Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 573

Search results for: ethnic minority

573 Under the ‘Fourth World’: A Discussion to the Transformation of Character-Settings in Chinese Ethnic Minority Films

Authors: Sicheng Liu

Abstract:

Based on the key issue of the current fourth world studies, the article aims to analyze the features of character-settings in Chinese ethnic minority films. As a generalizable transformation, this feature progresses from a microcosmic representation. It argues that, as the mediation, films note down the current state of people and their surroundings, while the ‘fourth world’ theorization (or the fourth cinema) provides a new perspective to ethnic minority topics in China. Like the ‘fourth cinema’ focusing on the depiction of indigeneity groups, the ethnic minority films portrait the non-Han nationalities in China. Both types possess the motif of returning history-writing to the minority members’ own hand. In this article, the discussion entirely involves three types of cinematic role-settings in Chinese minority themed films, which illustrates that, similar to the creative principle of the fourth film, the themes and narratives of these films are becoming more individualized, with more concern to minority grassroots.

Keywords: 'fourth world', Chinese ethnic minority films, ethnicity and culture reflection, 'mother tongue' (muyu), highlighting to individual spiritual

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572 Assessing Finance by Ethnic Entrepreneurs in United Kingdom and Policy Implication

Authors: Aliyu Aminu Baba

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Ethnic entrepreneurship is defined as a set of connections and regular patterns of interaction among people sharing common national background or migration experience. The disadvantage faced by ethnic minority on paid labour induced them to become self-employed. Also, enclaves motivates trading, creativity, innovation are all to provide specific service or products to certain people. These ethnic minorities are African –Caribbean, Indians, Pakistanis, Banghaladashi and Chinese. For policy development ethnic diversity was among the problem of developing policy in United Kingdom. The study finds that there is a danger in treating all ethnic minority businesses as homogeneous rather than heterogeneous. The diversity is due to religious beliefs, culture and race. This indicates that there is a wide range have shortfall in addressing the peculiarities of ethnic minority businesses in policy formulation. Also, there are differences between ethnic minorities in accessing finance. It is recommended that diversity and peculiarities between ethnic minorities should be considered in policy formulation.

Keywords: ethnic entrepreneurship, finance, policy implication, diversity

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571 Minority Students' Attitudes on Preferential Policies for Ethnic Minorities in China: Case Study of an Institute of Education for Ethnic Minorities

Authors: Xiaoxu Liu, Yuwen Chen

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In this study, we investigated ethnic minority students’ perception of the implementation of preferential policies in China. Using a mixed methods design, we surveyed 320 students from an institute of education for ethnic minorities and conducted further in-depth interviews with seven respondents. Although interviewees were from 30 ethnic groups, most of them were from mainstream high schools. We found that minority students from preparatory classes have an overall positive attitude towards preferential policies and preparatory class but lack sense of belonging to the university for various reasons. Findings indicate that although preparatory class is regarded as being helpful for minority students’ academic development, there are differences of attitude mainly depending on the high schools they graduated from and their ethnic identities. Our analyses suggest that ethnicity, high school graduated from, hometown and family income are more important than gender, religion, and political affiliation when accounting for their perceptions of the implementation of preferential policies in China.

Keywords: Chinese minority education, higher education, preferential policies, survey analysis

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570 Ethnic Minority, Oil Theft and Insecurity in the North: Where the Gap and the Compromise are

Authors: Elaiho Osaruwense, Ajuzie Godson Chidiebere

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Nigeria of at least 250 ethnic group a have suffered a lot of social, economic and political setback especially in the regime of oil and gas, that are exploited from the minority region of the Niger south -south areas. The rate of insecurity in the north gives a lot of questioning and concern, with the series of killings by the Boko Haram in some part of the north etc. the fact still remains on how the gap and the compromise will be reconciling especially with the incoming president of Muhammadu Buhari with all the problems which was not resolve by the past administration (President Ebele Jonathan), considering the configuration and the character of the Nigerian state. This paper tends to critically evaluate all this problems, assertion, proffering possible solution.

Keywords: ethnic minority, oil theft, insecurity, the gap and the compromise

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569 How Do Undergraduates of Ethnic Minorities Perceive Their Sense of Belonging to School? A Mixed Study in China

Authors: Xiao-Fang Wang

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Researchers of educational psychology have proved that students' sense of belonging to school is conducive to their academic achievement, social relations and mental health. However, little attention is paid to undergraduates' sense of belonging, especially, the distinctive student group, i.e., undergraduate students of ethnic minorities. This article utilized a mixed study approach to investigate the perceptions of undergraduates of ethnic minority toward their sense of belonging to school. The findings from qualitative and quantitative data indicate: 1) generally, the sense of belonging to school of ethnic minority undergraduate students was at the middle level. 2) Gender had an important impact on the sense of belonging, and the sense of girls was much larger than boys’. 3) The sense of belonging to school of students who come from city and town was much larger than the one of students who come from the countryside. 4) The category of subjects had significantly effected on the sense of belonging to school, and, the students from social and art science was larger than those from engineer science. The article is concluded with some valuable and relevant suggestions for university' student management activities and teachers' teaching practice.

Keywords: ethnic minority, undergraduate students, sense of belonging, China

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568 A Sociocultural View of Ethnicity of Parents and Children's Language Learning

Authors: Thapanee Musiget

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Ethnic minority children’s language learning is believed that it can be developed through school system. However, many cases prove that these kids are left to challenge with multicultural context at school and sometimes decreased the ability to acquire new learning. Consequently, it is significant for ethnicity parents to consider that prompting their children at home before their actual school age can eliminate negative outcome of children's language acquisition. This paper discusses the approach of instructional use of parents and children language learning in the context of minority language group in Thailand. By conducting this investigation, secondary source of data was gathered with the purpose to point out some primary methods for parents and children in ethnicity. The process of language learning is based on the sociocultural theory of Vygotsky, which highlights expressive communication among individuals as the best motivating force in human development and learning. The article also highlights the role of parents as they lead the instruction approach. In the discussion part, the role of ethnic minority parents as a language instructor is offered as mediator.

Keywords: ethnic minority, language learning, multicultural context, sociocultural theory

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567 The Influence of English Learning on Ethnic Kazakh Minority Students’ Identity (Re)Construction at Chinese Universities

Authors: Sharapat Sharapat

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English language is perceived as cultural capital in many non-native English-speaking countries, and minority groups in these social contexts seem to invest in the language to be empowered and reposition themselves from the imbalanced power relation with the dominant group. This study is devoted to explore how English learning influence minority Kazakh students’ identity (re)construction at Chinese universities from the scope of ‘imagined community, investment, and identity’ theory of Norton (2013). To this end the three research questions were designed as follows: 1) Kazakh minority students’ English learning experiences at Chinese universities; 2) Kazakh minority students’ views about benefits and opportunities of English learning; 3) the influence of English learning on Kazakh minority students’ identity (re)construction. The study employs an interview-based qualitative research method by interviewing nine Kazakh minority students in universities in Xinjiang and other inland cities in China. The findings suggest that through English learning, some students have reconstructed multiple identities as multicultural and global identities, which created ‘a third space’ to break limits of their ethnic and national identities and confused identity as someone in-between. Meanwhile, most minority students were empowered by the English language to resist inferior or marginalized positions and reconstruct imagined elite identity. However, English learning disempowered students who have little previous English education in school and placed them on unequal footing with other students, which further escalated the educational inequities.

Keywords: minority in China, identity construction, multilingual education, language empowerment

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566 Ethnic Entrepreneurships: Minority Ethnic Students in UiTM Sabah and UMS Perceptions towards Entrepreneurialism Business Interest

Authors: Lizinis Cassendra Frederick Dony, Dewi Binti Tajuddin, Jirom Jeremy Frederick Dony, Andrew Nicholas

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Unemployed graduates have become among the world major concerns lately. 70% of Malaysian graduates are jobless. Due to this concerns, this paper aims to identify major factors influencing Sabah minority ethnic favorable in the entrepreneurialism business interest. Hence, extensive introductory entrepreneurship syllabus clusters development beginning from the early childhood, primary, secondary and university students. This may induce interest appeal and to develop focus group of self-employment. The study focus on 7 indicators consist of demographic profiles variable (DP), social norms (SN), attitude (A), self-efficacy (SE) and business management skills (BMS) with reference to university students’ entrepreneurial intention. This study also partially mediates the relationship between product attractiveness (PA) and the minority ethnic entrepreneurialism business interest (MEEBI), by testifying their direct and indirect relationships. Hence, this study provides new perception towards improving the graduates’ characteristic, capabilities to exploit the business opportunities in the market. Furthermore, this paper will assess the relationship with the product attractiveness(PA) as a mediator. The study encompasses on the type of Sabah minority ethnic (ME) and nature of family own business (FOB) background with the 280 samples students in UiTM Sabah and UMS. The descriptive and random sampling method of research which revealed that majority of the respondents agreed that FOB and entrepreneurship education had positively influenced the ethnic students’ involvement in the entrepreneurial process and career development either full-time or part-time basis.

Keywords: Demographic profile (DP), soci, unemployed graduates, Malaysian minority

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565 The Affect of Ethnic Minority People: A Prediction by Gender and Marital Status

Authors: A. K. M. Rezaul Karim, Abu Yusuf Mahmud, S. H. Mahmud

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The study aimed to investigate whether the affect (experience of feeling or emotion) of ethnic minority people can be predicted by gender and marital status. Toward this end, positive affect and negative affect of 103 adult indigenous persons were measured. Analysis of data in multiple regressions demonstrated that both gender and marital status are significantly associated with positive affect (Gender: β=.318, p < .001; Marital status: β=.201, p < .05), but not with negative affect. Results indicated that the indigenous males have 0.32 standard deviations increased positive affect as compared to the indigenous females and that married individuals have 0.20 standard deviations increased positive affect as compared to their unmarried counterparts. These findings advance our understanding that gender and marital status inequalities in the experience of emotion are not specific to the mainstream society; rather it is a generalized picture of all societies. In general, men possess more positive affect than females; married persons possess more positive affect than the unmarried persons.

Keywords: positive affect, negative affect, ethnic minority, gender, marital status

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564 The Effectiveness of Genre-Based Pedagogy in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language in Hong Kong

Authors: Mark Shiu-kee Shum, Dan Shi

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This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of genre-based pedagogy in teaching Chinese as a foreign language to South Asian ethnic minority students in Hong Kong. South Asian ethnic minority students, as a disadvantaged group of foreign language learners, lack sufficient parental and institutional support in Chinese language learning. The genre-based “Reading to Learn, Learning to Write, R2L” pedagogy derived from Halliday’s Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) is applied in this study to improve Chinese language performance of South Asian ethnic minority students for better chance to participate in mainstream society. In this study, the R2L pedagogy is applied to teach students Chinese writing of different genres in junior secondary level for a year. To determine the effectiveness of the R2L pedagogy, the pre-test and post-test writings were evaluated by R2L assessment criteria and analyzed using Systemic Functional Linguistics framework from the whole-text level, sentence level, and the word level. Besides, semi-structured interviews were conducted to perceive students’ learning expectations via experiencing with R2L pedagogy. The finding shows that after the pedagogic interventions, students are equipped with an increased meta-linguistic awareness of genre-specific writing in improving and facilitating their writing performance. It is hoped that the findings can provide a reference for language teachers in teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language to non-Chinese speaking students in Hong Kong and beyond.

Keywords: ethnic minority, genre-based approach, reading to learn pedagogy, foreign language education

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563 An Investigation of Migrants' Attitudes towards Their Ethnic Languages: A Study of Angolan Migrants in Namibia

Authors: Julia Indongo - Haiduwa

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The study looks at the attitudes of Angolan migrants in the informal sectors towards their ethnic languages. The assumption is most Angolan migrants speak Portuguese instead of their ethnic languages as they lack interest in their ethnic languages. The study was qualitative in nature, and 20 Angolan migrants who are operating in the informal sector where purposively selected for the semistructured interviews. The study revealed that many Angolan has negative attitudes towards their ethnic language because even prior to their migration to Namibia, they use Portuguese to communicate as opposed to their ethnic languages. The ethnic languages are associated with old people and the ethnic languages do not offer the migrants any economic benefits. The study recommends that there is a need for the revitalization of Angolan ethnic languages in Namibia in order to maintain the language and prevent them from dying.

Keywords: ethnic languages language attitude, language, choice, language maintenance, multilingualism

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562 Multiple Identity Construction among Multilingual Minorities: A Quantitative Sociolinguistic Case Study

Authors: Stefanie Siebenhütter

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This paper aims to reveal criterions involved in the process of identity-forming among multilingual minority language speakers in Northeastern Thailand and in the capital Bangkok. Using sociolinguistic interviews and questionnaires, it is asked which factors are important for speakers and how they define their identity by their interactions socially as well as linguistically. One key question to answer is how sociolinguistic factors may force or diminish the process of forming social identity of multilingual minority speakers. However, the motivation for specific language use is rarely overt to the speaker’s themselves as well as to others. Therefore, identifying the intentions included in the process of identity construction is to approach by scrutinizing speaker’s behavior and attitudes. Combining methods used in sociolinguistics and social psychology allows uncovering the tools for identity construction that ethnic Kui uses to range themselves within a multilingual setting. By giving an overview of minority speaker’s language use in context of the specific border near multilingual situation and asking how speakers construe identity within this spatial context, the results exhibit some of the subtle and mostly unconscious criterions involved in the ongoing process of identity construction.

Keywords: social identity, identity construction, minority language, multilingualism, social networks, social boundaries

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561 Self-Management among the Ethnic Groups with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Thailand

Authors: Siwarak Kitchanapaibul, Warren Gillibrand, Rob Burton

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The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has been rising all over the world. Self-management is required for diabetes mellitus patients. The objective of this study is to explore the self-management among the ethnic groups with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Thailand, an upper middle-income country which is located in South East Asia. The ethnic groups in Thailand are a minority group which has limited education and a different culture, language, costume and lifestyle from Thai people. The qualitative exploratory study was used in this study. In-depth interviews with semi-structured open questions were conducted by 20 participants from purposive sampling. These participants were the ethnic groups who have type 2 diabetes mellitus, received the services from a region hospital, understood Thai and were willing to participate. Content analysis was adopted for the study. The results showed that all of the participants controlled their diet before the appointment day and never miss their appointment. Only 3 participants did their exercise while 2 participants stated that they occasionally forgot to take medicine. 10 participants use the herbs for reducing the sugar level. 12 participants drank a lot of water after a lapse in the diet because they believed that water could dilute the sugar. The findings identified 5 themes; ‘controlling diet before appointment day’; ‘drinking water after a lapse in diet’; ‘medication being a vital importance’; ‘exercise is unimportant’; and ‘taking herbs for sugar reduction’. The results of this study are important to the health professionals to understand the self-management of Ethnic groups and use the data to create the appropriate intervention for promoting health among the ethnic groups with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Thailand. The findings will lead to the revision of health policy and the procedure for promoting health in this special ethnic groups.

Keywords: self-management, diabetes, ethnic groups, Thailand

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560 Minority Language Policy and Planning in Manchester, Britain

Authors: Mohamed F. Othman

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Manchester, Britain has become the destination of immigrants from different parts of the world. As a result, it is currently home to over 150 different ethnic languages. The present study investigates minority language policy and planning at the micro-level of the city. In order to get an in-depth investigation of such a policy, it was decided to cover it from two angles: the first is the policy making process. This was aimed at getting insights on how decisions regarding the provision of government services in minority languages are taken and what criteria are employed. The second angle is the service provider; i.e. the different departments in Manchester City Council (MCC), the NHS, the courts, and police, etc., to obtain information on the actual provisions of services. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with different personnel representing different departments in MCC, solicitors, interpreters, etc.; through the internet, e.g. the websites of MCC, NHS, courts, and police, etc.; and via personal observation of provisions of community languages in government services. The results show that Manchester’s language policy is formulated around two concepts that work simultaneously: one is concerned with providing services in community languages in order to help minorities manage their life until they acquire English, and the other with helping the integration of minorities through encouraging them to learn English. In this regard, different government services are provided in community languages, though to varying degrees, depending on the numerical strength of each individual language. Thus, it is concluded that there is awareness in MCC and other government agencies working in Manchester of the linguistic diversity of the city and there are serious attempts to meet this diversity in their services. It is worth mentioning here that providing such services in minority languages are not meant to support linguistic diversity, but rather to maintain the legal right to equal opportunities among the residents of Manchester and to avoid any misunderstanding that may result due to the language barrier, especially in such areas as hospitals, courts, and police. There is actually no explicitly-mentioned language policy regarding minorities in Manchester; rather, there is an implied or covert policy resulting from factors that are not explicitly documented. That is, there are guidelines from the central government, which emphasize the principle of equal opportunities; then the implementation of such guidelines requires providing services in the different ethnic languages.

Keywords: community language, covert language policy, micro-language policy and planning, minority language

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559 Community, Identity, and Resistance in Minority Literature: Arab American Poets - Samuel Hazo, Nathalie Handal, and Naomi Shihab Nye

Authors: Reem Saad Alqahtani

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Drawing on minority literature, this research highlights the role of three contemporary Arab American writers, considering the significance of the historical and cultural contexts of the brutal attacks of 9/11. The focus of the research is to draw attention to the poetry of Samuel Hazo, Nathalie Handal, and Naomi Shihab Nye as representatives of the identity crisis, whose experiences left them feeling marginalized and alienated in both societies, and reflected as one of the ethnic American minority groups, as demonstrated in their poetry, with a special focus on hybridity, resistance, identity, and empowerment. The study explores the writers’ post-9/11 experience, affected by the United States’ long history of marginalization and discrimination against people of colour, placing Arab American literature with that of other ethnic American groups who share the same experience and contribute to composing literature characterized by the aesthetics of cultural hybridity, cultural complexity, and the politics of minorities to promote solidarity and coalition building. Indeed, the three selected Arab American writers have found a link between their narration and the identity of the exiled by establishing an identity that is a kind of synthesis of diverse identities of Western reality and Eastern nostalgia. The approaches applied in this study will include historical/biographical, postcolonial, and discourse analysis. The first will be used to emphasize the influence of the biographical aspects related to the community, identity, and resistance of the three poets on their poetry. The second is used to investigate the effects of postcolonialism on the poets and their responses to it, while the third understand the sociocultural, political, and historical dimensions of the texts, establishing these poets as representative of the Arab American experience. This study is significant because it will help shed light on the importance of the Arabic hybrid identity in creating resistance to minority communities within American society.

Keywords: Arab American, identity, hybridity, post-9/11

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558 A Study on Economic Impacts of Entrepreneurial Firms and Self-Employment: Minority Ethnics in Putatan, Penampang, Inanam, Menggatal, Uitm, Tongod, Sabah, Malaysia

Authors: Lizinis Cassendra Frederick Dony, Jirom Jeremy Frederick Dony, Andrew Nicholas, Dewi Binti Tajuddin

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Starting and surviving a business is influenced by various entrepreneurship socio-economics activities. The study revealed that some of the entrepreneurs are not registered under SME but running own business as an intermediary with the private organization entrusted as “Self-Employed.” SME is known as “Small Medium Enterprise” contributes growth in Malaysia. Therefore, the entrepreneurialism business interest and entrepreneurial intention enhancing new spurring production, expanding employment opportunities, increasing productivity, promoting exports, stimulating innovation and providing new avenue in the business market place. This study has identified the unique contribution to the full understanding of complex mechanisms through entrepreneurship obstacles and education impacts on happiness and well-being to society. Moreover, “Ethnic” term has defined as a curious meaning refers to a classification of a large group of people customs implies to ancestral, racial, national, tribal, religious, linguistic and cultural origins. It is a social phenomenon.1 According to Sabah data population is amounting to 2,389,494 showed the predominant ethnic group being the Kadazan Dusun (18.4%) followed by Bajau (17.3%) and Malays (15.3%). For the year 2010, data statistic immigrants population report showed the amount to 239,765 people which cover 4% of the Sabahan’s population.2 Sabah has numerous group of talented entrepreneurs. The business environment among the minority ethnics are influenced with the business sentiment competition. The literature on ethnic entrepreneurship recognizes two main type entrepreneurships: the middleman and enclave entrepreneurs. According to Adam Smith,3 there are evidently some principles disposition to admire and maintain the distinction business rank status and cause most universal business sentiments. Due to credit barriers competition, the minority ethnics are losing the business market and since 2014, many illegal immigrants have been found to be using permits of the locals to operate businesses in Malaysia.4 The development of small business entrepreneurship among the minority ethnics in Sabah evidenced based variety of complex perception and differences concepts. The studies also confirmed the effects of heterogeneity on group decision and thinking caused partly by excessive pre-occupation with maintaining cohesiveness and the presence of cultural diversity in groups should reduce its probability.5 The researchers proposed that there are seven success determinants particularly to determine the involvement of minority ethnics comparing to the involvement of the immigrants in Sabah. Although, (SMEs) have always been considered the backbone of the economy development, the minority ethnics are often categorized it as the “second-choice.’ The study showed that illegal immigrants entrepreneur imposed a burden on Sabahan social programs as well as the prison, court and health care systems. The tension between the need for cheap labor and the impulse to protect Malaysian in Sabah workers, entrepreneurs and taxpayers, among the subjects discussed in this study. This is clearly can be advantages and disadvantages to the Sabah economic development.

Keywords: entrepreneurial firms, self-employed, immigrants, minority ethnic, economic impacts

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557 Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities: An Investigation of the Relationship between Race, Ethnicity, Health Care Access, and Health Status

Authors: Dorcas Matowe

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Inequality in health care for racial and ethnic minorities continues to be a growing concern for many Americans. Some of the barriers hindering the elimination of health disparities include lack of insurance, socioeconomic status (SES), and racism. This study will specifically focus on the association between some of these factors- health care access, which includes insurance coverage and frequency of doctor visits, race, ethnicity, and health status. The purpose of this study will be to address the following questions: is having health insurance associated with increased doctor visits? Are racial and ethnic minorities with health insurance more or less likely to see a doctor? Is the association between having health insurance moderated by being an ethnic minority? Given the current implications of the 2010 Affordable Care Act, this study will highlight the need to prioritize health care access for minorities and confront institutional racism. Critical Race Theory (CRT) will demonstrate how racism has reinforced these health disparities. This quantitative study design will analyze secondary data from the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) questionnaire, a telephone survey conducted annually in all 50 states and three US territories by state health departments in conjunction with the Center for Disease Control (CDC). Non-identifying health-related data is gathered annually from over 400,000 adults 18 years and above about their health status and use of preventative services. Through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), the relationship between the predictor variables of health care access, race, and ethnicity, the criterion variable of health status, and the latent variables of emotional support and life satisfaction will be examined. It is hypothesized that there will be an interaction between certain racial and ethnic minorities who went to see a doctor, had insurance coverage, experienced racism, and the quality of their health status, emotional support, and life satisfaction.

Keywords: ethnic minorities, health disparities, health access, racism

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556 The Europeanization of Minority and Disability Rights: A Comparative View

Authors: Katharina Crepaz

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Both minority rights and disability rights are relatively new fields for policy-making in a European context, and both are affected by the EU’s diversity mainstreaming approach, as well as by the non-discrimination legislation drafted at the European level. These processes correspond to the classic understanding of Europeanization, namely a “top-down” stream of influence from the European to the national and subnational levels. However, both minority and disability rights movements also show instances of “bottom-up” Europeanization, e.g. transnational advocacy networks and efforts to reach joint goals at the EU-level. This paper aims to provide a comparative perspective on Europeanization in both fields, pointing out similar dynamics and patterns, but also explaining in which sectors outcomes may be different and which domestic and other scope conditions may be responsible for these differences.

Keywords: europeanization, disability rights, minority rights, comparative perspective

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555 Perceived Ethnic Discrimination, Aggression, and School Connectedness among Adolescents in Finland

Authors: Isik Z. Ulubas, Kaj Bjorkqvist

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The relationships between perceived ethnic discrimination, peer aggression and school connectedness are being examined among 1,000 adolescents in Ostrobothnia, Finland with an online questionnaire. The study aims at investigating perceived ethnic discrimination in school environment by peers and teachers, and within society in general. Six types of aggressive behavior are measured: physical, verbal, indirect, and cyber aggression, in addition to both verbal and physical sexual harassment. High perceived ethnic discrimination is expected to be related with high aggression and low school connectedness. Adolescents who have special diet and clothing because of their cultural or religious background are expected to score higher on perceived ethnic discrimination and lower school connectedness. Adolescents who have lower domestic language skills (Finnish/Swedish) are expected to show lower school connectedness and higher perceived ethnic discrimination.

Keywords: adolescents, aggression, ethnic discrimination, school connectedness

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554 Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Malaysian Multi-Ethnic Discrimination Scale

Authors: Chua Bee Seok, Shamsul Amri Baharuddin, Ferlis Bahari, Jasmine Adela Mutang, Lailawati Madlan, Rosnah Ismail, Asong Joseph

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Malaysia is a country famously known for its multiple unique cultural and ethnic diversities. Despite the diversity of culture, customs and beliefs, respectively, Malaysia still be able to stand as a harmonious country. However, if there is an attitude of stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination among ethnic, it may seriously affect the solidarity between people in Malaysia. Thus, this study focuses on constructing a scale measuring the Malaysian experience, strategy and effect of ethnic discrimination. To develop a quantitative measure on ethnic discrimination directed against Malaysian, a three-step process is proposed: Exploratory factor analysis, validity analysis, and internal consistency reliability analysis. Results, limitations, and implications of the study are discussed.

Keywords: test development, Malaysian multi-ethnic discrimination scale, exploratory factor analysis, validity, multi-ethnic, reliability, psychometrics

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553 Peace through Language Policy as a Solution to the Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka

Authors: R. M. W. Rajapakshe

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Sri Lanka, which is officially called the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is an island nation situated near India. It is a multi-lingual, multi- religious and multi – ethnic country, where Sinhalese form the majority and the Tamils form the largest ethnic minority. The composition of the population (ethnic basis) in Sri Lanka is as follows: Sinhalese: 74.5%, Tamil (Sri Lankan): 12.6%, Muslim: 7.5 %, Tamil (Indian): 5.5%, Malay: 0.3%, Burgher: 0.3 %, other: 0.2 %. The Tamil people use the Tamil language as their mother tongue and the Sinhala people use the Sinhala language as their mother tongue. A very few people in both communities use English as their mother tongue and however, a large number of people use English as a second language. The Sinhala Language was declared the only official language in Sri Lanka in 1959. However, it was not acceptable to Tamil politicians as well as to the common Tamil people and it was the beginning of long standing ethnic crisis which later became a military war where a lot of blood was shed. As a solution to the above ethnic crisis the thirteenth amendment to the constitution of Sri Lanka was introduced in 1987 and according to it both Sinhala and Tamil were declared official languages and English as the link language in Sri Lanka. Thus, a new programme namely, second language teaching programme under which Sinhala was taught to Tamil students and Tamil was taught to Sinhala students, was introduced at government schools. Language teaching includes knowledge of the culture of the target language. As all cultures are mixed and have common features students have reduced their enmity about the other community and learned to respect the other culture. On the other hand as all languages are mixed, students came to the understanding that there are no pure languages. Thus, they learned to respect the other language. In the case of Sri Lanka the Sinhala language is mixed with the Tamil language and vice versa. Thus, the development of second language teaching is the prominent way to solve the above ethnic problem and this study clearly shows it. However, the above programme suffers with lack of trained second language teachers, infrastructure facilities and insufficient funds and, they can be considered as the main obstacles to develop the second language teaching programme. Yet, there are no satisfactory answers to those problems. The data were collected from relevant books, articles and other documents based on research and forty five recordings, each with one hour duration, of natural conversations covering all factions of the Sinhala community.

Keywords: ethnic crisis, official language, second language teaching, Sinhala, Tami

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552 Corporate Governance and Minority Shareholders Protection in the United Kingdom

Authors: Meltem Karatepe Kaya

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The concept of corporate governance is not new but, due to the recent international financial crisis, it has become prominent in contemporary business, accounting and legal debates. There is a wealth of anecdotal evidence which shows that protection of minority shareholders is an important issue in the corporate governance literature. Minority shareholders typically hold low amounts of stocks, so the benefits gained from their participation in shareholder meetings are very asymmetric to the cost. Therefore, the presence of a good corporate governance structure is the proper protection of and respect for the rights and interests of shareholders, particularly those of minority shareholders. The research will attempt to find answers to the following questions: Why minority shareholders’ rights should be protected? How minority shareholders’ rights could be improved? Does the legal framework in the United Kingdom provide adequate protection for minority shareholders? This study will assess regulations about the legal protections of minority shareholders and try to find answer this question: ’Why is it inevitable for company law to treat in a successful way the problems arising from minority shareholders' conflict with other shareholders of a company?’The protection of minority shareholders is not only a corporate governance objective in its own right but also has added importance particularly in developing countries. In the United Kingdom(UK) and the United States of America(USA), there are diffused ownership structures so that any shareholders do not influence the management of the company. This is in stark contrast to companies in developing countries such as Turkey where controlling shareholders and related insiders are a well-known feature of ownership structures, and where companies are often governed and managed by controlling shareholders such as family firms and associated companies through cross-shareholdings and pyramiding ownership structures. In Turkey, the agency problem is not between shareholders and management. Rather it gives rise to another dimension of the agency problem – a conflict of interest between majority shareholders (controlling) and minority shareholders. This research will make a particularly useful contribution to knowledge-based information and understanding of company law in the UK, particularly minority shareholders' remedies. It will not only give information about law and regulations of minority shareholders' remedies but also it will provide some knowledge about doctrinal discussions and relevant cases. The major contribution to study will be in the knowledge of law and regulation in the legal protections of minority shareholders in the United Kingdom and Turkey. In this study, the recommendations will be given for the development of the legal framework and practices of protections for minority shareholders and small investors.

Keywords: controlling shareholders, corporate governance, derivative actions, minority shareholders

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551 Ethnic Militias and Insecurity in Democratic Nigeria

Authors: Adeyemi Kamil Hamzah, Abayomi Nathaniel Oyesikun

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Throughout modern history internal strife has burdened Africa most populous nation, Nigeria. The country encompassed more than four hundred ethnic and sub ethnic groups with the different background and identities. This group has not fussed themselves together to emerge as a nation what we have are mere ethnic and religious groups i.e. Hausa/Fulani Igbo Yoruba Ijaw, Ibibio, christian, and Muslim. The source of problematic Nigeria is linked to colonial policy of segmentation, discontent to religion, faith, and ethnicity. The wave of spiral killing among the major ethnic entities with different religious affiliation has brought the process of good governance in the country to its kneel. This paper will place insecurity in Nigeria in context by reviewing the root and rise of ethnic militia. In doing so it will evaluate how the West Africa power house arrive at the point where it is today with all unprecedented unrest from regions that formed Nigeria. Both primary and secondary sources were applied for the quality of this paper. The effects of ethnic militia in realizing and actualizing political stability are equally discussed, recommendations proffered and conclusion given.

Keywords: ethnic, militia, violence, insecurity, democracy

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550 Hui as Religious over Ethnic Identity: A Case Study of Muslim Ethnic Interaction in Central Northwest China

Authors: Hugh Battye

Abstract:

In recent years, Muslim identity in China has strengthened against the backdrop of a worldwide Islamic revival. One discussion arising from this has been focused around the Hui, an ethnicity created by the Communist government in the 1950s covering the Chinese speaking 'Sino-Muslims' as opposed to those with their own language. While the term Hui in Chinese has traditionally meant 'Muslim', the strengthening of Hui identity in recent decades has led to a debate among scholars as to whether this identity is primarily ethnically or religiously driven. This article looks at the case of a mixed ethnic community in rural Gansu Province, Central Northwest China, which not only contains the official Hui ethnicity but also members of the smaller Muslim Salar and Bonan minority groups. In analyzing the close interaction between these groups, the paper will argue that, despite government attempts to promote the Hui as an ethnicity within its modern ethnic paradigm, in rural Gansu and the general region, Hui is still essentially seen as a religious identity. Having provided an overview of the historical evolution of the Hui ethnonym in China and presented the views of some of the important scholars involved in the discussion, the paper will then offer its findings based on participant observation and survey work in Gansu. The results will show that, firstly, for the local Muslims, religious identity clearly dominates ethnic identity. On the ground, the term Hui continues to be used as a catch-all term for Muslims, whether they belong to the official 'Hui' nationality or not, and against this backdrop, the ethnic importance of being 'Hui', 'Bonan' or 'Salar' within the Muslim community itself is by contrast minimal. Secondly, however, this local Muslim solidarity is not at present pointing towards some kind of national pan-ethnic Islamic movement that could potentially set itself up in opposition to the Chinese government; rather it is better seen as part of an ongoing negotiation by local Muslims with the state in the context of its ascribed ethnic categories. The findings of this study in a region where many of the Muslims are more conservative in their beliefs is not necessarily replicated in other contexts, such as in urban areas and in eastern and southern China, and hence reification of the term Hui as one idea extending all across China should be avoided, whether in terms of a united religious 'ummah' or of a real or imagined 'ethnic group.' Rather, this localized case study seeks to demonstrate ways in which Muslims of rural Central Northwest China are 'being Hui,' as a contribution to the broader discussion on what it means to be Muslim and Chinese in the reform era.

Keywords: China, ethnicity, Hui, identity, Muslims

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549 Otherness of Roma in Inclusive Education of Roma Pupils in Slovakia

Authors: Bibiana Hlebova

Abstract:

The Slovak Republic is a democratic and plural society consisting of people differing in language and culture, and its citizens should already be well prepared for the coexistence of multiple nations, nationalities or ethnic groups. Reflection on culture, art and literature of the Roma minority has taken on a new dimension in Slovakia in the past two decades when it comes to social, cultural and arts integration of this ethnic group with the plural society. Non-Roma view Roma as a specific ethnic group with their own culture, language, customs and traditions, social norms and coexistence that has retained archetypal qualities of Roma identity (romipen) in their real lives as well as in the literary world. Roma characters in works of art are specific and distinguishable from other literary characters simply by being Roma, that is, of a different origin and social status, they represent a different way of life, a distinctive hierarchy of values. The portrayal of Roma and the life of Roma ethnic group in the most dominant genre of Roma literature for children and youth, a Roma fairy tale (paramisi), can work as a suitable means to learn about, accept and tolerate the otherness of Roma in the conditions of school inclusion of students coming from the Roma ethnic group, and to support their identification with their own ethnic group and its cultural traditions. The paper aims to point out not only the specific nature of Roma identity (romipen) through the selected Roma fairy tale (paramisa) – Children of the Sun, but also the diversity of its uses in the educational process within primary education of pupils at elementary schools, advocating the philosophy of inclusive education. Through the suggestions of multi-cultural, emotional, and language and communication education of pupils through the work with the selected Roma fairy tale (paramisa), the author is exploring ways to overcome the issues stemming from the coexistence of Roma and Non-Roma pupils, which are burdened with prejudice, intolerance, aggression and racism on both sides, in the education process.

Keywords: inclusive education, otherness, Roma, Roma fairy tale, Roma identity

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548 A Qualitative Exploration of How Brazilian Immigrant Mothers Living in the United States Obtain Information about Physical Activity and Screen-Viewing for Their Young Children

Authors: Ana Cristina Lindsay, Mary L. Greaney

Abstract:

Background: Racial/ethnic minority children of low-income immigrant families remain at increased risk of obesity. Consistent with high rates of childhood obesity among racial/ethnic minority children are high rates of physical inactivity and increased levels of sedentary behaviors (e.g., TV and other screen viewing). Brazilians comprise a fast-growing immigrant population group in the US, yet little research has focused on the health issues affecting Brazilian immigrant children. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how Brazilian-born immigrant mothers living in the United States obtain information about physical activity and screen-time for their young children. Methods: Qualitative research including focus groups with Brazilian immigrant mothers of preschool-age children living in the U.S. Results: Results revealed that Brazilian immigrant mothers obtain information on young children’s physical activity and screen-time from a variety of sources including interpersonal communication, television and magazines, government health care programs (WIC program) and professionals (e.g., nurses and pediatricians). A noteworthy finding is the significant role of foreign information sources (Brazilian TV shows and magazines) on mothers’ access to information about these early behaviors. Future research is needed to quantify and better understanding Brazilian parents’ access to accurate and sound information related to young children’s physical activity and screen-viewing behaviors. Conclusions: To our knowledge, no existing research has examined how Brazilian immigrant mothers living in the United States obtain information about these behaviors. This information is crucial for the design of culturally appropriate early childhood obesity prevention interventions tailored to the specific needs of this ethnic group.

Keywords: physical activity, scree-time, information, immigrant, mothers, Brazilian, United States

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547 An Examination of Economic Evaluation Approaches in Mental Health Promotion Initiatives Targeted at Black and Asian Minority Ethnic Communities in the UK: A Critical Discourse Analysis

Authors: Phillipa Denise Peart

Abstract:

Black Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) people are more at risk of developing mental health disorders because they are more exposed to unfavorable social, economic, and environmental circumstances. These include housing, education, employment, community development, stigma, and discrimination. However, the majority of BAME mental health intervention studies focus on treatment with therapeutically effective drugs and use basic economic methods to evaluate their effectiveness; as a result, little is invested in the economic assessment of psychosocial interventions in BAME mental health. The UK government’s austerity programme and reduced funds for mental health services, has increased the need for the evaluation and assessment of initiatives to focus on value for money. The No Health without Mental Health policy (2011) provides practice guidance to practitioners, but there is little or no mention of the need to provide mental health initiatives targeted at BAME communities that are effective in terms of their impact and the cost-effectiveness. This, therefore, appears to contradict with and is at odds with the wider political discourse, which suggests there should be an increasing focus on health economic evaluation. As a consequence, it could be argued that whilst such policies provide direction to organisations to provide mental health services to the BAME community, by not requesting effective governance, assurance, and evaluation processes, they are merely paying lip service to address these problems and not helping advance knowledge and practice through evidence-based approaches. As a result, BAME communities suffer due to lack of efficient resources that can aid in the recovery process. This research study explores the mental health initiatives targeted at BAME communities, and analyses the techniques used when examining the cost effectiveness of mental health initiatives for BAME mental health communities. Using critical discourse analysis as an approach and method, mental health services will be selected as case studies, and their evaluations will be examined, alongside the political drivers that frame, shape, and direct their work. In doing so, it will analyse what the mental health policies initiatives are, how the initiatives are directed and demonstrate how economic models of evaluation are used in mental health programmes and how the value for money impacts and outcomes are articulated by mental health programme staff. It is anticipated that this study will further our understanding in order to provide adequate mental health resources and will deliver creative, supportive research to ensure evaluation is effective for the government to provide and maintain high quality and efficient mental health initiatives targeted at BAME communities.

Keywords: black, Asian and ethnic minority, economic models, mental health, health policy

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546 Comparing Breast Cancer Risk and the Risk Factors between Heterosexual Women and Sexual Minority Women in Taiwan: A Preliminary Result

Authors: Ya-Ching Wang, Yi-Maun Subeq

Abstract:

Background: There is a lack of evidence to understand differences in risk for developing breast cancer between sexual minority women and heterosexual women in Taiwan. The purpose of this study is to compare differences in risk for developing breast cancer between the two groups of Taiwanese women. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was used to collect data. A total of 238 Taiwanese women (mean age 30.69 years old, SD=8.231, range 20-60) were recruited between December 2016 and February 2017, including 115 heterosexual women and 123 sexual minority women. Results: There were no significant differences between heterosexual women and sexual minority women in body mass index, history of non-malignant breast disease, age at menarche and menopause, use of hormone replacement therapy, use of hormone replacement therapy, nor the prevalence of breast cancer. The sexual minority women had higher rates of current drinking, smoking and using breast-bindings and also reported exercise more a week; the heterosexual women had higher rates of pregnancy, children, breastfeed, miscarriages, abortion and use of birth control pills. Discussion/Conclusion: There were significant differences between heterosexual women and sexual minority women in reproductive factors and behavioral risk factors for the development of breast cancer. In particular, the finding that the sexual minority women had higher rate of using breast-bindings (56.6%) than the heterosexual women (4.7%) should be further explore, in order to understand whether long-term breast compression is associated with the development of breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, risk, sexual orientation, Taiwan

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545 Media Engagement and Ethnic Identity: The Case of the Aeta Ambala of Pastolan Village

Authors: Kriztine R. Viray, Chona Rita R. Cruz

Abstract:

The paper explores the engagement of indigenous group, Aeta Ambala with different media and how this engagement affects their perception of their own ethnic identity. The researchers employed qualitative research as their approach and descriptive research method as their design. The paper integrates two theories. These are communication theory of identity by Michael Hecht and the Uses and Gratification Theory of Katz, Blumler, and Gurevitch. Among others, the paper exposes that the engagement of the Aeta-Ambala with the various forms of media certainly affected the way they perceived the outside world and their own ethnic group.

Keywords: Aeta Ambala, culture, ethnic, media engagement, Philippines

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544 Ethnic Conflict and African Women's Capacity for Preventive Diplomacy

Authors: Olaifa Temitope Abimbola

Abstract:

The spate of the occurrence of Ethnic Conflict in Nigeria and indeed Africa is sporadic and to say the least alarming. To scholars of Ethnic Conflict in Africa, it has defied all logical approaches to its resolution. Based on this fact international organisations have begun to look for alternative means of approaching these conflicts. Not a few have agreed that wars are better and cheaper prevented than resolved or transformed. In the light of this, this paper had set out to look at the concept of Preventive Diplomacy, Ethnic Conflict, Women and the role they play in mitigating conflict by researching into activities of women in pre and post-conflict situations in selected African conflict and has been able to establish the peculiar capacity of women in dousing tension both at domestic and communal levels.

Keywords: preventive diplomacy, gender, peacebuilding, low

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