Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: Zaideth Zobeida Ponce Alonso

34 Sociocultural Barriers to the Development of Autonomous Foreign Language Learning: Some Teaching Strategies to Overcome Such Challenges in a Mexican Context

Authors: Zaideth Zobeida Ponce Alonso, Laura Emilia Fierro Lopez, Maria del Rocio Dominguez Gaona

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The present study is part of the Master in Modern Languages at the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, and it aims to analyze how the sociocultural background might influence the development of learner autonomy in foreign language education in order to propose some strategies to overcome such challenges. Given the lack of research on the sociocultural barriers in learner autonomy in a Mexican context and the need to hear teachers’ voices about this issue, qualitative data was obtained from semi-structured interviews with six language teachers on their perspectives on learner autonomy, its application to the language classroom, and their experiences with Mexican and foreign learners/contexts in order to find out differences regarding learner autonomy. The results suggest three main sociocultural characteristics: preference for an authority figure, tendency towards collectivism, and low tolerance of ambiguity. Finally, nine strategies were proposed in order to help language teachers to deal with such sociocultural characteristics when fostering learner autonomy in the border city of Mexicali, where this study was carried out.

Keywords: learner autonomy, Mexican context, sociocultural influence, teachers' perspectives, teaching strategies

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33 Approaching In vivo Dosimetry for Kilovoltage X-Ray Radiotherapy

Authors: Rodolfo Alfonso, David Alonso, Albin Garcia, Jose Luis Alonso

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Recently a new kilovoltage radiotherapy unit model Xstrahl 200 - donated to the INOR´s Department of Radiotherapy (DR-INOR) in the framework of a IAEA's technical cooperation project- has been commissioned. This unit is able to treat shallow and low deep laying lesions, as it provides 8 discrete beam qualities, from 40 to 200 kV. As part of the patient-specific quality assurance program established at DR-INOR for external beam radiotherapy, it has been recommended to implement in vivo dose measurements (IVD), as they allow effectively discovering eventual errors or failures in the radiotherapy process. For that purpose a radio-photoluminescence (RPL) dosimetry system, model XXX, -also donated to DR-INOR by the same IAEA project- has been studied and commissioned. Main dosimetric parameters of the RPL system, such as reproducibility, linearity, and filed size influence were assessed. In a similar way, the response of radiochromic EBT3 type film was investigated for purposes of IVD. Both systems were calibrated in terms of entrance surface dose. Results of the dosimetric commissioning of RPL and EBT3 for IVD, and their pre-clinical implementation through end-to-end test cases are presented. The RPL dosimetry seems more recommendable for hyper-fractionated schemes with larger fields and curved patient contours, as those in chest wall irradiations, where the use of more than one dosimeter could be required. The radiochromic system involves smaller corrections with field size, but it sensibility is lower; hence it is more adequate for hypo-fractionated treatments with smaller fields.

Keywords: glass dosimetry, in vivo dosimetry, kilovotage radiotherapy, radiochromic dosimetry

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32 Review of Models of Consumer Behaviour and Influence of Emotions in the Decision Making

Authors: Mikel Alonso López

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In order to begin the process of studying the task of making consumer decisions, the main decision models must be analyzed. The objective of this task is to see if there is a presence of emotions in those models, and analyze how authors that have created them consider their impact in consumer choices. In this paper, the most important models of consumer behavior are analysed. This review is useful to consider an unproblematic background knowledge in the literature. The order that has been established for this study is chronological.

Keywords: consumer behaviour, emotions, decision making, consumer psychology

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31 The Spatial Pattern of Economic Rents of an Airport Development Area: Lessons Learned from the Suvarnabhumi International Airport, Thailand

Authors: C. Bejrananda, Y. Lee, T. Khamkaew

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With the rise of the importance of air transportation in the 21st century, the role of economics in airport planning and decision-making has become more important to the urban structure and land value around it. Therefore, this research aims to examine the relationship between an airport and its impacts on the distribution of urban land uses and land values by applying the Alonso’s bid rent model. The New Bangkok International Airport (Suvarnabhumi International Airport) was taken as a case study. The analysis was made over three different time periods of airport development (after the airport site was proposed, during airport construction, and after the opening of the airport). The statistical results confirm that Alonso’s model can be used to explain the impacts of the new airport only for the northeast quadrant of the airport, while proximity to the airport showed the inverse relationship with the land value of all six types of land use activities through three periods of time. It indicates that the land value for commercial land use is the most sensitive to the location of the airport or has the strongest requirement for accessibility to the airport compared to the residential and manufacturing land use. Also, the bid-rent gradients of the six types of land use activities have declined dramatically through the three time periods because of the Asian Financial Crisis in 1997. Therefore, the lesson learned from this research concerns about the reliability of the data used. The major concern involves the use of different areal units for assessing land value for different time periods between zone block (1995) and grid block (2002, 2009). As a result, this affect the investigation of the overall trends of land value assessment, which are not readily apparent. In addition, the next concern is the availability of the historical data. With the lack of collecting historical data for land value assessment by the government, some of data of land values and aerial photos are not available to cover the entire study area. Finally, the different formats of using aerial photos between hard-copy (1995) and digital photo (2002, 2009) made difficult for measuring distances. Therefore, these problems also affect the accuracy of the results of the statistical analyses.

Keywords: airport development area, economic rents, spatial pattern, suvarnabhumi international airport

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30 The Role of Emotions in the Consumer: Theoretical Review and Analysis of Components

Authors: Mikel Alonso López

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The early eighties saw the rise of a new research trend in several prestigious journals, mainly articles that related emotions with the decision-making processes of the consumer, and stopped treating them as external elements. That is why we ask questions such as: what are emotions? Are there different types of emotions? What components do they have? Which theories exist about them? In this study, we will review the main theories and components of emotion analysing the cognitive factor and the different emotional states that are generally recognizable with a focus in the classic debate as to whether they occur before the cognitive process or the affective process.

Keywords: emotion, consumer behaviour, feelings, decision making

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29 The Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and the Consumer Behaviour: Reviewing Recent Research

Authors: Mikel Alonso López

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In the first decade of the twenty-first century, advanced imaging techniques began to be applied for neuroscience research. The Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is one of the most important and most used research techniques for the investigation of emotions, because of its ease to observe the brain areas that oxygenate when performing certain tasks. In this research, we make a review about the main research carried out on the influence of the emotions in the decision-making process that is exposed by using the fMRI.

Keywords: decision making, emotions, fMRI, consumer behaviour

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28 The Emotions in Consumers’ Decision Making: Review of Empirical Studies

Authors: Mikel Alonso López

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This paper explores, in depth, the idea that emotions are present in all consumer decision making processes, meaning that purchase decisions have never been purely cognitive or as they traditionally have been defined, rational. Human beings, in all kinds of decisions, has "always" used neural systems related to emotions along with neural systems related to cognition, regardless of the type of purchase or the product or service in question. Therefore, all purchase decisions are, at the same time, cognitive and emotional. This paper presents an analysis of the main contributions of researchers in this regard.

Keywords: emotions, decision making, consumer behaviour, emotional behaviour

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27 In Silico Analysis of Small Heat Shock Protein Gene Family by RNA-Seq during Tomato Fruit Ripening

Authors: Debora P. Arce, Flavia J. Krsticevic, Marco R. Bertolaccini, Joaquín Ezpeleta, Estela M. Valle, Sergio D. Ponce, Elizabeth Tapia

Abstract:

Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are low molecular weight chaperones that play an important role during stress response and development in all living organisms. Fruit maturation and oxidative stress can induce sHSP synthesis both in Arabidopsis and tomato plants. RNA-Seq technology is becoming widely used in various transcriptomics studies; however, analyzing and interpreting the RNA-Seq data face serious challenges. In the present work, we de novo assembled the Solanum lycopersicum transcriptome for three different maturation stages (mature green, breaker and red ripe). Differential gene expression analysis was carried out during tomato fruit development. We identified 12 sHSPs differentially expressed that might be involved in breaker and red ripe fruit maturation. Interestingly, these sHSPs have different subcellular localization and suggest a complex regulation of the fruit maturation network process.

Keywords: sHSPs, maturation, tomato, RNA-Seq, assembly

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26 JREM: An Approach for Formalising Models in the Requirements Phase with JSON and NoSQL Databases

Authors: Aitana Alonso-Nogueira, Helia Estévez-Fernández, Isaías García

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This paper presents an approach to reduce some of its current flaws in the requirements phase inside the software development process. It takes the software requirements of an application, makes a conceptual modeling about it and formalizes it within JSON documents. This formal model is lodged in a NoSQL database which is document-oriented, that is, MongoDB, because of its advantages in flexibility and efficiency. In addition, this paper underlines the contributions of the detailed approach and shows some applications and benefits for the future work in the field of automatic code generation using model-driven engineering tools.

Keywords: conceptual modelling, JSON, NoSQL databases, requirements engineering, software development

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25 Kinetic Study of Thermal Degradation of a Lignin Nanoparticle-Reinforced Phenolic Foam

Authors: Juan C. Domínguez, Belén Del Saz-Orozco, María V. Alonso, Mercedes Oliet, Francisco Rodríguez

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In the present study, the kinetics of thermal degradation of a phenolic and lignin reinforced phenolic foams, and the lignin used as reinforcement were studied and the activation energies of their degradation processes were obtained by a DAEM model. The average values for five heating rates of the mean activation energies obtained were: 99.1, 128.2, and 144.0 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam, 109.5, 113.3, and 153.0 kJ.mol-1 for the lignin reinforcement, and 82.1, 106.9, and 124.4 kJ. mol-1 for the lignin reinforced phenolic foam. The standard deviation ranges calculated for each sample were 1.27-8.85, 2.22-12.82, and 3.17-8.11 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam, lignin and the reinforced foam, respectively. The DAEM model showed low mean square errors (< 1x10-5), proving that is a suitable model to study the kinetics of thermal degradation of the foams and the reinforcement.

Keywords: kinetics, lignin, phenolic foam, thermal degradation

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24 Neuromarketing: Discovering the Somathyc Marker in the Consumer´s Brain

Authors: Mikel Alonso López, María Francisca Blasco López, Víctor Molero Ayala

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The present study explains the somatic marker theory of Antonio Damasio, which indicates that when making a decision, the stored or possible future scenarios (future memory) images allow people to feel for a moment what would happen when they make a choice, and how this is emotionally marked. This process can be conscious or unconscious. The development of new Neuromarketing techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), carries a greater understanding of how the brain functions and consumer behavior. In the results observed in different studies using fMRI, the evidence suggests that the somatic marker and future memories influence the decision-making process, adding a positive or negative emotional component to the options. This would mean that all decisions would involve a present emotional component, with a rational cost-benefit analysis that can be performed later.

Keywords: emotions, decision making, somatic marker, consumer´s brain

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23 Differential Proteomic Profile and Terpenoid Production in Somatic Embryos of Jatropha curcas

Authors: Anamarel Medina-Hernandez, Teresa Ponce-Noyola, Ileana Vera-Reyes, Ana C. Ramos-Valdivia

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Somatic embryos reproduce original seed characteristics and could be implemented in biotechnological studies. Jatropha curcas L. is an important plant for biodiesel production, but also is used in traditional medicine. Seeds from J. curcas are toxic because contain diterpenoids called phorbol esters, but in Mexico exist a non-toxic variety. Therefore, somatic embryos suspension cultures from non-toxic J. curcas variety were induced. In order to investigate the characteristics of somatic embryos, a differential proteomic analysis was made between pre-globular and globular stages by 2-D gel electrophoresis. 108 spots were differentially expressed (p<0.02), and 20 spots from globular somatic embryos were sequenced by MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. A comparative analysis of terpenoids production between the two stages was made by RP-18 TLC plates. The sequenced proteins were related to energy production (68%), protein destination and storage (9%), secondary metabolism (9%), signal transduction (5%), cell structure (5%) and aminoacid metabolism (4%). Regarding terpenoid production, in pre-globular and globular somatic embryos were identified sterols and triterpenes of pharmacological interest (alpha-amyrin and betulinic acid) but also it was found compounds that were unique to each stage. The results of this work are the basis to characterize at different levels the J. curcas somatic embryos so that this system can be used efficiently in biotechnological processes.

Keywords: Jatropha curcas, proteomics, somatic embryo, terpenoids

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22 Working Fluids in Absorption Chillers: Investigation of the Use of Deep Eutectic Solvents

Authors: L. Cesari, D. Alonso, F. Mutelet

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The interest in cold production has been on the increase in absorption chillers for many years. In fact, the absorption cycles replace the compressor and thus reduce electrical consumption. The devices also allow waste heat generated through industrial activities to be recovered and cooled to a moderate temperature in accordance with regulatory guidelines. Many working fluids were investigated but could not compete with the commonly used {H2O + LiBr} and {H2O + NH3} to author’s best knowledge. Yet, the corrosion, toxicity and crystallization phenomena of these mixtures prevent the development of the absorption technology. This work investigates the possible use of a glyceline deep eutectic solvent (DES) and CO2 as working fluid in an absorption chiller. To do so, good knowledge of the mixtures is required. Experimental measurements (vapor-liquid equilibria, density, and heat capacity) were performed to complete the data lacking in the literature. The performance of the mixtures was quantified by the calculation of the coefficient of performance (COP). The results show that working fluids containing DES + CO2 are an interesting alternative and lead to different trails of working mixtures for absorption and chiller.

Keywords: absorption devices, deep eutectic solvent, energy valorization, experimental data, simulation

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21 Optimal Pricing Mechanism for Non-Storable Goods: The Power of Opaque Products

Authors: Juana M. Alonso, M. Pilar Socorro

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In this paper, we develop a theoretical model to analyze firms’ optimal pricing mechanism for non-storable goods. With non-storable goods, firms may be interested in introducing opaque products in order to have two different markets: the transparent market and the opaque market. This may allow firms to sell all their non-storable goods, discriminate prices between markets, and maximize revenues. We prove that in a situation of low demand in the transparent market, if all consumers are risk neutral or risk loving, introducing opaque products is always the most profitable strategy for the firm. However, if consumers are risk averse, the firm needs to offer opaque products with an additional discount. We analyze under which circumstances selling opaque products with such a discount is the optimal pricing strategy. Throughout the paper, we use airlines’ pricing strategy as an application for non-storable goods (flights), opaque products (blind tickets), and continuously changing demand (as it is nowadays the case in the air transport industry due to the Covid-19 pandemic).

Keywords: opaque products, risk attitude, expected utility, pricing strategy

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20 Energy Saving and Performance Evaluation of an Air Handling Unit Integrated with a Membrane Energy Exchanger for Cold Climates

Authors: Peng Liu, Maria Justo Alonso, Hans Martin Mathisen

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A theoretical model is developed to evaluate the performance and energy saving potential of an air handling unit integrated with a membrane energy exchanger in cold climates. The recovered sensible and latent heat, fan preheating use for frost prevention and heating energy consumed by heating coil after the ventilator is compared for the air handling unit combined heat and energy exchanger respectively. A concept of coefficient of performance of air handling unit is presented and applied to assess the energy use of air handling unit (AHU) in cold climates. The analytic results indicate downsizing of the preheating coil before exchanger and heating coils after exchanger are expected since the required power to preheat and condition the air is reduced compared to heat exchanger when the MEE is integrated with AHU. Simultaneously, a superior ratio of energy recovered (RER) is obtained from AHU build-in a counter-flow MEE. The AHU with sensible-only heat exchanger has noticeably low RER, around 1 at low outdoor air temperature where the maximum energy rate is desired to condition the severe cold and dry air.

Keywords: membrane energy exchanger, cold climate, energy efficient building, HVAC

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19 Driving Forces of Net Carbon Emissions in a Tropical Dry Forest, Oaxaca, México

Authors: Rogelio Omar Corona-Núñez, Alma Mendoza-Ponce

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The Tropical Dry Forest not only is one of the most important tropical ecosystems in terms of area, but also it is one of the most degraded ecosystems. However, little is known about the degradation impacts on carbon stocks, therefore in carbon emissions. There are different studies which explain its deforestation dynamics, but there is still a lack of understanding of how they correlate to carbon losses. Recently different authors have built current biomass maps for the tropics and Mexico. However, it is not clear how well they predict at the local scale, and how they can be used to estimate carbon emissions. This study quantifies the forest net carbon losses by comparing the potential carbon stocks and the different current biomass maps in the Southern Pacific coast in Oaxaca, Mexico. The results show important differences in the current biomass estimates with not a clear agreement. However, by the aggregation of the information, it is possible to infer the general patterns of biomass distribution and it can identify the driving forces of the carbon emissions. This study estimated that currently ~44% of the potential carbon stock estimated for the region is still present. A total of 6,764 GgC has been emitted due to deforestation and degradation of the forest at a rate of above ground biomass loss of 66.4 Mg ha-1. Which, ~62% of the total carbon emissions can be regarded as being due to forest degradation. Most of carbon losses were identified in places suitable for agriculture, close to rural areas and to roads while the lowest losses were accounted in places with high water stress and within the boundaries of the National Protected Area. Moreover, places not suitable for agriculture, but close to the coast showed carbon losses as a result of urban settlements.

Keywords: above ground biomass, deforestation, degradation, driving forces, tropical deciduous forest

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18 Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions and Cervical Cancer in Women of the North of Chihuahua, Mexico

Authors: Estefania Ponce-Amaya, Ana Lidia Arellano-Ortiz, Cecilia Diaz-Hernandez, Jose Alberto Lopez-Diaz, Antonio De La Mora-Covarrubias, Claudia Lucia Vargas-Requena, Mauricio Salcedo-Vargas, Florinda Jimenez-Vega

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Cervical Cancer (CC) is the second leading cause of death among women worldwide and it had been associated with a persistent infection of human papillomavirus (HPV). The goal of the current study was to identify the prevalence of HPV infection in women with abnormal Pap smear who were attended at Dysplasia Clinic of Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Methods: Cervical samples from 146 patients, who attended the Colposcopy Clinic at Sanitary Jurisdiction II of Cd Juarez, were collected for histopathology and molecular study. DNA was isolated for the HPV detection by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using MY09/011 and GP5/6 primers. The associated risk factors were assessed by a questionnaire. The statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA, using EpiINFO V7 software. Results: HPV infection was present in 142 patients (97.3 %). The prevalence of HPV infection was distributed in a 96% of all evaluated groups, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HISIL) and CC. We found a statistical significance (α = <0.05) between gestation and number of births as risk factors. The median values showed an ascending tend according with the lesion progression. However, CC showed a statistically significant difference with respect to the pre-carcinogenic stages. Conclusions: In these Mexican patients exists a high prevalence of HPV infection, and for that reason, we are studying the most prevalent HPV genotypes in this population.

Keywords: cervical cancer, HPV, prevalence hpv, squamous intraepithelial lesion

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17 Comparative Study of Dermal Regeneration Template Made by Bovine Collagen with and without Silicone Layer in the Treatment of Post-Burn Contracture

Authors: Elia Caldini, Cláudia N. Battlehner, Marcelo A. Ferreira, Rolf Gemperli, Nivaldo Alonso, Luiz P. Vana

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The advent of dermal regenerate templates has fostered major advances in the treatment of acute burns and their sequelae, in the last two decades. Both data on morphological aspects of the newly-formed tissue, and clinical trials comparing different templates, are still lacking. The goal of this study was to prospectively analyze the outcome of patients treated with two of the existing templates, followed by thin skin autograft. They are both made of bovine collagen, one includes a superficial silicone layer. Surgery was performed on patients with impaired mobility resulting from burn sequelae (n = 12 per template). Negative pressure therapy was applied post-surgically; patients were monitored for 12 months. Data on scar skin quality (Vancouver and POSAS evaluation scales), rate of joint mobility recovery, and graft contraction were recorded. Improvement in mobility and skin quality were demonstrated along with graft contraction, in all patients. The silicone-coupled template showed the best performance in all aspects.

Keywords: dermal regeneration template, artificial skin, skin quality, scar contracture

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16 Open Innovation Laboratory for Rapid Realization of Sensing, Smart and Sustainable Products (S3 Products) for Higher Education

Authors: J. Miranda, D. Chavarría-Barrientos, M. Ramírez-Cadena, M. E. Macías, P. Ponce, J. Noguez, R. Pérez-Rodríguez, P. K. Wright, A. Molina

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Higher education methods need to evolve because the new generations of students are learning in different ways. One way is by adopting emergent technologies, new learning methods and promoting the maker movement. As a result, Tecnologico de Monterrey is developing Open Innovation Laboratories as an immediate response to educational challenges of the world. This paper presents an Open Innovation Laboratory for Rapid Realization of Sensing, Smart and Sustainable Products (S3 Products). The Open Innovation Laboratory is composed of a set of specific resources where students and teachers use them to provide solutions to current problems of priority sectors through the development of a new generation of products. This new generation of products considers the concepts Sensing, Smart, and Sustainable. The Open Innovation Laboratory has been implemented in different courses in the context of New Product Development (NPD) and Integrated Manufacturing Systems (IMS) at Tecnologico de Monterrey. The implementation consists of adapting this Open Innovation Laboratory within the course’s syllabus in combination with the implementation of specific methodologies for product development, learning methods (Active Learning and Blended Learning using Massive Open Online Courses MOOCs) and rapid product realization platforms. Using the concepts proposed it is possible to demonstrate that students can propose innovative and sustainable products, and demonstrate how the learning process could be improved using technological resources applied in the higher educational sector. Finally, examples of innovative S3 products developed at Tecnologico de Monterrey are presented.

Keywords: active learning, blended learning, maker movement, new product development, open innovation laboratory

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15 Effect of Three Drying Methods on Antioxidant Efficiency and Vitamin C Content of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract

Authors: Kenia Martínez, Geniel Talavera, Juan Alonso

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Moringa oleifera is a plant containing many nutrients that are mostly concentrated within the leaves. Commonly, the separation process of these nutrients involves solid-liquid extraction followed by evaporation and drying to obtain a concentrated extract, which is rich in proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, and other essential nutrients that can be used in the food industry. In this work, three drying methods were used, which involved very different temperature and pressure conditions, to evaluate the effect of each method on the vitamin C content and the antioxidant efficiency of the extracts. Solid-liquid extractions of Moringa leaf (LE) were carried out by employing an ethanol solution (35% v/v) at 50 °C for 2 hours. The resulting extracts were then dried i) in a convective oven (CO) at 100 °C and at an atmospheric pressure of 750 mbar for 8 hours, ii) in a vacuum evaporator (VE) at 50 °C and at 300 mbar for 2 hours, and iii) in a freeze-drier (FD) at -40 °C and at 0.050 mbar for 36 hours. The antioxidant capacity (EC50, mg solids/g DPPH) of the dry solids was calculated by the free radical inhibition method employing DPPH˙ at 517 nm, resulting in a value of 2902.5 ± 14.8 for LE, 3433.1 ± 85.2 for FD, 3980.1 ± 37.2 for VE, and 8123.5 ± 263.3 for CO. The calculated antioxidant efficiency (AE, g DPPH/(mg solids·min)) was 2.920 × 10-5 for LE, 2.884 × 10-5 for FD, 2.512 × 10-5 for VE, and 1.009 × 10-5 for CO. Further, the content of vitamin C (mg/L) determined by HPLC was 59.0 ± 0.3 for LE, 49.7 ± 0.6 for FD, 45.0 ± 0.4 for VE, and 23.6 ± 0.7 for CO. The results indicate that the convective drying preserves vitamin C and antioxidant efficiency to 40% and 34% of the initial value, respectively, while vacuum drying to 76% and 86%, and freeze-drying to 84% and 98%, respectively.

Keywords: antioxidant efficiency, convective drying, freeze-drying, Moringa oleifera, vacuum drying, vitamin C content

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14 Multi-Objective Discrete Optimization of External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems in Terms of Thermal and Embodied Energy Performance

Authors: Berfin Yildiz

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These days, increasing global warming effects, limited amount of energy resources, etc., necessitates the awareness that must be present in every profession group. The architecture and construction sectors are responsible for both the embodied and operational energy of the materials. This responsibility has led designers to seek alternative solutions for energy-efficient material selection. The choice of energy-efficient material requires consideration of the entire life cycle, including the building's production, use, and disposal energy. The aim of this study is to investigate the method of material selection of external thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS). Embodied and in-use energy values of material alternatives were used for the evaluation in this study. The operational energy is calculated according to the u-value calculation method defined in the TS 825 (Thermal Insulation Requirements) standard for Turkey, and the embodied energy is calculated based on the manufacturer's Energy Performance Declaration (EPD). ETICS consists of a wall, adhesive, insulation, lining, mechanical, mesh, and exterior finishing materials. In this study, lining, mechanical, and mesh materials were ignored because EPD documents could not be obtained. The material selection problem is designed as a hypothetical volume area (5x5x3m) and defined as a multi-objective discrete optimization problem for external thermal insulation composite systems. Defining the problem as a discrete optimization problem is important in order to choose between materials of various thicknesses and sizes. Since production and use energy values, which are determined as optimization objectives in the study, are often conflicting values, material selection is defined as a multi-objective optimization problem, and it is aimed to obtain many solution alternatives by using Hypervolume (HypE) algorithm. The enrollment process started with 100 individuals and continued for 50 generations. According to the obtained results, it was observed that autoclaved aerated concrete and Ponce block as wall material, glass wool, as insulation material gave better results.

Keywords: embodied energy, multi-objective discrete optimization, performative design, thermal insulation

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13 Effects of Acupuncture Treatment in Gait Parameters in Parkinson´s Disease

Authors: Catarina Isabel Ramos Pereira, Jorge Machado, Begona Alonso Criado, Maria João Santos

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Introduction: Gait disorders are one of the symptoms that have severe implications on the quality of life in Parkinson's disease (PD). Presently, there is no treatment to cure this condition. None of the drugs used in conventional medical treatment is entirely efficient and all have a high incidence of side effects. Acupuncture therapy is supposed to enhance motor capacity, but there are still few scientific pieces of evidence in individuals with PD. Aim: Investigate the acute effect of acupuncture on gait parameters in Parkinson’s disease. Methods: This is a randomized and controlled crossover study. The same individual patient was part of both, experimental (real acupuncture) and control group (false acupuncture/sham), and the sequence was randomized. We measured gait parameters using four force platforms as well as the collection of 3D markers positions taken by 11 cameras before and after the treatment. Images were quantitatively analyzed using Qualisys Track Manager software that let us extract data related to the quality of gait and balance. Seven patients with diagnose of Parkinson’s disease were included in the study. Results: We found an improvement of 32% in gait speed, 25-32% in step length, 26% in mediolateral trunk oscillation, 22% in time of double support phase, 7,24% in gait cadence, 7% in support base width and 6% in support base width between the initial and final moments for the experimental group with statistically significant differences. Our results show that acupuncture could enhance gait in Parkinson's disease patients. Deep research involving a larger number of voluntaries should be accomplished to validate these encouraging findings.

Keywords: acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine, Parkinson disease, gait

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12 Prioritizing Biodiversity Conservation Areas based on the Vulnerability and the Irreplaceability Framework in Mexico

Authors: Alma Mendoza-Ponce, Rogelio Corona-Núñez, Florian Kraxner

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Mexico is a megadiverse country and it has nearly halved its natural vegetation in the last century due to agricultural and livestock expansion. Impacts of land use cover change and climate change are unevenly distributed and spatial prioritization to minimize the affectations on biodiversity is crucial. Global and national efforts for prioritizing biodiversity conservation show that ~33% to 45% of Mexico should be protected. The width of these targets makes difficult to lead resources. We use a framework based on vulnerability and irreplaceability to prioritize conservation efforts in Mexico. Vulnerability considered exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity under two scenarios (business as usual, BAU based, on the SSP2 and RCP 4.5 and a Green scenario, based on the SSP1 and the RCP 2.6). Exposure to land use is the magnitude of change from natural vegetation to anthropogenic covers while exposure to climate change is the difference between current and future values for both scenarios. Sensitivity was considered as the number of endemic species of terrestrial vertebrates which are critically endangered and endangered. Adaptive capacity is used as the ration between the percentage of converted area (natural to anthropogenic) and the percentage of protected area at municipality level. The results suggest that by 2050, between 11.6 and 13.9% of Mexico show vulnerability ≥ 50%, and by 2070, between 12.0 and 14.8%, in the Green and BAU scenario, respectively. From an ecosystem perspective cloud forests, followed by tropical dry forests, natural grasslands and temperate forests will be the most vulnerable (≥ 50%). Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrates; 62% of the endemic amphibians are critically endangered or endangered while 39%, 12% and 9% of the mammals, birds, and reptiles, respectively. However, the distribution of these amphibians counts for only 3.3% of the country, while mammals, birds, and reptiles in these categories represent 10%, 16% and 29% of Mexico. There are 5 municipalities out of the 2,457 that Mexico has that represent 31% of the most vulnerable areas (70%).These municipalities account for 0.05% of Mexico. This multiscale approach can be used to address resources to conservation targets as ecosystems, municipalities or species considering land use cover change, climate change and biodiversity uniqueness.

Keywords: biodiversity, climate change, land use change, Mexico, vulnerability

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11 Integrating Flipped Instruction to Enhance Second Language Acquisition

Authors: Borja Ruiz de Arbulo Alonso

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This paper analyzes the impact of flipped instruction in adult learners of Spanish as a second language in a face-to-face course at Boston University. Given the limited amount of contact hours devoted to studying world languages in the American higher education system, implementing strategies to free up classroom time for communicative language practice is key to ensure student success in their learning process. In an effort to improve the way adult learners acquire a second language, this paper examines the role that regular pre-class and web-based exposure to Spanish grammar plays in student performance at the end of the academic term. It outlines different types of web-based pre-class activities and compares this approach to more traditional classroom practice. To do so, this study works for three months with two similar groups of adult learners in an intermediate-level Spanish class. Both groups use the same course program and have the same previous language experience, but one receives an additional set of instructor-made online materials containing a variety of grammar explanations and online activities that need to be reviewed before attending class. Since the online activities cover material and concepts that have not yet been studied in class, students' oral and written production in both groups is measured by means of a writing activity and an audio recording at the end of the three-month period. These assessments will ascertain the effects of exposing the control group to the grammar of the target language prior to each lecture throughout and demonstrate where flipped instruction helps adult learners of Spanish achieve higher performance, but also identify potential problems.

Keywords: educational technology, flipped classroom, second language acquisition, student success

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10 Use of Recycled Vegetable Oil in the Diet of Lactating Sows

Authors: Juan Manuel Uriarte Lopez, Hector Raul Guemez Gaxiola, Javier Alonso Romo Rubio, Juan Manuel Romo Valdez

Abstract:

The objective of this investigation was to determine the influence of the use of recycled vegetable oil from restaurants in the productive performance of sows in lactation. Twenty-four hybrids lactating sows (Landrace x Yorkshire) were divided into three treatments with eight sows per treatment. On day 107 of gestation, the sows were moved to the mesh floor maternity cages in an environment regulated by the environment regulated (2.4 × 0.6 m) contained an area (2.4 × 0.5 m) for newborn pigs on each side, all diets were provided as a dry powder, and the sows received free access to water throughout the experimental period. After farrowing, the sows were fasted for 12 hours, the daily feed ration gradually increased, and the sows had ad libitum access to feed on the fourth day. The diets used were corn-soybean meal-based, containing 0 (CONT), recycled vegetable oil 1.0 % (RVOL), or recycled vegetable oil 1.5 % (RVOH) for 30 days. The diets contained similar calculated levels of crude protein and metabolizable energy and contained vitamins and minerals that exceeded National Research Council (1998) recommendations; sows were fed three times daily. On day 30, piglets were weaned, and performances of lactating sows and nursery piglets were recorded. Results indicated that average daily feed intake (5.58, 5.55, and 5.49 kg for CONT, RVOL, and RVO, respectively) of sows were not affected (P > 0.05) by different dietary. There was no difference in the average body weight of piglets on the day of birth, with 1.33, 1.36, and 1.35 kg, respectively (P > 0.05). There was no difference in average body weight of piglets on day 30, with 6.91, 6.75, and 7.05 kg, respectively 0.05) between treatments numbers of weaned piglets per sow (9.95, 9.80, and 9.80) were not affected by treatments (P > 0.05).In conclusion, the substitution of virgin vegetable oil for recycled vegetable oil in the diet does not affect the productive performance of lactating sows.

Keywords: lactating, sow, vegetable, oil

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9 Systematic Identification and Quantification of Substrate Specificity Determinants in Human Protein Kinases

Authors: Manuel A. Alonso-Tarajano, Roberto Mosca, Patrick Aloy

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Protein kinases participate in a myriad of cellular processes of major biomedical interest. The in vivo substrate specificity of these enzymes is a process determined by several factors, and despite several years of research on the topic, is still far from being totally understood. In the present work, we have quantified the contributions to the kinase substrate specificity of i) the phosphorylation sites and their surrounding residues in the sequence and of ii) the association of kinases to adaptor or scaffold proteins. We have used position-specific scoring matrices (PSSMs), to represent the stretches of sequences phosphorylated by 93 families of kinases. We have found negative correlations between the number of sequences from which a PSSM is generated and the statistical significance and the performance of that PSSM. Using a subset of 22 statistically significant PSSMs, we have identified specificity determinant residues (SDRs) for 86% of the corresponding kinase families. Our results suggest that different SDRs can function as positive or negative elements of substrate recognition by the different families of kinases. Additionally, we have found that human proteins with known function as adaptors or scaffolds (kAS) tend to interact with a significantly large fraction of the substrates of the kinases to which they associate. Based on this characteristic we have identified a set of 279 potential adaptors/scaffolds (pAS) for human kinases, which is enriched in Pfam domains and functional terms tightly related to the proposed function. Moreover, our results show that for 74.6% of the kinase– pAS association found, the pAS colocalize with the substrates of the kinases they are associated to. Finally, we have found evidence suggesting that the association of kinases to adaptors and scaffolds, may contribute significantly to diminish the in vivo substrate crossed- specificity of protein kinases. In general, our results indicate the relevance of several SDRs for both the positive and negative selection of phosphorylation sites by kinase families and also suggest that the association of kinases to pAS proteins may be an important factor for the localization of the enzymes with their set of substrates.

Keywords: kinase, phosphorylation, substrate specificity, adaptors, scaffolds, cellular colocalization

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8 Metagenomic Identification of Cave Microorganisms in Lascaux and Other Périgord Caves

Authors: Lise Alonso, Audrey Dubost, Patricia Luis, Thomas Pommier, Yvan Moënne-Loccoz

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The Lascaux Cave in South-Est France is an archeological landmark renowned for its Paleolithic paintings dating back c.18.000 years. Extensive touristic frequenting and repeated chemical treatments have resulted in the development of microbial stains on cave walls, which is a major issue in terms of art conservation. Therefore, it is of prime importance to better understand the microbiology specific to the Lascaux Cave, in comparison to regional situations. To this end, we compared the microbial community (i.e. both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial populations) of Lascaux Cave with three other anthropized Périgord caves as well as three pristine caves from the same area. We used state-of-the-art metagenomic analyses of cave wall samples to obtain a global view of the composition of the microbial community colonizing cave walls. We measured the relative abundance and diversity of four DNA markers targeting different fractions of the ribosomal genes of bacteria (i.e. eubacteria), archaea (i.e. archeobacteria), fungi and other micro-eukaryotes. All groups were highly abundant and diverse in all Périgord caves, as several hundred genera of microorganisms were identified in each. However, Lascaux Cave displayed a specify microbial community, which differed from those of both pristine and anthropized caves. Comparison of stains versus non-stained samples from the Passage area of the Lascaux Cave indicated that a few taxa (e.g. the Sordiaromycetes amongst fungi) were more prevalent within than outside stains, yet the main difference was in the relative proportion of the different microbial taxonomic groups and genera, which supposedly supports the biological origin of the stains. Overall, metagenomic sequencing of cave wall samples was effective to evidence the large colonization of caves by a diversified range of microorganisms. It also showed that Lascaux Cave represented a very particular situation in comparison with neighboring caves, probably in relation to the extent of disturbance it had undergone. Our results provide key baseline information to guide conservation efforts in anthropized caves such as Lascaux and pave the way to modern monitoring of ornamented caves.

Keywords: cave conservation, Lascaux cave, microbes, paleolithic paintings

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7 Cellular RNA-Binding Domains with Distant Homology in Viral Proteomes

Authors: German Hernandez-Alonso, Antonio Lazcano, Arturo Becerra

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Until today, viruses remain controversial and poorly understood; about their origin, this problem represents an enigma and one of the great challenges for the contemporary biology. Three main theories have tried to explain the origin of viruses: regressive evolution, escaped host gene, and pre-cellular origin. Under the perspective of the escaped host gene theory, it can be assumed a cellular origin of viral components, like protein RNA-binding domains. These universal distributed RNA-binding domains are related to the RNA metabolism processes, including transcription, processing, and modification of transcripts, translation, RNA degradation and its regulation. In the case of viruses, these domains are present in important viral proteins like helicases, nucleases, polymerases, capsid proteins or regulation factors. Therefore, they are implicated in the replicative cycle and parasitic processes of viruses. That is why it is possible to think that those domains present low levels of divergence due to selective pressures. For these reasons, the main goal for this project is to create a catalogue of the RNA-binding domains found in all the available viral proteomes, using bioinformatics tools in order to analyze its evolutionary process, and thus shed light on the general virus evolution. ProDom database was used to obtain larger than six thousand RNA-binding domain families that belong to the three cellular domains of life and some viral groups. From the sequences of these families, protein profiles were created using HMMER 3.1 tools in order to find distant homologous within greater than four thousand viral proteomes available in GenBank. Once accomplished the analysis, almost three thousand hits were obtained in the viral proteomes. The homologous sequences were found in proteomes of the principal Baltimore viral groups, showing interesting distribution patterns that can contribute to understand the evolution of viruses and their host-virus interactions. Presence of cellular RNA-binding domains within virus proteomes seem to be explained by closed interactions between viruses and their hosts. Recruitment of these domains is advantageous for the viral fitness, allowing viruses to be adapted to the host cellular environment.

Keywords: bioinformatics tools, distant homology, RNA-binding domains, viral evolution

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6 Personality Moderates the Relation Between Mother´s Emotional Intelligence and Young Children´s Emotion Situation Knowledge

Authors: Natalia Alonso-Alberca, Ana I. Vergara

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From the very first years of their life, children are confronted with situations in which they need to deal with emotions. The family provides the first emotional experiences, and it is in the family context that children usually take their first steps towards acquiring emotion knowledge. Parents play a key role in this important task, helping their children develop emotional skills that they will need in challenging situations throughout their lives. Specifically, mothers are models imitated by their children. They create specific spatial and temporal contexts in which children learn about emotions, their causes, consequences, and complexity. This occurs not only through what mothers say or do directly to the child. Rather, it occurs, to a large extent, through the example that they set using their own emotional skills. The aim of the current study was to analyze how maternal abilities to perceive and to manage emotions influence children’s emotion knowledge, specifically, their emotion situation knowledge, taking into account the role played by the mother’s personality, the time spent together, and controlling the effect of age, sex and the child’s verbal abilities. Participants were 153 children from 4 schools in Spain, and their mothers. Children (41.8% girls)age range was 35 - 72 months. Mothers (N = 140) age (M = 38.7; R = 27-49). Twelve mothers had more than one child participating in the study. Main variables were the child´s emotion situation knowledge (ESK), measured by the Emotion Matching Task (EMT), and receptive language, using the Picture Vocabulary Test. Also, their mothers´ Emotional Intelligence (EI), through the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and personality, with The Big Five Inventory were analyzed. The results showed that the predictive power of maternal emotional skills on ESK was moderated by the mother’s personality, affecting both the direction and size of the relationships detected: low neuroticism and low openness to experience lead to a positive influence of maternal EI on children’s ESK, while high levels in these personality dimensions resulted in a negative influence on child´s ESK. The time that the mother and the child spend together was revealed as a positive predictor of this EK, while it did not moderate the influence of the mother's EI on child’s ESK. In light of the results, we can infer that maternal EI is linked to children’s emotional skills, though high level of maternal EI does not necessarily predict a greater degree of emotionknowledge in children, which seems rather to depend on specific personality profiles. The results of the current study indicate that a good level of maternal EI does not guarantee that children will learn the emotional skills that foster prosocial adaptation. Rather, EI must be accompanied by certain psychological characteristics (personality traits in this case).

Keywords: emotional intelligence, emotion situation knowledge, mothers, personality, young children

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5 Influence of Glass Plates Different Boundary Conditions on Human Impact Resistance

Authors: Alberto Sanchidrián, José A. Parra, Jesús Alonso, Julián Pecharromán, Antonia Pacios, Consuelo Huerta

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Glass is a commonly used material in building; there is not a unique design solution as plates with a different number of layers and interlayers may be used. In most façades, a security glazing have to be used according to its performance in the impact pendulum. The European Standard EN 12600 establishes an impact test procedure for classification under the point of view of the human security, of flat plates with different thickness, using a pendulum of two tires and 50 kg mass that impacts against the plate from different heights. However, this test does not replicate the actual dimensions and border conditions used in building configurations and so the real stress distribution is not determined with this test. The influence of different boundary conditions, as the ones employed in construction sites, is not well taking into account when testing the behaviour of safety glazing and there is not a detailed procedure and criteria to determinate the glass resistance against human impact. To reproduce the actual boundary conditions on site, when needed, the pendulum test is arranged to be used "in situ", with no account for load control, stiffness, and without a standard procedure. Fracture stress of small and large glass plates fit a Weibull distribution with quite a big dispersion so conservative values are adopted for admissible fracture stress under static loads. In fact, test performed for human impact gives a fracture strength two or three times higher, and many times without a total fracture of the glass plate. Newest standards, as for example DIN 18008-4, states for an admissible fracture stress 2.5 times higher than the ones used for static and wing loads. Now two working areas are open: a) to define a standard for the ‘in situ’ test; b) to prepare a laboratory procedure that allows testing with more real stress distribution. To work on both research lines a laboratory that allows to test medium size specimens with different border conditions, has been developed. A special steel frame allows reproducing the stiffness of the glass support substructure, including a rigid condition used as reference. The dynamic behaviour of the glass plate and its support substructure have been characterized with finite elements models updated with modal tests results. In addition, a new portable impact machine is being used to get enough force and direction control during the impact test. Impact based on 100 J is used. To avoid problems with broken glass plates, the test have been done using an aluminium plate of 1000 mm x 700 mm size and 10 mm thickness supported on four sides; three different substructure stiffness conditions are used. A detailed control of the dynamic stiffness and the behaviour of the plate is done with modal tests. Repeatability of the test and reproducibility of results prove that procedure to control both, stiffness of the plate and the impact level, is necessary.

Keywords: glass plates, human impact test, modal test, plate boundary conditions

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