Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4247

Search results for: Mexican context

4247 Processes of Identities Formation and Transformation among Professional Skilled Mexican Migrants in the United States

Authors: M. Laura Vazquez Maggio, Lilia Dominguez Villalobos, Jan Luka Frey

Abstract:

This paper contributes to the understanding of the dynamic and the relational nature of identities formation among skilled middle-class migrants. Following the idea that identities are never singular, multifaceted and have a necessarily processual character, the authors specifically analyze three dimensions of the identity of qualified Mexican migrants in the US and the interplay between them. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with skilled Mexican middle-class migrants in the US, the paper explores how skilled Mexican migrants preserve their ethno-national identity (their ‘Mexicanness’) in reaction to a hostile socio-political reception context in the US. It further shows how these migrants recreate their class identity and show tendencies to distance themselves from what they perceive as lower-class Mexican migrants and the dominant popular Mexican and Latin-American cultural expressions. In a final step, it examines how the lived experience of migration itself impacts the migrants’ identities, their concept of self and feelings/modes of being and belonging.

Keywords: ethno-national identity, middle class identity, middle-class migration, migrants’ identity, skilled migration

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4246 Sociocultural Barriers to the Development of Autonomous Foreign Language Learning: Some Teaching Strategies to Overcome Such Challenges in a Mexican Context

Authors: Zaideth Zobeida Ponce Alonso, Laura Emilia Fierro Lopez, Maria del Rocio Dominguez Gaona

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The present study is part of the Master in Modern Languages at the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, and it aims to analyze how the sociocultural background might influence the development of learner autonomy in foreign language education in order to propose some strategies to overcome such challenges. Given the lack of research on the sociocultural barriers in learner autonomy in a Mexican context and the need to hear teachers’ voices about this issue, qualitative data was obtained from semi-structured interviews with six language teachers on their perspectives on learner autonomy, its application to the language classroom, and their experiences with Mexican and foreign learners/contexts in order to find out differences regarding learner autonomy. The results suggest three main sociocultural characteristics: preference for an authority figure, tendency towards collectivism, and low tolerance of ambiguity. Finally, nine strategies were proposed in order to help language teachers to deal with such sociocultural characteristics when fostering learner autonomy in the border city of Mexicali, where this study was carried out.

Keywords: learner autonomy, Mexican context, sociocultural influence, teachers' perspectives, teaching strategies

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4245 Assessing Language Dominance in Mexican Deaf Signers with the Bilingual Language Profile (BLP)

Authors: E. Mendoza, D. Jackson-Maldonado, G. Avecilla-Ramírez, A. Mondaca

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Assessing language proficiency is a major issue in psycholinguistic research. There are multiple tools that measure language dominance and language proficiency in hearing bilinguals, however, this is not the case for Deaf bilinguals. Specifically, there are few, if not none, assessment tools useful in the description of the multilingual abilities of Mexican Deaf signers. Because of this, the linguistic characteristics of Mexican Deaf population have been poorly described. This paper attempts to explain the necessary changes done in order to adapt the Bilingual Language Profile (BLP) to Mexican Sign Language (LSM) and written/oral Spanish. BLP is a Self-Evaluation tool that has been adapted and translated to several oral languages, but not to sign languages. Lexical, syntactic, cultural, and structural changes were applied to the BLP. 35 Mexican Deaf signers participated in a pilot study. All of them were enrolled in Higher Education programs. BLP was presented online in written Spanish via Google Forms. No additional information in LSM was provided. Results show great heterogeneity as it is expected of Deaf populations and BLP seems to be a useful tool to create a bilingual profile of the Mexican Deaf population. This is a first attempt to adapt a widely tested tool in bilingualism research to sign language. Further modifications need to be done.

Keywords: deaf bilinguals, assessment tools, bilingual language profile, mexican sign language

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4244 Analyzing Mexican Adaptation of Shakespeare: A Study of Onstage Violence in Richard III and Its Impact on Mexican Viewers

Authors: Nelya Babynets

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Shakespeare and Mexican theatregoers have enjoyed quite a complex relationship. Shakespearean plays have appeared on the Mexican stage with remarkable perseverance, yet with mixed success. Although Shakespeare has long been a part of the global cultural marketplace and his works are celebrated all around the world, the adaptation of his plays on the contemporary Mexican stage is always an adventure, since the works of this early modern author are frequently seen as the legacy of a ‘high’, but obsolete, culture, one that is quite distant from the present-day viewers’ daily experiences and concerns. Moreover, Mexican productions of Shakespeare are presented mostly in Peninsular Spanish, a language similar yet alien to the language spoken in Mexico, one that does not wholly fit into the viewers’ cultural praxis. This is the reason why Mexican dramatic adaptations of Shakespearean plays tend to replace the cultural references of the original piece with ones that are more significant and innate to Latin American spectators. This paper analyses the new Mexican production of Richard III adapted and directed by Mauricio Garcia Lozano, which employs onstage violence - a cultural force that is inherent to all human beings regardless of their beliefs, ethnic background or nationality - as the means to make this play more relevant to a present-day audience. Thus, this paper addresses how the bloody bombast of staged murders helps to avoid the tyranny of a rigid framework of fixed meanings that denies the possibility of an intercultural appropriation of this European play written over four hundred years ago. The impact of violence displayed in Garcia Lozano’s adaptation of Richard III on Mexican audiences will also be examined. This study is particularly relevant in Mexico where the term ‘tragedy’ has become a commonplace and where drug wars and state-sanctioned violence have already taken the lives of many people.

Keywords: audience, dramatic adaptation, Shakespeare, viewer

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4243 Contemporary Mexican Shadow Politics: The War on Drugs and the Issue of Security

Authors: Lisdey Espinoza Pedraza

Abstract:

Organised crime in Mexico evolves faster that our capacity to understand and explain it. Organised gangs have become successful entrepreneurs in many ways ad they have somehow mimicked the working ways of the authorities and in many cases, they have successfully infiltrated the governmental spheres. This business model is only possible under a clear scheme of rampant impunity. Impunity, however, is not exclusive to the PRI. Nor the PRI, PAN, or PRD can claim the monopoly of corruption, but what is worse is that none can claim full honesty in their acts either. The current security crisis in Mexico shows a crisis in the Mexican political party system. Corruption today is not only a problem of dishonesty and the correct use of public resources. It is the principal threat to Mexican democracy, governance, and national security.

Keywords: security, war on drugs, drug trafficking, Mexico, Latin America, United States

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4242 Visual Working Memory, Reading Abilities, and Vocabulary in Mexican Deaf Signers

Authors: A. Mondaca, E. Mendoza, D. Jackson-Maldonado, A. García-Obregón

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Deaf signers usually show lower scores in Auditory Working Memory (AWM) tasks and higher scores in Visual Working Memory (VWM) tasks than their hearing pairs. Further, Working Memory has been correlated with reading abilities and vocabulary in Deaf and Hearing individuals. The aim of the present study is to compare the performance of Mexican Deaf signers and hearing adults in VWM, reading and Vocabulary tasks and observe if the latter are correlated to the former. 15 Mexican Deaf signers were assessed using the Corsi block test for VWM, four different subtests of PROLEC (Batería de Evaluación de los Procesos Lectores) for reading abilities, and the LexTale in its Spanish version for vocabulary. T-tests show significant differences between groups for VWM and Vocabulary but not for all the PROLEC subtests. A significant Pearson correlation was found between VWM and Vocabulary but not between VWM and reading abilities. This work is part of a larger research study and results are not yet conclusive. A discussion about the use of PROLEC as a tool to explore reading abilities in a Deaf population is included.

Keywords: deaf signers, visual working memory, reading, Mexican sign language

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4241 Learning Trajectories of Mexican Language Teachers: A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study

Authors: Alberto Mora-Vazquez, Nelly Paulina Trejo Guzmán

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This study examines the learning trajectories of twelve language teachers who were former students of a BA in applied linguistics at a Mexican state university. In particular, the study compares the social, academic and professional trajectories of two groups of teachers, six locally raised and educated ones and six repatriated ones from the U.S. Our interest in undertaking this research lies in the wide variety of students’ backgrounds we as professors in the BA program have witnessed throughout the years it has been around. Ever since the academic program started back in 2006, the student population has been made up of students whose backgrounds are highly diverse in terms of English language proficiency level, professional orientations and degree of cross-cultural awareness. Such diversity is further evidenced by the ongoing incorporation of some transnational students who have lived and studied in the United States for a significant period of time before their enrolment in the BA program. This, however, is not an isolated event as other researchers have reported this phenomenon in other TESOL-related programs of Mexican universities in the literature. Therefore, this suggests that their social and educational experiences are quite different from those of their Mexican born and educated counterparts. In addition, an informal comparison of the participation in formal teaching activities of the two groups at the beginning of their careers also suggested that significant differences in teacher training and development needs could also be identified. This issue raised questions about the need to examine the life and learning trajectories of these two groups of student teachers so as to develop an intervention plan aimed at supporting and encouraging their academic and professional advancement based on their particular needs. To achieve this goal, the study makes use of a combination of retrospective life-history research and the analysis of academic documents. The first approach uses interviews for data-collection. Through the use of a narrative life-history interview protocol, teachers were asked about their childhood home context, their language learning and teaching experiences, their stories of studying applied linguistics, and self-description. For the analysis of participants’ educational outcomes, a wide range of academic records, including reports of language proficiency exams results and language teacher training certificates, were used. The analysis revealed marked differences between the two groups of teachers in terms of academic and professional orientations. The locally educated teachers tended to graduate first, to look for further educational opportunities after graduation, to enter the language teaching profession earlier, and to expand their professional development options more than their peers. It is argued that these differences can be explained by their identities, which are made up of the interplay of influences such as their home context, their previous educational experiences and their cultural background. Implications for language teacher trainers and applied linguistics academic program administrators are provided.

Keywords: beginning language teachers, life-history research, Mexican context, transnational students

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4240 Federalism and Foreign Affairs: The International Relations of Mexican Sub-State Governments

Authors: Jorge A. Schiavon

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This article analyzes the international relations of sub-State governments (IRSSG) in Mexico. It aims to answer five questions: 1) What explains the recent and dramatic increase in their international activities? 2) What is the impact of federalism on the foreign affairs of the federal units? 3) What are the levels or degrees of IRSSG and how have they changed over the last years? 4) How do Mexican federal units institutionalize their international activities? 5) What are the perceptions and capacities of the federal units in their internationalization process? The first section argues that the growth in the IRSSG is generated by growing interdependence and globalization in the international system, and democratization, decentralization and structural reform in the national arena. The second section sustains that the renewed Mexican federalism has generated the incentives for SSG to participate more intensively in international affairs. The third section defends that there is a wide variation in their degree of international participation, which is measured in three moments in time (2004 2009 and 2014), and explains how this activity has changed in the last decade. The fourth section studies the institutionalization of the IRSSG in Mexico through the analysis of Inter-Institutional Agreements (IIA). Finally, the last section concentrates in explaining the perceptions and capacities of Mexican sub-State governments to conduct international relations.

Keywords: federalism, foreign policy, international relations of sub-state governments, paradiplomacy, Mexico

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4239 The Role of Social Influences and Cultural Beliefs on Perceptions of Postpartum Depression among Mexican Origin Mothers in San Diego

Authors: Mireya Mateo Gomez

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The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions first-generation Mexican origin mothers living in San Diego have on postpartum depression (PPD), with a special focus on social influences and cultural beliefs towards those meanings. This study also aimed to examine possible PPD help-seeking behaviors that first-generation Mexican origin mothers can perform. The Health Belief Model (HBM) and Social Ecological Model (SEM) were the guiding theoretical frameworks for this study. Data for this study were collected from three focus groups, four in-depth interviews, and the distribution of an acculturation survey (ARSMA II). There were a total of 15 participants, in which participant’s mean age was 45, and the mean age migrated to the United States being 22. Most participants identified as being married, born in Southern or Western Mexico, and with a strong Mexican identity in relation to the ARSMA survey. Participants identified four salient PPD perceptions corresponding to the interpersonal level of SEM. These four main perceptions were: 1) PPD affecting the identity of motherhood; 2) PPD being a natural part of a mother’s experience but mitigated by networks; 3) PPD being a U.S. phenomenon due to family and community breakdown; and 4) natural remedies as a preferred PPD treatment. In regard to themes relating to help seeking behaviors, participants identified seven being: 1) seeking help from immediate family members; 2) practicing home remedies; 3) seeking help from a medical professional; 4) obtaining help from a clinic or organization; 5) seeking help from God; 6) participating in PPD support groups; and 7) talking to a friend. It was evident in this study that postpartum depression is not a well discussed topic within the Mexican immigrant population. In relation to the role culture and social influences have on PPD perceptions, most participants shared hearing or learning about PPD from their family members or friends. Participants also stated seeking help from family members if diagnosed with PPD and seeking out home remedies. This study as well provides suggestions to increase the awareness of PPD among the Mexican immigrant community.

Keywords: cultural beliefs, health belief model, Mexican origin mothers, perceptions, postpartum depression social ecological model

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4238 Wicking Bed Cultivation System as a Strategic Proposal for the Cultivation of Milpa and Mexican Medicinal Plants in Urban Spaces

Authors: David Lynch Steinicke, Citlali Aguilera Lira, Andrea León García

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The proposal posed in this work comes from a researching-action approach. In Mexico, a dialogue of knowledge may function as a link between traditional, local, pragmatic knowledge, and technological, scientific knowledge. The advantage of generating this nexus lies on the positive impact in the environment, in society and economy. This work attempts to combine, on the one hand the traditional Mexican knowledge such as the usage of medicinal herb and the agroecosystem milpa; and on the other hand make use of a newly created agricultural ecotechnology which main function is to take advantage of the urban space and to save water. This ecotechnology is the wicking bed. In a globalized world, is relevant to have a proposal where the most important aspect is to revalorize the culture through the acquisition of traditional knowledge but at the same time adapting them to the new social and urbanized structures without threatening the environment. The methodology used in this work comes from a researching-action approach combined with a practical dimension where an experimental model made of three wickingbeds was implemented. In this model, there were cultivated medicinal herb and milpa components. The water efficiency and the social acceptance were compared with a traditional ground crop, all this practice was made in an urban social context. The implementation of agricultural ecotechnology has had great social acceptance as its irrigation involves minimal effort and it is economically feasible for low-income people. The wicking bed system raised in this project is attainable to be implemented in schools, urban and peri-urban environments, homemade gardens and public areas. The proposal managed to carry out an innovative and sustainable knowledge-based traditional Mexican agricultural technology, allowing regain Milpa agroecosystem in urban environments to strengthen food security in favour of nutritional and protein benefits for the Mexican fare.

Keywords: milpa, traditional medicine, urban agriculture, wicking bed

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4237 The Structural Pillars in Contemporary Mexico: Legacies of the Past and Lessons for the Future

Authors: Lisdey Espinoza Pedraza

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In places from Latin America to Africa, a big number of authoritarian regimes have given way to democratic forces and increasingly responsive and open societies. Many countries have embarked upon a process of democratisation for the first time while many others have moved to restore their democratic roots. Mexico is one of these countries, and although the Mexican state is not democratic neither dictatorial in the strict sense the Anglo-Saxon and European tradition has defined these concepts, it is possible to find elements that combine both concepts. History helps us understand and study the past, interpret the present and predict the future. In the case of the Mexican political system, history has had a very specific effect in each of the areas that comprise the making of what it is now the contemporary Mexican system. Each of the different historical periods has left a legacy that has marked the way the political system has evolved. The historical periods that Mexico has undergone since its emergence as an independent state, have permeated until modern days and some of these legacies are the ones which will help us understand and interpret many of the structures of the current Mexican political system. The most notorious characteristic of contemporary Latin America is its dependency, underdevelopment and economic disparity once this region if compared with Europe and North America. There is a widespread persistence of economic dependence and social problems despite the creation of independent countries. The role of the state is to supervise the development of relations among actors. The political phenomenon is full of a constant process of transitions and the particular case of the formation of the Mexican state evidences this.

Keywords: Mexico, democratisation process, PRI, authoritarian regimes, political transitions, Latin America

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4236 Impact of Reverse Technology Transfer on Innovation Capabilities: An Econometric Analysis for Mexican Transnational Corporations

Authors: Lissette Alejandra Lara, Mario Gomez, Jose Carlos Rodriguez

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ransnational corporations (TNCs) as units in which it is possible technology and knowledge transfer across borders and the potential for generating innovation and contributing in economic development both in home and host countries have been widely acknowledged in the foreign direct investment (FDI) literature. Particularly, the accelerated expansion of emerging countries TNCs in the last decades has guided an uprising research stream that measure the presence of reverse technology transfer, defined as the extent to which emerging countries’ TNCs use outward FDI in a host country through certain mechanisms to absorb and transfer knowledge thus improving its technological capabilities in the home country. The objective of this paper is to test empirically the presence of reverse technology transfer and its impact on the innovation capabilities in Mexican transnational corporations (MXTNCs) as a part of the emerging countries TNCs that have successfully entered to industrialized markets. Using a panel dataset of 22 MXTNCs over the period 1994-2015, the results of the econometric model demonstrate that the amount of Mexican outward FDI and the research and development (R&D) expenditure in host developed countries had a positive impact on the innovation capabilities at the firm and industry level. There is also evidence that management of acquired brands and the organizational structure of Mexican subsidiaries improved these capabilities. Implications for internationalization strategies of emerging countries corporations and future research guidelines are discussed.

Keywords: emerging countries, foreign direct investment, innovation capabilities, Mexican transnational corporations, reverse technology transfer

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4235 Electoral Mathematics and Asymmetrical Treatment to Political Parties: The Mexican Case

Authors: Verónica Arredondo, Miguel Martínez-Panero, Teresa Peña, Victoriano Ramírez

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The Mexican Chamber of Deputies is composed of 500 representatives: 300 of them elected by relative majority and another 200 ones elected through proportional representation in five electoral clusters (constituencies) with 40 representatives each. In this mixed-member electoral system, the seats distribution of proportional representation is not independent of the election by relative majority, as it attempts to correct representation imbalances produced in single-member districts. This two-fold structure has been maintained in the successive electoral reforms carried out along the last three decades (eight from 1986 to 2014). In all of them, the election process of 200 seats becomes complex: Formulas in the Law are difficult to understand and to be interpreted. This paper analyzes the Mexican electoral system after the electoral reform of 2014, which was applied for the first time in 2015. The research focuses on contradictions and issues of applicability, in particular situations where seats allocation is affected by ambiguity in the law and where asymmetrical treatment of political parties arises. Due to these facts, a proposal of electoral reform will be presented. It is intended to be simpler, clearer, and more enduring than the current system. Furthermore, this model is more suitable for producing electoral outcomes free of contradictions and paradoxes. This approach would allow a fair treatment of political parties and as a result an improved opportunity to exercise democracy.

Keywords: electoral mathematics, electoral reform, Mexican electoral system, political asymmetry, proportional representation

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4234 Proposal for a Generic Context Meta-Model

Authors: Jaouadi Imen, Ben Djemaa Raoudha, Ben Abdallah Hanene

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The access to relevant information that is adapted to users’ needs, preferences and environment is a challenge in many applications running. That causes an appearance of context-aware systems. To facilitate the development of this class of applications, it is necessary that these applications share a common context meta-model. In this article, we will present our context meta-model that is defined using the OMG Meta Object facility (MOF). This meta-model is based on the analysis and synthesis of context concepts proposed in literature.

Keywords: context, meta-model, MOF, awareness system

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4233 Modeling User Context Using CEAR Diagram

Authors: Ravindra Dastikop, G. S. Thyagaraju, U. P. Kulkarni

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Even though the number of context aware applications is increasing day by day along with the users, till today there is no generic programming paradigm for context aware applications. This situation could be remedied by design and developing the appropriate context modeling and programming paradigm for context aware applications. In this paper, we are proposing the static context model and metrics for validating the expressiveness and understandability of the model. The proposed context modeling is a way of describing a situation of user using context entities , attributes and relationships .The model which is an extended and hybrid version of ER model, ontology model and Graphical model is specifically meant for expressing and understanding the user situation in context aware environment. The model is useful for understanding context aware problems, preparing documentation and designing programs and databases. The model makes use of context entity attributes relationship (CEAR) diagram for representation of association between the context entities and attributes. We have identified a new set of graphical notations for improving the expressiveness and understandability of context from the end user perspective .

Keywords: user context, context entity, context entity attributes, situation, sensors, devices, relationships, actors, expressiveness, understandability

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4232 Dating Violence and Cultural Acceptance among Mexican High School Students

Authors: Libia Yanelli Yanez-Penunuri, Carlos Alejandro Hidalgo-Rasmussen, Cesar Armando Rey-Anacona

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Cultural and social norms have a great influence on individual behavior, including the use of violence. In this way, culture can protect against violence, but it can also support and encourage the use of violence. The aim of this study was to analyze differences in cultural acceptance and dating violence among Mexican high school students. A Cross-sectional study was carried out with 867 adolescent Mexican students of high school aged 14 to 18 years old in a dating relationship for at least a month in Guzman City, Mexico. To measure cultural acceptance and dating violence, the questionnaire abuse in dating (CMO) was applied. Informed consent to parents and students was requested. Analyses of descriptive and inferential statistics were performed. Participants were adolescent girls (61.4%) and adolescent boys (38.6%). About 63.7% of adolescents reported cultural acceptance of dating violence in their dating relationships. Associations between physical, sexual, economical dating violence and cultural acceptance were found. No association was found between psychological dating violence and cultural acceptance. The effect size in all dimensions was small. For future research, it is very important to take into consideration the change and evaluation of culture norms to prevent dating violence among adolescents.

Keywords: adolescents, culture, social norms, dating violence, students

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4231 Towards Natively Context-Aware Web Services

Authors: Hajer Taktak, Faouzi Moussa

Abstract:

With the ubiquitous computing’s emergence and the evolution of enterprises’ needs, one of the main challenges is to build context-aware applications based on Web services. These applications have become particularly relevant in the pervasive computing domain. In this paper, we introduce our approach that optimizes the use of Web services with context notions when dealing with contextual environments. We focus particularly on making Web services autonomous and natively context-aware. We implement and evaluate the proposed approach with a pedagogical example of a context-aware Web service treating temperature values. 

Keywords: context-aware, CXF framework, ubiquitous computing, web service

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4230 Generative Behaviors and Psychological Well-Being in Mexican Elders

Authors: Ana L. Gonzalez-Celis, Edgardo Ruiz-Carrillo, Karina Reyes-Jarquin, Margarita Chavez-Becerra

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Since recent decades, the aging has been viewed from a more positive perspective, where is not only about losses and damage, but also about being on a stage where you can enjoy life and live with well-being and quality of life. The challenge to feel better is to find those resources that seniors have. For that reason, psychological well-being has shown interest in the study of the affect and life satisfaction (hedonic well-being), while from a more recent tradition, focus on the development of capabilities and the personal growth, considering both as the main indicators of the quality of life. A resource that can be used in the later age is generativity, which refers to the ability of older people to develop and grow through activities that contribute with the improvement of the context in which they live and participate. In this way the generative interest is understood as a favourable attitude that contribute to the common benefit while strengthening and enriching the social institutions, to ensure continuity between generations and social development. On the other hand, generative behavior, differentiating from generative interest, is the expression of that attitude reflected in activities that make a social contribution and a benefit for generations to come. Hence the purpose of the research was to test if there is an association between the generative behaviour type and the psychological well-being with their dimensions. For this reason 188 Mexican adults from 60 to 94 years old (M = 69.78), 67% women, 33% men, completed two instruments: The Ryff’s Well-Being Scales to measure psychological well-being with 39 items with two dimensions (Hedonic and Eudaimonic well-being), and the Loyola’s Generative Behaviors Scale, grouped in five categories: Knowledge transmitted to the next generation, things to be remember, creativity, be productive, contribution to the community, and responsibility of other people. In addition, the socio-demographic data sheet was tested, and self-reported health status. The results indicated that the psychological well-being and its dimensions were significantly associated with the presence of generative behavior, where the level of well-being was higher when the frequency of some generative behaviour excelled; finding that the behavior with greater psychological well-being (M = 81.04, SD = 8.18) was "things to be remembered"; while with greater hedonic well-being (M = 73.39, SD = 12.19) was the behavior "responsibility of other people"; and with greater Eudaimonic well-being (M = 84.61, SD = 6.63), was the behavior "things to be remembered”. The most important findings highlight the importance of generative behaviors in adulthood, finding empirical evidence that the generativity in the last stage of life is associated with well-being. However, by finding differences in the types of generative behaviors at the level of well-being, is proposed the idea that generativity is not situated as an isolated construct, but needs other contextualized and related constructs that can simultaneously operate at different levels, taking into account the relationship between the environment and the individual, encompassing both the social and psychological dimension.

Keywords: eudaimonic well-being, generativity, hedonic well-being, Mexican elders, psychological well-being

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4229 Collaborative and Context-Aware Learning Approach Using Mobile Technology

Authors: Sameh Baccari, Mahmoud Neji

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In recent years, the rapid developments on mobile devices and wireless technologies enable new dimension capabilities for the learning domain. This dimension facilitates people daily activities and shortens the distances between individuals. When these technologies have been used in learning, a new paradigm has been emerged giving birth to mobile learning. Because of the mobility feature, m-learning courses have to be adapted dynamically to the learner’s context. The main challenge in context-aware mobile learning is to develop an approach building the best learning resources according to dynamic learning situations. In this paper, we propose a context-aware mobile learning system called Collaborative and Context-aware Mobile Learning System (CCMLS). It takes into account the requirements of Mobility, Collaboration and Context-Awareness. This system is based on the semantic modeling of the learning context and the learning content. The adaptation part of this approach is made up of adaptation rules to propose and select relevant resources, learning partners and learning activities based not only on the user’s needs, but also on its current context.

Keywords: mobile learning, mobile technologies, context-awareness, collaboration, semantic web, adaptation engine, adaptation strategy, learning object, learning context

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4228 The Phenomenon: Harmonious Bilingualism in America

Authors: Irdawati Bay Nalls

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This study looked at Bilingual First Language Acquisition (BFLA) Spanish-English Mexican Americans across an elementary public school in the United States and the possibility of maintaining harmonious bilingualism. Adopting a phenomenological approach, with a focus on the status of bilingualism in education within a marginalized community, classroom observations, and small group and one-on-one interviews were conducted. This study explored the struggles of these bilinguals as they acculturated in America through their attempt to blend heritage and societal languages and cultural practices. Results revealed that bilinguals as young as 5 years old expressed their need to retain Spanish as a heritage language while learning English. 12 years old foresee that Spanish will not be taught to them in schools and highlighted the need to learn Spanish outside the school environments. Their voices revealed counter-narratives on identity and the need to maintain harmonious bilingualism as these students strived to give equal importance to the learning of English and Spanish as first languages despite the setbacks faced.

Keywords: BFLA, Mexican-American, bilingual, harmonious bilingualism

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4227 Graph Planning Based Composition for Adaptable Semantic Web Services

Authors: Rihab Ben Lamine, Raoudha Ben Jemaa, Ikram Amous Ben Amor

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This paper proposes a graph planning technique for semantic adaptable Web Services composition. First, we use an ontology based context model for extending Web Services descriptions with information about the most suitable context for its use. Then, we transform the composition problem into a semantic context aware graph planning problem to build the optimal service composition based on user's context. The construction of the planning graph is based on semantic context aware Web Service discovery that allows for each step to add most suitable Web Services in terms of semantic compatibility between the services parameters and their context similarity with the user's context. In the backward search step, semantic and contextual similarity scores are used to find best composed Web Services list. Finally, in the ranking step, a score is calculated for each best solution and a set of ranked solutions is returned to the user.

Keywords: semantic web service, web service composition, adaptation, context, graph planning

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4226 Motherhood in the Poetry of Rosario Castellanos: Other Face of Womanhood

Authors: Dovile Kuzminskaite

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Rosario Castellanos is one of the most important Mexican writers; in her poetry and essays, she demythologizes social stereotypes about womanhood that were deeply present in Mexican society of the XXth century. In her extent poetic work, Rosario Castellanos demythologizes such concepts as romance, marriage, and motherhood, showing them in a way which did not agree with the norms of the catholic based society of her times. The aim of this research is to analyze the poetry of Rosario Castellanos working on sematic and structural levels and to investigate closely how she represents motherhood, what is the role of mother and the relationship of mother and child in her poems. Also, it is of interest to observe what are the elements used in the process of creating a different concept of motherhood. In order to reflect on this subject, this research will be based on semiotics, queer studies, and the philosophy of Michel Foucault, who introduces the concept of power when reflecting on gender and society. Rosario Castellanos turned into an example of disobedience and otherness for a generation of intellectuals in Spanish speaking countries, and because of this reason, it is of great importance to understand the politic and social statements that are represented by her poetry.

Keywords: motherhood, women, poetry, Mexico

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4225 Climate Change, Women's Labour Markets and Domestic Work in Mexico

Authors: Luis Enrique Escalante Ochoa

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This paper attempts to assess the impacts of Climate change (CC) on inequalities in the labour market. CC will have the most serious effects on some vulnerable economic sectors, such as agriculture, livestock or tourism, but also on the most vulnerable population groups. The objective of this research is to evaluate the impact of CC on the labour market and particularly on Mexican women. Influential documents such as the synthesis reports produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007 and 2014 revived a global effort to counteract the effects of CC, called for an analysis of the impacts on vulnerable socio-economic groups and on economic activities, and for the development of decision-making tools to enable policy and other decisions based on the complexity of the world in relation to climate change, taking into account socio-economic attributes. We follow up this suggestion and determine the impact of CC on vulnerable populations in the Mexican labour market, taking into account two attributes (gender and level of qualification of workers). Most studies have focused on the effects of CC on the agricultural sector, as it is considered a highly vulnerable economic sector to the effects of climate variability. This research seeks to contribute to the existing literature taking into account, in addition to the agricultural sector, other sectors such as tourism, water availability, and energy that are of vital importance to the Mexican economy. Likewise, the effects of climate change will be extended to the labour market and specifically to women who in some cases have been left out. The studies are sceptical about the impact of CC on the female labour market because of the perverse effects on women's domestic work, which are too often omitted from analyses. This work will contribute to the literature by integrating domestic work, which in the case of Mexico is much higher among women than among men (80.9% vs. 19.1%), according to the 2009 time use survey. This study is relevant since it will allow us to analyse impacts of climate change not only in the labour market of the formal economy, but also in the non-market sphere. Likewise, we consider that including the gender dimension is valid for the Mexican economy as it is a country with high degrees of gender inequality in the labour market. In the OECD economic study for Mexico (2017), the low labour participation of Mexican women is highlighted. Although participation has increased substantially in recent years (from 36% in 1990 to 47% in 2017), it remains low compared to the OECD average where women participate around 70% of the labour market. According to Mexico's 2009 time use survey, domestic work represents about 13% of the total time available. Understanding the interdependence between the market and non-market spheres, and the gender division of labour within them is the necessary premise for any economic analysis aimed at promoting gender equality and inclusive growth.

Keywords: climate change, labour market, domestic work, rural sector

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4224 Police Violence, Activism, and the Changing Rural United States: A Digital History and Mapping Narrative

Authors: Joel Zapata

Abstract:

Chicana/o Activism in the Southern Plains Through Time and Space, a digital history project available at PlainsMovement.com, helps reveal an understudied portion of the Chicana/o Civil Rights Movement: the way it unfolded on the Southern Plains. The project centers around an approachable interactive map and timeline along with a curated collection of materials. Therefore, the project provides a digital museum experience that has not emerged within the region’s museums. That is, this digital history project takes scholarly research to the wider public, making it is also a publicly facing history project. In this way, the project adds to both scholarly and socially significant conversations, showing that the region was home to a burgeoning wing of the Chicana/o Movement and that instances of police brutality largely spurred this wing of the social justice movement. Moreover, the curated collection of materials demonstrates that police brutality united the plains’ Mexican population across political ideology, a largely overlooked aspect within the study of Mexican American civil rights movements. Such a finding can be of use today since contemporary Latina/o social justice organizations generally ignore policing issues even amid a rise in national awareness regarding police abuse. In making history accessible to Mexican origin and Latina/o communities, these same communities may in-turn use the knowledge gained from historical research towards the betterment of their social positions—the foundational goal of Chicana/o history and the related field of Chicana/o Studies. Ultimately, this digital history project is intended to draw visitors to further explore the Chicana/o Civil Rights Movement within and beyond the plains.

Keywords: Chicana/o Movement, digital history, police brutality, newspapers, protests, student activism

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4223 Educational Infrastructure a Barrier for Teaching and Learning Architecture

Authors: Alejandra Torres-Landa López

Abstract:

Introduction: Can architecture students be creative in spaces conformed by an educational infrastructure build with paradigms of the past?, this question and others related are answered in this paper as it presents the PhD research: An anthropic conflict in Mexican Higher Education Institutes, problems and challenges of the educational infrastructure in teaching and learning History of Architecture. This research was finished in 2013 and is one of the first studies conducted nationwide in Mexico that analysis the educational infrastructure impact in learning architecture; its objective was to identify which elements of the educational infrastructure of Mexican Higher Education Institutes where architects are formed, hinder or contribute to the teaching and learning of History of Architecture; how and why it happens. The methodology: A mixed methodology was used combining quantitative and qualitative analysis. Different resources and strategies for data collection were used, such as questionnaires for students and teachers, interviews to architecture research experts, direct observations in Architecture classes, among others; the data collected was analyses using SPSS and MAXQDA. The veracity of the quantitative data was supported by the Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient, obtaining a 0.86, figure that gives the data enough support. All the above enabled to certify the anthropic conflict in which Mexican Universities are. Major findings of the study: Although some of findings were probably not unknown, they haven’t been systematized and analyzed with the depth to which it’s done in this research. So, it can be said, that the educational infrastructure of most of the Higher Education Institutes studied, is a barrier to the educational process, some of the reasons are: the little morphological variation of space, the inadequate control of lighting, noise, temperature, equipment and furniture, the poor or none accessibility for disable people; as well as the absence, obsolescence and / or insufficiency of information technologies are some of the issues that generate an anthropic conflict understanding it as the trouble that teachers and students have to relate between them, in order to achieve significant learning). It is clear that most of the educational infrastructure of Mexican Higher Education Institutes is anchored to paradigms of the past; it seems that they respond to the previous era of industrialization. The results confirm that the educational infrastructure of Mexican Higher Education Institutes where architects are formed, is perceived as a "closed container" of people and data; infrastructure that becomes a barrier to teaching and learning process. Conclusion: The research results show it's time to change the paradigm in which we conceive the educational infrastructure, it’s time to stop seen it just only as classrooms, workshops, laboratories and libraries, as it must be seen from a constructive, urban, architectural and human point of view, taking into account their different dimensions: physical, technological, documental, social, among others; so the educational infrastructure can become a set of elements that organize and create spaces where ideas and thoughts can be shared; to be a social catalyst where people can interact between each other and with the space itself.

Keywords: educational infrastructure, impact of space in learning architecture outcomes, learning environments, teaching architecture, learning architecture

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4222 Financial Analysis of the Foreign Direct in Mexico

Authors: Juan Peña Aguilar, Lilia Villasana, Rodrigo Valencia, Alberto Pastrana, Martin Vivanco, Juan Peña C

Abstract:

Each year a growing number of companies entering Mexico in search of the domestic market share. These activities, including stores, telephone long distance and local raw materials and energy, and particularly the financial sector, have managed to significantly increase its weight in the flows of FDI in Mexico , however, you should consider whether these trends FDI are positive for the Mexican economy and these activities increase Mexican exports in the medium term , and its share in GDP , gross fixed capital formation and employment. In general stresses that these activities, by far, have been unable to significantly generate linkages with the rest of the economy, a process that has not favored with competitiveness policies and activities aimed at these neutral or horizontal. Since the nineties foreign direct investment (FDI) has shown a remarkable dynamism, both internationally and in Latin America and in Mexico. Only in Mexico the first recipient of FDI in importance in Latin America during 1990-1995 and was displaced by Brazil since FDI increased from levels below 1 % of GDP during the eighties to around 3 % of GDP during the nineties. Its impact has been significant not only from a macroeconomic perspective , it has also allowed the generation of a new industrial production structure and organization, parallel to a significant modernization of a segment of the economy. The case of Mexico also is particularly interesting and relevant because the destination of FDI until 1993 had focused on the purchase of state assets during privatization process. This paper aims to present FDI flows in Mexico and analyze the different business strategies that have been touched and encouraged by the FDI. On the one hand, looking briefly discuss regulatory issues and source and recipient of FDI sectors. Furthermore, the paper presents in more detail the impacts and changes that generated the FDI contribution of FDI in the Mexican economy , besides the macroeconomic context and later legislative changes that resulted in the current regulations is examined around FDI in Mexico, including aspects of the Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). It is worth noting that foreign investment can not only be considered from the perspective of the receiving economic units. Instead, these flows also reflect the strategic interests of transnational corporations (TNCs) and other companies seeking access to markets and increased competitiveness of their production networks and global distribution, among other reasons. Similarly it is important to note that foreign investment in its various forms is critically dependent on historical and temporal aspects. Thus, the same functionality can vary significantly depending on the specific characteristics of both receptor units as sources of FDI, including macroeconomic, institutional, industrial organization, and social aspects, among others.

Keywords: foreign direct investment (FDI), competitiveness, neoliberal regime, globalization, gross domestic product (GDP), NAFTA, macroeconomic

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4221 A Comparative Analysis: Cultural Reflections of Mexicans in the United States and Turks in Germany

Authors: Gülşen Kocaevli

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This paper aims to conduct a comparative analysis on the reflections of cultural elements such as language, festival, and food both in the case of Turkish immigrants in Germany and Mexican immigrants in the United States within a historical perspective. These reflections will be studied first by giving a certain background information on the migratory history of the two nations, Mexican immigration to the US, and Turkish immigration to Germany, respectively. These two cases were picked as the analytical subjects of this paper because both nations first migrated to the related country to constitute a labor force since there was a huge need for that due to several reasons such as the loss of manpower after certain wars or revolutions. At the end of this comparative study, it is speculated to be found that there are certain parallels between these two immigrant societies in the way that they reflect their cultures in the receiving country since both nations have a conventionalist nature which makes them tend more to protect their cultures and pay less effort to integrate into the society in which they are living. Even though this integration might be realized in certain fields like economic status and exogamy, it does not cover all segments nor is there any desire of the receiving government to integrate the immigrants but rather they make policies to assimilate them. This research paper will use a qualitative method which is fundamentally based on the interpretative data drawn from several sociological or ethnographic studies conducted in the related field. The primary and secondary resources of this paper will cover academic books, journal articles, particularly those reporting interviews with the immigrants, and certain governmental documents as well as publicized statistics regarding the subject of analysis. By the use of the aforementioned methodology and resources, the conventionalist nature of the two immigrant nations is aimed to be presented as the unifying factor in the way that Mexicans in the US and Turks in Germany reflect and protect their cultures in the form of language, festivals, and food.

Keywords: assimilation, culture, German-Turks, immigration, Mexican Americans

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4220 Humanitarian Emergency of the Refugee Condition for Central American Immigrants in Irregular Situation

Authors: María de los Ángeles Cerda González, Itzel Arriaga Hurtado, Pascacio José Martínez Pichardo

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In México, the recognition of refugee condition is a fundamental right which, as host State, has the obligation of respect, protect, and fulfill to the foreigners – where we can find the figure of immigrants in irregular situation-, that cannot return to their country of origin for humanitarian reasons. The recognition of the refugee condition as a fundamental right in the Mexican law system proceeds under these situations: 1. The immigrant applies for the refugee condition, even without the necessary proving elements to accredit the humanitarian character of his departure from his country of origin. 2. The immigrant does not apply for the recognition of refugee because he does not know he has the right to, even if he has the profile to apply for. 3. The immigrant who applies fulfills the requirements of the administrative procedure and has access to the refugee recognition. Of the three situations above, only the last one is contemplated for the national indexes of the status refugee; and the first two prove the inefficiency of the governmental system viewed from its lack of sensibility consequence of the no education in human rights matter and which results in the legal vulnerability of the immigrants in irregular situation because they do not have access to the procuration and administration of justice. In the aim of determining the causes and consequences of the no recognition of the refugee status, this investigation was structured from a systemic analysis which objective is to show the advances in Central American humanitarian emergency investigation, the Mexican States actions to protect, respect and fulfil the fundamental right of refugee of immigrants in irregular situation and the social and legal vulnerabilities suffered by Central Americans in Mexico. Therefore, to achieve the deduction of the legal nature of the humanitarian emergency from the Human Rights as a branch of the International Public Law, a conceptual framework is structured using the inductive deductive method. The problem statement is made from a legal framework to approach a theoretical scheme under the theory of social systems, from the analysis of the lack of communication of the governmental and normative subsystems of the Mexican legal system relative to the process undertaken by the Central American immigrants to achieve the recognition of the refugee status as a human right. Accordingly, is determined that fulfilling the obligations of the State referent to grant the right of the recognition of the refugee condition, would mean a guideline for a new stage in Mexican Law, because it would enlarge the constitutional benefits to everyone whose right to the recognition of refugee has been denied an as consequence, a great advance in human rights matter would be achieved.

Keywords: central American immigrants in irregular situation, humanitarian emergency, human rights, refugee

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4219 Perception of Violence through the Drawing: A Research with Mexican University Students

Authors: Yessica Martinez Soto, Cesar E. Jimenez Yanez, Margarita Barak Velasquez, Yaralin Aceves Villanueva

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The presence of violent behavior in society is growing rapidly, which causes people to live in an environment of constant tension due to fear of becoming victims of violent acts. It is up to social scientists to be able to carry out analyzes in this regard to identify the different ways in which violence is normalized among people. The interest of this research work focuses on investigating the perception of violence in Mexican University students through the technique of drawing. To carry out this research, we worked with 67 university students from the Autonomous University of Baja California in Mexico, who drew an image of how they understood the concept of violence. His works showed us a variety of emotions, actions, and elements that relate and link with violence. One of the methodological tools to recognize and establish the link between the knowledge of a concept between discourse and practice is through graphic representations, that is, drawings. Although the drawing gives us a personal interpretation of the reality of each artist, the repetition of elements and the representation of similar situations allowed us to identify the degrees of incidence of the different types of violence and the areas in which it manifests itself.

Keywords: college students, Mexico, social representations, violence

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4218 The Classical Islamic Laws of Apostasy in the Present Context

Authors: Ali Akbar

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The main purpose of this essay is to examine whether or not the earthly punishments in regards to apostates that are often found in classical Islamic sources are applicable in the present context. The paper indeed addresses how Muslims should understand the question of apostasy in the contemporary context. To do so, the paper first argues that an accurate understanding of the way the Quranic verses and prophetic hadiths deal with the concept of apostasy could help us rethink and re-examine the classical Islamic laws on apostasy in the present context. In addition, building on Abdolkarim Soroush’s theory of contraction and expansion of religious knowledge, this article argues that approaches to apostasy in the present context can move away from what prescribed by classical Islamic laws. Finally, it argues that instances of persecution of apostates in the early days of Islam during the Medinan period of Muhammad’s prophetic mission should be interpreted in their own socio-historical context. Rereading these reports within our modern context supports the mutability of the traditional corporal punishments of apostasy.

Keywords: apostasy, Islam, Quran, hadith, Abdolkarim Soroush, contextualization

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