Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: observatory

20 Observatory of Sustainability of the Algarve Region for Tourism: Proposal for Environmental and Sociocultural Indicators

Authors: Miguel José Oliveira, Fátima Farinha, Elisa M. J. da Silva, Rui Lança, Manuel Duarte Pinheiro, Cátia Miguel


The Observatory of Sustainability of the Algarve Region for Tourism (OBSERVE) will be a valuable tool to assess the sustainability of this region. The OBSERVE tool is designed to provide data and maintain an up-to-date, consistent set of indicators defined to describe the region on the environmental, sociocultural, economic and institutional domains. This ongoing two-year project has the active participation of the Algarve’s stakeholders, since they were consulted and asked to participate in the discussion for the indicators proposal. The environmental and sociocultural indicators chosen must indicate the characteristics of the region and should be in alignment with other global systems used to monitor the sustainability. This paper presents a review of sustainability indicators systems that support the first proposal for the environmental and sociocultural indicators. Others constraints are discussed, namely the existing data and the data available in digital platforms in a format suitable for automatic importation to the platform of OBSERVE. It is intended that OBSERVE will be a valuable tool to assess the sustainability of the region of Algarve.

Keywords: Algarve, development, environmental indicators, observatory, sociocultural indicators, sustainability, tourism

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19 Community Observatory for Territorial Information Control and Management

Authors: A. Olivi, P. Reyes Cabrera


Ageing and urbanization are two of the main trends that characterize the twenty-first century. Its trending is especially accelerated in the emerging countries of Asia and Latin America. Chile is one of the countries in the Latin American region, where the demographic transition to ageing is becoming increasingly visible. The challenges that the new demographic scenario poses to urban administrators call for searching innovative solutions to maximize the functional and psycho-social benefits derived from the relationship between older people and the environment in which they live. Although mobility is central to people's everyday practices and social relationships, it is not distributed equitably. On the contrary, it can be considered another factor of inequality in our cities. Older people are a particularly sensitive and vulnerable group to mobility. In this context, based on the ageing in place strategy and following the social innovation approach within a spatial context, the "Community Observatory of Territorial Information Control and Management" project aims at the collective search and validation of solutions for the satisfaction of mobility and accessibility specific needs of urban aged people. Specifically, the Observatory intends to: i) promote the direct participation of the aged population in order to generate relevant information on the territorial situation and the satisfaction of the mobility needs of this group; ii) co-create dynamic and efficient mechanisms for the reporting and updating of territorial information; iii) increase the capacity of the local administration to plan and manage solutions to environmental problems at the neighborhood scale. Based on a participatory mapping methodology and on the application of digital technology, the Observatory designed and developed, together with aged people, a crowdsourcing platform for smartphones, called DIMEapp, for reporting environmental problems affecting mobility and accessibility. DIMEapp has been tested at a prototype level in two neighborhoods of the city of Valparaiso. The results achieved in the testing phase have shown high potential in order to i) contribute to establishing coordination mechanisms with the local government and the local community; ii) improve a local governance system that guides and regulates the allocation of goods and services destined to solve those problems.

Keywords: accessibility, ageing, city, digital technology, local governance

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18 An Extended Domain-Specific Modeling Language for Marine Observatory Relying on Enterprise Architecture

Authors: Charbel Aoun, Loic Lagadec


A Sensor Network (SN) is considered as an operation of two phases: (1) the observation/measuring, which means the accumulation of the gathered data at each sensor node; (2) transferring the collected data to some processing center (e.g., Fusion Servers) within the SN. Therefore, an underwater sensor network can be defined as a sensor network deployed underwater that monitors underwater activity. The deployed sensors, such as Hydrophones, are responsible for registering underwater activity and transferring it to more advanced components. The process of data exchange between the aforementioned components perfectly defines the Marine Observatory (MO) concept which provides information on ocean state, phenomena and processes. The first step towards the implementation of this concept is defining the environmental constraints and the required tools and components (Marine Cables, Smart Sensors, Data Fusion Server, etc). The logical and physical components that are used in these observatories perform some critical functions such as the localization of underwater moving objects. These functions can be orchestrated with other services (e.g. military or civilian reaction). In this paper, we present an extension to our MO meta-model that is used to generate a design tool (ArchiMO). We propose new constraints to be taken into consideration at design time. We illustrate our proposal with an example from the MO domain. Additionally, we generate the corresponding simulation code using our self-developed domain-specific model compiler. On the one hand, this illustrates our approach in relying on Enterprise Architecture (EA) framework that respects: multiple views, perspectives of stakeholders, and domain specificity. On the other hand, it helps reducing both complexity and time spent in design activity, while preventing from design modeling errors during porting this activity in the MO domain. As conclusion, this work aims to demonstrate that we can improve the design activity of complex system based on the use of MDE technologies and a domain-specific modeling language with the associated tooling. The major improvement is to provide an early validation step via models and simulation approach to consolidate the system design.

Keywords: smart sensors, data fusion, distributed fusion architecture, sensor networks, domain specific modeling language, enterprise architecture, underwater moving object, localization, marine observatory, NS-3, IMS

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17 Corporate Demography: An Unexplored Trend along the Latin American Context

Authors: Jesus Argueta


This study aims to explore the Business Demography Phenomena along the Central American context, through the examination of its theoretical background, and the revision of Central American corporations success stories, that will eventually guide this research towards the business Demography Key Performance Indicators, across the Central American Business Ambiance. Considering that this analysis will support the development of a Small and Medium Business Observatory over the Honduran commercial landscapes, as platform for the reinforcement of this global topic.

Keywords: business demography, economic dynamism, small, medium and large enterprises, corporate demography

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16 The Concentration of Selected Cosmogenic and Anthropogenic Radionuclides in the Ground Layer of the Atmosphere (Polar and Mid-Latitudes Regions)

Authors: A. Burakowska, M. Piotrowski, M. Kubicki, H. Trzaskowska, R. Sosnowiec, B. Myslek-Laurikainen


The most important source of atmospheric radioactivity are radionuclides generated as a result of the impact of primary and secondary cosmic radiation, with the nuclei of nitrogen oxygen and carbon in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. This creates about thirty radioisotopes of more than twenty elements. For organisms, the four of them are most important: ³H, ⁷Be, ²²Na, ¹⁴C. The natural radionuclides, which are present in Earth crust, also settle on dust and particles of water vapor. By this means, the derivatives of uranium and thorium, and long-life 40K get into the air. ¹³⁷Cs is the most widespread isotope, that is implemented by humans into the environment. To determine the concentration of radionuclides in the atmosphere, high volume air samplers were used, where the aerosol collection took place on a special filter fabric (Petrianov filter tissue FPP-15-1.5). In 2002 the high volume air sampler AZA-1000 was installed at the Polish Polar Observatory of the Polish Academy of Science in Hornsund, Spitsbergen (77°00’N, 15°33’E), designed to operate in all weather conditions of the cold polar region. Since 1991 (with short breaks) the ASS-500 air sampler has been working, which is located in Swider at the Kalinowski Geophysical Observatory of Geophysics Institute of the Polish Academy of Science (52°07’N, 21°15’E). The following results of radionuclides concentrations were obtained from both stations using gamma spectroscopy analysis: ⁷Be, ¹³⁷Cs, ¹³⁴Cs, ²¹⁰Pb, ⁴⁰K. For gamma spectroscopy analysis HPGe (High Purity Germanium) detector were used. These data were compared with each other. The preliminary results gave evidence that radioactivity measured in aerosols is not proportional to the amount of dust for both studied regions. Furthermore, the results indicate annual variability (seasonal fluctuations) as well as a decrease in the average activity of ⁷Be with increasing latitude. The content of ⁷Be in surface air also indicates the relationship with solar activity cycles.

Keywords: aerosols, air filters, atmospheric beryllium, environmental radionuclides, gamma spectroscopy, mid-latitude regions radionuclides, polar regions radionuclides, solar cycles

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15 Animated Movies and Violence: A Participant Observatory Research on Nigerian Children

Authors: Uchenna Bella Onu


Violence has become a deadly plague in Nigeria and is spreading at an alarming rate. There is every indication that in a normal person, violence is not inborn but learned. Animated movies, which are designed to amuse and entertain children may contain a level of violence. These violent animated movies may affect the susceptible minds of children. This paper examines the effect of selected animated movies on Nigerian children. Sample is on Nigerian children aged seven and below. Method explored is participant observation with visual arts and visual technologies in a natural and familiar environment. Visual arts are used to draw out the innermost feelings of the young children. Findings show that animated movies have strong effect on Nigerian children. Whether the effect will be negative or positive depends largely on the content of the animated movies.

Keywords: animated movies, drawings, Nigerian children, videos, violence

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14 Aesthetic Analysis and Socio-Cultural Significance of Eku Idowo and Anipo Masquerades of the Anetuno (Ebira Chao)

Authors: Lamidi Lawal Aduozava


Masquerade tradition is an indigenous culture of the Anetuno an extraction of the Ebira referred to as Ebira chao. This paper seeks to make aesthetic analysis of the masquerades in terms of their costumes and socio-cultural significance. To this end, the study examined and documented the functions and roles of Anipo and Idowo masquerades in terms of therapeutic, economic, prophetic and divination, entertainment, and funeral functions to the owner community(Eziobe group of families) in Igarra, Edo State of Nigeria, West Africa. For the purpose of data collection, focus group discussion, participatory, visual and observatory methods of data collection were used. All the data collected were aesthetically, descriptively and historically analyzed.

Keywords: Aesthetics, , Costume, , Masquerades, , Significance.

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13 The Galactic Magnetic Field in the Light of Starburst-Generated Ultrahigh-Energy Cosmic Rays

Authors: Luis A. Anchordoqui, Jorge F. Soriano, Diego F. Torres


Auger data show evidence for a correlation between ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and nearby starburst galaxies. This intriguing correlation is consistent with data collected by the Telescope Array, which have revealed a much more pronounced directional 'hot spot' in arrival directions not far from the starburst galaxy M82. In this work, we assume starbursts are sources of UHECRs, and we investigate the prospects to use the observed distribution of UHECR arrival directions to constrain galactic magnetic field models. We show that if the Telescope Array hot spot indeed originates on M82, UHECR data would place a strong constraint on the turbulent component of the galactic magnetic field.

Keywords: galactic magnetic field, Pierre Auger observatory, telescope array, ultra-high energy cosmic rays

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12 Seismic Activity in the Lake Kivu Basin: Implication for Seismic Risk Management

Authors: Didier Birimwiragi Namogo


The Kivu Lake Basin is located in the Western Branch of the East African Rift. In this basin is located a multitude of active faults, on which earthquakes occur regularly. The most recent earthquakes date from 2008, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2019. The cities of Bukabu and Goma in DR Congo and Giseyi in Rwanda are the most impacted by this intense seismic activity in the region. The magnitude of the strongest earthquakes in the region is 6.1. The 2008 earthquake was particularly destructive, killing several people in DR Congo and Rwanda. This work aims to complete the distribution of seismicity in the region, deduce areas of weakness and establish a hazard map that can assist in seismic risk management. Using the local seismic network of the Goma Volcano Observatory, the earthquakes were relocated, and their focus mechanism was studied. The results show that most of these earthquakes occur on active faults described by Villeneuve in 1938. The alignment of the earthquakes shows a pace that follows directly the directions of the faults described by this author. The study of the focus mechanism of these earthquakes, also shows that these are in particular normal faults whose stresses show an extensive activity. Such study can be used for the establishment of seismic risk management tools.

Keywords: earthquakes, hazard map, faults, focus mechanism

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11 Urban Heat Island Effects on Human Health in Birmingham and Its Mitigation

Authors: N. A. Parvin, E. B. Ferranti, L. A. Chapman, C. A. Pfrang


This study intends to investigate the effects of the Urban Heat Island on public health in Birmingham. Birmingham is located at the center of the West Midlands and its weather is Highly variable due to geographical factors. Residential developments, road networks and infrastructure often replace open spaces and vegetation. This transformation causes the temperature of urban areas to increase and creates an "island" of higher temperatures in the urban landscape. Extreme heat in the urban area is influencing public health in the UK as well as in the world. Birmingham is a densely built-up area with skyscrapers and congested buildings in the city center, which is a barrier to air circulation. We will investigate the city regarding heat and cold-related human mortality and other impacts. We are using primary and secondary datasets to examine the effect of population shift and land-use change on the UHI in Birmingham. We will also use freely available weather data from the Birmingham Urban Observatory and will incorporate satellite data to determine urban spatial expansion and its effect on the UHI. We have produced a temperature map based on summer datasets of 2020, which has covered 25 weather stations in Birmingham to show the differences between diurnal and nocturnal summer and annual temperature trends. Some impacts of the UHI may be beneficial, such as the lengthening of the plant growing season, but most of them are highly negative. We are looking for various effects of urban heat which is impacting human health and investigating mitigation options.

Keywords: urban heat, public health, climate change

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10 Effect of Porous Multi-Layer Envelope System on Effective Wind Pressure of Building Ventilation

Authors: Ying-Chang Yu, Yuan-Lung Lo


Building ventilation performance is an important indicator of indoor comfort. However, in addition to the geometry of the building or the proportion of the opening, the ventilation performance is also very much related to the actual wind pressure of the building. There are more and more contemporary building designs built with multi-layer exterior envelope. Due to ventilation and view observatory requirement, the porous outer layer of the building is commonly adopted and has a significant wind damping effect, causing the phenomenon of actual wind pressure loss. However, the relationship between the wind damping effect and the actual wind pressure is not linear. This effect can make the indoor ventilation of the building rationalized to reasonable range under the condition of high wind pressure, and also maintain a good amount of ventilation performance under the condition of low wind pressure. In this study, wind tunnel experiments were carried out to simulate the different wind pressures flow through the porous outer layer, and observe the actual wind pressure strength engage with the window layer to find the decreasing relationship between the damping effect of the porous shell and the wind pressure. Experiment specimen scale was designed to be 1:50 for testing real-world building conditions; the study found that the porous enclosure has protective shielding without affecting low-pressure ventilation. Current study observed the porous skin may damp more wind energy to ease the wind pressure under high-speed wind. Differential wind speed may drop the pressure into similar pressure level by using porous skin. The actual mechanism and value of this phenomenon will need further study in the future.

Keywords: multi-layer facade, porous media, wind damping, wind tunnel test, building ventilation

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9 Spectroscopic Relation between Open Cluster and Globular Cluster

Authors: Robin Singh, Mayank Nautiyal, Priyank Jain, Vatasta Koul, Vaibhav Sharma


The curiosity to investigate the space and its mysteries was dependably the main impetus of human interest, as the particle of livings exists from the "debut de l'Univers" (beginning of the Universe) typified with its few other living things. The sharp drive to uncover the secrets of stars and their unusual deportment was dependably an ignitor of stars investigation. As humankind lives in civilizations and states, stars likewise live in provinces named ‘clusters’. Clusters are separates into 2 composes i.e. open clusters and globular clusters. An open cluster is a gathering of thousand stars that were moulded from a comparable goliath sub-nuclear cloud and for the most part; contain Propulsion I (extremely metal-rich) and Propulsion II (mild metal-rich), where globular clusters are around gathering of more than thirty thousand stars that circles a galactic focus and basically contain Propulsion III (to a great degree metal-poor) stars. Futurology of this paper lies in the spectroscopic investigation of globular clusters like M92 and NGC419 and open clusters like M34 and IC2391 in different color bands by using software like VIREO virtual observatory, Aladin, CMUNIWIN, and MS-Excel. Assessing the outcome Hertzsprung-Russel (HR) diagram with exemplary cosmological models like Einstein model, De Sitter and Planck survey demonstrate for a superior age estimation of respective clusters. Colour-Magnitude Diagram of these clusters was obtained by photometric analysis in g and r bands which further transformed into BV bands which will unravel the idea of stars exhibit in the individual clusters.

Keywords: color magnitude diagram, globular clusters, open clusters, Einstein model

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8 Neonatal Mortality, Infant Mortality, and Under-five Mortality Rates in the Provinces of Zimbabwe: A Geostatistical and Spatial Analysis of Public Health Policy Provisions

Authors: Jevonte Abioye, Dylan Savary


The aim of this research is to present a disaggregated geostatistical analysis of the subnational provincial trends of child mortality variation in Zimbabwe from a child health policy perspective. Soon after gaining independence in 1980, the government embarked on efforts towards promoting equitable health care, namely through the provision of primary health care. Government intervention programmes brought hope and promise, but achieving equity in primary health care coverage was hindered by previous existing disparities in maternal health care disproportionately concentrated in urban settings to the detriment of rural communities. The article highlights policies and programs adopted by the government during the millennium development goals period between 1990-2015 as a response to the inequities that characterised the country’s maternal health care. A longitudinal comparative method for a spatial variation on child mortality rates across provinces is developed based on geostatistical analysis. Cross-sectional and time-series data was extracted from the World Health Organisation (WHO) global health observatory data repository, demographic health survey reports, and previous academic and technical publications. Results suggest that although health care policy was uniform across provinces, not all provinces received the same antenatal and perinatal services. Accordingly, provincial rates of child mortality growth between 1994 and 2015 varied significantly. Evidence on the trends of child mortality rates and maternal health policies in Zimbabwe can be valuable for public child health policy planning and public service delivery design both in Zimbabwe and across developing countries pursuing the sustainable development agenda.

Keywords: antenatal care, perinatal care, infant mortality rate, neonatal mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, millennium development goals, sustainable development agenda

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7 Groundwater Geophysical Studies in the Developed and Sub-Urban BBMP Area, Bangalore, Karnataka, South India

Authors: G. Venkatesha, Urs Samarth, H. K. Ramaraju, Arun Kumar Sharma


The projection for Groundwater states that the total domestic water demand for greater Bangalore would increase from 1,170 MLD in 2010 to 1,336 MLD in 2016. Dependence on groundwater is ever increasing due to rapid Industrialization & Urbanization. It is estimated that almost 40% of the population of Bangalore is dependent on groundwater. Due to the unscientific disposal of domestic and industrial waste generated, groundwater is getting highly polluted in the city. The scale of this impact will depend mainly upon the water-service infrastructure, the superficial geology and the regional setting. The quality of ground water is equally important as that of quantity. Jointed and fractured granites and gneisses constitute the major aquifer system of BBMP area. Two new observatory Borewells were drilled and lithology report has been prepared. Petrographic Analysis (XRD/XRF) and Water quality Analysis were carried out as per the standard methods. Petrographic samples were analysed by collecting chip of rock from the borewell for every 20ft depth, most of the samples were similar and samples were identified as Biotite-Gneiss, Schistose Amphibolite. Water quality analysis was carried out for individual chemical parameters for two borewells drilled. 1st Borewell struck water at 150ft (Total depth-200ft) & 2nd struck at 740ft (Total depth-960ft). 5 water samples were collected till end of depth in each borewell. Chemical parameter values such as, Total Hardness (360-348, 280-320) mg/ltr, Nitrate (12.24-13.5, 45-48) mg/ltr, Chloride (104-90, 70-70)mg/ltr, Fe (0.75-0.09, 1.288-0.312)mg/ltr etc. are calculated respectively. Water samples were analysed from various parts of BBMP covering 750 sq kms, also thematic maps (IDW method) of water quality is generated for these samples for Post-Monsoon season. The study aims to explore the sub-surface Lithological layers and the thickness of weathered zone, which indirectly helps to know the Groundwater pollution source near surface water bodies, dug wells, etc. The above data are interpreted for future ground water resources planning and management.

Keywords: lithology, petrographic, pollution, urbanization

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6 Emily Dickinson's Green Aesthetics: Mode Gakuen Cocoon Tower as the Anthropomorphic Architectural Representation in the Age of Anthropocene

Authors: Chia-Wen Kuo


Jesse Curran states that there is a "breath awareness" that "facilitates a present-minded capability" to catalyse an "epistemological rupture" in Emily Dickinson's poetry, particularly in the age of Anthropocene. In Dickinson's "Nature", non-humans are subjectified as nature ceases to be subordinated to human interests, and Dickinson's Eco-humility has driven us, readers, into mimicking nature for the making of a better world. In terms of sustainable architecture, Norman Foster is among the representatives who utilise BIM to reduce architectural waste while satiating the users' aesthetic craving for a spectacular skyline. Notably, the Gherkin - 30 St. Mary Axe in east-end London. In 2019, Foster and his team aspired to savour the London skyline with his new design - the Tulip, which has been certified by the LEED as a legitimate green building as well as a complementary extension of the Gherkin. However, Foster's proposition had been denied for numerous times by the mayor Sadiq Khan and the city council as the Tulip cannot blend in the public space around while its observatory functions like a surveillance platform. The Tulip, except for its aesthetic idiosyncrasy, fails to serve for the public good other than another ostentatious tourist attraction in London. The architectural team for Mode Gakuen Cocoon tower, completed in 2008, intended to honour Nature with the symbolism in the building's aesthetic design. It serves as an architectural cocoon that nurtures the students of "Special Technology and Design College" inside. The building itself turns into a Dickinsonian anthropomorphism, where humans are made humble to learn from the entomological beings for self-betterment in the age of Anthropocene. Despite bearing resemblance to a tulip as well as its LEED credential, Norman Foster’s Tulip merely pays tribute to the Nature in a relatively superficial manner without constructing an apparatus that substantially benefit the Londoners as all green cities should embrace Emily Dickinson’s “breath awareness” and be built and treated as an extensive as well as expansive form of biomimicry.

Keywords: green city, sustianable architecture, London, Tokyo

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5 Cultural Routes: A Study of Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs

Authors: Zeynep İnan Ocak, Gülsün Tanyeli


One of the most important architectural types of Islamic architecture is madrasah used as educational institutions, hospital or observatory. This type of buildings has one or two storeys, central open or closed courtyards, four iwans and students cells located among the iwans. The main characteristic of the designs featured in the portals. The Islamic art features and adornments are seen well on these buildings made of stone. The earliest examples date to late 12th century in Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert. Under the Seljuks rule over the one thousand facilities were built in 12th and 13th centuries and there are one hundred thirty five madrasah in total list. But today no all of them are conserved only forty percent are remained. The Seljuks madrasah located in many Anatolian were registered as immovable cultural property in several times by Turkish Culture and Tourism Ministry. The first Turkish buildings inscribed on the World Heritage List are the Great Mosque and Hospital of Divriği in 1985. Also the nominated site named as Anatolian Seljuks Madrasah is in the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage in 2014. The property is composed some of notable madrasah such as İnce Minareli Madrasah and Karatay Madrasah in Konya; Çifte Madrasah and Sahibiye Madrasah in Kayseri; Buruciye Madrasah, Çifte Minareli Madrasah and Gök Madrasah in Sivas; Çifte Minareli Madrasah and Yakutiye Madrasah in Erzurum; Cacabey Madrasah in Kirşehir. Certainly the advantage of tourism is important for conducting the preservation of heritage. It offers much kind of cultural heritage products by means of visiting monuments. In spite of advantage of tourism, it can be the negative effects of tourism on sites and places of cultural significance. While assisting and guiding the conservation works of madrasah, it should be get reference to international charters and other doctrinal texts about the relation between heritage and tourism. Thereby the monuments will be conserved in good condition promoting by tourism. It should be plan a project about the correlation of visitors and heritage to focus on theme of Seljuks architecture. This study aims to set out the principles about the conservation of madrasah as world heritage taking advantages of tourism. The madrasah as a heritage should be evaluated not only a monument but also cultural route. So the cultural route for madrasah is determined by means of a journey through space and time, how the heritage of the different Anatolian cities. Also the cultural route is created visiting both the madrasah and the other medieval structures. In this study, the route, the principles, relation of tourism are represented considering the conservation of Seljuks madrasah.

Keywords: architectural heritage, cultural routes, Seljuks madrasah, Anatolia

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4 Effect of Fast and Slow Tempo Music on Muscle Endurance Time

Authors: Rohit Kamal, Devaki Perumal Rajaram, Rajam Krishna, Sai Kumar Pindagiri, Silas Danielraj


Introduction: According to WHO, Global health observatory at least 2.8 million people die each year because of obesity and overweight. This is mainly because of the adverse metabolic effects of obesity and overweight on blood pressure, lipid profile especially cholesterol and insulin resistance. To achieve optimum health WHO has set the BMI in the range of 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2. Due to modernization of life style, physical exercise in the form of work is no longer a possibility and hence an effective way to burn out calories to achieve the optimum BMI is the need of the hour. Studies have shown that exercising for more than 60 minutes /day helps to maintain the weight and to reduce the weight exercise should be done for 90 minutes a day. Moderate exercise for about 30 min is essential for burning up of calories. People with low endurance fail to perform even the low intensity exercise for minimal time. Hence, it is necessary to find out some effective method to increase the endurance time. Methodology: This study was approved by the Institutional Ethical committee of our college. After getting written informed consent, 25 apparently healthy males between the age group 18-20 years were selected. Subjects are with muscular disorder, subjects who are Hypertensive, Diabetes, Smokers, Alcoholics, taking drugs affecting the muscle strength. To determine the endurance time: Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) was measured by asking the participants to squeeze the hand grip dynamometer as hard as possible and hold it for 3 seconds. This procedure was repeated thrice and the average of the three reading was taken as the maximum voluntary contraction. The participant was then asked to squeeze the dynamometer and hold it at 70% of the maximum voluntary contraction while hearing fast tempo music which was played for about ten minutes then the participant was asked to relax for ten minutes and was made to hold the hand grip dynamometer at 70% of the maximum voluntary contraction while hearing slow tempo music. To avoid the bias of getting habituated to the procedure the order of hearing for the fast and slow tempo music was changed. The time for which they can hold it at 70% of MVC was determined by using a stop watch and that was taken as the endurance time. Results: The mean value of the endurance time during fast and slow tempo music was compared in all the subjects. The mean MVC was 34.92 N. The mean endurance time was 21.8 (16.3) seconds with slow tempo music which was more then with fast tempo music with which the mean endurance time was 20.6 (11.7) seconds. The preference was more for slow tempo music then for fast tempo music. Conclusion: Music when played during exercise by some unknown mechanism helps to increase the endurance time by alleviating the symptoms of lactic acid accumulation.

Keywords: endurance time, fast tempo music, maximum voluntary contraction, slow tempo music

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3 Integration of Corporate Social Responsibility Criteria in Employee Variable Remuneration Plans

Authors: Jian Wu


Since a few years, some French companies have integrated CRS (corporate social responsibility) criteria in their variable remuneration plans to ‘restore a good working atmosphere’ and ‘preserve the natural environment’. These CSR criteria are based on concerns on environment protection, social aspects, and corporate governance. In June 2012, a report on this practice has been made jointly by ORSE (which means Observatory on CSR in French) and PricewaterhouseCoopers. Facing this initiative from the business world, we need to examine whether it has a real economic utility. We adopt a theoretical approach for our study. First, we examine the debate between the ‘orthodox’ point of view in economics and the CSR school of thought. The classical economic model asserts that in a capitalist economy, exists a certain ‘invisible hand’ which helps to resolve all problems. When companies seek to maximize their profits, they are also fulfilling, de facto, their duties towards society. As a result, the only social responsibility that firms should have is profit-searching while respecting the minimum legal requirement. However, the CSR school considers that, as long as the economy system is not perfect, there is no ‘invisible hand’ which can arrange all in a good order. This means that we cannot count on any ‘divine force’ which makes corporations responsible regarding to society. Something more needs to be done in addition to firms’ economic and legal obligations. Then, we reply on some financial theories and empirical evident to examine the sound foundation of CSR. Three theories developed in corporate governance can be used. Stakeholder theory tells us that corporations owe a duty to all of their stakeholders including stockholders, employees, clients, suppliers, government, environment, and society. Social contract theory tells us that there are some tacit ‘social contracts’ between a company and society itself. A firm has to respect these contracts if it does not want to be punished in the form of fine, resource constraints, or bad reputation. Legitime theory tells us that corporations have to ‘legitimize’ their actions toward society if they want to continue to operate in good conditions. As regards empirical results, we present a literature review on the relationship between the CSR performance and the financial performance of a firm. We note that, due to difficulties in defining these performances, this relationship remains still ambiguous despite numerous research works realized in the field. Finally, we are curious to know whether the integration of CSR criteria in variable remuneration plans – which is practiced so far in big companies – should be extended to other ones. After investigation, we note that two groups of firms have the greatest need. The first one involves industrial sectors whose activities have a direct impact on the environment, such as petroleum and transport companies. The second one involves companies which are under pressures in terms of return to deal with international competition.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, corporate governance, variable remuneration, stakeholder theory

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2 High Prevalence of Asymptomatic Dengue among Healthy Adults in Southern Malaysia: A Longitudinal Prospective Study

Authors: Nowrozy Jahan, Sharifah Syed Hassan, Daniel Reidpath


In recent decades, Malaysia has become a dengue hyper-endemic country with the co-circulation of the four-dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. The number of symptomatic dengue cases is maintaining an increasing trend since 1995 and sharply increased in 2014. The four DENV serotypes have been co-circulating since 2000, and this pattern of cyclical dominance of sub-types contributed to the development of frequent major dengue epidemics in Malaysia. Since 2012, different Malaysian state was dominated by different serotypes. The study aims to estimate the burden of asymptomatic dengue in a healthy adult population which may act as a potential source of further symptomatic dengue infection. It also aims to identify the predominant DENV serotypes which are circulating at the community level. A longitudinal prospective community-based study was conducted in the Segamat district of Johor State, southern part of Malaysia where the number of reported dengue cases has steadily increased over the last three years (2013-2015). More specifically, the study was conducted in and around of Kampung Abdullah of Sungai Segamat sub-district which was identified as a hot spot area over the period of 2013-2015. This community-based study has been conducted by Southeast Asia Community Observatory (SEACO), an ISO-certified research platform in collaboration of the Ministry of Health Malaysia and Monash University Malaysia. It was conducted from May 2015 to May 2016. In this study, 277 apparently looking healthy respondents joined who were followed up as a cohort for four times during the one-year study period. Blood was collected to detect the serological marker of dengue at each round of follow-up. Among 277, 184 respondents (66%) joined all four rounds. Half of the study respondents were at the age-group of 45-64 years, slightly more than half of the respondents (59%) were female, and the most (69%) of them were Malay; only 35% lived in urban areas. During the baseline, the study found a very high prevalence of exposure to dengue virus; 89% of the study respondents had serological evidence of previous asymptomatic dengue infection; the majority of them did not know about it as they did not develop any symptom of dengue fever; only 13% knew as they developed symptoms. At the end of the one-year study period, 19% of respondents developed recent secondary dengue infection which was also identified by the serological marker as they did not develop any symptom (asymptomatic cases). The asymptomatic dengue incidence was higher during the rainy season compared to the dry season. All four dengue serotypes were identified in the serum of the infected respondents; among them, DENV-2 was the most prominent. Further genetic analysis is going on to identify the association of HLA-B*46 and HLA-DRB1*08 with dengue resistance. This study provides evidence for the policymakers to be aware of asymptomatic dengue infection, to develop a useful tool for raising awareness about asymptomatic dengue infection among the general population, to monitor the community participation to strengthen the individual and community level dengue prevention and control measures when neither there is vaccine nor particular treatment for dengue.

Keywords: asymptomatic, dengue, health adults, prospective study

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1 Unpacking the Spatial Outcomes of Public Transportation in a Developing Country Context: The Case of Johannesburg

Authors: Adedayo B. Adegbaju, Carel B. Schoeman, Ilse M. Schoeman


The unique urban contexts that emanated from the apartheid history of South Africa informed the transport landscape of the City of Johannesburg. Apartheid‘s divisive spatial planning and land use management policies promoted sprawling and separated workers from job opportunities. This was further exacerbated by poor funding of public transport and road designs that encouraged the use of private cars. However, the democratization of the country in 1994 and the hosting of the 2010 FIFA World Cup provided a new impetus to the city’s public transport-oriented urban planning inputs. At the same time, the state’s new approach to policy formulations that entails the provision of public transport as one of the tools to end years of marginalization and inequalities soon began to largely reflect in planning decisions of other spheres of government. The Rea Vaya BRT and the Gautrain were respectively implemented by the municipal and provincial governments to demonstrate strong political will and commitment to the new policy direction. While the Gautrain was implemented to facilitate elite movement within Gauteng and to crowd investments and economic growths around station nodes, the BRT was provided for previously marginalized public transport users to provide a sustainable alternative to the dominant minibus taxi. The aim of this research is to evaluate the spatial impacts of the Gautrain and Rea Vaya BRT on the City of Johannesburg and to inform future outcomes by determining the existing potentials. By using the case study approach with a focus on the BRT and fast rail in a metropolitan context, the triangulation research method, which combines various data collection methods, was used to determine the research outcomes. The use of interviews, questionnaires, field observation, and databases such as REX, Quantec, StatsSA, GCRO observatory, national and provincial household travel surveys, and the quality of life surveys provided the basis for data collection. The research concludes that the Gautrain has demonstrated that viable alternatives to the private car can be provided, with its satisfactory feedbacks from users; while some of its station nodes (Sandton, Rosebank) have shown promises of transit-oriented development, one of the project‘s key objectives. The other stations have been unable to stimulate growth due to reasons like non-implementation of their urban design frameworks and lack of public sector investment required to attract private investors. The Rea Vaya BRT continues to be expanded in spite of both its inability to induce modal change and its low ridership figures. The research identifies factors like the low peak to base ratio, pricing, and the city‘s disjointed urban fabric as some of the reasons for its below-average performance. By drawing from the highlights and limitations, the study recommends that public transport provision should be institutionally integrated across and within spheres of government. Similarly, harmonization of the funding structure, better understanding of users’ needs, and travel patterns, underlined with continuity of policy direction and objectives, will equally promote optimal outcomes.

Keywords: bus rapid transit, Gautrain, Rea Vaya, sustainable transport, spatial and transport planning, transit oriented development

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