Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 636

Search results for: socio-cultural psychology

636 Teaching English as a Second/Foreign Language Under Humanistic and Sociocultural Psychology

Authors: Mahrukh Baig

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This research paper, sets out to draw some traditional english language teaching practices and to suggest ways for their improvement under the light of humanistic and socio-cultural psychology. This is going to aid language teachers by applying principled psychological methods on the field of education in order to introduce a reciprocal mode of teaching where teacher and learner begin with a mutual effort. However the teacher, after initiating most of the work, gradually passes on more and more responsibility to the learners resulting in their independent endeavors.

Keywords: English Language Teaching (ELT), Second Language Acquisition (SLA), teaching english as second/foreign language, humanistic psychology, socio-cultural psychology, application of psychology to language teaching

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635 Sociocultural Barriers to the Development of Autonomous Foreign Language Learning: Some Teaching Strategies to Overcome Such Challenges in a Mexican Context

Authors: Zaideth Zobeida Ponce Alonso, Laura Emilia Fierro Lopez, Maria del Rocio Dominguez Gaona

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The present study is part of the Master in Modern Languages at the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, and it aims to analyze how the sociocultural background might influence the development of learner autonomy in foreign language education in order to propose some strategies to overcome such challenges. Given the lack of research on the sociocultural barriers in learner autonomy in a Mexican context and the need to hear teachers’ voices about this issue, qualitative data was obtained from semi-structured interviews with six language teachers on their perspectives on learner autonomy, its application to the language classroom, and their experiences with Mexican and foreign learners/contexts in order to find out differences regarding learner autonomy. The results suggest three main sociocultural characteristics: preference for an authority figure, tendency towards collectivism, and low tolerance of ambiguity. Finally, nine strategies were proposed in order to help language teachers to deal with such sociocultural characteristics when fostering learner autonomy in the border city of Mexicali, where this study was carried out.

Keywords: learner autonomy, Mexican context, sociocultural influence, teachers' perspectives, teaching strategies

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634 Observatory of Sustainability of the Algarve Region for Tourism: Proposal for Environmental and Sociocultural Indicators

Authors: Miguel José Oliveira, Fátima Farinha, Elisa M. J. da Silva, Rui Lança, Manuel Duarte Pinheiro, Cátia Miguel

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The Observatory of Sustainability of the Algarve Region for Tourism (OBSERVE) will be a valuable tool to assess the sustainability of this region. The OBSERVE tool is designed to provide data and maintain an up-to-date, consistent set of indicators defined to describe the region on the environmental, sociocultural, economic and institutional domains. This ongoing two-year project has the active participation of the Algarve’s stakeholders, since they were consulted and asked to participate in the discussion for the indicators proposal. The environmental and sociocultural indicators chosen must indicate the characteristics of the region and should be in alignment with other global systems used to monitor the sustainability. This paper presents a review of sustainability indicators systems that support the first proposal for the environmental and sociocultural indicators. Others constraints are discussed, namely the existing data and the data available in digital platforms in a format suitable for automatic importation to the platform of OBSERVE. It is intended that OBSERVE will be a valuable tool to assess the sustainability of the region of Algarve.

Keywords: Algarve, development, environmental indicators, observatory, sociocultural indicators, sustainability, tourism

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633 Foundations for Global Interactions: The Theoretical Underpinnings of Understanding Others

Authors: Randall E. Osborne

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In a course on International Psychology, 8 theoretical perspectives (Critical Psychology, Liberation Psychology, Post-Modernism, Social Constructivism, Social Identity Theory, Social Reduction Theory, Symbolic Interactionism, and Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory) are used as a framework for getting students to understand the concept of and need for Globalization. One of critical psychology's main criticisms of conventional psychology is that it fails to consider or deliberately ignores the way power differences between social classes and groups can impact the mental and physical well-being of individuals or groups of people. Liberation psychology, also known as liberation social psychology or psicología social de la liberación, is an approach to psychological science that aims to understand the psychology of oppressed and impoverished communities by addressing the oppressive sociopolitical structure in which they exist. Postmodernism is largely a reaction to the assumed certainty of scientific, or objective, efforts to explain reality. It stems from a recognition that reality is not simply mirrored in human understanding of it, but rather, is constructed as the mind tries to understand its own particular and personal reality. Lev Vygotsky argued that all cognitive functions originate in, and must therefore be explained as products of social interactions and that learning was not simply the assimilation and accommodation of new knowledge by learners. Social Identity Theory discusses the implications of social identity for human interactions with and assumptions about other people. Social Identification Theory suggests people: (1) categorize—people find it helpful (humans might be perceived as having a need) to place people and objects into categories, (2) identify—people align themselves with groups and gain identity and self-esteem from it, and (3) compare—people compare self to others. Social reductionism argues that all behavior and experiences can be explained simply by the affect of groups on the individual. Symbolic interaction theory focuses attention on the way that people interact through symbols: words, gestures, rules, and roles. Meaning evolves from human their interactions in their environment and with people. Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory of human learning describes learning as a social process and the origination of human intelligence in society or culture. The major theme of Vygotsky’s theoretical framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. This presentation will discuss how these theoretical perspectives are incorporated into a course on International Psychology, a course on the Politics of Hate, and a course on the Psychology of Prejudice, Discrimination and Hate to promote student thinking in a more ‘global’ manner.

Keywords: globalization, international psychology, society and culture, teaching interculturally

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632 The Sociocultural and Critical Theories under the Empiricism of a Study Abroad Program

Authors: Magda Silva

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This paper presents the sociocultural and critical theories used in the creation of a study abroad program in Brazil, as well as the successful results obtained in the fourteen years of experience provided by the program in distinct regions of Brazil. This program maximizes students’ acquisition of the Portuguese language, and affords them an in-depth intercultural and intracultural competence by on site studies in cosmopolitan Rio de Janeiro, afro-heritage Salvador da Bahia, and Amazonian Belém do Pará. The program provides the means to acknowledge the presence, influence, similarities, and differences of Portuguese-speaking Brazil in Latin America.

Keywords: study abroad, critical thinking, sociocultural theory, foreign language, empirical, theoretical

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631 Sociocultural and Critical Approach for Summer Study Abroad Program in Higher Education

Authors: Magda Silva

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This paper presents the empirical and the theoretical principles associated with the Duke in Brazil Summer Program. Using a sociocultural model and critical theory, this study abroad maximizes students’ ability to enrich language competence, intercultural skills, and critical thinking. The fourteen-year implementation of this project demonstrates the global importance of foreign language teaching as the program unfolds into real life scenarios within the cultures of distinct regions of Brazil; Cosmopolitan Rio, in the southeast, and rural Belém, northern Amazon region.

Keywords: study abroad, critical thinking, sociocultural theory, foreign language, empirical, theoretical

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630 Sociocultural Foundations of Psychological Well-Being among Ethiopian Adults

Authors: Kassahun Tilahun

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Most of the studies available on adult psychological well-being have been centered on Western countries. However, psychological well-being does not have the same meaning across the world. The Euro-American and African conceptions and experiences of psychological well-being differ systematically. As a result, questions like, how do people living in developing African countries, like Ethiopia, report their psychological well-being; what would the context-specific prominent determinants of their psychological well-being be, needs a definitive answer. This study was, therefore, aimed at developing a new theory that would address these socio-cultural issues of psychological well-being. Consequently, data were obtained through interview and open ended questionnaire. A total of 438 adults, working in governmental and non-governmental organizations situated in Addis Ababa, participated in the study. Appropriate qualitative method of data analysis, i.e. thematic content analysis, was employed for analyzing the data. The thematic analysis involves a type of abductive analysis, driven both by theoretical interest and the nature of the data. Reliability and credibility issues were addressed appropriately. The finding identified five major categories of themes, which are viewed as essential in determining the conceptions and experiences of psychological well-being of Ethiopian adults. These were; socio-cultural harmony, social cohesion, security, competence and accomplishment, and the self. Detailed discussion on the rational for including these themes was made and appropriate positive psychology interventions were proposed. Researchers are also encouraged to expand this qualitative research and in turn develop a suitable instrument taping the psychological well-being of adults with different sociocultural orientations.

Keywords: sociocultural, psychological, well-being Ethiopia, adults

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629 Academic and Sociocultural Adaptation Experiences of International Students Studying in Kazakhstan

Authors: Tatyana Kim

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This paper seeks to explore the academic and sociocultural adaptation experiences of international students studying in Kazakhstan. Using multiple case study design, the research will be undertaken at two private Kazakhstani universities having a relatively large and diverse body of international students. Thus, 20 full-time undergraduate international students from the sampled universities will be interviewed to identify factors that impede or, vice versa, facilitate their academic and sociocultural adaptation in Kazakhstan, as well as to reveal how universities support these students in the process of their adaptation. To investigate the issue more deeply, it was decided to explore the university administrators’ viewpoint of the issue. Thus, six university administrators who are in charge of recruiting and supporting international students and, thus, are particularly knowledgeable about their experiences, have been recruited for this study. Identification of both students’ and administrators’ perspectives on the matter may help reveal miscommunication, if any, and gain greater insight into the phenomenon. The data will be collected between November 5, 2019, and December 10, 2019. Preliminary findings will be presented at the conference. Lysgaard’s U-curve adjustment theory (1955) will be employed as a guiding framework to discuss and interpret the findings.

Keywords: academic adaptation, adaptation, higher education, international students, sociocultural adaptation

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628 The Sociocultural Adaptation, Openness, and Success of Sojourn of Foreign Students in Tarlac City, Philippines

Authors: Maria Sheila S. Garcia

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A good number of researches indicate that living in another country may create different and unexpected adjustment problems, and foreign students are not exempted from this. To provide an understanding of this process, 30 foreign college students studying English in Tarlac City were asked to answer questionnaires. This is to determine their sociocultural adaptation, openness to the host culture and success of sojourn. Through statistical analysis, it was found that the students experience greater difficulty in the academic area. Moderate difficulty was attributed to everyday life and social interactions. Albeit difficult, what they like best is the school’s methods of teaching English while the areas that need improvement are the libraries and internet connection. The only significant relationship was found between sociocultural adaptation and success of sojourn. Negatively correlated, if students experience greater difficulties in their host country, they are likely to regret their stay and will not recommend it to anyone. Openness to the host culture did not have an effect on the adaptation and success of sojourn. The short period of time that the students have are spent in studying rather than making friends. Nonetheless, this indicates the need to look deeper into the academic, extra-curricular activities and facilities provided by learning institutions.

Keywords: foreign students, sociocultural adaptation, success of sojourn, Tarlac Philippines

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627 Current Account on Teaching Psychology and Career Psychology in Portuguese Higher Education

Authors: Sivia Amado Cordeiro, Bruna Rodrigues, Maria Do Ceu Taveira, Catia Marques, Iris Oliveira, Ana Daniela Silva, Cristina Costa-Lobo

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This work intends to analyse the teaching of Psychology in Portugal and, particularly, the teaching of Career Psychology, reflecting about the changes that have occurred to date. Were analysed the educational offerings of 31 Portuguese higher education institutions, 12 public and 19 private, who teach the course of Psychology. The three degrees of study were considered, namely, bachelors, masters and doctoral. The analysis of the data focused on the curricular plans of the different degrees of studies in Psychology made available online by higher education institutions. Through them, we identified the curricular units with themes related to the teaching of Career Psychology. The results show the existence of 89 higher psychology courses in Portugal, distributed throughout the three degrees of studies. Concerning to the teaching of Career Psychology there were registered 49 curricular units with themes dedicated to this area of knowledge. There were identified 16 curricular units in the bachelor’s degree, 31 in master’s degree, and two in doctoral degree. It was observed a reduction in the number of degrees in Psychology in the last nine years in Portugal. We discuss the current situation of Psychology teaching, particularly the teaching of Career Psychology. The aim is to stimulate reflection about future perspectives of Psychology teaching, and specifically, specialized training in Psychology of Career, in Portugal.

Keywords: career psychology, higher education, psychology, Portugal

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626 Positive Psychology and the Social Emotional Ability Instrument (SEAI)

Authors: Victor William Harris

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This research is a validation study of the Social Emotional Ability Inventory (SEAI), a multi-dimensional self-report instrument informed by positive psychology, emotional intelligence, social intelligence, and sociocultural learning theory. Designed for use in tandem with the Social Emotional Development (SEAD) theoretical model, the SEAI provides diagnostic-level guidance for professionals and individuals interested in investigating, identifying, and understanding social, emotional strengths, as well as remediating specific social competency deficiencies. The SEAI was shown to be psychometrically sound, exhibited strong internal reliability, and supported the a priori hypotheses of the SEAD. Additionally, confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence of goodness of fit, convergent and divergent validity, and supported a theoretical model that reflected SEAD expectations. The SEAI and SEAD hold potentially far-reaching and important practical implications for theoretical guidance and diagnostic-level measurement of social, emotional competency across a wide range of domains. Strategies researchers, practitioners, educators, and individuals might use to deploy SEAI in order to improve quality of life outcomes are discussed.

Keywords: emotion, emotional ability, positive psychology-social emotional ability, social emotional ability, social emotional ability instrument

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625 A Sociocultural View of Ethnicity of Parents and Children's Language Learning

Authors: Thapanee Musiget

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Ethnic minority children’s language learning is believed that it can be developed through school system. However, many cases prove that these kids are left to challenge with multicultural context at school and sometimes decreased the ability to acquire new learning. Consequently, it is significant for ethnicity parents to consider that prompting their children at home before their actual school age can eliminate negative outcome of children's language acquisition. This paper discusses the approach of instructional use of parents and children language learning in the context of minority language group in Thailand. By conducting this investigation, secondary source of data was gathered with the purpose to point out some primary methods for parents and children in ethnicity. The process of language learning is based on the sociocultural theory of Vygotsky, which highlights expressive communication among individuals as the best motivating force in human development and learning. The article also highlights the role of parents as they lead the instruction approach. In the discussion part, the role of ethnic minority parents as a language instructor is offered as mediator.

Keywords: ethnic minority, language learning, multicultural context, sociocultural theory

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624 Children's Literature As Pedagogy: Lessons For Literacy Practice

Authors: Alicia Curtin, Kathy Hall

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This paper explores research and practice shared on a masters University module entitled Children's Literature as Pedagogy. Issues explored include the meaning of childhood and literature; the definition of what counts as text, textual and literacy practice for children and adolescents. A sociocultural framework is used to define literacy practice from this perspective and student voice and experience remains central. Lessons from classroom experience and the use of innovative, multi modal and non traditional texts and pedagogical approaches are offered as examples of innovative and inclusive pedagogy in the field of literacy practice.

Keywords: non traditional, pedagogy, practice, sociocultural

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623 The Need for Educational Psychology in Teacher Education for Sustainable Transformation and Security in Nigeria

Authors: Kaltume Kabir Sharrif

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Teacher education is the bedrock of educational growth and development of any nation. With development in education all human problems can be overcome. Educational Psychology, on the other hand, is in a strategic position for any programme in teacher education to be successful hence other aspects of societal issues. In other words, no teacher education can be of any help in ensuring transformation and security without adequate study in Educational Psychology. Without adequate knowledge and skills in Educational Psychology the teacher may not function effectively in the course of discharging his duty. It is in view of this, that the paper discusses some aspects of Educational Psychology that are of paramount importance in teacher education for sustainable transformation and security of Nigeria. Some recommendations were offered on the role educational psychology play in resolving security challenges facing the country. These include enriching educational psychology with topics from forensic psychology that will provide the teacher the skills of fighting crime in the school, Behavioural Science Unit should be established in each school to monitor the behavior of students, among others.

Keywords: transformation, security challenges, teacher education, educational psychology

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622 Sociocultural Context of Pain Management in Oncology and Palliative Nursing Care

Authors: Andrea Zielke-Nadkarni

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Pain management is a question of quality of life and an indicator for nursing quality. Chronic pain which is predominant in oncology and palliative nursing situations is perceived today as a multifactorial, individual emotional experience with specific characteristics including the sociocultural dimension when dealing with migrant patients. This dimension of chronic pain is of major importance in professional nursing of migrant patients in hospices or palliative care units. Objectives of the study are: 1. To find out more about the sociocultural views on pain and nursing care, on customs and nursing practices connected with pain of both Turkish Muslim and German Christian women, 2. To improve individual and family oriented nursing practice with view to sociocultural needs of patients in severe pain in palliative care. In a qualitative-explorative comparative study 4 groups of women, Turkish Muslims immigrants (4 from the first generation, 5 from the second generation) and German Christian women of two generations (5 of each age group) of the same age groups as the Turkish women and with similar educational backgrounds were interviewed (semistructured ethnographic interviews using Spradley, 1979) on their perceptions and experiences of pain and nursing care within their families. For both target groups the presentation will demonstrate the following results in detail: Utterance of pain as well as “private” and “public” pain vary within different societies and cultures. Permitted forms of pain utterance are learned in childhood and determine attitudes and expectations in adulthood. Language, especially when metaphors and symbols are used, plays a major role for misunderstandings. The sociocultural context of illness may include specific beliefs that are important to the patients and yet seem more than far-fetched from a biomedical perspective. Pain can be an influential factor in family relationships where respect or hierarchies do not allow the direct utterance of individual needs. Specific resources are often, although not exclusively, linked to religious convictions and are significantly helpful in reducing pain. The discussion will evaluate the results of the study with view to the relevant literature and present nursing interventions and instruments beyond medication that are helpful when dealing with patients from various socio-cultural backgrounds in painful end-oflife situations.

Keywords: pain management, migrants, sociocultural context, palliative care

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621 Clinician's Perspective of Common Factors of Change in Family Therapy: A Cross-National Exploration

Authors: Hassan Karimi, Fred Piercy, Ruoxi Chen, Ana L. Jaramillo-Sierra, Wei-Ning Chang, Manjushree Palit, Catherine Martosudarmo, Angelito Antonio

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Background: The two psychotherapy camps, the randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and the common factors model, have competitively claimed specific explanations for therapy effectiveness. Recently, scholars called for empirical evidence to show the role of common factors in therapeutic outcome in marriage and family therapy. Purpose: This cross-national study aims to explore how clinicians, across different nations and theoretical orientations, attribute the contribution of common factors to therapy outcome. Method: A brief common factors questionnaire (CFQ-with a Cronbach’s Alpha, 0.77) was developed and administered in seven nations. A series of statistical analyses (paired-samples t-test, independent sample t-test, ANOVA) were conducted: to compare clinicians perceived contribution of total common factors versus model-specific factors, to compare each pair of common factors’ categories, and to compare clinicians from collectivistic nations versus clinicians from individualistic nation. Results: Clinicians across seven nations attributed 86% to common factors versus 14% to model-specific factors. Clinicians attributed 34% of therapeutic change to client’s factors, 26% to therapist’s factors, 26% to relationship factors, and 14% to model-specific techniques. The ANOVA test indicated each of the three categories of common factors (client 34%, therapist 26%, relationship 26%) showed higher contribution in therapeutic outcome than the category of model specific factors (techniques 14%). Clinicians with psychology degree attributed more contribution to model-specific factors than clinicians with MFT and counseling degrees who attributed more contribution to client factors. Clinicians from collectivistic nations attributed larger contributions to therapist’s factors (M=28.96, SD=12.75) than the US clinicians (M=23.22, SD=7.73). The US clinicians attributed a larger contribution to client’s factors (M=39.02, SD=1504) than clinicians from the collectivistic nations (M=28.71, SD=15.74). Conclusion: The findings indicate clinicians across the globe attributed more than two thirds of therapeutic change to CFs, which emphasize the training of the common factors model in the field. CFs, like model-specific factors, vary in their contribution to therapy outcome in relation to specific client, therapist, problem, treatment model, and sociocultural context. Sociocultural expectations and norms should be considered as a context in which both CFs and model-specific factors function toward therapeutic goals. Clinicians need to foster a cultural competency specifically regarding the divergent ways that CFs can be activated due to specific sociocultural values.

Keywords: common factors, model-specific factors, cross-national survey, therapist cultural competency, enhancing therapist efficacy

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620 Rejoinders to the Expression of Reprimand among Jordanian Youth: A Pragmatic Study

Authors: Nisreen Al-Khawaldeh

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The study investigates the expressions voiced by Jordanian youth as rejoinders to the expressions of reprimands. It also explores the impact sociocultural variables exert on such types of rejoinders. To our best knowledge, this study is the first of its kind. Despite the significance and sensitivity of such type of communicative act, there is a scarcity of research on it, and it has not been investigated in the Jordanian context. Data collected from observation of naturally occurring data. Data have been qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed in light of the rapport management approach (RMA). The analysis revealed different types of rejoinders, among which was the expression of apology, admitting responsibility, and trying to manage and fix the situation were the most used strategies. Variation in the types of strategies was attributed to the influence of the sociocultural variables. Promising ideas were recommended for future research.

Keywords: gender, rejoinder to reprimand, Jordanian youth, rapport management approach

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619 Discursive Psychology of Emotions in Mediation

Authors: Katarzyna Oberda

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The aim of this paper is to conceptual emotions in the process of mediation. Although human emotions have been approached from various disciplines and perspectives, e.g. philosophy, linguistics, psychology and neurology, this complex phenomenon still needs further investigation into its discursive character with the an open mind and heart. To attain this aim, the theoretical and practical considerations are taken into account both to contextualize the discursive psychology of emotions in mediation and show how cognitive and linguistic activity expressed in language may lead to the emotional turn in the process of mediation. The double directions of this research into the discursive psychology of emotions have been partially inspired by the evaluative components of mediation forms. In the conducted research, we apply the methodology of discursive psychology with the discourse analysis as a tool. The practical data come from the recorded mediations online. The major findings of the conducted research result in the reconstruction of the emotional transformation model in mediation.

Keywords: discourse analysis, discursive psychology, emotions, mediation

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618 Effect of Positive Psychology (PP) Interventions on College Students’ Well-Being, Career Stress and Coronavirus Anxiety

Authors: Erva Kaygun

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The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of positive psychology interventions on college students' positive-negative emotions, coronavirus anxiety, and career stress. 4 groups of college students are compared in terms of the level of exposure to PP constructs ( Non-Psychology, Psychology, Positive Psychology Course, and Positive Psychology Boot Camp). In this research, Pearson Correlation, independent t-tests, ANOVA, and Post-Hoc tests are conducted. Without being significant, the groups exposed to PP constructs showed higher positive emotions and total PERMA scores, whereas negative emotions, career stress, and coronavirus stress remained similar. It is crucial to indicate that career stress is higher among all psychology students when compared to non-psychology students. The results showed that the highest exposure group (PP Boot Camp) showed no difference in negative emotions, whereas higher PERMA scores and positive emotion scores were on the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) scale.

Keywords: positive psychology, college students, well being, anxiety

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617 Working within the Zone of Proximal Development: Does It Help for Reading Strategy?

Authors: Mahmood Dehqan, Peyman Peyvasteh

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In recent years there has been a growing interest in issues concerning the impact of sociocultural theory (SCT) of learning on different aspects of second/foreign language learning. This study aimed to find the possible effects of sociocultural teaching techniques on reading strategy of EFL learners. Indeed, the present research compared the impact of peer and teacher scaffolding on EFL learners’ reading strategy use across two proficiency levels. To this end, a pre-test post-test quasi-experimental research design was used and two instruments were utilized to collect the data: Nelson English language test and reading strategy questionnaire. Ninety five university students participated in this study were divided into two groups of teacher and peer scaffolding. Teacher scaffolding group received scaffolded help from the teacher based on three mechanisms of effective help within ZPD: graduated, contingent, dialogic. In contrast, learners of peer scaffolding group were unleashed from the teacher-fronted classroom as they were asked to carry out the reading comprehension tasks with the feedback they provided for each other. Results obtained from ANOVA revealed that teacher scaffolding group outperformed the peer scaffolding group in terms of reading strategy use. It means teacher’s scaffolded help provided within the learners’ ZPD led to better reading strategy improvement compared with the peer scaffolded help. However, the interaction effect between proficiency factor and teaching technique was non-significant, leading to the conclusion that strategy use of the learners was not affected by their proficiency level in either teacher or peer scaffolding groups.

Keywords: peer scaffolding, proficiency level, reading strategy, sociocultural theory, teacher scaffolding

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616 Psychology of Learning English and Motivation in EFL Students

Authors: Mohssen Amiri

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Lack of motivation among students in learning English can be considered as one of the main obstacles faced by parents, teachers and college/school administrators in Gulf countries and Iran. The question is why this problem still exists among EFL students’ despite of various new methodologies that colleges are implementing by native and non-native instructors. In the paper, it has been explained that why many students fail to know the basic knowledge and conversations of English language even after completing academic levels of colleges. In this study, the answers of all questions have been covered by introducing the concept of the psychology of learning and the importance of motivation which are the main discussions of this study. Additionally, the paper has illustrated that how psychology is the key of success in learning English and how it develops motivation and confidence dramatically among students especially on speaking skill. The study shows that psychology is 70% of success and 30% are the methods and materials that we implement to teach in the classroom. Therefore, this is the role of teachers to develop 70% of positive motivation and psychology among students. The approach of study is descriptive, and the focus will be on speaking skill.

Keywords: psychology, motivation, communication, learning

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615 Assessing Narcissism in Students of Psychology: An Administered Study

Authors: Sahiti Ganduri, Kavya Sreenivasan, Venya Lankala

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The narcissistic personality is a condition that causes individuals to have an inflated perception of self, giving themselves higher self-importance. It is necessary and interesting to study narcissistic traits in students of different majors. This can be a crucial environmental or psychosocial marker/indicator of narcissism which can also be of substantial importance in the field of education. This study focuses on identifying narcissism in students of psychology background. The narcissistic personality inventory was administered to 114 psychology students of different universities (public and private) in India. The results of our study provided evidence of the fact that narcissistic traits are higher in male psychology students as compared to female psychology students. Further, this paper has provided evidence that narcissistic traits are higher in leaders as compared to non-leaders.

Keywords: college students, disorder, gender, leadership, narcissistic personality, personality, students, traits

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614 Pastoral Care and Counseling and Psychology as Sciences of Human Caring: Exploring the Interconnectedness of the Two Disciplines

Authors: Baloyi Gift Tlharihani

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This paper explores the relationship between pastoral care and counselling and psychology. It will critically review the variety of views and debates regarding this relationship while acknowledging the different sides of the debates on the sameness and difference of these notions, this paper argues for the inevitable interconnectedness of the two. There has always been a close relationship, between pastoral care and counselling and psychology, although these are two totally different notions. Even though pastoral care and counselling are thought of as more spiritually focused and psychology with emotional and mental challenges, the components that connect these two sciences are represented by the care of human being. Therefore, this paper is interested in the interconnectedness of these two science as they both makes a vital contribution to human caring. It indicates that whether we take the dualistic difference between the body and soul, the trichotomous difference between the body, soul and spirit, our essential nature is found in the unity of those constituent elements.

Keywords: anthropology, human care, pastoral care and counseling, psychology

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613 The Postcognitivist Era in Cognitive Psychology

Authors: C. Jameke

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During the cognitivist era in cognitive psychology, a theory of internal rules and symbolic representations was posited as an account of human cognition. This type of cognitive architecture had its heyday during the 1970s and 80s, but it has now been largely abandoned in favour of subsymbolic architectures (e.g. connectionism), non-representational frameworks (e.g. dynamical systems theory), and statistical approaches such as Bayesian theory. In this presentation I describe this changing landscape of research, and comment on the increasing influence of neuroscience on cognitive psychology. I then briefly review a few recent developments in connectionism, and neurocomputation relevant to cognitive psychology, and critically discuss the assumption made by some researchers in these frameworks that higher-level aspects of human cognition are simply emergent properties of massively large distributed neural networks

Keywords: connectionism, emergentism, postocgnitivist, representations, subsymbolic archiitecture

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612 The Psychology of Cross-Cultural Communication: A Socio-Linguistics Perspective

Authors: Tangyie Evani, Edmond Biloa, Emmanuel Nforbi, Lem Lilian Atanga, Kom Beatrice

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The dynamics of languages in contact necessitates a close study of how its users negotiate meanings from shared values in the process of cross-cultural communication. A transverse analysis of the situation demonstrates the existence of complex efforts on connecting cultural knowledge to cross-linguistic competencies within a widening range of communicative exchanges. This paper sets to examine the psychology of cross-cultural communication in a multi-linguistic setting like Cameroon where many local and international languages are in close contact. The paper equally analyses the pertinence of existing macro sociological concepts as fundamental knowledge traits in literal and idiomatic cross semantic mapping. From this point, the article presents a path model of connecting sociolinguistics to the increasing adoption of a widening range of communicative genre piloted by the on-going globalisation trends with its high-speed information technology machinery. By applying a cross cultural analysis frame, the paper will be contributing to a better understanding of the fundamental changes in the nature and goals of cross-cultural knowledge in pragmatics of communication and cultural acceptability’s. It emphasises on the point that, in an era of increasing global interchange, a comprehensive inclusive global culture through bridging gaps in cross-cultural communication would have significant potentials to contribute to achieving global social development goals, if inadequacies in language constructs are adjusted to create avenues that intertwine with sociocultural beliefs, ensuring that meaningful and context bound sociolinguistic values are observed within the global arena of communication.

Keywords: cross-cultural communication, customary language, literalisms, primary meaning, subclasses, transubstantiation

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611 Integrating Concepts in Positive Psychology with Suicide Prevention in Children and Adolescents

Authors: S. Wietrzychowski

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This systematic review incorporates concepts used in the field of positive psychology in order to integrate important elements into suicide prevention programs for children and adolescents. The goal of this review is to help students and professionals gain insight to available prevention programs for suicide and to incorporate aspects of positive psychology into these programs. Evidence-based interventions such as Positive Youth Development will be discussed in detail in its relation to prevention and positive psychology. Concepts such as hope, optimism, coping, and resilience will be related to these interventions in order to improve these interventions. The review will also explain how these programs can help prevent suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors. Research on mentorship programs and early intervention programs will be included and related to the aforementioned positive psychology concepts. Since children and adolescents are such a vulnerable population, the review will highlight specific considerations for working with children in order to prevent risk factors for suicide and to build protective factors. This review will discuss the effectiveness of school-based programs that are integrated with positive psychology. Elements of these programs that have been shown to be most effective in preventing suicide in schools will also be identified. As a result of this presentation, participants will be able to 1) List at least 2 evidence-based suicide prevention programs, 2) Understand the connection between specific positive psychology concepts and suicide prevention, 3) Identify at least 3 factors which protect against suicide, 4) Describe at least 3 risk factors for suicide, and 5) Think critically about the positive elements of suicide prevention programs.

Keywords: children, adolescents, suicide, positive

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610 Exploring RQ-EQ Relatons among Psychology Majors

Authors: Maria T. Mamba, Febe Marl G. Paat

Abstract:

The illustrious estimation that psychology majors, psychologists and allied psychology practitioners as expert behavior analysts, if not, “life enthusiasts” spurred two essentially linked endeavors. First, the reconsideration of the time-honored ingenuity and expectations from psychologists such as the ability to perceive ways to undertake a range of difficulties, the ability to apply psychology in order to self-regulate and to display personal integrity, and among others. Second, is to ascertain solid support to uphold aforesaid expectations. This study achieved its goals by having explored how two burgeoning constructs- RQ and EQ play parts in the lives of psychology people. Having involved the total population of psychology majors in Cagayan State University along with the use of Emotional Quotient Test and Resilience Assessment Questionnaire, the study provides a précis of how perceived “champions” of psychological well-being respond emotionally to different situations and deal effectively with and even thrive on the demands of frequently changing environmental circumstances. Significant findings about how the major variables correlated with the population’s demographic profile (e.g. age, sex, and year level) were also accounted. To realize a more academic concept with the present study, significant connections between RQ (self-assurance, personal vision, flexible and adaptable, organized, problem solver, interpersonal competence, socially connected, and active) and EQ (e.g. emotional maturity, emotional sensitivity, and emotional competency) dimensions were uncovered.

Keywords: emotional quotient, resilience quotient, psychology majors, exploring

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
609 Analyze Needs for Training on Academic Procrastination Behavior on Students in Indonesia

Authors: Iman Dwi Almunandar, Nellawaty A. Tewu, Anshari Al Ghaniyy

Abstract:

The emergence of academic procrastination behavior among students in Indonesian, especially the students of Faculty of Psychology at YARSI University becomes a habit to be underestimated, so often interfere with the effectiveness of learning process. The lecturers at the Faculty of Psychology YARSI University have very often warned students to be able to do and collect assignments accordance to predetermined deadline. However, they are still violated it. According to researchers, this problem needs to do a proper training for the solution to minimize academic procrastination behavior on students. In this study, researchers conducted analyze needs for deciding whether need the training or not. Number of sample is 30 respondents which being choose with a simple random sampling. Measurement of academic procrastination behavior is using the theory by McCloskey (2011), there are six dimensions: Psychological Belief about Abilities, Distractions, Social Factor of Procrastination, Time Management, Personal Initiative, Laziness. Methods of analyze needs are using Questioner, Interview, Observations, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), Intelligence Tests. The result of analyze needs shows that psychology students generation of 2015 at the Faculty of Psychology YARSI University need for training on Time Management.

Keywords: procrastination, psychology, analyze needs, behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
608 Exploring the In-Between: An Examination of the Contextual Factors That Impact How Young Children Come to Value and Use the Visual Arts in Their Learning and Lives

Authors: S. Probine

Abstract:

The visual arts have been proven to be a central means through which young children can communicate their ideas, reflect on experience, and construct new knowledge. Despite this, perceptions of, and the degree to which the visual arts are valued within education, vary widely within political, educational, community and family contexts. These differing perceptions informed my doctoral research project, which explored the contextual factors that affect how young children come to value and use the visual arts in their lives and learning. The qualitative methodology of narrative inquiry with inclusion of arts-based methods was most appropriate for this inquiry. Using a sociocultural framework, the stories collected were analysed through the sociocultural theories of Lev Vygotsky as well as the work of Urie Bronfenbrenner, together with postmodern theories about identity formation. The use of arts-based methods such as teacher’s reflective art journals and the collection of images by child participants and their parent/caregivers allowed the research participants to have a significant role in the research. Three early childhood settings at which the visual arts were deeply valued as a meaning-making device in children’s learning, were purposively selected to be involved in the research. At each setting, the study found a unique and complex web of influences and interconnections, which shaped how children utilised the visual arts to mediate their thinking. Although the teachers' practices at all three centres were influenced by sociocultural theories, each settings' interpretations of these theories were unique and resulted in innovative interpretations of the role of the teacher in supporting visual arts learning. These practices had a significant impact on children’s experiences of the visual arts. For many of the children involved in this study, visual art was the primary means through which they learned. The children in this study used visual art to represent their experiences, relationships, to explore working theories, their interests (including those related to popular culture), to make sense of their own and other cultures, and to enrich their imaginative play. This research demonstrates that teachers have fundamental roles in fostering and disseminating the importance of the visual arts within their educational communities.

Keywords: arts-based methods, early childhood education, teacher's visual arts pedagogies, visual arts

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
607 Effect of a Traffic Psychology Workshop on Enhancing Positive Attitudes towards Road Safety Awareness among Youths

Authors: C. Ah Gang Getrude, Iqbal Hashmi Shazia, Mohd Nawi Nurul Hudani

Abstract:

This study examined the effectiveness of a Traffic Psychology Workshop in enhancing positive attitudes towards road safety awareness among youths. We predicted that youths’ attitudes towards road safety would be more positive after they participated in the one-day workshop. We examined their attitudes towards road safety awareness before and after they attended a one-day workshop. There were 21 participants who completed the pre and post-studies (9 males & 12 females, mean age 22.86, SD=2.03). A Wilcoxon signed-ranks test showed that the mean for post-test ranks for students’ attitudes towards road safety awareness was higher than the mean pre-test ranks, z =-3.16, p = .00. The study showed that the Traffic Psychology Module which focuses on the three elements: i) personality & emotion; Sensation, perception and visual; and mental workload could have positive effects on youths’ attitudes towards road safety awareness. We believe that the Traffic Psychology Module could be used as a guide by relevant authorities, such as the Sabah Road Safety Department, in implementing road safety awareness workshops and programs for the public, particularly road-users.

Keywords: attitude, road safety, traffic psychology, youth

Procedia PDF Downloads 168