Search results for: sociocultural theory
4178 Sociocultural and Critical Approach for Summer Study Abroad Program in Higher Education
Authors: Magda Silva
Abstract:This paper presents the empirical and the theoretical principles associated with the Duke in Brazil Summer Program. Using a sociocultural model and critical theory, this study abroad maximizes students’ ability to enrich language competence, intercultural skills, and critical thinking. The fourteen-year implementation of this project demonstrates the global importance of foreign language teaching as the program unfolds into real life scenarios within the cultures of distinct regions of Brazil; Cosmopolitan Rio, in the southeast, and rural Belém, northern Amazon region.
Keywords: study abroad, critical thinking, sociocultural theory, foreign language, empirical, theoreticalProcedia PDF Downloads 343
4177 The Sociocultural and Critical Theories under the Empiricism of a Study Abroad Program
Authors: Magda Silva
Abstract:This paper presents the sociocultural and critical theories used in the creation of a study abroad program in Brazil, as well as the successful results obtained in the fourteen years of experience provided by the program in distinct regions of Brazil. This program maximizes students’ acquisition of the Portuguese language, and affords them an in-depth intercultural and intracultural competence by on site studies in cosmopolitan Rio de Janeiro, afro-heritage Salvador da Bahia, and Amazonian Belém do Pará. The program provides the means to acknowledge the presence, influence, similarities, and differences of Portuguese-speaking Brazil in Latin America.
Keywords: study abroad, critical thinking, sociocultural theory, foreign language, empirical, theoreticalProcedia PDF Downloads 351
4176 A Sociocultural View of Ethnicity of Parents and Children's Language Learning
Authors: Thapanee Musiget
Abstract:Ethnic minority children’s language learning is believed that it can be developed through school system. However, many cases prove that these kids are left to challenge with multicultural context at school and sometimes decreased the ability to acquire new learning. Consequently, it is significant for ethnicity parents to consider that prompting their children at home before their actual school age can eliminate negative outcome of children's language acquisition. This paper discusses the approach of instructional use of parents and children language learning in the context of minority language group in Thailand. By conducting this investigation, secondary source of data was gathered with the purpose to point out some primary methods for parents and children in ethnicity. The process of language learning is based on the sociocultural theory of Vygotsky, which highlights expressive communication among individuals as the best motivating force in human development and learning. The article also highlights the role of parents as they lead the instruction approach. In the discussion part, the role of ethnic minority parents as a language instructor is offered as mediator.
Keywords: ethnic minority, language learning, multicultural context, sociocultural theoryProcedia PDF Downloads 320
4175 Academic and Sociocultural Adaptation Experiences of International Students Studying in Kazakhstan
Authors: Tatyana Kim
Abstract:This paper seeks to explore the academic and sociocultural adaptation experiences of international students studying in Kazakhstan. Using multiple case study design, the research will be undertaken at two private Kazakhstani universities having a relatively large and diverse body of international students. Thus, 20 full-time undergraduate international students from the sampled universities will be interviewed to identify factors that impede or, vice versa, facilitate their academic and sociocultural adaptation in Kazakhstan, as well as to reveal how universities support these students in the process of their adaptation. To investigate the issue more deeply, it was decided to explore the university administrators’ viewpoint of the issue. Thus, six university administrators who are in charge of recruiting and supporting international students and, thus, are particularly knowledgeable about their experiences, have been recruited for this study. Identification of both students’ and administrators’ perspectives on the matter may help reveal miscommunication, if any, and gain greater insight into the phenomenon. The data will be collected between November 5, 2019, and December 10, 2019. Preliminary findings will be presented at the conference. Lysgaard’s U-curve adjustment theory (1955) will be employed as a guiding framework to discuss and interpret the findings.
Keywords: academic adaptation, adaptation, higher education, international students, sociocultural adaptationProcedia PDF Downloads 119
4174 Sociocultural Barriers to the Development of Autonomous Foreign Language Learning: Some Teaching Strategies to Overcome Such Challenges in a Mexican Context
Authors: Zaideth Zobeida Ponce Alonso, Laura Emilia Fierro Lopez, Maria del Rocio Dominguez Gaona
Abstract:The present study is part of the Master in Modern Languages at the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, and it aims to analyze how the sociocultural background might influence the development of learner autonomy in foreign language education in order to propose some strategies to overcome such challenges. Given the lack of research on the sociocultural barriers in learner autonomy in a Mexican context and the need to hear teachers’ voices about this issue, qualitative data was obtained from semi-structured interviews with six language teachers on their perspectives on learner autonomy, its application to the language classroom, and their experiences with Mexican and foreign learners/contexts in order to find out differences regarding learner autonomy. The results suggest three main sociocultural characteristics: preference for an authority figure, tendency towards collectivism, and low tolerance of ambiguity. Finally, nine strategies were proposed in order to help language teachers to deal with such sociocultural characteristics when fostering learner autonomy in the border city of Mexicali, where this study was carried out.
Keywords: learner autonomy, Mexican context, sociocultural influence, teachers' perspectives, teaching strategiesProcedia PDF Downloads 85
4173 Working within the Zone of Proximal Development: Does It Help for Reading Strategy?
Authors: Mahmood Dehqan, Peyman Peyvasteh
Abstract:In recent years there has been a growing interest in issues concerning the impact of sociocultural theory (SCT) of learning on different aspects of second/foreign language learning. This study aimed to find the possible effects of sociocultural teaching techniques on reading strategy of EFL learners. Indeed, the present research compared the impact of peer and teacher scaffolding on EFL learners’ reading strategy use across two proficiency levels. To this end, a pre-test post-test quasi-experimental research design was used and two instruments were utilized to collect the data: Nelson English language test and reading strategy questionnaire. Ninety five university students participated in this study were divided into two groups of teacher and peer scaffolding. Teacher scaffolding group received scaffolded help from the teacher based on three mechanisms of effective help within ZPD: graduated, contingent, dialogic. In contrast, learners of peer scaffolding group were unleashed from the teacher-fronted classroom as they were asked to carry out the reading comprehension tasks with the feedback they provided for each other. Results obtained from ANOVA revealed that teacher scaffolding group outperformed the peer scaffolding group in terms of reading strategy use. It means teacher’s scaffolded help provided within the learners’ ZPD led to better reading strategy improvement compared with the peer scaffolded help. However, the interaction effect between proficiency factor and teaching technique was non-significant, leading to the conclusion that strategy use of the learners was not affected by their proficiency level in either teacher or peer scaffolding groups.
Keywords: peer scaffolding, proficiency level, reading strategy, sociocultural theory, teacher scaffoldingProcedia PDF Downloads 300
4172 Observatory of Sustainability of the Algarve Region for Tourism: Proposal for Environmental and Sociocultural Indicators
Authors: Miguel José Oliveira, Fátima Farinha, Elisa M. J. da Silva, Rui Lança, Manuel Duarte Pinheiro, Cátia Miguel
Abstract:The Observatory of Sustainability of the Algarve Region for Tourism (OBSERVE) will be a valuable tool to assess the sustainability of this region. The OBSERVE tool is designed to provide data and maintain an up-to-date, consistent set of indicators defined to describe the region on the environmental, sociocultural, economic and institutional domains. This ongoing two-year project has the active participation of the Algarve’s stakeholders, since they were consulted and asked to participate in the discussion for the indicators proposal. The environmental and sociocultural indicators chosen must indicate the characteristics of the region and should be in alignment with other global systems used to monitor the sustainability. This paper presents a review of sustainability indicators systems that support the first proposal for the environmental and sociocultural indicators. Others constraints are discussed, namely the existing data and the data available in digital platforms in a format suitable for automatic importation to the platform of OBSERVE. It is intended that OBSERVE will be a valuable tool to assess the sustainability of the region of Algarve.
Keywords: Algarve, development, environmental indicators, observatory, sociocultural indicators, sustainability, tourismProcedia PDF Downloads 97
4171 Ecological Systems Theory, the SCERTS Model, and the Autism Spectrum, Node and Nexus
Authors: C. Surmei
Abstract:Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex developmental disorder that can affect an individual’s (but is not limited to) cognitive development, emotional development, language acquisition and the capability to relate to others. Ecological Systems Theory is a sociocultural theory that focuses on environmental systems with which an individual interacts. The SCERTS Model is an educational approach and multidisciplinary framework that addresses the challenges confronted by individuals on the autism spectrum and other developmental disabilities. To aid the understanding of ASD and educational philosophies for families, educators, and the global community alike, a Comparative Analysis was undertaken to examine key variables (the child, society, education, nurture/care, relationships, communication). The results indicated that the Ecological Systems Theory and the SCERTS Model were comparable in focus, motivation, and application, attaining to a viable and notable relationship between both theories. This paper unpacks two child development philosophies and their relationship to each other.
Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, ecological systems theory, education, SCERTS modelProcedia PDF Downloads 228
4170 Sociocultural Foundations of Psychological Well-Being among Ethiopian Adults
Authors: Kassahun Tilahun
Abstract:Most of the studies available on adult psychological well-being have been centered on Western countries. However, psychological well-being does not have the same meaning across the world. The Euro-American and African conceptions and experiences of psychological well-being differ systematically. As a result, questions like, how do people living in developing African countries, like Ethiopia, report their psychological well-being; what would the context-specific prominent determinants of their psychological well-being be, needs a definitive answer. This study was, therefore, aimed at developing a new theory that would address these socio-cultural issues of psychological well-being. Consequently, data were obtained through interview and open ended questionnaire. A total of 438 adults, working in governmental and non-governmental organizations situated in Addis Ababa, participated in the study. Appropriate qualitative method of data analysis, i.e. thematic content analysis, was employed for analyzing the data. The thematic analysis involves a type of abductive analysis, driven both by theoretical interest and the nature of the data. Reliability and credibility issues were addressed appropriately. The finding identified five major categories of themes, which are viewed as essential in determining the conceptions and experiences of psychological well-being of Ethiopian adults. These were; socio-cultural harmony, social cohesion, security, competence and accomplishment, and the self. Detailed discussion on the rational for including these themes was made and appropriate positive psychology interventions were proposed. Researchers are also encouraged to expand this qualitative research and in turn develop a suitable instrument taping the psychological well-being of adults with different sociocultural orientations.
Keywords: sociocultural, psychological, well-being Ethiopia, adultsProcedia PDF Downloads 480
4169 Building a Model for Information Literacy Education in School Settings
Authors: Tibor Koltay
Abstract:Among varied new literacies, information literacy is not only the best-known one but displays numerous models and frameworks. Nonetheless, there is still a lack of its complex theoretical model that could be applied to information literacy education in public (K12) education, which often makes use of constructivist approaches. This paper aims to present the main features of such a model. To develop a complex model, the literature and practice of phenomenographic and sociocultural theories, as well as discourse analytical approaches to information literacy, have been reviewed. Besides these constructivist and expressive based educational approaches, the new model is intended to include the innovation of coupling them with a cognitive model that takes developing informational and operational knowledge into account. The convergences between different literacies (information literacy, media literacy, media and information literacy, and data literacy) were taken into account, as well. The model will also make use of a three-country survey that examined secondary school teachers’ attitudes to information literacy. The results of this survey show that only a part of the respondents feel properly prepared to teach information literacy courses, and think that they can teach information literacy skills by themselves, while they see a librarian as an expert in educating information literacy. The use of the resulting model is not restricted to enhancing theory. It is meant to raise the level of awareness about information literacy and related literacies, and the next phase of the model’s development will be a pilot study that verifies the usefulness of the methodology for practical information literacy education in selected Hungarian secondary schools.
Keywords: communication, data literacy, discourse analysis, information literacy education, media and information literacy media literacy, phenomenography, public education, sociocultural theoryProcedia PDF Downloads 71
4168 The Sociocultural Adaptation, Openness, and Success of Sojourn of Foreign Students in Tarlac City, Philippines
Authors: Maria Sheila S. Garcia
Abstract:A good number of researches indicate that living in another country may create different and unexpected adjustment problems, and foreign students are not exempted from this. To provide an understanding of this process, 30 foreign college students studying English in Tarlac City were asked to answer questionnaires. This is to determine their sociocultural adaptation, openness to the host culture and success of sojourn. Through statistical analysis, it was found that the students experience greater difficulty in the academic area. Moderate difficulty was attributed to everyday life and social interactions. Albeit difficult, what they like best is the school’s methods of teaching English while the areas that need improvement are the libraries and internet connection. The only significant relationship was found between sociocultural adaptation and success of sojourn. Negatively correlated, if students experience greater difficulties in their host country, they are likely to regret their stay and will not recommend it to anyone. Openness to the host culture did not have an effect on the adaptation and success of sojourn. The short period of time that the students have are spent in studying rather than making friends. Nonetheless, this indicates the need to look deeper into the academic, extra-curricular activities and facilities provided by learning institutions.
Keywords: foreign students, sociocultural adaptation, success of sojourn, Tarlac PhilippinesProcedia PDF Downloads 501
4167 Foundations for Global Interactions: The Theoretical Underpinnings of Understanding Others
Authors: Randall E. Osborne
Abstract:In a course on International Psychology, 8 theoretical perspectives (Critical Psychology, Liberation Psychology, Post-Modernism, Social Constructivism, Social Identity Theory, Social Reduction Theory, Symbolic Interactionism, and Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory) are used as a framework for getting students to understand the concept of and need for Globalization. One of critical psychology's main criticisms of conventional psychology is that it fails to consider or deliberately ignores the way power differences between social classes and groups can impact the mental and physical well-being of individuals or groups of people. Liberation psychology, also known as liberation social psychology or psicología social de la liberación, is an approach to psychological science that aims to understand the psychology of oppressed and impoverished communities by addressing the oppressive sociopolitical structure in which they exist. Postmodernism is largely a reaction to the assumed certainty of scientific, or objective, efforts to explain reality. It stems from a recognition that reality is not simply mirrored in human understanding of it, but rather, is constructed as the mind tries to understand its own particular and personal reality. Lev Vygotsky argued that all cognitive functions originate in, and must therefore be explained as products of social interactions and that learning was not simply the assimilation and accommodation of new knowledge by learners. Social Identity Theory discusses the implications of social identity for human interactions with and assumptions about other people. Social Identification Theory suggests people: (1) categorize—people find it helpful (humans might be perceived as having a need) to place people and objects into categories, (2) identify—people align themselves with groups and gain identity and self-esteem from it, and (3) compare—people compare self to others. Social reductionism argues that all behavior and experiences can be explained simply by the affect of groups on the individual. Symbolic interaction theory focuses attention on the way that people interact through symbols: words, gestures, rules, and roles. Meaning evolves from human their interactions in their environment and with people. Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory of human learning describes learning as a social process and the origination of human intelligence in society or culture. The major theme of Vygotsky’s theoretical framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. This presentation will discuss how these theoretical perspectives are incorporated into a course on International Psychology, a course on the Politics of Hate, and a course on the Psychology of Prejudice, Discrimination and Hate to promote student thinking in a more ‘global’ manner.
Keywords: globalization, international psychology, society and culture, teaching interculturallyProcedia PDF Downloads 173
4166 A Preliminary Study Examining the Effect of Tourism as Perceived by Locals: From Perspective of Conservative of Research Theory
Authors: Ali Ahmad AlGassim
Abstract:The objective of this study is to explore the local community perceptions toward the impact of tourism from the COR theory perspective. The current study used qualitative methods and purposive sampling to engage informants. Data was collected using an online survey with closed-ended and open-ended questions from 57 informants living in Al-Jufa Village, and then data was analysed using content analysis. The findings showed that COR theory help explains the residents’ perception of the threat and stress of losing resources. The findings showed the residents feel stressed about losing resources, such as lands, houses, heritage, sociocultural and Islamic values, as well as job and investment opportunities if the village is developed for tourism. Findings also present that one group of residents declared rejections and aiming to resist the development if it takes place, and they will not allowing foreigners to come and live in the village. The findings also show that this stress and strain can be alleviated by allowing residents to participate in the development. Finally, the residents of Al-Juhfa showed a high level of feeling of ownership towards their resources.
Keywords: perception of threat, effect of tourism, COR theory, local community, impact of tourism, Saudi ArabiaProcedia PDF Downloads 173
4165 Enabling Translanguaging in the EFL Classroom, Affordances of Learning and Reflections
Authors: Nada Alghali
Abstract:Translanguaging pedagogy suggests a new perspective in language education relating to multilingualism; multilingual learners have one linguistic repertoire and not two or more separate language systems (García and Wei, 2014). When learners translanguage, they are able to draw on all their language features in a flexible and integrated way (Otheguy, García, & Reid, 2015). In the Foreign Language Classroom, however, the tendency to use the target language only is still advocated as a pedagogy. This study attempts to enable learners in the English as a foreign language classroom to draw on their full linguistic repertoire through collaborative reading lessons. In observations prior to this study, in a classroom where English only policy prevails, learners still used their first language in group discussions yet were constrained at times by the teacher’s language policies. Through strategically enabling translanguaging in reading lessons (Celic and Seltzer, 2011), this study has revealed that learners showed creative ways of language use for learning and reflected positively on thisexperience. This case study enabled two groups in two different proficiency level classrooms who are learning English as a foreign language in their first year at University in Saudi Arabia. Learners in the two groups wereobserved over six weeks and wereasked to reflect their learning every week. The same learners were also interviewed at the end of translanguaging weeks after completing a modified model of the learning reflection (Ash and Clayton, 2009). This study positions translanguaging as collaborative and agentive within a sociocultural framework of learning, positioning translanguaging as a resource for learning as well as a process of learning. Translanguaging learning episodes are elicited from classroom observations, artefacts, interviews, reflections, and focus groups, where they are analysed qualitatively following the sociocultural discourse analysis (Fairclough &Wodak, 1997; Mercer, 2004). Initial outcomes suggest functions of translanguaging in collaborative reading tasks and recommendations for a collaborative translanguaging pedagogy approach in the EFL classroom.
Keywords: translanguaging, EFL, sociocultural theory, discourse analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 79
4164 Children's Literature As Pedagogy: Lessons For Literacy Practice
Authors: Alicia Curtin, Kathy Hall
Abstract:This paper explores research and practice shared on a masters University module entitled Children's Literature as Pedagogy. Issues explored include the meaning of childhood and literature; the definition of what counts as text, textual and literacy practice for children and adolescents. A sociocultural framework is used to define literacy practice from this perspective and student voice and experience remains central. Lessons from classroom experience and the use of innovative, multi modal and non traditional texts and pedagogical approaches are offered as examples of innovative and inclusive pedagogy in the field of literacy practice.
Keywords: non traditional, pedagogy, practice, socioculturalProcedia PDF Downloads 485
4163 Sociocultural Context of Pain Management in Oncology and Palliative Nursing Care
Authors: Andrea Zielke-Nadkarni
Abstract:Pain management is a question of quality of life and an indicator for nursing quality. Chronic pain which is predominant in oncology and palliative nursing situations is perceived today as a multifactorial, individual emotional experience with specific characteristics including the sociocultural dimension when dealing with migrant patients. This dimension of chronic pain is of major importance in professional nursing of migrant patients in hospices or palliative care units. Objectives of the study are: 1. To find out more about the sociocultural views on pain and nursing care, on customs and nursing practices connected with pain of both Turkish Muslim and German Christian women, 2. To improve individual and family oriented nursing practice with view to sociocultural needs of patients in severe pain in palliative care. In a qualitative-explorative comparative study 4 groups of women, Turkish Muslims immigrants (4 from the first generation, 5 from the second generation) and German Christian women of two generations (5 of each age group) of the same age groups as the Turkish women and with similar educational backgrounds were interviewed (semistructured ethnographic interviews using Spradley, 1979) on their perceptions and experiences of pain and nursing care within their families. For both target groups the presentation will demonstrate the following results in detail: Utterance of pain as well as “private” and “public” pain vary within different societies and cultures. Permitted forms of pain utterance are learned in childhood and determine attitudes and expectations in adulthood. Language, especially when metaphors and symbols are used, plays a major role for misunderstandings. The sociocultural context of illness may include specific beliefs that are important to the patients and yet seem more than far-fetched from a biomedical perspective. Pain can be an influential factor in family relationships where respect or hierarchies do not allow the direct utterance of individual needs. Specific resources are often, although not exclusively, linked to religious convictions and are significantly helpful in reducing pain. The discussion will evaluate the results of the study with view to the relevant literature and present nursing interventions and instruments beyond medication that are helpful when dealing with patients from various socio-cultural backgrounds in painful end-oflife situations.
Keywords: pain management, migrants, sociocultural context, palliative careProcedia PDF Downloads 284
4162 The Cross-cultural Adaptation Experience of Foreign Scholars in China
Authors: Jiexiu Chen
Abstract:This research aims to examine several vital issues relating to the foreign scholars’ cross-cultural adaptation in China, including how they perceive about the adaptation process, what the affecting factors are in the adaptation, and which strategies they will apply to deal with perceived cultural differences. The target population of this research is academics regularly working or long-term visiting in these joint colleges, and semi-structured interviews are used in data collection. Moreover, the theoretical perspectives mainly include Ward’s sociocultural and psychological adaptation theory, Berry’s adaptation strategies and Black and his colleague’s expatriate’s adjustment model. This research offers an in-depth profile as well as theory-based analysis about this unique group, and the results of this research are profound in offering directory suggestions for foreign scholars to facilitate their adaptation in China better and for the Chinese universities to eliminate intercultural obstacles, and optimize the international cooperation programs in China.
Keywords: cross-cultural adaptation, foreign scholars, expatriatesProcedia PDF Downloads 349
4161 The Role of Metacognitive Strategy Intervention through Dialogic Interaction on Listeners’ Level of Cognitive Load
Authors: Ali Babajanzade, Hossein Bozorgian
Abstract:Cognitive load plays an important role in learning in general and L2 listening comprehension in particular. This study is an attempt to investigate the effect of metacognitive strategy intervention through dialogic interaction (MSIDI) on L2 listeners’ cognitive load. A mixed-method design with 50 participants of male and female Iranian lower-intermediate learners between 20 to 25 years of age was used. An experimental group (n=25) received weekly interventions based on metacognitive strategy intervention through dialogic interaction for ten sessions. The second group, which was control (n=25), had the same listening samples with the regular procedure without a metacognitive intervention program in each session. The study used three different instruments: a) a modified version of the cognitive load questionnaire, b) digit span tests, and c) focused group interviews to investigate listeners’ level of cognitive load throughout the process. Results testified not only improvements in listening comprehension in MSIDI but a radical shift of cognitive load rate within this group. In other words, listeners experienced a lower level of cognitive load in MSIDI in comparison with their peers in the control group.
Keywords: cognitive load theory, human mental functioning, metacognitive theory, listening comprehension, sociocultural theoryProcedia PDF Downloads 76
4160 Sustainable Enterprise Theory: A Starting Point for Reporting Sustainable Business Values
Authors: Arne Fagerstrom, Gary Cunningham, Fredrik Hartwig
Abstract:In this paper, a theory of sustainable enterprises, sustainable enterprise theory (SET), is developed. The sustainable enterprise theory can only be a valid theory if knowledge about life and nature is complete. Knowledge limitations should not stop enterprises from doing business with a goal of better long-term life on earth. Life demands stewardship of the resources used during one’s lifetime. This paper develops a model influenced by (the classical) enterprise theory and resource theory that includes more than money in the business activities of an enterprise. The sustainable enterprise theory is then used in an analysis of accountability and in discussions about sustainable businesses.
Keywords: sustainable business, sustainability reporting, sustainable values, theory of the firmProcedia PDF Downloads 488
4159 Analyzing Sociocultural Factors Shaping Architects’ Construction Material Choices: The Case of Jordan
Authors: Maiss Razem
Abstract:The construction sector is considered a major consumer of materials that undergoes processes of extraction, processing, transportation, and maintaining when used in buildings. Several metrics have been devised to capture the environmental impact of the materials consumed during construction using lifecycle thinking. Rarely has the materiality of this sector been explored qualitatively and systemically. This paper aims to explore socio-cultural forces that drive the use of certain materials in the Jordanian construction industry, using practice theory as a heuristic method of analysis, more specifically Shove et al. three-element model. By conducting semi-structured interviews with architects, the results unravel contextually embedded routines when determining qualities of three materialities highlighted herein; stone, glass and spatial openness. The study highlights the inadequacy of only using efficiency as a quantitative metric of sustainable materials and argues for the need to link material consumption with socio-economic, cultural, and aesthetic driving forces. The operationalization of practice theory by tracing materials’ lifetimes as they integrate with competencies and meanings captures dynamic engagements through the analyzed routines of actors in the construction practice. This study can offer policymakers better-nuanced representation to green this sector beyond efficiency rhetoric and quantitative metrics.
Keywords: architects' practices, construction materials, Jordan, practice theoryProcedia PDF Downloads 118
4158 A Note on Decidability of the Theory of Natural Numbers
Authors: Zahra Sheikhaleslami
Abstract:The additive theory or (the multiplication theory) of a set of natural numbers is the first theory of the structure of that set with the addition or (multiplication) operation that set is taken be additive(multiplicative),i.e., closed under addition or (multiplication). In this paper, decidability (i.e.,there exists an algorithm that decides whether a given sentence is derivable from the theory )of the structures of natural numbers study in different languages and introduce ways that it allows quantifier elimination (for the theory ) and review some classical theorems and will give new proofs for old results.
Keywords: Decidability, Incompleteness, Number Structure, First Order LogicProcedia PDF Downloads 91
4157 Rejoinders to the Expression of Reprimand among Jordanian Youth: A Pragmatic Study
Authors: Nisreen Al-Khawaldeh
Abstract:The study investigates the expressions voiced by Jordanian youth as rejoinders to the expressions of reprimands. It also explores the impact sociocultural variables exert on such types of rejoinders. To our best knowledge, this study is the first of its kind. Despite the significance and sensitivity of such type of communicative act, there is a scarcity of research on it, and it has not been investigated in the Jordanian context. Data collected from observation of naturally occurring data. Data have been qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed in light of the rapport management approach (RMA). The analysis revealed different types of rejoinders, among which was the expression of apology, admitting responsibility, and trying to manage and fix the situation were the most used strategies. Variation in the types of strategies was attributed to the influence of the sociocultural variables. Promising ideas were recommended for future research.
Keywords: gender, rejoinder to reprimand, Jordanian youth, rapport management approachProcedia PDF Downloads 125
4156 A Review of Existing Turnover Intention Theories
Authors: Pauline E. Ngo-Henha
Abstract:Existing turnover intention theories are reviewed in this paper. This review was conducted with the help of the search keyword “turnover intention theories” in Google Scholar during the month of July 2017. These theories include: The Theory of Organizational Equilibrium (TOE), Social Exchange Theory, Job Embeddedness Theory, Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, the Resource-Based View, Equity Theory, Human Capital Theory, and the Expectancy Theory. One of the limitations of this review paper is that data were only collected from Google Scholar where many papers were sometimes not freely accessible. However, this paper attempts to contribute to the research in clarifying the distinction between theories and models in the context of turnover intention.
Keywords: Literature Review, Theory, Turnover, Turnover intentionProcedia PDF Downloads 326
4155 Unpacking Tourist Experience: A Case Study of Chinese Tourists Visiting the UK
Authors: Guanhao Tong, Li Li, Ben David
Abstract:This study aims to provide an explanatory account of how the leisure tourist experience emerges from tourists and their surroundings through a critical realist lens. This was achieved by applying Archer’s realist social theory as the underlying theoretical ground to unpack the interplays between the external (tourism system or structure) and the internal (tourists or agency). This theory argues that social phenomena can be analyzed in three domains - structure, agency, and culture (SAC), and along three phases – structure conditioning, sociocultural interactions, and structure elaboration. From the realist perspective, the world is an open system; events and discourses are irreducible to present individuals and collectivities. Therefore, identifying the processes or mechanisms is key to help researchers understand how social reality is brought about. Based on the contextual nature of the tourist experience, the research focuses on Chinese tourists (from mainland China) to London as a destination and British culture conveyed through the concept of the destination image. This study uses an intensive approach based on Archer’s M/M approach to discover the mechanisms/processes of the emergence of the tourist experience. Individual interviews were conducted to reveal the underlying causes of lived experiences of the tourists. Secondary data was also collected to understand how British destinations are portrayed to Chinese tourists.
Keywords: Chinese tourists, destination image, M/M approach, realist social theory, social mechanisms, tourist experienceProcedia PDF Downloads 0
4154 Sociocultural Influences on Men of Color’s Body Image Concerns: A Structural Equation Modeling Study
Authors: Zikun Li, Regine Talleyrand
Abstract:Negative body image is one of the most common causes of eating disorders, and it is not only happening to women. Regardless of the increasing attention that researchers and practitioners have been paying to the male population and their body image concerns, men of color have yet to be fully represented or studied. Given the consensus that the sociocultural experiences of people of color may play a significant role in their health and well-being, this study focused on assessing the mechanism through which sociocultural factors may influence men of color’s perceptions of body image. In particular, this study focused on untangling how interpersonal and media pressure, as well as ethnic-racial identities and perceptions, would impact body dissatisfaction in terms of muscularity, body fat, and height in men of color and how this mechanism is moderated across different ethnic-racial groups. The structural equation modeling approach was therefore applied to achieve the research goal. With the sample size of 181 self-identified Black, Indigenous, and People of Color male participants aged 20-50 (M=33.33, SD=6.9) through surveying on Amazon’s MTurk platform, the proposed model achieved a modestly acceptable model fit with the pooled sample, X2(836) = 1412.184, CFI = 0.900, RMSEA = 0.062 [0.056, 0.067]. And SRMR = 0.088, And it explained 89.5% of the variance in body dissatisfaction. The results showed that of all the direct effects on body dissatisfaction, interpersonal appearance pressure exhibited the strongest effect (β = 0.410***), followed by media appearance pressure (β = 0.272**) and self-hatred feeling (β = 0.245**). The ethnic-racial related factors (i.e., stereotype endorsement, ethnic-racial salience, and nationalistic assimilation) statistically influenced body dissatisfaction through the mediators of media appearance pressure and/or self-hatred feeling. Furthermore, the moderation analysis between Black/African American men and non-Black/African American men revealed the substantial differences in how ethnic/racial identity impacts one’s perception of body image, and the Black/African American men were found to be influenced by sociocultural factors at a higher level, compared with their counterparts. The impacts of demographic characteristics (i.e., SES, weight, height) on body dissatisfaction were also examined. Instead of considering interpersonal appearance pressure and media pressure as two subscales under one construct, this study considered them as two separate and distinct sociocultural factors. The good model fit to the data indicates this rationality and encourages scholars to reconsider the impacts of two sources of social pressures on body dissatisfaction. In addition, this study also provided empirical evidence of the moderation effect existing within the population of men of color, which reveals the heterogeneity existing across different ethnic-racial groups and implies the necessity to study individual ethnic-racial groups so as to better understand the mechanism of sociocultural influences on men of color’s body dissatisfaction. These findings strengthened the current understanding of the body image concerns exciting among men of color and meanwhile provided empirical evidence for practitioners to provide tailored health prevention and treatment options for this growing population in the United States.
Keywords: men of color, body image concerns, sociocultural factors, structural equation modelingProcedia PDF Downloads 11
4153 Investigating University Language Teacher’s Perception of Their Identities in the Algerian Multilingual Context
Authors: Yousra Drissi
Abstract:This research explores language teacher identity in a multilingual context where both teachers and students come from different linguistic backgrounds. It seeks to understand how teachers perceive themselves as language teachers in this context in relation to different influencing factors, both internal and external. This study is being conducted due to the importance of language teacher identity (LTI) in the university context, which is being neglected in the present literature (in an attempt to address the gap in the present literature). The broader aim of this study is to bring attention to language teacher identity along with the different influencing elements which can either promote or hinder its development. In this research, we are using the sociocultural theory and post-structural theory. This research uses the mixed methods approach to collect and analyse relevant data. A structured survey was distributed to language teachers from different universities around Algeria, followed by in-depth interviews. Results are supposed to show the different points in self-perception that these teachers share or differ in. they will also help us identify the different internal and external factors that can be of influence. However, the results of this research can be used by institutions as well as decision-makers to better understand university teachers and help them improve their teaching practices by empowering their language teacher identity, starting from teacher education programs to continuous teacher development programs.
Keywords: identity, language teacher identity, multilingualism, university teacherProcedia PDF Downloads 17
4152 An Exploratory Study: Mobile Learning as a Means of Promoting Sustainable Learning in the Saudi General Educational Schools via an Activity Theory Lens
Authors: Aiydh Aljeddani
Abstract:Sustainable learning is an emerging concept that aims at enhancing sustainability literacy and competency in educational contexts. Mobile learning is one of the means increasingly used in sustainable development education nowadays. Studies which have explored this issue in the Saudi educational context so far are rare. Therefore, the current study attempted to explore the current situation of the usage of mobile learning in the Saudi elementary and secondary schools as a means of promoting sustainable learning. It also focused on how mobile learning has been implemented in those schools to promote sustainable learning and what factors have contributed to the success/failure of the implementation of mobile learning and possible ways to improve the current practice. An interpretive approach was followed in this study to gain a thorough understanding of the explored issue in the Saudi educational context using the activity theory as a lens to do so. A qualitative case study methodology in which semi-structured interviews, documents analysis and nominal group were used to gather the data for this study. Two hundred and twenty-nine participants representing several main stakeholders in the educational system took part in this study. Those included six general education schools, head teachers, teachers, students’ parents, educational supervisors, one curriculum designer and academic curriculum specialists. Through the lens of activity theory, the results of the study showed that there were contradictions in the current practice between the elements of the activity system and within each of its elements. Furthermore, several sociocultural factors have influenced both the division of labour and the community's members. These have acted as obstacles which have impeded the usage of mobile learning to promote sustainable learning in this context. It was found that shifting from the current practice to sustainable learning via the usage of mobile learning requires appropriate interrelationship between the different elements of the activity system. The study finally offers a number of recommendations to improve on the current practices and suggests areas for further studies.
Keywords: activity theory, mobile learning, sustainability competency, sustainability literacy, sustainable learningProcedia PDF Downloads 191
4151 A Study on Game Theory Approaches for Wireless Sensor Networks
Authors: M. Shoukath Ali, Rajendra Prasad Singh
Abstract:Game Theory approaches and their application in improving the performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are discussed in this paper. The mathematical modeling and analysis of WSNs may have low success rate due to the complexity of topology, modeling, link quality, etc. However, Game Theory is a field, which can efficiently use to analyze the WSNs. Game Theory is related to applied mathematics that describes and analyzes interactive decision situations. Game theory has the ability to model independent, individual decision makers whose actions affect the surrounding decision makers. The outcome of complex interactions among rational entities can be predicted by a set of analytical tools. However, the rationality demands a stringent observance to a strategy based on measured of perceived results. Researchers are adopting game theory approaches to model and analyze leading wireless communication networking issues, which includes QoS, power control, resource sharing, etc.
Keywords: wireless sensor network, game theory, cooperative game theory, non-cooperative game theoryProcedia PDF Downloads 358
4150 Understanding and Explaining Urban Resilience and Vulnerability: A Framework for Analyzing the Complex Adaptive Nature of Cities
Authors: Richard Wolfel, Amy Richmond
Abstract:Urban resilience and vulnerability are critical concepts in the modern city due to the increased sociocultural, political, economic, demographic, and environmental stressors that influence current urban dynamics. Urban scholars need help explaining urban resilience and vulnerability. First, cities are dominated by people, which is challenging to model, both from an explanatory and a predictive perspective. Second, urban regions are highly recursive in nature, meaning they not only influence human action, but the structures of cities are constantly changing due to human actions. As a result, explanatory frameworks must continuously evolve as humans influence and are influenced by the urban environment in which they operate. Finally, modern cities have populations, sociocultural characteristics, economic flows, and environmental impacts on order of magnitude well beyond the cities of the past. As a result, the frameworks that seek to explain the various functions of a city that influence urban resilience and vulnerability must address the complex adaptive nature of cities and the interaction of many distinct factors that influence resilience and vulnerability in the city. This project develops a taxonomy and framework for organizing and explaining urban vulnerability. The framework is built on a well-established political development model that includes six critical classes of urban dynamics: political presence, political legitimacy, political participation, identity, production, and allocation. In addition, the framework explores how environmental security and technology influence and are influenced by the six elements of political development. The framework aims to identify key tipping points in society that act as influential agents of urban vulnerability in a region. This will help analysts and scholars predict and explain the influence of both physical and human geographical stressors in a dense urban area.
Keywords: urban resilience, vulnerability, sociocultural stressors, political stressorsProcedia PDF Downloads 16
4149 The Grand Unified Theory of Everything as a Generalization to the Standard Model Called as the General Standard Model
Authors: Amir Deljoo
Abstract:The endeavor to comprehend the existence have been the center of thought for human in form of different disciplines and now basically in physics as the theory of everything. Here, after a brief review of the basic frameworks of thought, and a history of thought since ancient up to present, a logical methodology is presented based on a core axiom after which a function, a proto-field and then a coordinates are explained. Afterwards a generalization to Standard Model is proposed as General Standard Model which is believed to be the base of the Unified Theory of Everything.
Keywords: general relativity, grand unified theory, quantum mechanics, standard model, theory of everythingProcedia PDF Downloads 29