Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 69

Search results for: anthropology

69 Applications of Visual Ethnography in Public Anthropology

Authors: Subramaniam Panneerselvam, Gunanithi Perumal, KP Subin

Abstract:

The Visual Ethnography is used to document the culture of a community through a visual means. It could be either photography or audio-visual documentation. The visual ethnographic techniques are widely used in visual anthropology. The visual anthropologists use the camera to capture the cultural image of the studied community. There is a scope for subjectivity while the culture is documented by an external person. But the upcoming of the public anthropology provides an opportunity for the participants to document their own culture. There is a need to equip the participants with the skill of doing visual ethnography. The mobile phone technology provides visual documentation facility to everyone to capture the moments instantly. The visual ethnography facilitates the multiple-interpretation for the audiences. This study explores the effectiveness of visual ethnography among the tribal youth through public anthropology perspective. The case study was conducted to equip the tribal youth of Nilgiris in visual ethnography and the outcome of the experiment shared in this paper.

Keywords: visual ethnography, visual anthropology, public anthropology, multiple-interpretation, case study

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68 Designing for Wearable Interactions: Exploring Care Design for Design Anthropology and Participatory Design

Authors: Wei-Chen Chang, Yu-Cheng Pei

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This research examines wearable interaction design to mediate the design anthropology and participatory design found in technology and fashion. We will discuss the principles of design anthropology and participatory design using a wearable and fashion product process to transmit the ‘people-situation-reason-object’ method and analyze five sense applied examples that provide new thinking for designers engaged in future industry. Design anthropology and Participatory Design attempt to engage physiological and psychological design through technology-function, meaning-form and fashion aesthetics to achieve cognition between user and environment. The wearable interaction provides technological characteristics and semantic ideas transmitted to craft-cultural, collective, cheerful and creative performance. It is more confident and innovative attempt, that is able to achieve a joyful, fundamental interface. This study takes two directions for cultural thinking as the basis to establish a set of life-craft designs with interactive experience objects by users that assist designers in examining the sensual feelings to initiate a new lifestyle value.

Keywords: design anthropology, wearable design, design communication, participatory design

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67 Eating Constitutes Human Dignity: A Metaphysical Anthropology Perspective

Authors: Sri Poedjiastoeti

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One of the traits of living beings is eating. As the living beings, people must provide their life by taking material. They must assimilate for themselves with substances. They grow and develop themselves by changing what they eat and digest into their own substance. This happened in the so-called eating. This article aims to analyze distinction between human beings and other infrahumans when facing and eating food. It uses the analytical description with metaphysical anthropology approach. As a result, to give the expression that eating is not simply to put food in mouth, chew and swallow it. Eating constitutes a sacred ceremonial if it is done in accordance with human dignity. They face food with distance and moderation as well as civilize or make their behaviour better for it. Accordingly, they are being to be human.

Keywords: human beings, behaviour, eating, dignity

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66 Survey of the Role of Contextualism in the Designing of Cultural Constructions Based on Rapoport Views

Authors: E. Zarei, M. Bazaei, A. Seifi, A. Keshavarzi

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Amos Rapoport, based on his anthropology approach, believed that the space origins from the human body and influences on human body mutually. As a holistic approach in architecture, Contextualism describes a collection of views in philosophy which emphasize the context in which an action, utterance, or expression occurs, and argues that, in some important respect, the action, utterance, or expression can only be understood relative to that context. In this approach, the main goal – studying the role of cultural component in the Contextualism construction shaping up, based on Amos Rapoport’s anthropology approach- has being done by descriptive- analytic method. The results of the research indicate that in the field of Contextualism designing, referring to the cultural aspects are as necessary as the physical dimensions of a construction. Rapoport believes that the shape of a construction is influenced by cultural aspects and he suggests a kind of mutual interaction between human and environment that should be considered in housing. The mail goal of contextual architecture is to establish an interaction between environment, human and culture. According to this approach, a desirable design should be in harmony with this approach.

Keywords: Amos Rapoport, anthropology, contextual architecture, culture

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65 Religion, Health and Ageing: A Geroanthropological Study on Spiritual Dimensions of Well-Being among the Elderly Residing in Old Age Homes in Jallandher Punjab, India

Authors: A. Rohit Kumar, B. R. K. Pathak

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Background: Geroanthropology or the anthropology of ageing is a term which can be understood in terms of the anthropology of old age, old age within anthropology, and the anthropology of age. India is known as the land of spirituality and philosophy and is the birthplace of four major religions of the world namely Hinduasim, Buddhisim, Jainisim, and Sikhism. The most dominant religion in India today is Hinduism. About 80% of Indians are Hindus. Hinduism is a religion with a large number of Gods and Goddesses. Religion in India plays an important role at all life stages i.e. at birth, adulthood and particularly during old age. India is the second largest country in the world with 72 million elder persons above 60 years of age in 2001 as compared to china 127 million. The very concept of old age homes in India is new. The elderly people staying away from their homes, from their children or left to them is not considered to be a very happy situation. This paper deals with anthropology of ageing, religion and spirituality among the elderly residing in old age homes and tries to explain that how religion plays a vital role in the health of the elderly during old age. Methods: The data for the present paper was collected through both Qualitative and Quantitative methods. Old age homes located in Jallandher (Punjab) were selected for the present study. Age sixty was considered as a cut off age. Narratives, case studies were collected from 100 respondents residing in old age homes. The dominant religion in Punjab was found to be Sikhism and Hinduism while Jainism and Buddhism were found to be in minority. It was found that as one grows older the religiosity increases. Religiosity and sprituality was found to be directly proportional to ageing. Therefore religiosity and health were found to be connected. Results and Conclusion: Religion was found out to be a coping mechanism during ill health. The elderly living in old age homes were purposely selected for the study as the elderly in old age homes gets medical attention provided only by the old age home authorities. Moreover, the inmates in old age homes were of low socio-economic status couldn’t afford medical attention on their own. It was found that elderly who firmly believed in religion were found to be more satisfied with their health as compare to elderly who does not believe in religion at all. Belief in particular religion, God and godess had an impact on the health of the elderly.

Keywords: ageing, geroanthropology, religion, spirituality

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64 The Antrophological Determination of Pedagogy

Authors: Sara Kakuk

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Pedagogy has always been open to other disciplines that reflect about the educational process (philosophy, sociology, psychology, anthropology, technology, etc.). Its interdisciplinary openness puts education, as the subject of pedagogy within a broader context of the community, enabling the knowledge of other disciplines to contribute to a better understanding of the fundamental pedagogical notion of education. The purpose of pedagogy as a science serves humans, strives towards humans, must be for humans, and this is its ultimate goal. Humans are essentially dependent on education, which is also considered as a category of humans’ being, because through education an entire world develops in humans. Anthropological assumptions of humans as "deficient beings" see the solution in education, but they also indicate a wealth of shortcomings, because they provide an opportunity for enrichment and formation of culture, living and the self. In that context, this paper illustrates the determination of pedagogy through an anthropological conception of humans and the phenomenon of education. It presents a review of anthropological ideas about education, by providing an analysis of relevant literature dealing with the anthropological notion of humans, which provides fruitful conditions for a pedagogical reconsideration of education.

Keywords: pedagogy, education, humans, anthropology, culture

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63 Walking in a Weather rather than a Climate: Critique on the Meta-Narrative of Buddhism in Early India

Authors: Yongjun Kim

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Since the agreement on the historicity of historical Buddha in eastern India, the beginning, heyday and decline of Buddhism in Early India have been discussed in urbanization, commercialism and state formation context, in short, Weberian socio-politico frame. Recent Scholarship, notably in archaeology and anthropology, has proposed ‘re-materialization of Buddhism in Early India’ based on what Buddhist had actually done rather than what they should do according to canonical teachings or philosophies. But its historical narrations still remain with a domain of socio-politico meta-narrative which tends to unjustifiably dismiss the naturally existing heterogeneity and often chaotic dynamic of diverse agencies, landscape perceptions, localized traditions, etc. An author will argue the multiplicity of theoretical standpoints for the reconstruction on the Buddhism in Early India. For this, at first, the diverse agencies, localized traditions, landscape patterns of Buddhist communities and monasteries in Trans-Himalayan regions; focusing Zanskar Valley and Spiti Valley in India will be illustrated based on an author’s field work. And then an author will discuss this anthropological landscape analysis is better appropriated with textual and archaeological evidences on the tension between urban monastic and forest Buddhism, the phenomena of sacred landscape, cemetery, garden, natural cave along with socio-economic landscape, the demographic heterogeneity in Early India. Finally, it will be attempted to compare between anthropological landscape of present Trans-Himalayan and archaeological one of ancient Western India. The study of Buddhism in Early India has hardly been discussed through multivalent theoretical archaeology and anthropology of religion, thus traditional and recent scholarship have produced historical meta-narrative though heterogeneous among them. The multidisciplinary approaches of textual critics, archaeology and anthropology will surely help to deconstruct the grand and all-encompassing historical description on Buddhism in Early India and then to reconstruct the localized, behavioral and multivalent narratives. This paper expects to highlight the importance of lesser-studied Buddhist archaeological sites and the dynamic views on religious landscape in Early India with a help of critical anthropology of religion.

Keywords: analogy by living traditions, Buddhism in Early India, landscape analysis, meta-narrative

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62 Age Estimation Using Destructive and Non-Destructive Dental Methods on an Archeological Human Sample from the Poor Claire Nunnery in Brussels, Belgium

Authors: Pilar Cornejo Ulloa, Guy Willems, Steffen Fieuws, Kim Quintelier, Wim Van Neer, Patrick Thevissen

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Dental age estimation can be performed both in living and deceased individuals. In anthropology, few studies have tested the reliability of dental age estimation methods complementary to the usually applied osteological methods. Objectives: In this study, destructive and non-destructive dental age estimation methods were applied on an archeological sample in order to compare them with the previously obtained anthropological age estimates. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty-four teeth from 24 individuals were analyzed using Kvaal, Kvaal and Solheim, Bang and Ramm, Lamendin, Gustafson, Maples, Dalitz and Johanson’s methods. Results: A high variability and wider age ranges than the ones previously obtained by the anthropologist could be observed. Destructive methods had a slightly higher agreement than the non-destructive. Discussion: Due to the heterogeneity of the sample and the lack of the real age at death, the obtained results were not representative, and it was not possible to suggest one dental age estimation method over another.

Keywords: archeology, dental age estimation, forensic anthropology, forensic dentistry

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61 The Effect of Evil Eye in the Individuals' Journey for Personhood within a Christian Orthodox Society

Authors: Nikolaos Souvlakis

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The present paper negotiates the effect of 'the evil eye' on individuals' mental health while at the same time poses the problem of how the evil eye fits into the anthropological arena as a key question that forges a fundamental link between religion, anthropology and mental health professions. It is the argument of the paper that the evil eye is an essential and fundamental human phenomenon and therefore any scholarly field involved in its study must consider the insight it provides into the development of personhood. The study was an anthropological study in the geographical area of Corfu, a Greek Orthodox society uninfluenced by the Ottoman Islamic Culture. The paper aims to deepen our understanding of the evil eye as it analyses the interaction between the evil eye and gaze and how they affect the development of personhood; based on the empirical data collected from the fieldwork. Therefore, the paper adopts a psychoanalytic anthropology approach to facilitate a better understanding of the evil eye through the accounts of individuals’ journeys in the process of their development of personhood. Finally, the paper aims to offer a detailed analysis of the particular element of eye (‘I’) and, more specifically, of ‘the others’, as they relate to the phenomenon of the evil eye.

Keywords: gaze, evil eye, mental health, personhood

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60 Affinity between Sociology and Islamic Economy: An Inquiry into the Possibilities of Social Constructivism

Authors: Hideki Kitamura

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Since Islamic banking has broadly started in the late 1970s, Islamic economy has been paid much attention by both academia and the business world. However, despite abundant studies, descriptive exploration of practices of Islamic economy from a sociological/anthropological perspective is underrepresented, and most are basically designed for evaluating current practice or proposing ideal types of Islamic economy in accordance with their religious conviction. Overall, their interest is not paid to actors of Islamic economy such as practitioner’s decision-making and thought, while sociological/anthropological studies on Muslim’s religious life can be observed well. Herein, the paper aims to look into the possibilities of sociology/anthropology for exploration of the role of actors of Islamic economy, by revisiting the benefit of sociological/anthropological studies on the religion of Islam and its adaptability to the research on Islamic economy. The paper suggests that practices of Islamic economy can be assumed as results of practitioner’s dilemma between Islamic ideals and market realities in each society, by applying the perspective of social constructivism. The paper then proposes focusing on the human agency of practitioners in translating Islamic principles into economic behavior, thereby enabling a more descriptive inquiry into how Islamic economy is produced and operated.

Keywords: Islamic economy, economic sociology/anthropology, human agency, social constructivism

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59 Adolf Portmann: A Thinker of Self-Expressive Life

Authors: Filip Jaroš

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The Swiss scholar Adolf Portmann (1897-1982) was an outstanding figure in the history of biology and the philosophy of the life sciences. Portmann’s biological theory is primarily focused on the problem of animal form (Gestalt), and it poses a significant counterpart to neo-Darwinian theories about the explanatory primacy of a genetic level over the outer appearance of animals. Besides that, Portmann’s morphological studies related to species-specific ontogeny and the influence of environmental surroundings can be classified as the antecedents of contemporary synthetic approaches such as “eco-evo-devo, “extended synthesis or biosemiotics. The most influential of Portmann’s concepts up to the present is his thesis of a social womb (Soziale Mutterschos): human children are born physiologically premature in comparison with other primates, and they find a second womb in a social environment nurturing their healthy development. It is during the first year of extra-uterine life when a specific human nature is formed, characterized by the strong tie between an individual and a broader historical, cultural whole. In my paper, I will closely analyze: a) the historical coordinates of Portmann’s philosophy of the life sciences (e.g., the philosophical anthropology of A. Gehlen, H. Plessner, and their concept of humans as beings “open to the world”), b) the relation of Portmann’s concept of the social womb to contemporary theories of infant birth evolution.

Keywords: adolf portmann, extended synthesis, philosophical anthropology, social womb

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58 Research on Spatial Pattern and Spatial Structure of Human Settlement from the View of Spatial Anthropology – A Case Study of the Settlement in Sizhai Village, City of Zhuji, Zhejiang Province, China

Authors: Ni Zhenyu

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A human settlement is defined as the social activities, social relationships and lifestyles generated within a certain territory, which is also relatively independent territorial living space and domain composed of common people. Along with the advancement of technology and the development of society, the idea, presented in traditional research, that human settlements are deemed as substantial organic integrity with strong autonomy, are more often challenged nowadays. Spatial form of human settlements is one of the most outstanding external expressions with its subjectivity and autonomy, nevertheless, the projections of social, economic activities on certain territories are even more significant. What exactly is the relationship between human beings and the spatial form of the settlements where they live in? a question worth thinking over has been raised, that if a new view, a spatial anthropological one , can be constructed to review and respond to spatial form of human settlements based on research theories and methods of cultural anthropology within the profession of architecture. This article interprets how the typical spatial form of human settlements in the basin area of Bac Giang Province is formed under the collective impacts of local social order, land use condition, topographic features, and social contracts. A particular case of the settlement in Sizhai Village, City of Zhuji, Zhejiang Province is chosen to study for research purpose. Spatial form of human settlements are interpreted as a modeled integrity affected corporately by dominant economy, social patterns, key symbol marks and core values, etc.. Spatial form of human settlements, being a structured existence, is a materialized, behavioral, and social space; it can be considered as a place where human beings realize their behaviors and a path on which the continuity of their behaviors are kept, also for social practice a territory where currant social structure and social relationships are maintained, strengthened and rebuilt. This article aims to break the boundary of understanding that spatial form of human settlements is pure physical space, furthermore, endeavors to highlight the autonomy status of human beings, focusing on their relationships with certain territories, their interpersonal relationships, man-earth relationships and the state of existence of human beings, elaborating the deeper connotation behind spatial form of human settlements.

Keywords: spatial anthropology, human settlement, spatial pattern, spatial structure

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57 Neuroecological Approach for Anthropological Studies in Archaeology

Authors: Kalangi Rodrigo

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The term Neuroecology elucidates the study of customizable variation in cognition and the brain. Subject marked the birth since 1980s, when researches began to apply methods of comparative evolutionary biology to cognitive processes and the underlying neural mechanisms of cognition. In Archaeology and Anthropology, we observe behaviors such as social learning skills, innovative feeding and foraging, tool use and social manipulation to determine the cognitive processes of ancient mankind. Depending on the brainstem size was used as a control variable, and phylogeny was controlled using independent contrasts. Both disciplines need to enriched with comparative literature and neurological experimental, behavioral studies among tribal peoples as well as primate groups which will lead the research to a potential end. Neuroecology examines the relations between ecological selection pressure and mankind or sex differences in cognition and the brain. The goal of neuroecology is to understand how natural law acts on perception and its neural apparatus. Furthermore, neuroecology will eventually lead both principal disciplines to Ethology, where human behaviors and social management studies from a biological perspective. It can be either ethnoarchaeological or prehistoric. Archaeology should adopt general approach of neuroecology, phylogenetic comparative methods can be used in the field, and new findings on the cognitive mechanisms and brain structures involved mating systems, social organization, communication and foraging. The contribution of neuroecology to archaeology and anthropology is the information it provides on the selective pressures that have influenced the evolution of cognition and brain structure of the mankind. It will shed a new light to the path of evolutionary studies including behavioral ecology, primate archaeology and cognitive archaeology.

Keywords: Neuroecology, Archaeology, Brain Evolution, Cognitive Archaeology

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56 Real Fictions: Converging Landscapes and Imagination in an English Village

Authors: Edoardo Lomi

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A problem of central interest in anthropology concerns the ethnographic displacement of modernity’s conceptual sovereignty over that of native collectives worldwide. Part of this critical project has been the association of Western modernity with a dualist, naturalist ontology. Despite its demonstrated value for comparative work, this association often comes at the cost of reproducing ideas that lack an empirical ethnographic basis. This paper proposes a way forward by bringing to bear some of the results produced by an ethnographic study of a village in Wiltshire, South England. Due to its picturesque qualities, this village has served for decades as a ready-made set for fantasy movies and a backdrop to fictional stories. These forms of mediation have in turn generated some apparent paradoxes, such as fictitious characters that affect actual material changes, films that become more real than history, and animated stories that, while requiring material grounds to unfold, inhabit a time and space in other respects distinct from that of material processes. Drawing on ongoing fieldwork and interviews with locals and tourists, this paper considers the ways villagers engage with fiction as part of their everyday lives. The resulting image is one of convergence, in the same landscape, of people and things having different ontological status. This study invites reflection on the implications of this image for diversifying our imagery of Western lifeworlds. To this end, the notion of ‘real fictions’ is put forth, connecting the ethnographic blurring of modernist distinctions–such as sign and signified, mind and matter, materiality and immateriality–with discussions on anthropology’s own reliance on fictions for critical comparative work.

Keywords: England, ethnography, landscape, modernity, mediation, ontology, post-structural theory

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55 Following the Caravans: Interdisciplinary Study to Integrate Chinese and African Relations in Ethiopia

Authors: E. Mattio

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The aim of this project is to study the Chinese presence in Ethiopia, following the path of the last salt caravans from Danakil to Tigray region. Official estimates of the number of Chinese in Africa vary widely; on the continent, there are increasingly diverse groups of Chinese migrants in terms of language, dialect, class, education, and employment. Based on this and on a very general state of the art, it was decided to increase the studies on this phenomenon, documenting the extraction of salt and following the sellers in the north of the country. The project is unique and allows you to admire a landscape that will soon change, due to the construction of infrastructure that is changing the dynamics of movement and sales. To carry out this study, interdisciplinary investigation methods were integrated, such as landscape archeology, historiographic research, participatory anthropology, geopolitics, and cultural anthropology and ethnology. There are two main objectives of the research. The first was an analysis of risk perceptions to predict what will happen to these populations and how the territory will be modified, trying to monitor the growth of infrastructure in the country and the effects it will have on the population. Thanks to the use of GIS, some roads created by Chinese companies that worked in the area have been georeferenced. The second point was to document the life and rituals of Ethiopian populations, in order not to lose the aspects of uniqueness that risk being lost. The local interviews have garnered impressions and criticisms from the local population to understand whether the Chinese presence is perceived as a threat or a solution. Among the most exclusive interviews, there are those made to Afar leaders in the Logya area and some Coptic representatives in the Wukro area. To make this project even more unique, the Coptic rituals of Gennà and Timkat have been documented, unique expressions of a millennial tradition. The aim was to understand whether the Maoist presence began to influence the religious rites and forms of belief present in the country.

Keywords: China, Ethiopia, GIS, risk perceptions

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54 Offloading Knowledge-Keeping to Digital Technology and the Attrition of Socio-Cultural Life

Authors: Sophia Melanson Ricciardone

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Common vexations concerning the impact of contemporary media technology on our daily lives tend to conjure mental representations of digital specters that surreptitiously invade the privacy of our most intimate spaces. While legitimacy assuredly sustains these concerns, examining them in isolation from other attributable phenomena to the problems created by our hyper-mediated conditions does not supply a complete account of the deleterious cost of integrating digital affordances into the banal cadence of our shared socio-cultural realities. As we continue to subconsciously delegate facets of our social and cognitive lives to digital technology, the very faculties that have enabled our species to thrive and invent technology in the first place are at risk of attrition – namely our capacity to sustain attention while synthesizing information in working memory to produce creative and inventive constructions for our shared social existence. Though the offloading of knowledge-keeping to fellow social agents belonging to our family and community circles is an enduring intuitive phenomenon across human societies – what social psychologists refer to as transactive memory – in offloading our various socio-cognitive faculties to digital technology, we may plausibly be supplanting the visceral social connections forged by transactive memory. This paper will present related research and literature produced across the disciplines of sociobiology, socio-cultural anthropology, social psychology, cognitive semiotics and communication and media studies that directly and indirectly address the social precarity cultivated by digital technologies. This body of scholarly work will then be situated within common areas of interest belonging to digital anthropology, including the groundbreaking work of Pavel Curtis, Christopher Kelty, Lynn Cherny, Vincent Duclos, Nick Seaver, and Sherry Turkle. It is anticipated that in harmonizing these overlapping areas of intradisciplinary interest, this paper can weave together the disparate connections across spheres of knowledge that help delineate the conditions of our contemporary digital existence.

Keywords: cognition, digital media, knowledge keeping, transactive memory

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53 From Service to Ritual: Preliminary Development on Conceptual Framework for Designing Ritual

Authors: Yi-Jing Lee

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Prior to the development of ritual design tool and framework, this paper establishes a systematic review on the studies related to ritual and ritual design across anthropology, consumer culture, marketing, and design. It is found that following symbolic anthropologists, the ethnographic approach was adapted by consumer culture researchers to study modern rituals and marketers to enhance consumption. In the domain of design, although there are already designers aware of the importance of ritualistic dimension of human interaction, there are little frameworks for conceptualizing and developing rituals. The conceptualized framework and developing tools is proposed and suggestions of applying it is made in the end of the paper.

Keywords: ritual, ritual design, service design, symbolic interaction

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52 Dangerous Words: A Moral Economy of HIV/AIDS in Swaziland

Authors: Robin Root

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A fundamental premise of medical anthropology is that clinical phenomena are simultaneously cultural, political, and economic: none more so than the linked acronyms HIV/AIDS. For the medical researcher, HIV/AIDS signals an epidemiological pandemic and a pathophysiology. For persons diagnosed with an HIV-related condition, the acronym often conjures dread, too often marking and marginalizing the afflicted irretrievably. Critical medical anthropology is uniquely equipped to theorize the linkages that bind individual and social wellbeing to global structural and culture-specific phenomena. This paper reports findings from an anthropological study of HIV/AIDS in Swaziland, site of the highest HIV prevalence in the world. The project, initiated in 2005, has documented experiences of HIV/AIDS, religiosity, and treatment and care as well as drought and famine. Drawing on interviews with Swazi religious and traditional leaders about their experiences of leadership amidst worsening economic conditions, environmental degradation, and an ongoing global health crisis, the paper provides uncommon insights for global health practitioners whose singular paradigm for designing and delivering interventions is biomedically-based. In contrast, this paper details the role of local leaders in mediating extreme social suffering and resilience in ways that medical science cannot model but which radically impact how sickness is experienced and health services are delivered and accessed. Two concepts help to organize the paper’s argument. First, a ‘moral economy of language’ is central to showing up the implicit ‘technologies of knowledge’ that inhere in scientific and religious discourses of HIV/AIDS; people draw upon these discourses strategically to navigate highly vulnerable conditions. Second, Paulo Freire’s ethnographic focus on a culture’s 'dangerous words' opens up for examination how ‘sex’ is dangerous for religion and ‘god’ is dangerous for science. The paper interrogates hegemonic and ‘lived’ discourses, both biomedical and religious, and contributes to an important literature on the moral economies of health, a framework of explication and, importantly, action appropriate to a wide-range of contemporary global health phenomena. The paper concludes by asserting that it is imperative that global health planners reflect upon and ‘check’ their hegemonic policy platforms by, one, collaborating with local authoritative agents of ‘what sickness means and how it is best treated,’ and, two, taking account of the structural barriers to achieving good health.

Keywords: Africa, biomedicine, HIV/AIDS, qualitative research , religion

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51 Disaggregating Communities and the Making of Factional States: Evidence from Joint Forest Management in Sundarban, India

Authors: Amrita Sen

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In the face of a growing insurgent movement and the perceived failure of the state and the market towards sustainable resource management, a range of decentralized forest management policies was formulated in the last two decades, which recognized the need for community representations within the statutory methods of forest management. The recognition conceded on the virtues of ecological sustainability and traditional environmental knowledge, which were considered to be the principal repositories of the forest dependent communities. The present study, in the light of empirical insights, reflects on the contemporary disjunctions between the preconceived communitarian ethic in environmentalism and the lived reality of forest based life-worlds. Many of the popular as well as dominant ideologies, which have historically shaped the conceptual and theoretical understanding of sociology, needs further perusal in the context of the emerging contours of empirical knowledge, which lends opportunities for substantive reworking and analysis. The image of the community appears to be one of those concepts, an identity which has for long defined perspectives and processes associated with people living together harmoniously in small physical spaces. Through an ethnographic account of the implementation of Joint Forest Management (JFM) in a forest fringe village in Sundarban, the study explores the ways in which the idea of ‘community’ gets transformed through the process of state-making, rendering the necessity of its departure from the standard, conventional definition of homogeneity and internal equity. The study necessitates an attention towards the anthropology of micro-politics, disaggregating an essentially constructivist anthropology of ‘collective identities’, which can render the visibility of political mobilizations plausible within the seemingly culturalist production of communities. The two critical questions that the paper seeks to ask in this context are: how the ‘local’ is constituted within community based conservation practices? Within the efforts of collaborative forest management, how accurately does the depiction of ‘indigenous environmental knowledge’, subscribe to its role of sustainable conservation practices? Reflecting on the execution of JFM in Sundarban, the study critically explores the ways in which the state ceases to be ‘trans-national’ and interacts with the rural life-worlds through its local factions. Simultaneously, the study attempts to articulate the scope of constructing a competing representation of community, shaped by increasing political negotiations and bureaucratic alignments which strains against the usual preoccupations with tradition primordiality and non material culture as well as the amorous construction of indigeneity.

Keywords: community, environmentalism, JFM, state-making, identities, indigenous

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50 Nuances of Urban Ecology in the Present Global Scenario: Scope, Issues, Challenges and Implications

Authors: Meenakshi Pappu

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The term, 'urban ecology' has often been misconstrued by the educational practitioners as well as the researchers as a study under a single discipline i.e., the environmental sciences. One who has done research extensively in this study would always argue that urban ecology is not a study under a single discipline, but it is a study across disciplines such as social sciences and other sciences like architecture, engineering, planning, ecology, geography, biology, economics, sociology, anthropology, psychology and health sciences. The aim of this paper is to discuss at length the scope of Urban Ecology as an interdisciplinary study. The paper highlights the nuances of urban ecology as a study across disciplines and the challenges and the implications it holds for future research by conducting a qualitative survey in the particular areas.

Keywords: educational practitioners, interdisciplinary, researchers, urban ecology

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49 Growth of New Media Advertising

Authors: Palwinder Bhatia

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As all know new media is a broad term in media studies that emerged in the latter part of the 20th century which refers to on-demand access to content any time, anywhere, on any digital device, as well as interactive user feedback, creative participation and community formation around the media content. The role of new media in advertisement is impeccable these days. It becomes the cheap and best way of advertising. Another important promise of new media is the democratization of the creation, publishing, distribution and consumption of media content. New media brings a revolution in about every field. It makes bridge between customer and companies. World make a global village with the only help of new media. Advertising helps in shaping the consumer behavior and effect on consumer psychology, sociology, social anthropology and economics. People do comments and like the particular brands on the networking sites which create mesmerism impact on the behavior of customer. Recent study did by Times of India shows that 64% of Facebook users have liked a brand on Facebook.

Keywords: film, visual, culture, media, advertisement

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48 Refuge(e)s in Digital Diaspora: Reimagining and Reimaging ‘Ethnically Cleansed’ Villages as ‘Cyber Villages’

Authors: Hariz Halilovich

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Based on conventional and digital ethnography, this paper discusses the ways Bosnian refugees utilise digital technologies and new media to recreate, synchronise and sustain their identities and memories in the aftermath of ‘ethnic cleansing’ and genocide and in the contexts of their new emplacements and home-making practices in diaspora. In addition to discussing representations of displacement and emplacement in the ‘digital age’, the paper also aims to make a contribution to the understanding and application of digital ethnography as an emerging method of inquiry in anthropology and related social science disciplines. While some researchers see digital ethnography as an exclusively online–based research, the author of this paper argues that it is critical to understand the online world in the context of the real world—made of real people, places, and social relations.

Keywords: Bosnia, cyber villages, digital diaspora, refugees

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47 Educational Theatre Making Project: Prior Conditions

Authors: Larisa Akhmylovskaia, Andriana Barysh

Abstract:

The present paper is introducing the translation score developing methodology and methods in the cross-cultural communication. The ideas and examples presented by the authors illustrate the universal character of translation score developing methods under analysis. Personal experience in the international theatre-making projects, opera laboratories, cross-cultural master-classes give more opportunities to single out the conditions, forms, means and principles of translation score developing as well as the translator/interpreter’s functions as cultural liaison for multiethnic collaboration.

Keywords: methodology of translation score developing, pre-production, analysis, production, post-production, ethnic scene theory, theatre anthropology, laboratory, master-class, educational project, academic project, participant observation, super-objective

Procedia PDF Downloads 432
46 Patterns of Positive Feedback Formation in the System of Online Action

Authors: D. Gvozdikov

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is an attempt to describe an online action as a system that combines disjointed events and behavioral chains into a whole. The research focuses on patterns of naturally-formed chains of actions united by an orientation towards the online environment. A key characteristic of the system of online action is that it acts as an attractor for separate actions and chains of behavioral repertoire accumulating time and efforts made by users. The article demonstrates how the chains of online-offline actions are combined into a single pattern due to a simple identifiable mechanism, a positive feedback system. Using methods of digital ethnography and analyzing the content of the Instagram application and media blogs, the research reveals how through the positive feedback mechanism the entire system of online action acquires stability and can expand involving new spheres of human activity.

Keywords: digital anthropology, internet studies, systems theory, social media

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45 The Latest Salt Caravans: The Chinese Presence between Danakil and Tigray: Interdisciplinary Study to Integrate Chinese and African Relations in Ethiopia: Analyzing Road Evolution and Ethnographic Contexts

Authors: Erika Mattio

Abstract:

The aim of this project is to study the Chinese presence in Ethiopia, in the area between the Saba River and the Coptic areas of the Tigray, with detailed documentation of the Danakil region, from which the salt pickers caravans departed; the study was created to understand the relationships and consequences of the Chinese advance in these areas, inhabited by tribes linked to ancient, still practiced religious rituals, and home to unique landscapes and archaeological sites. Official estimates of the number of Chinese in Africa vary widely; on the continent, there are increasingly diverse groups of Chinese migrants in terms of language, dialect, class, education, and employment. Based on this and on a very general state of the art, it was decided to increase the studies on this phenomenon, focusing the attention on one of the most interesting countries for its diversity, cultural wealth, and for strong Chinese presence: Ethiopia. The study will be integrated with interdisciplinary investigation methods, such as landscape archeology, historiographic research, participatory anthropology, geopolitics, and cultural anthropology and ethnology. There are two main objectives of the research. The first is to predict what will happen to these populations and how the territory will be modified, trying to monitor the growth of infrastructure in the country and the effects it will have on the population. Risk analyzes will be carried out to understand what the foreign presence may entail, such as the absence of sustenance for local populations, the ghettoization of foreigners, unemployment of natives and the exodus of the population to the capital; the relationships between families and the local population will be analyzed, trying to understand the dynamics of socialization and interaction. Thanks to the use of GIS, the areas affected by the Chinese presence will be geo-referenced and mapped, delimiting the areas most affected and creating a risk analysis, both in desert areas and in archaeologically and historically relevant areas. The second point is to document the life and rituals of Ethiopian populations in order not to lose the aspects of uniqueness that risk being lost. Local interviews will collect impressions and criticisms from the local population to understand if the Chinese presence is perceived as a threat or as a solution. Furthermore, Afar leaders in the Logya area will be interviewed, in truly exclusive research, to understand their links with the foreign presence. From the north, along the Saba river, we will move to the northwest, in the Tigray region, to know the impressions in the Coptic area, currently less threatened by the Chinese presence but still affected by urbanization proposals. There will also be documented the Coptic rituals of Gennà and Timkat, unique expressions of a millennial tradition. This will allow the understanding of whether the Maoist presence could influence the religious rites and forms of belief present in the country, or the country will maintain its cultural independence.

Keywords: Ethiopia, GIS, risk perceptions, salt caravans

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44 Pastoral Care and Counseling and Psychology as Sciences of Human Caring: Exploring the Interconnectedness of the Two Disciplines

Authors: Baloyi Gift Tlharihani

Abstract:

This paper explores the relationship between pastoral care and counselling and psychology. It will critically review the variety of views and debates regarding this relationship while acknowledging the different sides of the debates on the sameness and difference of these notions, this paper argues for the inevitable interconnectedness of the two. There has always been a close relationship, between pastoral care and counselling and psychology, although these are two totally different notions. Even though pastoral care and counselling are thought of as more spiritually focused and psychology with emotional and mental challenges, the components that connect these two sciences are represented by the care of human being. Therefore, this paper is interested in the interconnectedness of these two science as they both makes a vital contribution to human caring. It indicates that whether we take the dualistic difference between the body and soul, the trichotomous difference between the body, soul and spirit, our essential nature is found in the unity of those constituent elements.

Keywords: anthropology, human care, pastoral care and counseling, psychology

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43 The Play Translator’s Score Developing: Methodology for Intercultural Communication

Authors: Akhmylovskaia Larisa, Barysh Andriana

Abstract:

The present paper is introducing the translation score developing methodology and methods in the cross-cultural communication. The ideas and examples presented by the authors illustrate the universal character of translation score developing methods under analysis. Personal experience in the international theatre-making projects, opera laboratories, cross-cultural master-classes, movie and theatre festivals give more opportunities to single out the conditions, forms, means and principles of translation score developing as well as the translator/interpreter’s functions as cultural liaison for multiethnic collaboration.

Keywords: methodology of translation score developing, pre-production, analysis, production, post-production, ethnic scene theory, theatre anthropology, laboratory, master-class, educational project, academic project, Stanislavski terminology meta-language, super-objective, participant observation

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
42 Georgiana G. King’s the Way of Saint James a Pioneer Cultural Guide of a Pilgrimage Route

Authors: Paula Pita Galán

Abstract:

In 1920 Georgiana Goddard King, an Art Historian and Professor at Bryn Mawr College (PA, USA) published The Way of Saint James (New York: P.G. Putnam’s Sons), one of the earliest modern guides of this pilgrimage route. In its three volumes the author described the towns and villages crossed by the Camino, talking about the history, traditions, monuments, and the people that she had met during her own pilgrimage between 1911 and 1914, travelling with funds of the Hispanic Society of New York. The cultural interest that motivated the journey explains how King intertwines in her narration history, anthropology, geography, art history and religion, giving as a result a book targeted to intellectuals, curious travelers and tourist rather than to pilgrims, in a moment in which the pilgrimage to Santiago had almost disappeared as a practice. The Way of Saint James is barely known nowadays so the aim of this research is disseminate it, focusing on the modernity of its approach and pointing at the link that it has with Georgiana King’s understanding of art as a product of the culture and civilization that produces it.

Keywords: Spanish cultural heritage, Georgiana Goddard king, pilgrimage, the way of Saint James

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41 Sociolinguistics and Language Change

Authors: Banazzouz Halima

Abstract:

Throughout the ages, language has been viewed not only as a simple code of communicating information but rather as the most powerful and versatile medium of maintaining relationships with other people. While,by the end of the 18th century, such matters of scientific investigation concerning the study of human language began to occur under the scope of “Linguistics” generally defined as the scientific study of language. Linguistics, thus, provides a growing body of scientific knowledge about language which can guide the activity of the language teacher and student as well. Moreover,as times passed, the linguistic development engaged language in a broadly practiced academic discipline having relationship with other sciences such as: psychology, sociology, anthropology etc. Therefore, “Sociolinguistics” was given birth during the 1960’s. In fact, the given abstract is mainly linguistic, inserted under the scope of “Sociolinguistics” and by far it highlights on the process of linguistic variation and language change to show that all languages change through time and linguistic systems may vary from one speech community to another providing there is a sense of vitality where people of different parts of the globe may mutually and intelligibly communicate and comprehend each other.

Keywords: language change-sociolinguistics, social context-speech community, vitality of language, linguistic variation, urban dialectology, urban dialectology

Procedia PDF Downloads 556
40 Workplace Humor and Creativity in It Teams: A Conceptual Framework

Authors: Hima Elizabeth Mathew, V. VijayalakshmI

Abstract:

All of us know what it is like to experience humor. Humor and laughter are universal aspects of human experience, occurring in all cultures and virtually in all individuals throughout the world. For people today, the workplace is associated more with the cubicles they sit, than with the co-workers around them. With reference to the current generation and the work context, the paper aims to understand the concept of humor at the workplace and its influence on team creativity in organizations. Humor is a multi-disciplinary topic that has been investigated for many years by researchers from fields such as anthropology, psychology, physiology and linguistics but significantly less thoroughly by management researchers. Researchers in the field of creativity also had their initial focus on the individual differences leading to creativity. Although the studies yielded some important findings regarding creative people, it provided the little help to practitioners in helping people develop creativity and almost ignored the role of social environment in enhancing creativity. After a review the relevant literature of the key variables, a theoretical framework is proposed linking workplace humor, emotional contagion, and team creativity. The findings of the study are expected to help academicians gain clarity on Workplace Humor for future research.

Keywords: emotional contagion, humor, team creativity, workplace humor

Procedia PDF Downloads 396