6-minute test and the onset claudication distance and total walking distance were measured. Additionally, cardiovascular regulation was assessed by arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index) and heart rate variability (frequency domain). Independent T test or Mann-Whitney U test were performed. In comparison with men, women present lower onset claudication distance (108±66m vs. 143±50m; P=0.032) and total walking distance (286±83m vs. 361±91 m, P=0.007). Regarding cardiovascular regulation, there were no differences in heart rate variability SDNN (72±160ms vs. 32±22ms, P=0.587); RMSSD (75±209 vs. 25±22ms, P=0.726); pNN50 (11±17ms vs. 8±14ms, P=0.836) in women and men, respectively. Moreover, there were no difference in augmentation index (39±10% vs. 34±11%, P=0.103); pulse pressure (59±17mmHg vs. 56±19mmHg, P=0.593) and pulse wave velocity (8.6±2.6m\s vs. 9.0±2.7m/s, P=0.580). In conclusion, women have impaired walking capacity compared to men. However, sex differences were not observed on cardiovascular regulation in patients with PAD.

Keywords: exercise, intermittent claudication, cardiovascular load, arterial stiffness

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
7714 Cardio Autonomic Response during Mental Stress in the Wards of Normal and Hypertensive Parents

Authors: Sheila R. Pai, Rekha D. Kini, Amrutha Mary

Abstract:

Objective: To assess and compare the cardiac autonomic activity after mental stress among the wards of normal and hypertensive parents. Methods: The study included 67 subjects, 30 of them had a parental history of hypertension and rest 37 had normotensive parents. Subjects were divided into control group (wards of normotensive parents) and Study group (wards of hypertensive parents). The height, weight were noted, and Body Mass Index (BMI) was also calculated. The mental stress test was carried out. Blood pressure (BP) and electro cardiogram (ECG) was recorded during normal breathing and after mental stress test. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis was done by time domain method HRV was recorded and analyzed by the time-domain method. Analysis of HRV in the time-domain was done using the software version 1.1 AIIMS, New Delhi. The data obtained was analyzed using student’s t-test followed by Mann-Whitney U-test and P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was no significant difference in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between study group and control group following mental stress. In the time domain analysis, the mean value of pNN50 and RMSSD of the study group was not significantly different from the control group after the mental stress test. Conclusion: The study thus concluded that there was no significant difference in HRV between study group and control group following mental stress.

Keywords: heart rate variability, time domain analysis, mental stress, hypertensive

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
7713 Heart Attack Prediction Using Several Machine Learning Methods

Authors: Suzan Anwar, Utkarsh Goyal

Abstract:

Heart rate (HR) is a predictor of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and all-cause mortality in the general population, as well as in patients with cardio and cerebrovascular diseases. Machine learning (ML) significantly improves the accuracy of cardiovascular risk prediction, increasing the number of patients identified who could benefit from preventive treatment while avoiding unnecessary treatment of others. This research examines relationship between the individual's various heart health inputs like age, sex, cp, trestbps, thalach, oldpeaketc, and the likelihood of developing heart disease. Machine learning techniques like logistic regression and decision tree, and Python are used. The results of testing and evaluating the model using the Heart Failure Prediction Dataset show the chance of a person having a heart disease with variable accuracy. Logistic regression has yielded an accuracy of 80.48% without data handling. With data handling (normalization, standardscaler), the logistic regression resulted in improved accuracy of 87.80%, decision tree 100%, random forest 100%, and SVM 100%.

Keywords: heart rate, machine learning, SVM, decision tree, logistic regression, random forest

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7712 Intelligent System for Diagnosis Heart Attack Using Neural Network

Authors: Oluwaponmile David Alao

Abstract:

Misdiagnosis has been the major problem in health sector. Heart attack has been one of diseases that have high level of misdiagnosis recorded on the part of physicians. In this paper, an intelligent system has been developed for diagnosis of heart attack in the health sector. Dataset of heart attack obtained from UCI repository has been used. This dataset is made up of thirteen attributes which are very vital in diagnosis of heart disease. The system is developed on the multilayer perceptron trained with back propagation neural network then simulated with feed forward neural network and a recognition rate of 87% was obtained which is a good result for diagnosis of heart attack in medical field.

Keywords: heart attack, artificial neural network, diagnosis, intelligent system

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
7711 Design of Demand Pacemaker Using an Embedded Controller

Authors: C. Bala Prashanth Reddy, B. Abhinay, C. Sreekar, D. V. Shobhana Priscilla

Abstract:

The project aims in designing an emergency pacemaker which is capable of giving shocks to a human heart which has stopped working suddenly. A pacemaker is a machine commonly used by cardiologists. This machine is used in order to shock a human’s heart back into usage. The way the heart works is that there are small cells called pacemakers sending electrical pulses to cardiac muscles that tell the heart when to pump blood. When these electrical pulses stop, the heart stops beating. When this happens, a pacemaker is used to shock the heart muscles and the pacemakers back into action. The way this is achieved is by rubbing the two panels of the pacemaker together to create an adequate electrical current, and then the heart gets back to the normal state. The project aims in designing a system which is capable of continuously displaying the heart beat and blood pressure of a person on LCD. The concerned doctor gets the heart beat and also the blood pressure details continuously through the GSM Modem in the form of SMS alerts. In case of abnormal condition, the doctor sends message format regarding the amount of electric shock needed. Automatically the microcontroller gives the input to the pacemaker which in turn gives the shock to the patient. Heart beat monitor and display system is a portable and a best replacement for the old model stethoscope which is less efficient. The heart beat rate is calculated manually using stethoscope where the probability of error is high because the heart beat rate lies in the range of 70 to 90 per minute whose occurrence is less than 1 sec, so this device can be considered as a very good alternative instead of a stethoscope.

Keywords: missing R wave, PWM, demand pacemaker, heart

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
7710 Automated Recognition of Still’s Murmur in Children

Authors: Sukryool Kang, James McConnaughey, Robin Doroshow, Raj Shekhar

Abstract:

Still’s murmur, a vibratory heart murmur, is the most common normal innocent murmur of childhood. Many children with this murmur are unnecessarily referred for cardiology consultation and testing, which exacts a high cost financially and emotionally on the patients and their parents. Pediatricians to date are not successful at distinguishing Still’s murmur from murmurs of true heart disease. In this paper, we present a new algorithmic approach to distinguish Still’s murmur from pathological murmurs in children. We propose two distinct features, spectral width and signal power, which describe the sharpness of the spectrum and the signal intensity of the murmur, respectively. Seventy pediatric heart sound recordings of 41 Still’s and 29 pathological murmurs were used to develop and evaluate our algorithm that achieved a true positive rate of 97% and false positive rate of 0%. This approach would meet clinical standards in recognizing Still’s murmur.

Keywords: AR modeling, auscultation, heart murmurs, Still's murmur

Procedia PDF Downloads 294