Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 616

Search results for: learner autonomy

616 EFL Teacher Cognition and Learner Autonomy: An Exploratory Study into Algerian Teachers’ Understanding of Learner Autonomy

Authors: Linda Ghout

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The main aim of the present case study was to explore EFL teachers’ understanding of learner autonomy. Thus, it sought to uncover how teachers at the de Department of English, University of Béjaia, Algeria view the process of language learning, their learners’ roles, their own roles and their practices to promote learner autonomy. For data collection, firstly, a questionnaire was designed and administered to all the teachers in the department. Secondly, interviews were conducted with some volunteers for the sake of clarifying emerging issues and digging deeper into some of the teachers’ answers to the questionnaire. The analysis revealed interesting data pertaining to the teachers’ cognition and its effects on their teaching practices. With regard to their views of language learning, it seems that the participants hold discrete views which are in opposition with the principles of learner autonomy. The teachers seemed to have a limited knowledge of the characteristics of autonomous learners and autonomy- based methodology. When it comes to teachers’ practices to promote autonomy in their classes, the majority reported that the most effective way is to ask students to search for information on their own. However, in defining their roles in the EFL learning process, most of the respondents claimed that teachers should play the role of facilitators.

Keywords: English, learner autonomy, learning process, teacher cognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
615 Sociocultural Barriers to the Development of Autonomous Foreign Language Learning: Some Teaching Strategies to Overcome Such Challenges in a Mexican Context

Authors: Zaideth Zobeida Ponce Alonso, Laura Emilia Fierro Lopez, Maria del Rocio Dominguez Gaona

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The present study is part of the Master in Modern Languages at the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, and it aims to analyze how the sociocultural background might influence the development of learner autonomy in foreign language education in order to propose some strategies to overcome such challenges. Given the lack of research on the sociocultural barriers in learner autonomy in a Mexican context and the need to hear teachers’ voices about this issue, qualitative data was obtained from semi-structured interviews with six language teachers on their perspectives on learner autonomy, its application to the language classroom, and their experiences with Mexican and foreign learners/contexts in order to find out differences regarding learner autonomy. The results suggest three main sociocultural characteristics: preference for an authority figure, tendency towards collectivism, and low tolerance of ambiguity. Finally, nine strategies were proposed in order to help language teachers to deal with such sociocultural characteristics when fostering learner autonomy in the border city of Mexicali, where this study was carried out.

Keywords: learner autonomy, Mexican context, sociocultural influence, teachers' perspectives, teaching strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
614 University Lecturers' Attitudes towards Learner Autonomy in the EFL Context in Vietnam

Authors: Nhung T. Bui

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Part of the dilemma facing educational reforms in Vietnam as in other Asian contexts is how to encourage more independence in students’ learning approaches. Since 2005, the Ministry of Education and Training of Vietnam has included the students’ ability to learn independently in its national education objectives. While learner autonomy has been viewed as a goal in the teaching and learning English as a foreign language (EFL) and there has been a considerable literature on strategies to stimulate autonomy in learners, teachers’ voices have rarely been heard. Given that teachers play a central role in helping their students to be more autonomous, especially in an inherent Confucian heritage culture like Vietnam, their attitudes towards learner autonomy should be investigated before any practical implementations could be undertaken. This paper reports significant findings of a survey questionnaire with 262 lecturers of English from 5 universities in Hanoi, Vietnam giving opinions regarding the practices and prospects of learner autonomy in their classrooms. The study reveals that lecturers perceive they should be more responsible than their students in all class-related activities; they most appreciate their students’ ability to learn cooperatively and that they consider stimulating students’ interest as the most important teaching strategy to promote learner autonomy. Lecturers, then, are strongly suggested to gradually ‘empower’ their students through the application of out-of-classroom activities; of learning activities which requires collaboration and team spirit; and of activities which could boost students’ interest in learning English.

Keywords: English as a foreign language, higher education, learner autonomy, Vietnam

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
613 Developing Innovations in Classrom Teaching: Process or Product

Authors: Mani Ram Sharma

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We live in a busy world with sudden distractions and many things to think about. The rapid speed of science and technology keeps our world in constant motion. Students leaving the classroom after being taught by the teachers are thinking about a thousand things: "Did I understand what teacher taught?" However, when they come into the classroom, as teachers, we expect them to be ready to learn, ready to receive information, and retain it. There is a question that how can learners do this with so much in their learning process. It is obliviously with the use of innovation in the classroom. It fosters the students to learn innovatively to establish learner's autonomy. This article outlines the role, need, and process of innovation in the language classroom and teaching.

Keywords: distraction, foster, innovation, learner's autonomy, retainment

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
612 Self-Reliant and Auto-Directed Learning: Modes, Elements, Fields and Scopes

Authors: Habibollah Mashhady, Behruz Lotfi, Mohammad Doosti, Moslem Fatollahi

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An exploration of the related literature reveals that all instruction methods aim at training autonomous learners. After the turn of second language pedagogy toward learner-oriented strategies, learners’ needs were more focused. Yet; the historical, social and political aspects of learning were still neglected. The present study investigates the notion of autonomous learning and explains its various facets from a pedagogical point of view. Furthermore; different elements, fields and scopes of autonomous learning will be explored. After exploring different aspects of autonomy, it is postulated that liberatory autonomy is highlighted since it not only covers social autonomy but also reveals learners’ capabilities and human potentials. It is also recommended that learners consider different elements of autonomy such as motivation, knowledge, confidence, and skills.

Keywords: critical pedagogy, social autonomy, academic learning, cultural notions

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
611 Approaches and Strategies Used to Increase Student Engagement in Blended Learning Courses

Authors: Pinar Ozdemir Ayber, Zeina Hojeij

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Blended Learning (BL) is a rapidly growing teaching and learning approach, which brings together the best of both face-to-face and online learning to expand learning opportunities for students. However, there is limited research on the practices, opportunities and quality of instruction in Blended Classrooms, and on the role of the teaching faculty as well as the learners in these types of classes. This paper will highlight the researchers’ experiences and reflections on blending their classes. It will focus on the importance of designing effective lesson plans that emphasize learner engagement and motivation in alignment with course learning outcomes. In addition, it will identify the changing roles of the teacher and the learners and suggest appropriate variations to the traditional classroom setting taking into consideration the benefits and the challenges of the Blended Classroom. It is hoped that this paper would provide sufficient input for participants to reflect on ways they can blend their own lessons to promote ubiquitous learning and student autonomy. Practical tips and ideas will be shared with the participants on various strategies and technologies that were used in the researchers’ classes.

Keywords: blended learning, learner autonomy, learner engagement, learner motivation, mobile learning tools

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
610 The Use of Active Methodologies as a Means to Promote Autonomy and Motivation in English as a Foreign Language High School Students

Authors: Danielle Guerra, Marden Silva

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The use of active methodologies in the teaching of English has been widely encouraged recently, due to its potential to create propitious conditions for the learners to develop autonomy and studying skills that tend to keep them motivated throughout the learning process. The constant use of technology by the students makes it possible to implement strategies such as blended learning, which blends regular classes with online instruction and practice. (Horn and Staker, 2015) For that reason, the aim of this study was to implement the blended approach in a High School second-grade English class in Brazil, in order to analyze the impacts of this methodology on the students' autonomy. The teacher's role was that of a mediator, being responsible for selecting the best resources for students to study with, and also for helping them with questions when necessary. The results show that taking learner characteristics and learning experiences into account and allowing the students to follow their learning paths at their own pace was crucial to promoting engagement that led to the desired outcomes. In conclusion, the research shows that blended learning is a helpful strategy to foster autonomy and promote motivation in EFL students.

Keywords: active methodologies, autonomy, blended learning, motivation

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
609 A Survey of WhatsApp as a Tool for Instructor-Learner Dialogue, Learner-Content Dialogue, and Learner-Learner Dialogue

Authors: Ebrahim Panah, Muhammad Yasir Babar

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Thanks to the development of online technology and social networks, people are able to communicate as well as learn. WhatsApp is a popular social network which is growingly gaining popularity. This app can be used for communication as well as education. It can be used for instructor-learner, learner-learner, and learner-content interactions; however, very little knowledge is available on these potentials of WhatsApp. The current study was undertaken to investigate university students’ perceptions of WhatsApp used as a tool for instructor-learner dialogue, learner-content dialogue, and learner-learner dialogue. The study adopted a survey approach and distributed the questionnaire developed by Google Forms to 54 (11 males and 43 females) university students. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. The result of data analysis indicates that students have positive attitudes towards WhatsApp as a tool for Instructor-Learner Dialogue: it easy to reach the lecturer (4.07), the instructor gives me valuable feedback on my assignment (4.02), the instructor is supportive during course discussion and offers continuous support with the class (4.00). Learner-Content Dialogue: WhatsApp allows me to academically engage with lecturers anytime, anywhere (4.00), it helps to send graphics such as pictures or charts directly to the students (3.98), it also provides out of class, extra learning materials and homework (3.96), and Learner-Learner Dialogue: WhatsApp is a good tool for sharing knowledge with others (4.09), WhatsApp allows me to academically engage with peers anytime, anywhere (4.07), and we can interact with others through the use of group discussion (4.02). It was also found that there are significant positive correlations between students’ perceptions of Instructor-Learner Dialogue (ILD), Learner-Content Dialogue (LCD), Learner-Learner Dialogue (LLD) and WhatsApp Application in classroom. The findings of the study have implications for lectures, policy makers and curriculum developers.

Keywords: instructor-learner dialogue, learners-contents dialogue, learner-learner dialogue, whatsapp application

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
608 Autonomy not Automation: Using Metacognitive Skills in ESL/EFL Classes

Authors: Marina Paula Carreira Rolim

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In order to have ELLs take responsibility for their own learning, it is important that they develop skills to work their studies strategically. The less they rely on the instructor as the content provider, the more they become active learners and have a higher sense of self-regulation and confidence in the learning process. This e-poster proposes a new teacher-student relationship that encourages learners to reflect, think critically, and act upon their realities. It also suggests the implementation of different autonomy-supportive teaching tools, such as portfolios, written journals, problem-solving activities, and strategy-based discussions in class. These teaching tools enable ELLs to develop awareness of learning strategies, learning styles, study plans, and available learning resources as means to foster their creative power of learning outside of classroom. In the role of a learning advisor, the teacher is no longer the content provider but a facilitator that introduces skills such as ‘elaborating’, ‘planning’, ‘monitoring’, and ‘evaluating’. The teacher acts as an educator and promotes the use of lifelong metacognitive skills to develop learner autonomy in the ESL/EFL context.

Keywords: autonomy, metacognitive skills, self-regulation, learning strategies, reflection

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
607 Applying Sliding Autonomy for a Human-Robot Team on USARSim

Authors: Fang Tang, Jacob Longazo

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This paper describes a sliding autonomy approach for coordinating a team of robots to assist the human operator to accomplish tasks while adapting to new or unexpected situations by requesting help from the human operator. While sliding autonomy has been well studied in the context of controlling a single robot. Much work needs to be done to apply sliding autonomy to a multi-robot team, especially human-robot team. Our approach aims at a hierarchical sliding control structure, with components that support human-robot collaboration. We validated our approach in the USARSim simulation and demonstrated that the human-robot team's overall performance can be improved under the sliding autonomy control.

Keywords: sliding autonomy, multi-robot team, human-robot collaboration, USARSim

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
606 Learning for the Future: Flipping English Language Learning Classrooms for Future

Authors: Natarajan Hema, Tamilarasan Karunakaran

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Technology is remodeling the process of teaching and learning. An inflection point is faced where technological interventions are rewiring learning process in formal classrooms. Employment depends on dynamic learning capability. Transforming the functionalities of teaching-learning-assessment through innovation is needed to modify the roles of teacher to enabler and learner to the dynamic learner. This makeover is vital for English language teaching where English is acquired as a skill, exercised as ability and get stabilized as a competence. This reshaping could be achieved through providing autonomy to participants of learning. This paper explores parameters and components aiding such a transformation. The differentiated responsibilities and other critical learning support systems are projected as viable options. New age teaching practices are studied for feasibilities to aid transformation and being put forth an inter-operable teaching-learning system for a learner-centric ELT classrooms. LOTUS model developed by the authors is also studied for its inclusiveness to promote skill acquisition.

Keywords: ELT methodology, communicative competence, skill acquisition , new age teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
605 Did Nature of Job Matters - Impact of Perceived Job Autonomy on Turnover Intention in Sales and Marketing Managers: Moderating Effect of Procedural and Distributive Justice

Authors: Muhammad Babar Shahzad

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The purpose of our study is to investigate the relationship between perceived job autonomy and turnover intention in sales & marketing staff. Perceived job autonomy is considered one of most studied dimension of Job Characteristic Model. But still there is a confusion in scholars about predictive role of perceived job autonomy in turnover intention. In line of more complex research on this relation, we investigated the relationship between perceived job autonomy and turnover intention. Did nature of job have any impact on this relationship. On the call of different authors we take interactive effect of perceived job autonomy and procedural justice on turnover intention. Predictive role of distributive justice to employee outcomes is not deniable. But predictive role of distributive justice will be prone in different contextual influences. Interactive role of distributive justice and perceived job autonomy is also not tested before. We collected date from 279 marketing and sales managers working in financial institution, FMCG industries, Pharamesutical Industry & Bank. Strong and direct negative relation was found in perceived job autonomy, distributive justice & procedural justice on turnover intention. Distributive and procedural justice is also amplifying the negative relationship of perceived job autonomy and turnover intention. Limitation and future direction for research is also discussed.

Keywords: perceived job autonomy, turnover intention, procedural justice, distributive job

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604 Self-Regulated Learning: A Required Skill for Web 2.0 Internet-Based Learning

Authors: Pieter Conradie, M. Marina Moller

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Web 2.0 Internet-based technologies have intruded all aspects of human life. Presently, this phenomenon is especially evident in the educational context, with increased disruptive Web 2.0 technology infusions dramatically changing educational practice. The most prominent of these Web 2.0 intrusions can be identified as Massive Open Online Courses (Coursera, EdX), video and photo sharing sites (Youtube, Flickr, Instagram), and Web 2.0 online tools utilize to create Personal Learning Environments (PLEs) (Symbaloo (aggregator), Delicious (social bookmarking), PBWorks (collaboration), Google+ (social networks), Wordspress (blogs), Wikispaces (wiki)). These Web 2.0 technologies have supported the realignment from a teacher-based pedagogy (didactic presentation) to a learner-based pedagogy (problem-based learning, project-based learning, blended learning), allowing greater learner autonomy. No longer is the educator the source of knowledge. Instead the educator has become the facilitator and mediator of the learner, involved in developing learner competencies to support life-long learning (continuous learning) in the 21st century. In this study, the self-regulated learning skills of thirty first-year university learners were explored by utilizing the Online Self-regulated Learning Questionnaire. Implementing an action research method, an intervention was affected towards improving the self-regulation skill set of the participants. Statistical significant results were obtained with increased self-regulated learning proficiency, positively impacting learner performance. Goal setting, time management, environment structuring, help seeking, task (learning) strategies and self-evaluation skills were confirmed as determinants of improved learner success.

Keywords: andragogy, online self-regulated learning questionnaire, self-regulated learning, web 2.0

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
603 Autonomy in Teaching and Learning Subject-Specific Academic Literacy

Authors: Maureen Lilian Klos

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In this paper, the notion of autonomy in language teaching and learning is explored with a view to designing particular subject-specific academic literacy at higher education level, for mostly English second or third language learners at the Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. These courses that are contextualized in subject-specific fields studied by students in Arts, Education and Social Science Faculties aim to facilitate learners in the manipulation of cognitively demanding academic texts. However, classroom contact time for these courses is limited to one ninety sessions per week. Thus, learners need to be autonomously responsible for developing their own skills when manipulating and negotiating appropriate academic textual conventions. Thus, a model was designed to allow for gradual learner independence in language learning skills. Learners experience of the model was investigated using the Phenomenological Research Approach. Data in the form of individual written reflections and transcripts of unstructured group interviews were analyzed for themes and sub-themes. These findings are discussed in the article with a view to addressing the practical concerns of the learners in this case study.

Keywords: academic literacies, autonomy, language learning and teaching, subject-specific language

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
602 Human Dignity as a Source and Limitation of Personal Autonomy

Authors: Jan Podkowik

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The article discusses issues of mutual relationships of human dignity and personal autonomy. According to constitutions of many countries and international human rights law, human dignity is a fundamental and inviolable value. It is the source of all freedoms and rights, including personal autonomy. Human dignity, as an inherent, inalienable and non-gradable value comprising an attribute of all people, justifies freedom of action according to one's will and following one's vision of good life. On the other hand, human dignity imposes immanent restrictions to personal autonomy regarding decisions on commercialization of the one’s body, etc. It points to the paradox of dignity – the source of freedom and conditions (basic) of its limitations. The paper shows the theoretical concept of human dignity as an objective value among legal systems, determining the boundaries of legal protection of personal autonomy. It is not, therefore, the relevant perception of human dignity and freedom as opposite values. Reference point has been made the normative provisions of the Polish Constitution and the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms as well as judgments of constitutional courts.

Keywords: autonomy, constitution, human dignity, human rights

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
601 Using Assessment Criteria as a Pedagogic Tool to Develop Argumentative Essay Writing

Authors: Sruti Akula

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Assessment criteria are mostly used for assessing skills like writing and speaking. However, they could be used as a pedagogic tool to develop writing skills. A study was conducted with higher secondary learners (Class XII Kendriya Vidyalaya) to investigate the effectiveness of assessment criteria to develop argumentative essay writing. In order to raise awareness about the features of argumentative essay, assessment criteria were shared with the learners. Along with that, self-evaluation checklists were given to the learners to guide them through the writing process. During the study learners wrote multiple drafts with the help of assessment criteria, self-evaluation checklists and teacher feedback at different stages of their writing. It was observed that learners became more aware of the features of argumentative essay which in turn improved their argumentative essay writing. In addition the self evaluation checklists imporved their ability to reflect on their work there by increasing learner autonomy in the class. Hence, it can be claimed that both assessment criteria and self evaluation checklists are effective pedagogic tools to develop argumentative essay writing. Thus, teachers can be trained to create and use tools like assessment criteria and self-evaluation checklists to develop learners’ writing skills in an effective way. The presentation would discuss the approach adopted in the study to teach argumentative essay writing along with the rationale. The tools used in the study would be shared and the data collected in the form of written scripts, self-evaluation checklists and student interviews will be analyzed to validate the claims. Finally, the practical implication of the study like the ways of using assessment criteria and checklists to raise learner awareness and autonomy, using such tools to keep the learners informed about the task requirements and genre features, and the like will be put forward.

Keywords: argumentative essay writing, assessment criteria, self evaluation checklists, pedagogic

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600 School Autonomy in the United Kingdom: A Correlational Study Applied to English Principals

Authors: Pablo Javier Ortega-Rodriguez, Francisco Jose Pozuelos-Estrada

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Recently, there has been a renewed interest in school autonomy in the United Kingdom and its impact on students' outcomes. English principals have a pivotal role in decision-making. The aim of this paper is to explore the correlation between the type of school (public or private) and the considerable responsibilities of English principals which participated in PISA 2015. The final sample consisted of 419 principals. Descriptive data (percentages and means) were generated for the variables related to professional autonomy. Pearson's chi-square test was used to determine if there is an association between the type of school and principals' responsibilities for relevant tasks. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, version 22. Findings suggest a significant correlation between the type of school and principals' responsibility for firing teachers and formulating the school budget. This study confirms that the type of school is not associated with principals' responsibility for choosing which textbooks are used at school. The present study establishes a quantitative framework for defining four models of professional autonomy and some proposals to improve school autonomy in the United Kingdom.

Keywords: decision making, principals, professional autonomy, school autonomy

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599 Subsidiary Entrepreneurial Orientation, Trust in Headquarters and Performance: The Mediating Role of Autonomy

Authors: Zhang Qingzhong

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Though there exists an increasing number of research studies on the headquarters-subsidiary relationship, and within this context, there is a focus on subsidiaries' contributory role to multinational corporations (MNC), subsidiary autonomy, and the conditions under which autonomy exerts an effect on subsidiary performance still constitute a subject of debate in the literature. The objective of this research is to study the MNC subsidiary autonomy and performance relationship and the effect of subsidiary entrepreneurial orientation and trust on subsidiary autonomy in the China environment, a phenomenon that has not yet been studied. The research addresses the following three questions: (i) Is subsidiary autonomy associated with MNC subsidiary performance in the China environment? (ii) How do subsidiary entrepreneurship and its trust in headquarters affect the level of subsidiary autonomy and its relationship with subsidiary performance? (iii) Does subsidiary autonomy have a mediating effect on subsidiary performance with subsidiary’s entrepreneurship and trust in headquarters? In the present study, we have reviewed literature and conducted semi-structured interviews with multinational corporation (MNC) subsidiary senior executives in China. Building on our insights from the interviews and taking perspectives from four theories, namely the resource-based view (RBV), resource dependency theory, integration-responsiveness framework, and social exchange theory, as well as the extant articles on subsidiary autonomy, entrepreneurial orientation, trust, and subsidiary performance, we have developed a model and have explored the direct and mediating effects of subsidiary autonomy on subsidiary performance within the framework of the MNC. To test the model, we collected and analyzed data based on cross-industry two waves of an online survey from 102 subsidiaries of MNCs in China. We used structural equation modeling to test measurement, direct effect model, and conceptual framework with hypotheses. Our findings confirm that (a) subsidiary autonomy is positively related to subsidiary performance; (b) subsidiary entrepreneurial orientation is positively related to subsidiary autonomy; (c) subsidiary’s trust in headquarters has a positive effect on subsidiary autonomy; (d) subsidiary autonomy mediates the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and subsidiary performance; (e) subsidiary autonomy mediates the relationship between trust and subsidiary performance. Our study highlights the important role of subsidiary autonomy in leveraging the resource of subsidiary entrepreneurial orientation and its trust relationship with headquarters to achieve high performance. We discuss the theoretical and managerial implications of the findings and propose directions for future research.

Keywords: subsidiary entrepreneurial orientation, trust, subsidiary autonomy, subsidiary performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
598 Open Educational Resources (OER): Deciding upon Openness

Authors: Eunice H. Li

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This e-poster explores some of the issues that are linked to Open Educational Resources (OER). It describes how OER is explained by experts in the field and relates its value in attaining and using knowledge. ‘Open', 'open pedagogy', self-direction, freedom, and autonomy are the main issues identified for the discussion. All of these issues make essential contributions to OER in one way or another. Nevertheless, there are seemingly areas of contentions with regard to applying these concepts in teaching and learning practices. For this e-Poster, it is the teaching-learning aspects of OER that it is primarily concerned with. The basis for the discussion comes from a 2013 critique of OER presented by Jeremy Knox of the University of Edinburgh, tutor of the MSc in Digital Education Programme. This discussion is also supported by the analysis of other research work and papers in this area. The general view on OER is that it is a useful tool for the advancement of learner-centred models of education, but in whatever context, pedagogy cannot be diminished and overlooked. It should take into consideration how to deal with the issues identified above in order to allow learners to gain full benefit from OER.

Keywords: open, pedagogy, e-learning technologies, autonomy, knowledge

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597 The Interrelationship between Formal and Informal Institutions and Its Impacts on the Autonomy of Public Service Delivery Units: The Case of Vietnam

Authors: Minh Thi Hai Vo

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This article draws on in-depth interviews with state employees at public hospitals and universities in its institutional analysis of the autonomy practices of public service delivery units in Vietnam. Unlike many empirical and theoretical studies that view formal and informal institutions as complements or substitutes, this article finds no evidence of complementary or substitutive relationships. Instead, the article finds that formal institutions accommodate informal ones and that informal institutions tend to compete and interfere, with the existing and ineffective formal institutions. The result of such conflicting relationship is that the actual autonomy of public service delivery units is, in most cases, perceived to be greater than the formal autonomy they are given. In the condition of poor regulation, the informal autonomy may result in unethical practices including rent-seeking and corruption. The implication of the study finding is policy-makers need to redesign and reorganize the autonomisation of public service delivery units to make informal institutions support and reinforce formal ones in a complementary manner.

Keywords: autonomy, formal institutions, informal institutions, public service delivery units, Vietnam

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
596 Bangladeshi English Teachers’ Understanding of Teacher Autonomy

Authors: Rubaiyat Jahan

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This paper reports some findings of a study on the issues related to teacher autonomy in the Bangladeshi school contexts, and data of this research was collected from fourteen practicing English teachers of Bangladesh through semi structured interviews. The theoretical underpinning of teacher autonomy, on an apparent note, focuses on the behavioral aspects of teacher autonomy hence emphasizing mostly on the teachers’ capacity for self-directed acts of teaching and self-directed acts of professional development. Yet, a contemporary literature survey of teacher autonomy seems to be concerned more on the political interpretations of teacher autonomy. Thus, autonomous teachers are expected to generate their personal theories of teaching from their practices. The idea of personal theories of practice upholds the view that along with the teaching, teachers need to engage themselves in various classroom based research with a view to theorising from their practices. The findings of this research indicate enormous evidence of behavioral aspects of teacher autonomy. As the data of this research suggests, the participant teachers’ understanding of classroom situations, their reflections on the situational realities and opting for classroom decisions on the basis of those realizations are some good examples of teacher autonomy. Also, a few teachers’ stated teaching practices seem to reflect, though in a subtle way, their effort of outlining context embedded personal theories of teaching. This paper has got one significant pedagogical implication for the teacher education. Any teacher education must promote the conditions and capabilities for the present and prospective teachers for the role of theorisers in addition to develop their professional, procedural, and personal knowledge base.

Keywords: personal theories of practice, self-directed acts of professional development, self-directed acts of teaching, teacher autonomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
595 Autonomy and Other Variables Related to the Expression of Love among Saudi Couples

Authors: Reshaa Alruwaili

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The primary aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis presented by Self Determination theory which suggests that autonomy impacts positively the expression of love. Other hypotheses were also examined which suggest that other variables explain the expression of love, including: dyadic adjustment (dyadic consensus, dyadic satisfaction and dyadic cohesion), couple satisfaction, age, gender, the length of marriage, number of children and attachment styles. The participants were Saudi couples, which provided the opportunity to consider the influence of Saudi culture on the expression of love. A questionnaire was employed to obtain measures of all the relevant variables, including a measure of expression of love that was built from 27 items, constituting verbal, physical and caring features, and a measure of autonomy based on three features: authorship, interest-taking and susceptibility. Data were collected from both members of 34 Saudi couples. Descriptive analysis of both expression of love and autonomy was conducted. Correlation and regression were used to assess the relationships between expression of love and autonomy and other variables. Results indicated that Saudi couples who most often express their love tend to be more than somewhat autonomous. Not much difference was found between husbands and wives in expressing love, although wives were slightly more autonomous than husbands. Expression of love was enhanced by the autonomy of the participants to a greater extent when dyadic satisfaction was controlled, since the latter was negatively correlated with autonomy and had no effect on the expression of love. Basic psychological needs, dyadic consensus and dismissive-avoidant attachment improve the expression of love, while it is decreased by the number of children.

Keywords: autonomy, determination theory, expression of love, dyadic adjustment

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
594 Language Anxiety and Motivation as Predictors of English as a Foreign Language Achievement

Authors: Fakieh Alrabai

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The present study examines the predictive power of foreign language anxiety and motivation, as two significant affective variables, in English as a foreign language (EFL) achievement. It also explores the causal relationship between these two factors (i.e. which variable causes the other); and which one of them best predicts other affective factors including learner attitude, self-esteem, and autonomy. The study utilized experimental treatments among 210 Saudi EFL learners divided into four groups. Group 1 was exposed to anxiety-controlling moments, group 2 was exposed to motivational moments, group 3 was exposed to anxiety-controlling and motivational moments together, and group 4 was exposed to no specific anxiety or motivation strategies. The influence of the treatment on the study variables was evaluated using a triangulation of measurements including questionnaires, classroom observations, and achievement tests. Descriptive analysis, ANOVA, ANCOVA, and regression analyses have been deployed to figure out the study findings. While both motivation and anxiety significantly predicted learners EFL achievement, motivation has been found to be the best predictor of learners’ achievement; and therefore, operates as the mediator of EFL achievement.

Keywords: motivation, anxiety, achievement, autonomy

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593 Inductive Grammar, Student-Centered Reading, and Interactive Poetry: The Effects of Teaching English with Fun in Schools of Two Villages in Lebanon

Authors: Talar Agopian

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Teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) is a common practice in many Lebanese schools. However, ESL teaching is done in traditional ways. Methods such as constructivism are seldom used, especially in villages. Here lies the significance of this research which joins constructivism and Piaget’s theory of cognitive development in ESL classes in Lebanese villages. The purpose of the present study is to explore the effects of applying constructivist student-centered strategies in teaching grammar, reading comprehension, and poetry on students in elementary ESL classes in two villages in Lebanon, Zefta in South Lebanon and Boqaata in Mount Lebanon. 20 English teachers participated in a training titled “Teaching English with Fun”, which focused on strategies that create a student-centered class where active learning takes place and there is increased learner engagement and autonomy. The training covered three main areas in teaching English: grammar, reading comprehension, and poetry. After participating in the training, the teachers applied the new strategies and methods in their ESL classes. The methodology comprised two phases: in phase one, practice-based research was conducted as the teachers attended the training and applied the constructivist strategies in their respective ESL classes. Phase two included the reflections of the teachers on the effects of the application of constructivist strategies. The results revealed the educational benefits of constructivist student-centered strategies; the students of teachers who applied these strategies showed improved engagement, positive attitudes towards poetry, increased motivation, and a better sense of autonomy. Future research is required in applying constructivist methods in the areas of writing, spelling, and vocabulary in ESL classrooms of Lebanese villages.

Keywords: active learning, constructivism, learner engagement, student-centered strategies

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592 Autonomy in Healthcare Organisations: A Comparative Case Study of Middle Managers in England and Iran

Authors: Maryam Zahmatkesh

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Middle managers form a significant occupational category in organisations. They undertake a vital role, as they sit between the operational and strategic roles. Traditionally they were acting as diplomat administrators, and were only in power to meet the demands of professionals. Following the introduction of internal market, in line with the principles of New Public Management, middle managers have been considered as change agents. More recently, in the debates of middle managers, there is emphasis on entrepreneurialism and enacting strategic role. It was assumed that granting autonomy to the local organisations and the inception of semi-autonomous hospitals (Foundation Trusts in England and Board of Trustees in Iran) would give managers more autonomy to act proactively and innovatively. This thesis explores the hospital middle managers’ perception of and responses to public management reforms (in particular, hospital autonomy) in England and Iran. In order to meet the aims of the thesis, research was undertaken within the interpretative paradigm, in line with social constructivism. Data were collected from interviews with forty-five middle managers, observational fieldwork and documentary analysis across four teaching university hospitals in England and Iran. The findings show the different ways middle managers’ autonomy is constrained in the two countries. In England, middle managers have financial and human recourses, but their autonomy is constrained by government policy and targets. In Iran, middle managers are less constrained by government policy and targets, but they do not have financial and human resources to exercise autonomy. Unbalanced autonomy causes tension and frustration for middle managers. According to neo-institutional theory, organisations are deeply embedded within social, political, economic and normative settings that exert isomorphic and internal population-level pressures to conform to existing and established modes of operation. Health systems which are seeking to devolve autonomy to middle managers must appreciate the multidimensional nature of the autonomy, as well as the wider environment that organisations are embedded, if they are about to improve the performance of managers and their organisations.

Keywords: autonomy, healthcare organisations, middle managers, new public management

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591 Adaptive E-Learning System Using Fuzzy Logic and Concept Map

Authors: Mesfer Al Duhayyim, Paul Newbury

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This paper proposes an effective adaptive e-learning system that uses a coloured concept map to show the learner's knowledge level for each concept in the chosen subject area. A Fuzzy logic system is used to evaluate the learner's knowledge level for each concept in the domain, and produce a ranked concept list of learning materials to address weaknesses in the learner’s understanding. This system obtains information on the learner's understanding of concepts by an initial pre-test before the system is used for learning and a post-test after using the learning system. A Fuzzy logic system is used to produce a weighted concept map during the learning process. The aim of this research is to prove that such a proposed novel adapted e-learning system will enhance learner's performance and understanding. In addition, this research aims to increase participants' overall understanding of their learning level by providing a coloured concept map of understanding followed by a ranked concepts list of learning materials.

Keywords: adaptive e-learning system, coloured concept map, fuzzy logic, ranked concept list

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590 The Relationships between Autonomy-Based Insula Activity and Learning: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

Authors: Woogul Lee, Johnmarshall Reeve

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Learners’ perceived autonomy predicts learners’ interest, engagement, and learning. To understand these processes, we conducted an fMRI experiment. In this experiment, participants saw the national flag and were asked to rate how much they freely wanted to learn about that particular national flag. The participants then learned the characteristics of the national flag. Results showed that (1) the degree of participants’ perceived autonomy was positively correlated with the degree of insula activity, (2) participants’ early-trial insula activity predicted corresponding late-trial dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity, and (3) the degree of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity was positively correlated with the degree of participants’ learning about the characteristics of the national flag. Results suggest that learners’ perceived autonomy predicts learning through the mediation of insula activity associated with intrinsic satisfaction and 'pure self' processes.

Keywords: insular cortex, autonomy, self-determination, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

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589 Distance Training Packages on Providing for Learner with Special Needs

Authors: Jareeluk Ratanaphan

Abstract:

The purposed of this research were; 1.To survey the teacher’s needs on knowledge about special education management for special needs learner 2.To development of distance training packages on providing for learner with special needs. 3. To study the effects of using the packages on trainee’s achievement. 4. To study the effects of using the packages on trainee’s opinion on the distance training packages. The design of the experiment was research and development. The research sample for survey were 86 teachers, and 22 teachers for study the effects of using the packages on achievement and opinion. The research instrument comprised: 1) training packages on special education management for special needs learner 2) achievement test 3) questionnaire. Mean, percentage, standard deviation, t-test and content analysis were used for data analysis. The findings of the research were as follows: 1. The teacher’s needs on knowledge about teaching for learner with learning disability, mental retardation, autism, physical and health impairment and research in special education. 2. The package composed of special education management for special needs student document and manual of distance training packages. The efficiency of packages was established at 79.50/81.35. 3. The results of using the packages were the posttest average scores of trainee’s achievement were higher than pretest. 4. The trainee’s opinion on the package was at the highest level.

Keywords: distance training, training package, teacher, learner with special needs

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588 A Method for Consensus Building between Teachers and Learners in a Value Co-Creative Learning Service

Authors: Ryota Sugino, Satoshi Mizoguchi, Koji Kimita, Keiichi Muramatsu, Tatsunori Matsui, Yoshiki Shimomura

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Improving added value and productivity of services entails improving both value-in-exchange and value-in-use. Value-in-use is realized by value co-creation, where providers and receivers create value together. In higher education services, value-in-use comes from learners achieving learning outcomes (e.g., knowledge and skills) that are consistent with their learning goals. To enhance the learning outcomes of a learner, it is necessary to enhance and utilize the abilities of the teacher along with the abilities of the learner. To do this, however, the learner and the teacher need to build a consensus about their respective roles. Teachers need to provide effective learning content; learners need to choose the appropriate learning strategies by using the learning content through consensus building. This makes consensus building an important factor in value co-creation. However, methods to build a consensus about their respective roles may not be clearly established, making such consensus difficult. In this paper, we propose some strategies for consensus building between a teacher and a learner in value co-creation. We focus on a teacher and learner co-design and propose an analysis method to clarify a collaborative design process to realize value co-creation. We then analyze some counseling data obtained from a university class. This counseling aimed to build a consensus for value-in-use, learning outcomes, and learning strategies between the teacher and the learner.

Keywords: consensus building, value co-creation, higher education, learning service

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587 A Theoretical Framework of Patient Autonomy in a High-Tech Care Context

Authors: Catharina Lindberg, Cecilia Fagerstrom, Ania Willman

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Patients in high-tech care environments are usually dependent on both formal/informal caregivers and technology, highlighting their vulnerability and challenging their autonomy. Autonomy presumes that a person has education, experience, self-discipline and decision-making capacity. Reference to autonomy in relation to patients in high-tech care environments could, therefore, be considered paradoxical, as in most cases these persons have impaired physical and/or metacognitive capacity. Therefore, to understand the prerequisites for patients to experience autonomy in high-tech care environments and to support them, there is a need to enhance knowledge and understanding of the concept of patient autonomy in this care context. The development of concepts and theories in a practice discipline such as nursing helps to improve both nursing care and nursing education. Theoretical development is important when clarifying a discipline, hence, a theoretical framework could be of use to nurses in high-tech care environments to support and defend the patient’s autonomy. A meta-synthesis was performed with the intention to be interpretative and not aggregative in nature. An amalgamation was made of the results from three previous studies, carried out by members of the same research group, focusing on the phenomenon of patient autonomy from a patient perspective within a caring context. Three basic approaches to theory development: derivation, synthesis, and analysis provided an operational structure that permitted the researchers to move back and forth between these approaches during their work in developing a theoretical framework. The results from the synthesis delineated that patient autonomy in a high-tech care context is: To be in control though trust, co-determination, and transition in everyday life. The theoretical framework contains several components creating the prerequisites for patient autonomy. Assumptions and propositional statements that guide theory development was also outlined, as were guiding principles for use in day-to-day nursing care. Four strategies used by patients to remain or obtain patient autonomy in high-tech care environments were revealed: the strategy of control, the strategy of partnership, the strategy of trust, and the strategy of transition. This study suggests an extended knowledge base founded on theoretical reasoning about patient autonomy, providing an understanding of the strategies used by patients to achieve autonomy in the role of patient, in high-tech care environments. When possessing knowledge about the patient perspective of autonomy, the nurse/carer can avoid adopting a paternalistic or maternalistic approach. Instead, the patient can be considered to be a partner in care, allowing care to be provided that supports him/her in remaining/becoming an autonomous person in the role of patient.

Keywords: autonomy, caring, concept development, high-tech care, theory development

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