Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: Tatyana Kim

33 International Integration in Innovative Development of Economy

Authors: Tatyana Kolmykova, Elvira Sitnikova

Abstract:

Globalization is one of the key processes that are shaping the modern world. There are different often quite opposite attitudes toward globalization. However, it is impossible to avoid the effects of international integration, and they should be addressed in the process of formation and development of the national industrial sector.

Keywords: integrated structures, industrial sector, globalization, national

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32 Research of Concentratibility of Low Quality Bauxite Raw Materials

Authors: Nadezhda Nikolaeva, Tatyana Alexandrova, Alexandr Alexandrov

Abstract:

Processing of high-silicon bauxite on the base of the traditional clinkering method is related to high power consumption and capital investments, which makes production of alumina from those ores non-competitive in terms of basic economic showings. For these reasons, development of technological solutions enabling to process bauxites with various chemical and mineralogical structures efficiently with low level of thermal power consumption is important. Flow sheet of the studies on washability of ores from the Timanskoe and the Severo-Onezhskoe deposits is on the base of the flotation method.

Keywords: low-quality bauxite, resource-saving technology, optimization, aluminum, conditioning of composition, separation characteristics

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31 Iron Yoke Dipole with High Quality Field for Collector Ring FAIR

Authors: Tatyana Rybitskaya, Alexandr Starostenko, Kseniya Ryabchenko

Abstract:

Collector ring (CR) of FAIR project is a large acceptance storage ring and field quality plays a major role in the magnet design. The CR will use normal conducting dipole magnets. There will be 24 H-type sector magnets with a maximum field value of 1.6 T. The integrated over the length of the magnet field quality as a function of radius is ∆B.l/B.l = ±1x10⁻⁴. Below 1.6 T the value ∆B.l/B.l can be higher with a linear approximation up to ±2.5x10⁻⁴ at the field level of 0.8 T. An iron-dominated magnet with required field quality is produced with standard technology as the quality is dominated by the yoke geometry.

Keywords: conventional magnet, iron yoke dipole, harmonic terms, particle accelerators

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30 Pitfalls and Drawbacks in Visual Modelling of Learning Knowledge by Students

Authors: Tatyana Gavrilova, Vadim Onufriev

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Knowledge-based systems’ design requires the developer’s owning the advanced analytical skills. The efficient development of that skills within university courses needs a deep understanding of main pitfalls and drawbacks, which students usually make during their analytical work in form of visual modeling. Thus, it was necessary to hold an analysis of 5-th year students’ learning exercises within courses of 'Intelligent systems' and 'Knowledge engineering' in Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University. The analysis shows that both lack of system thinking skills and methodological mistakes in course design cause the errors that are discussed in the paper. The conclusion contains an exploration of the issues and topics necessary and sufficient for the implementation of the improved practices in educational design for future curricula of teaching programs.

Keywords: knowledge based systems, knowledge engineering, students’ errors, visual modeling

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29 Influence of Culturing Conditions on Biomass Yield, Total Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Some Filamentous Fungi

Authors: Alla V. Goncharova, Tatyana A. Karpenyuk, Yana S. Tsurkan, Rosa U. Beisembaeva, Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Ludmila V. Ignatova, Ramza Z. Berzhanova

Abstract:

In this work the effect of culturing conditions of filamentous fungi Penicillium raistrickii, Penicillium anatolicum, Fusarium sp. on biomass yield, the content of total lipids and fatty acids was studied. It has been established that in time the process of lipids accumulation correlated with biomass growth of cultures, reaching maximum values in stationary growth phase. Biomass yield and accumulation of general lipids was increased by adding zinc to the culture medium. The more intensive accumulation of biomass and general lipids was observed at temperature 18°C. Lowering the temperature of culturing has changed the ratio of saturated: Unsaturated fatty acids in the direction of increasing the latter.

Keywords: biomass, culturing conditions, fungi, fatty acids (FA), growth dynamics, lipids

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28 A Method of Effective Planning and Control of Industrial Facility Energy Consumption

Authors: Aleksandra Aleksandrovna Filimonova, Lev Sergeevich Kazarinov, Tatyana Aleksandrovna Barbasova

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A method of effective planning and control of industrial facility energy consumption is offered. The method allows to optimally arrange the management and full control of complex production facilities in accordance with the criteria of minimal technical and economic losses at the forecasting control. The method is based on the optimal construction of the power efficiency characteristics with the prescribed accuracy. The problem of optimal designing of the forecasting model is solved on the basis of three criteria: maximizing the weighted sum of the points of forecasting with the prescribed accuracy; the solving of the problem by the standard principles at the incomplete statistic data on the basis of minimization of the regularized function; minimizing the technical and economic losses due to the forecasting errors.

Keywords: energy consumption, energy efficiency, energy management system, forecasting model, power efficiency characteristics

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27 EEG and DC-Potential Level Сhanges in the Elderly

Authors: Irina Deputat, Anatoly Gribanov, Yuliya Dzhos, Alexandra Nekhoroshkova, Tatyana Yemelianova, Irina Bolshevidtseva, Irina Deryabina, Yana Kereush, Larisa Startseva, Tatyana Bagretsova, Irina Ikonnikova

Abstract:

In the modern world the number of elderly people increases. Preservation of functionality of an organism in the elderly becomes very important now. During aging the higher cortical functions such as feelings, perception, attention, memory, and ideation are gradual decrease. It is expressed in the rate of information processing reduction, volume of random access memory loss, ability to training and storing of new information decrease. Perspective directions in studying of aging neurophysiological parameters are brain imaging: computer electroencephalography, neuroenergy mapping of a brain, and also methods of studying of a neurodynamic brain processes. Research aim – to study features of a brain aging in elderly people by electroencephalogram (EEG) and the DC-potential level. We examined 130 people aged 55 - 74 years that did not have psychiatric disorders and chronic states in a decompensation stage. EEG was recorded with a 128-channel GES-300 system (USA). EEG recordings are collected while the participant sits at rest with their eyes closed for 3 minutes. For a quantitative assessment of EEG we used the spectral analysis. The range was analyzed on delta (0,5–3,5 Hz), a theta - (3,5–7,0 Hz), an alpha 1-(7,0–11,0 Hz) an alpha 2-(11–13,0 Hz), beta1-(13–16,5 Hz) and beta2-(16,5–20 Hz) ranges. In each frequency range spectral power was estimated. The 12-channel hardware-software diagnostic ‘Neuroenergometr-KM’ complex was applied for registration, processing and the analysis of a brain constant potentials level. The DC-potential level registered in monopolar leads. It is revealed that the EEG of elderly people differ in higher rates of spectral power in the range delta (р < 0,01) and a theta - (р < 0,05) rhythms, especially in frontal areas in aging. By results of the comparative analysis it is noted that elderly people 60-64 aged differ in higher values of spectral power alfa-2 range in the left frontal and central areas (р < 0,05) and also higher values beta-1 range in frontal and parieto-occipital areas (р < 0,05). Study of a brain constant potential level distribution revealed increase of total energy consumption on the main areas of a brain. In frontal leads we registered the lowest values of constant potential level. Perhaps it indicates decrease in an energy metabolism in this area and difficulties of executive functions. The comparative analysis of a potential difference on the main assignments testifies to unevenness of a lateralization of a brain functions at elderly people. The results of a potential difference between right and left hemispheres testify to prevalence of the left hemisphere activity. Thus, higher rates of functional activity of a cerebral cortex are peculiar to people of early advanced age (60-64 years) that points to higher reserve opportunities of central nervous system. By 70 years there are age changes of a cerebral power exchange and level of electrogenesis of a brain which reflect deterioration of a condition of homeostatic mechanisms of self-control and the program of processing of the perceptual data current flow.

Keywords: brain, DC-potential level, EEG, elderly people

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26 Precious and Rare Metals in Overburden Carbonaceous Rocks: Methods of Extraction

Authors: Tatyana Alexandrova, Alexandr Alexandrov, Nadezhda Nikolaeva

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A problem of complex mineral resources development is urgent and priority, it is aimed at realization of the processes of their ecologically safe development, one of its components is revealing the influence of the forms of element compounds in raw materials and in the processing products. In view of depletion of the precious metal reserves at the traditional deposits in the XXI century the large-size open cast deposits, localized in black shale strata begin to play the leading role. Carbonaceous (black) shales carry a heightened metallogenic potential. Black shales with high content of carbon are widely distributed within the scope of Bureinsky massif. According to academician Hanchuk`s data black shales of Sutirskaya series contain generally PGEs native form. The presence of high absorptive towards carbonaceous matter gold and PGEs compounds in crude ore results in decrease of valuable components extraction because of their sorption into dissipated carbonaceous matter.

Keywords: сarbonaceous rocks, bitumens, precious metals, concentration, extraction

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25 Energy Consumption Forecast Procedure for an Industrial Facility

Authors: Tatyana Aleksandrovna Barbasova, Lev Sergeevich Kazarinov, Olga Valerevna Kolesnikova, Aleksandra Aleksandrovna Filimonova

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We regard forecasting of energy consumption by private production areas of a large industrial facility as well as by the facility itself. As for production areas the forecast is made based on empirical dependencies of the specific energy consumption and the production output. As for the facility itself implementation of the task to minimize the energy consumption forecasting error is based on adjustment of the facility’s actual energy consumption values evaluated with the metering device and the total design energy consumption of separate production areas of the facility. The suggested procedure of optimal energy consumption was tested based on the actual data of core product output and energy consumption by a group of workshops and power plants of the large iron and steel facility. Test results show that implementation of this procedure gives the mean accuracy of energy consumption forecasting for winter 2014 of 0.11% for the group of workshops and 0.137% for the power plants.

Keywords: energy consumption, energy consumption forecasting error, energy efficiency, forecasting accuracy, forecasting

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24 Academic and Sociocultural Adaptation Experiences of International Students Studying in Kazakhstan

Authors: Tatyana Kim

Abstract:

This paper seeks to explore the academic and sociocultural adaptation experiences of international students studying in Kazakhstan. Using multiple case study design, the research will be undertaken at two private Kazakhstani universities having a relatively large and diverse body of international students. Thus, 20 full-time undergraduate international students from the sampled universities will be interviewed to identify factors that impede or, vice versa, facilitate their academic and sociocultural adaptation in Kazakhstan, as well as to reveal how universities support these students in the process of their adaptation. To investigate the issue more deeply, it was decided to explore the university administrators’ viewpoint of the issue. Thus, six university administrators who are in charge of recruiting and supporting international students and, thus, are particularly knowledgeable about their experiences, have been recruited for this study. Identification of both students’ and administrators’ perspectives on the matter may help reveal miscommunication, if any, and gain greater insight into the phenomenon. The data will be collected between November 5, 2019, and December 10, 2019. Preliminary findings will be presented at the conference. Lysgaard’s U-curve adjustment theory (1955) will be employed as a guiding framework to discuss and interpret the findings.

Keywords: academic adaptation, adaptation, higher education, international students, sociocultural adaptation

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23 Effect of an Interface Defect in a Patch/Layer Joint under Dynamic Time Harmonic Load

Authors: Elisaveta Kirilova, Wilfried Becker, Jordanka Ivanova, Tatyana Petrova

Abstract:

The study is a continuation of the research on the hygrothermal piezoelectric response of a smart patch/layer joint with undesirable interface defect (gap) at dynamic time harmonic mechanical and electrical load and environmental conditions. In order to find the axial displacements, shear stress and interface debond length in a closed analytical form for different positions of the interface gap, the 1D modified shear lag analysis is used. The debond length is represented as a function of many parameters (frequency, magnitude, electric displacement, moisture and temperature, joint geometry, position of the gap along the interface, etc.). Then the Genetic algorithm (GA) is implemented to find this position of the gap along the interface at which a vanishing/minimal debond length is ensured, e.g to find the most harmless position for the safe work of the structure. The illustrative example clearly shows that analytical shear-lag solutions and GA method can be combined successfully to give an effective prognosis of interface shear stress and interface delamination in patch/layer structure at combined loading with existing defects. To show the effect of the position of the interface gap, all obtained results are given in figures and discussed.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, minimal delamination, optimal gap position, shear lag solution

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22 Influence of Culture Conditions on the Growth and Fatty Acid Composition of Green Microalgae Oocystis rhomboideus, Scenedesmus obliquus, Dictyochlorella globosa

Authors: Tatyana A. Karpenyuk, Saltanat B. Orazova, Yana S. Tzurkan, Alla V. Goncharova, Bakytzhan K. Kairat, Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Ludmila V. Ignatova, Ramza Z. Berzhanova

Abstract:

Microalgae due to the ability to accumulate high levels of practically valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids attract attention as a promising raw material for commercial products. It were defined the features of the growth processes of cells green protococcal microalgae Oocystis rhomboideus, Scenedesmus obliquus, Dictyochlorella globosa at cultivation in different nutritional mediums. For the rapid accumulation of biomass, combined with high productivity of total lipids fraction yield recommended to use the Fitzgerald medium (Scenodesmus obliquus, Oocystis rhomboideus) and/or Bold medium (Dictyochlorella globosa). Productivity of lipids decreased in sequence Dictyochlorella globosa > Scenodesmus obliquus > Oocystis rhomboideus. The bulk of fatty acids fraction of the total lipids is unsaturated fatty acids, which accounts for 70 to 83% of the total number of fatty acids. The share of monoenic acids varies from 16 to 36 %, the share of unsaturated fatty acids - from 44 to 65% of total fatty acids fraction. Among the unsaturated acids dominate α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), hexadecatetraenic acid (C16:4) and linoleic acid (C18:2).

Keywords: microalgae, lipids, fatty acids, culture conditions

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21 Alumina Supported Cu-Mn-La Catalysts for CO and VOCs Oxidation

Authors: Elitsa N. Kolentsova, Dimitar Y. Dimitrov, Petya Cv. Petrova, Georgi V. Avdeev, Diana D. Nihtianova, Krasimir I. Ivanov, Tatyana T. Tabakova

Abstract:

Recently, copper and manganese-containing systems are recognized as active and selective catalysts in many oxidation reactions. The main idea of this study is to obtain more information about γ-Al2O3 supported Cu-La catalysts and to evaluate their activity to simultaneous oxidation of CO, CH3OH and dimethyl ether (DME). The catalysts were synthesized by impregnation of support with a mixed aqueous solution of nitrates of copper, manganese and lanthanum under different conditions. XRD, HRTEM/EDS, TPR and thermal analysis were performed to investigate catalysts’ bulk and surface properties. The texture characteristics were determined by Quantachrome Instruments NOVA 1200e specific surface area and pore analyzer. The catalytic measurements of single compounds oxidation were carried out on continuous flow equipment with a four-channel isothermal stainless steel reactor in a wide temperature range. On the basis of XRD analysis and HRTEM/EDS, it was concluded that the active component of the mixed Cu-Mn-La/γ–alumina catalysts strongly depends on the Cu/Mn molar ratio and consisted of at least four compounds – CuO, La2O3, MnO2 and Cu1.5Mn1.5O4. A homogeneous distribution of the active component on the carrier surface was found. The chemical composition strongly influenced catalytic properties. This influence was quite variable with regards to the different processes.

Keywords: Cu-Mn-La oxide catalysts, carbon oxide, VOCs, deep oxidation

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20 Supported Gold Nanocatalysts for CO Oxidation in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke

Authors: Krasimir Ivanov, Dimitar Dimitrov, Tatyana Tabakova, Stefka Kirkova, Anna Stoilova, Violina Angelova

Abstract:

It has been suggested that nicotine, CO and tar in mainstream smoke are the most important substances and have been judged as the most harmful compounds, responsible for the health hazards of smoking. As nicotine is extremely important for smoking qualities of cigarettes and the tar yield in the tobacco smoke is significantly reduced due to the use of filters with various content and design, the main efforts of cigarettes researchers and manufacturers are related to the search of opportunities for CO content reduction. Highly active ceria supported gold catalyst was prepared by the deposition-precipitation method, and the possibilities for CO oxidation in the synthetic gaseous mixture were evaluated using continuous flow equipment with fixed bed glass reactor at atmospheric pressure. The efficiently of the catalyst in CO oxidation in the real cigarette smoke was examined by a single port, puf-by-puff smoking machine. Quality assessment of smoking using cigarette holder containing catalyst was carried out. It was established that the catalytic activity toward CO oxidation in cigarette smoke rapidly decreases from 70% for the first cigarette to nearly zero for the twentieth cigarette. The present study shows that there are two critical factors which do not permit the successful use of catalysts to reduce the CO content in the mainstream cigarette smoke: (i) significant influence of the processes of adsorption and oxidation on the main characteristics of tobacco products and (ii) rapid deactivation of the catalyst due to the covering of the catalyst’s grains with condensate.

Keywords: cigarette smoke, CO oxidation, gold catalyst, mainstream

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19 Alumina Supported Cu-Mn-Cr Catalysts for CO and VOCs oxidation

Authors: Krasimir Ivanov, Elitsa Kolentsova, Dimitar Dimitrov, Petya Petrova, Tatyana Tabakova

Abstract:

This work studies the effect of chemical composition on the activity and selectivity of γ–alumina supported CuO/ MnO2/Cr2O3 catalysts toward deep oxidation of CO, dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation of the support with an aqueous solution of copper nitrate, manganese nitrate and CrO3 under different conditions. Thermal, XRD and TPR analysis were performed. The catalytic measurements of single compounds oxidation were carried out on continuous flow equipment with a four-channel isothermal stainless steel reactor. Flow-line equipment with an adiabatic reactor for simultaneous oxidation of all compounds under the conditions that mimic closely the industrial ones was used. The reactant and product gases were analyzed by means of on-line gas chromatographs. On the basis of XRD analysis it can be concluded that the active component of the mixed Cu-Mn-Cr/γ–alumina catalysts consists of at least six compounds – CuO, Cr2O3, MnO2, Cu1.5Mn1.5O4, Cu1.5Cr1.5O4 and CuCr2O4, depending on the Cu/Mn/Cr molar ratio. Chemical composition strongly influences catalytic properties, this influence being quite variable with regards to the different processes. The rate of CO oxidation rapidly decrease with increasing of chromium content in the active component while for the DME was observed the reverse trend. It was concluded that the best compromise are the catalysts with Cu/(Mn + Cr) molar ratio 1:5 and Mn/Cr molar ratio from 1:3 to 1:4.

Keywords: Cu-Mn-Cr oxide catalysts, volatile organic compounds, deep oxidation, dimethyl ether (DME)

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18 The Importance of Jewish Influence on Foundation of Manichaean Philosophical and Religious System

Authors: Tatyana Suvorkina

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It is indisputable that the problem of the origin of Manichaeism is very complex. Manichaeism is characterized as a syncretic religion, which was influenced by many teachings, but it is difficult to define one which can be called fundamental. The aim of this paper is an attempt to regard Jewish apocalyptic tradition as one of the most defining source of formation of Manichaean systems. To realize this aim a comparison of the Manichean texts and the Jewish apocryphal literature is made. Consideration is given first to the Coptic Manichaean treatise Kephalaia, The Cologne Mani Codex and to books of Enoch. Under the article it is not denied that Manichaeism was influenced by different doctrines and, passed through centuries, it could adapt and strengthen this influence at an even deeper level. But the fact that the Judeo-Christian environment where Mani grew up and where the first sprouts of his teaching were formed had impact on future prophet seems obvious. Nevertheless, attempts to analyze the system of Mani within the Jewish tradition are quite rare, although such studies were carried out for Gnosticism. But Manichaeism, despite the Gnostic features it contains, is not 'one of the Gnostics' to place it under this term among the rest. Frequently, gnostic currents are pointed out as the main sources for the formation of Mani’s teachings. But it seems possible that Mani's interest in Gnosticism was motivated by the fact that he considered it as something close to that interpretation of Hebrew texts, which he aspired to undertake. The question of understanding the Manichaean system is connected not only with Manichaeism but also with other dualistic teachings, which were recognized by contemporaries as Manichaean. It is seen that polemics between Manicheans and Hellenized Christianity separated from Judaism and continued to separate with every century, were polemics between adherents of initially two different worldviews who had, however, a common source. Therefore an analysis of the controversy in the context of interpretations of this common source by disputing parties is seen very important for further study.

Keywords: dualism, Jewish apocalypticism, Manichaeism, syncretism

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17 Alumina Supported Copper-manganese Catalysts for Combustion of Exhaust Gases: Catalysts Characterization

Authors: Krasimir I. Ivanov, Elitsa N. Kolentsova, Dimitar Y. Dimitrov, Georgi V. Avdeev, Tatyana T. Tabakova

Abstract:

In recent research copper and manganese systems were found to be the most active in CO and organic compounds oxidation among the base catalysts. The mixed copper manganese oxide has been widely studied in oxidation reactions because of their higher activity at low temperatures in comparison with single oxide catalysts. The results showed that the formation of spinel CuxMn3−xO4 in the oxidized catalyst is responsible for the activity even at room temperature. That is why most of the investigations are focused on the hopcalite catalyst (CuMn2O4) as the best copper-manganese catalyst. Now it’s known that this is true only for CO oxidation, but not for mixture of CO and VOCs. The purpose of this study is to investigate the alumina supported copper-manganese catalysts with different Cu/Mn molar ratio in terms of oxidation of CO, methanol and dimethyl ether. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation of γ-Al2O3 with copper and manganese nitrates and the catalytic activity measurements were carried out in continuous flow equipment with a four-channel isothermal stainless steel reactor. Gas mixtures on the input and output of the reactor were analyzed with a gas chromatograph, equipped with FID and TCD detectors. The texture characteristics were determined by low-temperature (- 196 oС) nitrogen adsorption in a Quantachrome Instruments NOVA 1200e (USA) specific surface area&pore analyzer. Thermal, XRD and TPR analyses were performed. It was established that the active component of the mixed Cu-Mn/γ–alumina catalysts strongly depends on the Cu/Mn molar ratio. Highly active alumina supported Cu-Mn catalysts for CO, methanol and DME oxidation were synthesized. While the hopcalite is the best catalyst for CO oxidation, the best compromise for simultaneous oxidation of all components is the catalyst with Cu/Mn molar ratio 1:5.

Keywords: supported copper-manganese catalysts, CO, VOCs oxidation, combustion of exhaust gases

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16 Structure-Activity Relationship of Gold Catalysts on Alumina Supported Cu-Ce Oxides for CO and Volatile Organic Compound Oxidation

Authors: Tatyana T. Tabakova, Elitsa N. Kolentsova, Dimitar Y. Dimitrov, Krasimir I. Ivanov, Yordanka G. Karakirova, Petya Cv. Petrova, Georgi V. Avdeev

Abstract:

The catalytic oxidation of CO and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is considered as one of the most efficient ways to reduce harmful emissions from various chemical industries. The effectiveness of gold-based catalysts for many reactions of environmental significance was proven during the past three decades. The aim of this work was to combine the favorable features of Au and Cu-Ce mixed oxides in the design of new catalytic materials of improved efficiency and economic viability for removal of air pollutants in waste gases from formaldehyde production. Supported oxides of copper and cerium with Cu: Ce molar ratio 2:1 and 1:5 were prepared by wet impregnation of g-alumina. Gold (2 wt.%) catalysts were synthesized by a deposition-precipitation method. Catalysts characterization was carried out by texture measurements, powder X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed reduction and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The catalytic activity in the oxidation of CO, CH3OH and (CH3)2O was measured using continuous flow equipment with fixed bed reactor. Both Cu-Ce/alumina samples demonstrated similar catalytic behavior. The addition of gold caused significant enhancement of CO and methanol oxidation activity (100 % degree of CO and CH3OH conversion at about 60 and 140 oC, respectively). The composition of Cu-Ce mixed oxides affected the performance of gold-based samples considerably. Gold catalyst on Cu-Ce/γ-Al2O3 1:5 exhibited higher activity for CO and CH3OH oxidation in comparison with Au on Cu-Ce/γ-Al2O3 2:1. The better performance of Au/Cu-Ce 1:5 was related to the availability of highly dispersed gold particles and copper oxide clusters in close contact with ceria.

Keywords: CO and VOCs oxidation, copper oxide, Ceria, gold catalysts

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15 Prediction of Super-Response to Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy

Authors: Vadim A. Kuznetsov, Anna M. Soldatova, Tatyana N. Enina, Elena A. Gorbatenko, Dmitrii V. Krinochkin

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The aim of the study was to evaluate potential parameters related with super-response to CRT. Methods: 60 CRT patients (mean age 54.3 ± 9.8 years; 80% men) with congestive heart failure (CHF) II-IV NYHA functional class, left ventricular ejection fraction < 35% were enrolled. At baseline, 1 month, 3 months and each 6 months after implantation clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic parameters, NT-proBNP level were evaluated. According to the best decrease of left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) (mean follow-up period 33.7 ± 15.1 months) patients were classified as super-responders (SR) (n=28; reduction in LVESV ≥ 30%) and non-SR (n=32; reduction in LVESV < 30%). Results: At baseline groups differed in age (58.1 ± 5.8 years in SR vs 50.8 ± 11.4 years in non-SR; p=0.003), gender (female gender 32.1% vs 9.4% respectively; p=0.028), width of QRS complex (157.6 ± 40.6 ms in SR vs 137.6 ± 33.9 ms in non-SR; p=0.044). Percentage of LBBB was equal between groups (75% in SR vs 59.4% in non-SR; p=0.274). All parameters of mechanical dyssynchrony were higher in SR, but only difference in left ventricular pre-ejection period (LVPEP) was statistically significant (153.0 ± 35.9 ms vs. 129.3 ± 28.7 ms p=0.032). NT-proBNP level was lower in SR (1581 ± 1369 pg/ml vs 3024 ± 2431 pg/ml; p=0.006). The survival rates were 100% in SR and 90.6% in non-SR (log-rank test P=0.002). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that LVPEP (HR 1.024; 95% CI 1.004–1.044; P = 0.017), baseline NT-proBNP level (HR 0.628; 95% CI 0.414–0.953; P=0.029) and age at baseline (HR 1.094; 95% CI 1.009-1.168; P=0.30) were independent predictors for CRT super-response. ROC curve analysis demonstrated sensitivity 71.9% and specificity 82.1% (AUC=0.827; p < 0.001) of this model in prediction of super-response to CRT. Conclusion: Super-response to CRT is associated with better survival in long-term period. Presence of LBBB was not associated with super-response. LVPEP, NT-proBNP level, and age at baseline can be used as independent predictors of CRT super-response.

Keywords: cardiac resynchronisation therapy, superresponse, congestive heart failure, left bundle branch block

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14 Microstructural Evolution of an Interface Region in a Nickel-Based Superalloy Joint Produced by Direct Energy Deposition

Authors: Matthew Ferguson, Tatyana Konkova, Ioannis Violatos

Abstract:

Microstructure analysis of additively manufactured (AM) materials is an important step in understanding the interrelationship between mechanical properties and materials performance. Literature on the effect of laser-based AM process parameters on the microstructure in the substrate-deposit interface is limited. The interface region, the adjoining area of substrate and deposit, is characterized by the presence of the fusion zone (FZ) and heat-affected zone (HAZ), experiencing rapid thermal gyrations resulting in thermal-induced transformations. Inconel 718 was utilized as work material for both the substrate and deposit. Three blocks of Inconel 718 material were deposited by Direct Energy Deposition (DED) using three different laser powers, 550W, 750W and 950W, respectively. A coupled thermo-mechanical transient approach was utilized to correlate temperature history to the evolution of microstructure. The thermal history of the deposition process was monitored with the thermocouples installed inside the substrate material. The interface region of the blocks was analyzed with Optical Microscopy (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), including the electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) technique. Laser power was found to influence the dissolution of intermetallic precipitated phases in the substrate and grain growth in the interface region. Microstructure and thermal history data were utilized to draw conclusive comparisons between the investigated process parameters.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, direct energy deposition, electron back-scattered diffraction, finite element analysis, inconel 718, microstructure, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, substrate-deposit interface region

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13 Alumina Supported Copper-Manganese-Cobalt Catalysts for CO and VOCs Oxidation

Authors: Elitsa Kolentsova, Dimitar Dimitrov, Vasko Idakiev, Tatyana Tabakova, Krasimir Ivanov

Abstract:

Formaldehyde production by selective oxidation of methanol is an important industrial process. The main by-products in the waste gas are CO and dimethyl ether (DME). The idea of this study is to combine the advantages of both Cu-Mn and Cu-Co catalytic systems by obtaining a new mixed Cu-Mn-Co catalyst with high activity and selectivity at the simultaneous oxidation of CO, methanol, and DME. Two basic Cu-Mn samples with high activity were selected for further investigation: (i) manganese-rich Cu-Mn/γ–Al2O3 catalyst with Cu/Mn molar ratio 1:5 and (ii) copper-rich Cu-Mn/γ-Al2O3 catalyst with Cu/Mn molar ratio 2:1. Manganese in these samples was replaced by cobalt in the whole concentration region, and catalytic properties were determined. The results show a general trend of decreasing the activity toward DME oxidation and increasing the activity toward CO and methanol oxidation with the increase of cobalt up to 60% for both groups of catalyst. This general trend, however, contains specific features, depending on the composition of the catalyst and the nature of the oxidized gas. The catalytic activity of the sample with Cu/(Mn+Co) molar ratio of 2:1 is gradually changed with increasing the cobalt content. The activity of the sample with Cu/(Mn+Co) molar ratio of 1: 5 passes through a maximum at 60% manganese replacement by cobalt, probably due to the formation of highly dispersed Co-based spinel structures (Co3O4 and/or MnCo2O4). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the Cu-Mn-Co/γ–alumina supported catalysts have enhanced activity toward CO, methanol and DME oxidation. Cu/(Mn+Co) molar ratio 1:5 and Co/Mn molar ratio 1.5 in the active component can ensure successful oxidation of CO, CH3OH and DME. The active component of the mixed Cu-Mn-Co/γ–alumina catalysts consists of at least six compounds - CuO, Co3O4, MnO2, Cu1.5Mn1.5O4, MnCo2O4 and CuCo2O4, depending on the Cu/Mn/Co molar ratio. Chemical composition strongly influences catalytic properties, this effect being quite variable with regards to the different processes.

Keywords: Cu-Mn-Co catalysts, oxidation, carbon oxide, VOCs

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12 Bone Mineral Density in Long-Living Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Svetlana V. Topolyanskaya, Tatyana A. Eliseeva, Olga N. Vakulenko, Leonid I. Dvoretski

Abstract:

Introduction: Limited data are available on osteoporosis in centenarians. Therefore, we evaluated bone mineral density in long-living patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: 202 patients hospitalized with CAD were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The patients' age ranged from 90 to 101 years. The majority of study participants (64.4%) were women. The main exclusion criteria were any disease or medication that can lead to secondary osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Normal lumbar spine BMD was observed in 40.9%, osteoporosis – in 26.9%, osteopenia – in 32.2% of patients. Normal proximal femur BMD values were observed in 21.3%, osteoporosis – in 39.9%, and osteopenia – in 38.8% of patients. Normal femoral neck BMD was registered only in 10.4% of patients, osteoporosis was observed in 60.4%, osteopenia in 29.2%. Significant positive correlation was found between all BMD values and body mass index of patients (p < 0.001). Positive correlation was registered between BMD values and serum uric acid (p=0.0005). The likelihood of normal BMD values with hyperuricemia increased 3.8 times, compared to patients with normal uric acid, who often have osteoporosis (Odds Ratio=3.84; p = 0.009). Positive correlation was registered between all BMD values and body mass index (p < 0.001). Positive correlation between triglycerides levels and T-score (p=0.02), but negative correlation between BMD and HDL-cholesterol (p=0.02) were revealed. Negative correlation between frailty severity and BMD values (p=0.01) was found. Positive correlation between BMD values and functional abilities of patients assessed using Barthel index (r=0,44; p=0,000002) and IADL scale (r=0,36; p=0,00008) was registered. Fractures in history were observed in 27.6% of patients. Conclusions: The study results indicate some features of BMD in long-livers. In the study group, significant relationships were found between bone mineral density on the one hand, and patients' functional abilities on the other. It is advisable to further study the state of bone tissue in long-livers involving a large sample of patients.

Keywords: osteoporosis, bone mineral density, centenarians, coronary artery disease

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11 Two-Component Biocompartible Material for Reconstruction of Articular Hyaline Cartilage

Authors: Alena O. Stepanova, Vera S. Chernonosova, Tatyana S. Godovikova, Konstantin A. Bulatov, Andrey Y. Patrushev, Pavel P. Laktionov

Abstract:

Trauma and arthrosis, not to mention cartilage destruction in overweight and elders put hyaline cartilage lesion among the most frequent diseases of locomotor system. These problems combined with low regeneration potential of the cartilage make regeneration of articular cartilage a high-priority task of tissue engineering. Many types of matrices, the procedures of their installation and autologous chondrocyte implantation protocols were offered, but certain aspects including adhesion of the implant with surrounding cartilage/bone, prevention of the ossification and fibrosis were not resolved. Simplification and acceleration of the procedures resulting in restoration of normal cartilage are also required. We have demonstrated that human chondroblasts can be successfully cultivated at the surface of electrospun scaffolds and produce extracellular matrix components in contrast to chondroblasts grown in homogeneous hydrogels. To restore cartilage we offer to use stacks of electrospun scaffolds fixed with photopolymerized solution of prepared from gelatin and chondroitin-4-sulfate both modified by glycidyl methacrylate and non-toxic photoinitator Darocur 2959. Scaffolds were prepared from nylon 6, polylactide-co-glicolide and their mixtures with modified gelatin. Illumination of chondroblasts in photopolymerized solution using 365 nm LED light had no effect on cell viability at compressive strength of the gel less than0,12 MPa. Stacks of electrospun scaffolds provide good compressive strength and have the potential for substitution with cartilage when biodegradable scaffolds are used. Vascularization can be prevented by introduction of biostable scaffolds in the layers contacting the subchondral bone. Studies of two-component materials (2-3 sheets of electrospun scaffold) implanted in the knee-joints of rabbits and fixed by photopolymerization demonstrated good crush resistance, biocompatibility and good adhesion of the implant with surrounding cartilage. Histological examination of the implants 3 month after implantation demonstrates absence of any inflammation and signs of replacement of the biodegradable scaffolds with normal cartilage. The possibility of intraoperative population of the implants with autologous cells is being investigated.

Keywords: chondroblasts, electrospun scaffolds, hyaline cartilage, photopolymerized gel

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10 The Impact of Trait and Mathematical Anxiety on Oscillatory Brain Activity during Lexical and Numerical Error-Recognition Tasks

Authors: Alexander N. Savostyanov, Tatyana A. Dolgorukova, Elena A. Esipenko, Mikhail S. Zaleshin, Margherita Malanchini, Anna V. Budakova, Alexander E. Saprygin, Yulia V. Kovas

Abstract:

The present study compared spectral-power indexes and cortical topography of brain activity in a sample characterized by different levels of trait and mathematical anxiety. 52 healthy Russian-speakers (age 17-32; 30 males) participated in the study. Participants solved an error recognition task under 3 conditions: A lexical condition (simple sentences in Russian), and two numerical conditions (simple arithmetic and complicated algebraic problems). Trait and mathematical anxiety were measured using self-repot questionnaires. EEG activity was recorded simultaneously during task execution. Event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP) were used to analyze spectral-power changes in brain activity. Additionally, sLORETA was applied in order to localize the sources of brain activity. When exploring EEG activity recorded after tasks onset during lexical conditions, sLORETA revealed increased activation in frontal and left temporal cortical areas, mainly in the alpha/beta frequency ranges. When examining the EEG activity recorded after task onset during arithmetic and algebraic conditions, additional activation in delta/theta band in the right parietal cortex was observed. The ERSP plots reveled alpha/beta desynchronizations within a 500-3000 ms interval after task onset and slow-wave synchronization within an interval of 150-350 ms. Amplitudes of these intervals reflected the accuracy of error recognition, and were differently associated with the three (lexical, arithmetic and algebraic) conditions. The level of trait anxiety was positively correlated with the amplitude of alpha/beta desynchronization. The level of mathematical anxiety was negatively correlated with the amplitude of theta synchronization and of alpha/beta desynchronization. Overall, trait anxiety was related with an increase in brain activation during task execution, whereas mathematical anxiety was associated with increased inhibitory-related activity. We gratefully acknowledge the support from the №11.G34.31.0043 grant from the Government of the Russian Federation.

Keywords: anxiety, EEG, lexical and numerical error-recognition tasks, alpha/beta desynchronization

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9 The Solid-Phase Sensor Systems for Fluorescent and SERS-Recognition of Neurotransmitters for Their Visualization and Determination in Biomaterials

Authors: Irina Veselova, Maria Makedonskaya, Olga Eremina, Alexandr Sidorov, Eugene Goodilin, Tatyana Shekhovtsova

Abstract:

Such catecholamines as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine are the principal neurotransmitters in the sympathetic nervous system. Catecholamines and their metabolites are considered to be important markers of socially significant diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, coronary heart disease, carcinogenesis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Currently, neurotransmitters can be studied via electrochemical and chromatographic techniques that allow their characterizing and quantification, although these techniques can only provide crude spatial information. Besides, the difficulty of catecholamine determination in biological materials is associated with their low normal concentrations (~ 1 nM) in biomaterials, which may become even one more order lower because of some disorders. In addition, in blood they are rapidly oxidized by monoaminooxidases from thrombocytes and, for this reason, the determination of neurotransmitter metabolism indicators in an organism should be very rapid (15—30 min), especially in critical states. Unfortunately, modern instrumental analysis does not offer a complex solution of this problem: despite its high sensitivity and selectivity, HPLC-MS cannot provide sufficiently rapid analysis, while enzymatic biosensors and immunoassays for the determination of the considered analytes lack sufficient sensitivity and reproducibility. Fluorescent and SERS-sensors remain a compelling technology for approaching the general problem of selective neurotransmitter detection. In recent years, a number of catecholamine sensors have been reported including RNA aptamers, fluorescent ribonucleopeptide (RNP) complexes, and boronic acid based synthetic receptors and the sensor operated in a turn-off mode. In this work we present the fluorescent and SERS turn-on sensor systems based on the bio- or chemorecognizing nanostructured films {chitosan/collagen-Tb/Eu/Cu-nanoparticles-indicator reagents} that provide the selective recognition, visualization, and sensing of the above mentioned catecholamines on the level of nanomolar concentrations in biomaterials (cell cultures, tissue etc.). We have (1) developed optically transparent porous films and gels of chitosan/collagen; (2) ensured functionalization of the surface by molecules-'recognizers' (by impregnation and immobilization of components of the indicator systems: biorecognizing and auxiliary reagents); (3) performed computer simulation for theoretical prediction and interpretation of some properties of the developed materials and obtained analytical signals in biomaterials. We are grateful for the financial support of this research from Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants no. 15-03-05064 a, and 15-29-01330 ofi_m).

Keywords: biomaterials, fluorescent and SERS-recognition, neurotransmitters, solid-phase turn-on sensor system

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8 Behavioral and EEG Reactions in Native Turkic-Speaking Inhabitants of Siberia and Siberian Russians during Recognition of Syntactic Errors in Sentences in Native and Foreign Languages

Authors: Tatiana N. Astakhova, Alexander E. Saprygin, Tatyana A. Golovko, Alexander N. Savostyanov, Mikhail S. Vlasov, Natalia V. Borisova, Alexandera G. Karpova, Urana N. Kavai-ool, Elena D. Mokur-ool, Nikolay A. Kolchanov, Lubomir I. Aftanas

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to compare behaviorally and EEG reactions in Turkic-speaking inhabitants of Siberia (Tuvinians and Yakuts) and Russians during the recognition of syntax errors in native and foreign languages. 63 healthy aboriginals of the Tyva Republic, 29 inhabitants of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, and 55 Russians from Novosibirsk participated in the study. All participants completed a linguistic task, in which they had to find a syntax error in the written sentences. Russian participants completed the task in Russian and in English. Tuvinian and Yakut participants completed the task in Russian, English, and Tuvinian or Yakut, respectively. EEG’s were recorded during the solving of tasks. For Russian participants, EEG's were recorded using 128-channels. The electrodes were placed according to the extended International 10-10 system, and the signals were amplified using ‘Neuroscan (USA)’ amplifiers. For Tuvinians and Yakuts EEG's were recorded using 64-channels and amplifiers Brain Products, Germany. In all groups 0.3-100 Hz analog filtering, sampling rate 1000 Hz were used. Response speed and the accuracy of recognition error were used as parameters of behavioral reactions. Event-related potentials (ERP) responses P300 and P600 were used as indicators of brain activity. The accuracy of solving tasks and response speed in Russians were higher for Russian than for English. The P300 amplitudes in Russians were higher for English; the P600 amplitudes in the left temporal cortex were higher for the Russian language. Both Tuvinians and Yakuts have no difference in accuracy of solving tasks in Russian and in their respective national languages (Tuvinian and Yakut). However, the response speed was faster for tasks in Russian than for tasks in their national language. Tuvinians and Yakuts showed bad accuracy in English, but the response speed was higher for English than for Russian and the national languages. With Tuvinians, there were no differences in the P300 and P600 amplitudes and in cortical topology for Russian and Tuvinian, but there was a difference for English. In Yakuts, the P300 and P600 amplitudes and topology of ERP for Russian were the same as Russians had for Russian. In Yakuts, brain reactions during Yakut and English comprehension had no difference and were reflected foreign language comprehension -while the Russian language comprehension was reflected native language comprehension. We found out that the Tuvinians recognized both Russian and Tuvinian as native languages, and English as a foreign language. The Yakuts recognized both English and Yakut as a foreign language, only Russian as a native language. According to the inquirer, both Tuvinians and Yakuts use the national language as a spoken language, whereas they don’t use it for writing. It can well be a reason that Yakuts perceive the Yakut writing language as a foreign language while writing Russian as their native.

Keywords: EEG, language comprehension, native and foreign languages, Siberian inhabitants

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7 Numerical Simulation of Filtration Gas Combustion: Front Propagation Velocity

Authors: Yuri Laevsky, Tatyana Nosova

Abstract:

The phenomenon of filtration gas combustion (FGC) had been discovered experimentally at the beginning of 80’s of the previous century. It has a number of important applications in such areas as chemical technologies, fire-explosion safety, energy-saving technologies, oil production. From the physical point of view, FGC may be defined as the propagation of region of gaseous exothermic reaction in chemically inert porous medium, as the gaseous reactants seep into the region of chemical transformation. The movement of the combustion front has different modes, and this investigation is focused on the low-velocity regime. The main characteristic of the process is the velocity of the combustion front propagation. Computation of this characteristic encounters substantial difficulties because of the strong heterogeneity of the process. The mathematical model of FGC is formed by the energy conservation laws for the temperature of the porous medium and the temperature of gas and the mass conservation law for the relative concentration of the reacting component of the gas mixture. In this case the homogenization of the model is performed with the use of the two-temperature approach when at each point of the continuous medium we specify the solid and gas phases with a Newtonian heat exchange between them. The construction of a computational scheme is based on the principles of mixed finite element method with the usage of a regular mesh. The approximation in time is performed by an explicit–implicit difference scheme. Special attention was given to determination of the combustion front propagation velocity. Straight computation of the velocity as grid derivative leads to extremely unstable algorithm. It is worth to note that the term ‘front propagation velocity’ makes sense for settled motion when some analytical formulae linking velocity and equilibrium temperature are correct. The numerical implementation of one of such formulae leading to the stable computation of instantaneous front velocity has been proposed. The algorithm obtained has been applied in subsequent numerical investigation of the FGC process. This way the dependence of the main characteristics of the process on various physical parameters has been studied. In particular, the influence of the combustible gas mixture consumption on the front propagation velocity has been investigated. It also has been reaffirmed numerically that there is an interval of critical values of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient at which a sort of a breakdown occurs from a slow combustion front propagation to a rapid one. Approximate boundaries of such an interval have been calculated for some specific parameters. All the results obtained are in full agreement with both experimental and theoretical data, confirming the adequacy of the model and the algorithm constructed. The presence of stable techniques to calculate the instantaneous velocity of the combustion wave allows considering the semi-Lagrangian approach to the solution of the problem.

Keywords: filtration gas combustion, low-velocity regime, mixed finite element method, numerical simulation

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6 Cross-Language Variation and the ‘Fused’ Zone in Bilingual Mental Lexicon: An Experimental Research

Authors: Yuliya E. Leshchenko, Tatyana S. Ostapenko

Abstract:

Language variation is a widespread linguistic phenomenon which can affect different levels of a language system: phonological, morphological, lexical, syntactic, etc. It is obvious that the scope of possible standard alternations within a particular language is limited by a variety of its norms and regulations which set more or less clear boundaries for what is possible and what is not possible for the speakers. The possibility of lexical variation (alternate usage of lexical items within the same contexts) is based on the fact that the meanings of words are not clearly and rigidly defined in the consciousness of the speakers. Therefore, lexical variation is usually connected with unstable relationship between words and their referents: a case when a particular lexical item refers to different types of referents, or when a particular referent can be named by various lexical items. We assume that the scope of lexical variation in bilingual speech is generally wider than that observed in monolingual speech due to the fact that, besides ‘lexical item – referent’ relations it involves the possibility of cross-language variation of L1 and L2 lexical items. We use the term ‘cross-language variation’ to denote a case when two equivalent words of different languages are treated by a bilingual speaker as freely interchangeable within the common linguistic context. As distinct from code-switching which is traditionally defined as the conscious use of more than one language within one communicative act, in case of cross-language lexical variation the speaker does not perceive the alternate lexical items as belonging to different languages and, therefore, does not realize the change of language code. In the paper, the authors present research of lexical variation of adult Komi-Permyak – Russian bilingual speakers. The two languages co-exist on the territory of the Komi-Permyak District in Russia (Komi-Permyak as the ethnic language and Russian as the official state language), are usually acquired from birth in natural linguistic environment and, according to the data of sociolinguistic surveys, are both identified by the speakers as coordinate mother tongues. The experimental research demonstrated that alternation of Komi-Permyak and Russian words within one utterance/phrase is highly frequent both in speech perception and production. Moreover, our participants estimated cross-language word combinations like ‘маленькая /Russian/ нывка /Komi-Permyak/’ (‘a little girl’) or ‘мунны /Komi-Permyak/ домой /Russian/’ (‘go home’) as regular/habitual, containing no violation of any linguistic rules and being equally possible in speech as the equivalent intra-language word combinations (‘учöтик нывка’ /Komi-Permyak/ or ‘идти домой’ /Russian/). All the facts considered, we claim that constant concurrent use of the two languages results in the fact that a large number of their words tend to be intuitively interpreted by the speakers as lexical variants not only related to the same referent, but also referring to both languages or, more precisely, to none of them in particular. Consequently, we can suppose that bilingual mental lexicon includes an extensive ‘fused’ zone of lexical representations that provide the basis for cross-language variation in bilingual speech.

Keywords: bilingualism, bilingual mental lexicon, code-switching, lexical variation

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5 Design, Development and Testing of Polymer-Glass Microfluidic Chips for Electrophoretic Analysis of Biological Sample

Authors: Yana Posmitnaya, Galina Rudnitskaya, Tatyana Lukashenko, Anton Bukatin, Anatoly Evstrapov

Abstract:

An important area of biological and medical research is the study of genetic mutations and polymorphisms that can alter gene function and cause inherited diseases and other diseases. The following methods to analyse DNA fragments are used: capillary electrophoresis and electrophoresis on microfluidic chip (MFC), mass spectrometry with electrophoresis on MFC, hybridization assay on microarray. Electrophoresis on MFC allows to analyse small volumes of samples with high speed and throughput. A soft lithography in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was chosen for operative fabrication of MFCs. A master-form from silicon and photoresist SU-8 2025 (MicroChem Corp.) was created for the formation of micro-sized structures in PDMS. A universal topology which combines T-injector and simple cross was selected for the electrophoretic separation of the sample. Glass K8 and PDMS Sylgard® 184 (Dow Corning Corp.) were used for fabrication of MFCs. Electroosmotic flow (EOF) plays an important role in the electrophoretic separation of the sample. Therefore, the estimate of the quantity of EOF and the ways of its regulation are of interest for the development of the new methods of the electrophoretic separation of biomolecules. The following methods of surface modification were chosen to change EOF: high-frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma treatment in oxygen and argon at low pressure (1 mbar); 1% aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol; 3% aqueous solution of Kolliphor® P 188 (Sigma-Aldrich Corp.). The electroosmotic mobility was evaluated by the method of Huang X. et al., wherein the borate buffer was used. The influence of physical and chemical methods of treatment on the wetting properties of the PDMS surface was controlled by the sessile drop method. The most effective way of surface modification of MFCs, from the standpoint of obtaining the smallest value of the contact angle and the smallest value of the EOF, was the processing with aqueous solution of Kolliphor® P 188. This method of modification has been selected for the treatment of channels of MFCs, which are used for the separation of mixture of oligonucleotides fluorescently labeled with the length of chain with 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 nucleotides. Electrophoresis was performed on the device MFAS-01 (IAI RAS, Russia) at the separation voltage of 1500 V. 6% solution of polydimethylacrylamide with the addition of 7M carbamide was used as the separation medium. The separation time of components of the mixture was determined from electropherograms. The time for untreated MFC was ~275 s, and for the ones treated with solution of Kolliphor® P 188 – ~ 220 s. Research of physical-chemical methods of surface modification of MFCs allowed to choose the most effective way for reducing EOF – the modification with aqueous solution of Kolliphor® P 188. In this case, the separation time of the mixture of oligonucleotides decreased about 20%. The further optimization of method of modification of channels of MFCs will allow decreasing the separation time of sample and increasing the throughput of analysis.

Keywords: electrophoresis, microfluidic chip, modification, nucleic acid, polydimethylsiloxane, soft lithography

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4 Event-Related Potentials and Behavioral Reactions during Native and Foreign Languages Comprehension in Bilingual Inhabitants of Siberia

Authors: Tatiana N. Astakhova, Alexander E. Saprygin, Tatyana A. Golovko, Alexander N. Savostyanov, Mikhail S. Vlasov, Natalia V. Borisova, Alexandera G. Karpova, Urana N. Kavai-ool, Elena D. Mokur-ool, Nikolay A. Kolchanov, Lubomir I. Aftanas

Abstract:

The study is dedicated to the research of brain activity in bilingual inhabitants of Siberia. We compared behavioral reactions and event-related potentials in Turkic-speaking inhabitants of Siberia (Tuvinians and Yakuts) and Russians. 63 healthy aboriginals of the Tyva Republic, 29 inhabitants of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, and 55 Russians from Novosibirsk participated in the study. All the healthy and right-handed participants, matched on age and sex, were students of different universities. EEG’s were recorded during the solving of linguistic tasks. In these tasks, participants had to find a syntax error in the written sentences. There were four groups of sentences: Russian, English, Tuvinian, and Yakut. All participants completed the tasks in Russian and English. Additionally, Tuvinians and Yakuts completed the tasks in Tuvinian or Yakut respectively. For Russians, EEG's were recorded using 128-channels according to the extended International 10-10 system, and the signals were amplified using “Neuroscan (USA)” amplifiers. For Tuvinians and Yakuts, EEG's were recorded using 64-channels and amplifiers Brain Products, Germany. In all groups, 0.3-100 Hz analog filtering and sampling rate 1000 Hz were used. As parameters of behavioral reactions, response speed and the accuracy of recognition were used. Event-related potentials (ERP) responses P300 and P600 were used as indicators of brain activity. The behavioral reactions showed that in Russians, the response speed for Russian was faster than for English. Also, the accuracy of solving tasks was higher for Russian than for English. The peak P300 in Russians were higher for English, the peak P600 in the left temporal cortex were higher for the Russian language. Both Tuvinians and Yakuts have no difference in accuracy of solving tasks in Russian and in their respective national languages. However, the response speed was faster for tasks in Russian than for tasks in their national language. Tuvinians and Yakuts showed bad accuracy in English, but the response speed was higher for English than for Russian and the national languages. This can be explained by the fact that they did not think carefully and gave a random answer for English. In Tuvinians, The P300 and P600 amplitudes and cortical topology were the same for Russian and Tuvinian and different for English. In Yakuts, the P300 and P600 amplitudes and topology of ERP for Russian were the same as what Russians had for Russian. In Yakuts, brain reactions during Yakut and English comprehension had no difference, and were reflected to foreign language comprehension - while the Russian language comprehension was reflected to native language comprehension. We found out that the Tuvinians recognized both Russian and Tuvinian as native languages, and English as a foreign language. The Yakuts recognized both English and Yakut as a foreign language, and only Russian as a native language. According to the inquirer, both Tuvinians and Yakuts use the national language as a spoken language, whereas they don’t use it for writing. It can well be a reason that Yakuts perceive the Yakut writing language as a foreign language while writing Russian as their native.

Keywords: EEG, ERP, native and foreign languages comprehension, Siberian inhabitants

Procedia PDF Downloads 478