Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 464

Search results for: peer scaffolding

464 Teacher-Scaffolding vs. Peer-Scaffolding in Task-Based ILP Instruction: Effects on EFL Learners’ Metapragmatic Awareness

Authors: Amir Zand-Moghadam, Mahnaz Alizadeh

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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of teacher-scaffolding versus peer-scaffolding on EFL learners’ metapragmatic awareness in the paradigm of task-based language teaching (TBLT). To this end, a number of dialogic information-gap tasks requiring two-way interactant relationship were designed for the five speech acts of request, refusal, apology, suggestion, and compliment following Ellis’s (2003) model. Then, 48 intermediate EFL learners were randomly selected, homogenized, and assigned to two groups: 26 participants in the teacher-scaffolding group (Group One) and 22 in the peer-scaffolding group (Group Two). While going through the three phases of pre-task, while-task, and post-task, the participants in the first group completed the designed tasks by the teacher’s interaction, scaffolding, and feedback. On the other hand, the participants in the second group were required to complete the tasks in expert-novice pairs through peer scaffolding in all the three phases of a task-based syllabus. The findings revealed that the participants in the teacher-scaffolding group developed their L2 metapragmatic awareness more than the peer-scaffolding group. Thus, it can be concluded that teacher-scaffolding is more effective than peer scaffolding in developing metapragmatic awareness among EFL learners. It can also be claimed that the use of tasks can be more influential when they are accompanied by teacher-scaffolding. The findings of the present study have implications for language teachers and researchers.

Keywords: ILP, metapragmatic awareness, scaffolding, task-based instruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 486
463 Working within the Zone of Proximal Development: Does It Help for Reading Strategy?

Authors: Mahmood Dehqan, Peyman Peyvasteh

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In recent years there has been a growing interest in issues concerning the impact of sociocultural theory (SCT) of learning on different aspects of second/foreign language learning. This study aimed to find the possible effects of sociocultural teaching techniques on reading strategy of EFL learners. Indeed, the present research compared the impact of peer and teacher scaffolding on EFL learners’ reading strategy use across two proficiency levels. To this end, a pre-test post-test quasi-experimental research design was used and two instruments were utilized to collect the data: Nelson English language test and reading strategy questionnaire. Ninety five university students participated in this study were divided into two groups of teacher and peer scaffolding. Teacher scaffolding group received scaffolded help from the teacher based on three mechanisms of effective help within ZPD: graduated, contingent, dialogic. In contrast, learners of peer scaffolding group were unleashed from the teacher-fronted classroom as they were asked to carry out the reading comprehension tasks with the feedback they provided for each other. Results obtained from ANOVA revealed that teacher scaffolding group outperformed the peer scaffolding group in terms of reading strategy use. It means teacher’s scaffolded help provided within the learners’ ZPD led to better reading strategy improvement compared with the peer scaffolded help. However, the interaction effect between proficiency factor and teaching technique was non-significant, leading to the conclusion that strategy use of the learners was not affected by their proficiency level in either teacher or peer scaffolding groups.

Keywords: peer scaffolding, proficiency level, reading strategy, sociocultural theory, teacher scaffolding

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
462 Topological Analyses of Unstructured Peer to Peer Systems: A Survey

Authors: Hend Alrasheed

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Due to their different properties that have led to avoid several limitations of classic client/server systems, there has been a great interest in the development and the improvement of different peer to peer systems. Understanding the properties of complex peer to peer networks is essential for their future improvements. It was shown that the performances of peer to peer protocols are directly related to their underlying topologies. Therefore, multiple efforts have analyzed the topologies of different peer to peer systems. This study presents an overview of major findings of close experimental analyses to different topologies of three unstructured peer to peer systems: BitTorrent, Gnutella, and FreeNet.

Keywords: peer to peer networks, network topology, graph diameter, clustering coefficient, small-world property, random graph, degree distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
461 Implementation of Distributed Randomized Algorithms for Resilient Peer-to-Peer Networks

Authors: Richard Tanaka, Ying Zhu

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This paper studies a few randomized algorithms in application-layer peer-to-peer networks. The significant gain in scalability and resilience that peer-to-peer networks provide has made them widely used and adopted in many real-world distributed systems and applications. The unique properties of peer-to-peer networks make them particularly suitable for randomized algorithms such as random walks and gossip algorithms. Instead of simulations of peer-to-peer networks, we leverage the Docker virtual container technology to develop implementations of the peer-to-peer networks and these distributed randomized algorithms running on top of them. We can thus analyze their behaviour and performance in realistic settings. We further consider the problem of identifying high-risk bottleneck links in the network with the objective of improving the resilience and reliability of peer-to-peer networks. We propose a randomized algorithm to solve this problem and evaluate its performance by simulations.

Keywords: distributed randomized algorithms, peer-to-peer networks, virtual container technology, resilient networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
460 Safety Conditions Analysis of Scaffolding on Construction Sites

Authors: M. Pieńko, A. Robak, E. Błazik-Borowa, J. Szer

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This paper presents the results of analysis of 100 full-scale scaffolding structures in terms of compliance with legal acts and safety of use. In 2016 and 2017, authors examined scaffolds in Poland located at buildings which were at construction or renovation stage. The basic elements affecting the safety of scaffolding use such as anchors, supports, platforms, guardrails and toe-boards have been taken into account. All of these elements were checked in each of considered scaffolding. Based on the analyzed scaffoldings, the most common errors concerning assembly process and use of scaffolding were collected. Legal acts on the scaffoldings are not always clear, and this causes many issues. In practice, people realize how dangerous the use of incomplete scaffolds is only when the accident occurs. Despite the fact that the scaffolding should ensure the safety of its users, most accidents on construction sites are caused by fall from a height.

Keywords: façade scaffolds, load capacity, practice, safety of people

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
459 Design of Intelligent Scaffolding Learning Management System for Vocational Education

Authors: Seree Chadcham, Niphon Sukvilai

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This study is the research and development which is intended to: 1) design of the Intelligent Scaffolding Learning Management System (ISLMS) for vocational education, 2) assess the suitability of the Design of Intelligent Scaffolding Learning Management System for Vocational Education. Its methods are divided into 2 phases. Phase 1 is the design of the ISLMS for Vocational Education and phase 2 is the assessment of the suitability of the design. The samples used in this study are work done by 15 professionals in the field of Intelligent Scaffolding, Learning Management System, Vocational Education, and Information and Communication Technology in education selected using the purposive sampling method. Data analyzed by arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The results showed that the ISLMS for vocational education consists of 2 main components which are: 1) the Intelligent Learning Management System for Vocational Education, 2) the Intelligent Scaffolding Management System. The result of the system suitability assessment from the professionals is in the highest range.

Keywords: intelligent, scaffolding, learning management system, vocational education

Procedia PDF Downloads 440
458 Forecasting of Scaffolding Work Comfort Parameters Based on Data from Meteorological Stations

Authors: I. Szer, J. Szer, M. Pieńko, A. Robak, P. Jamińska-Gadomska

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Work at height, such as construction works on scaffoldings, is associated with a considerable risk. Scaffolding workers are usually exposed to changing weather conditions what can additionally increase the risk of dangerous situations. Therefore, it is very important to foresee the risk of adverse conditions to which the worker may be exposed. The data from meteorological stations may be used to asses this risk. However, the dependency between weather conditions on a scaffolding and in the vicinity of meteorological station, should be determined. The paper presents an analysis of two selected environmental parameters which have influence on the behavior of workers – air temperature and wind speed. Measurements of these parameters were made between April and November of 2016 on ten scaffoldings located in different parts of Poland. They were compared with the results taken from the meteorological stations located closest to the studied scaffolding. The results gathered from the construction sites and meteorological stations were not the same, but statistical analyses have shown that they were correlated.

Keywords: scaffolding, health and safety at work, temperature, wind velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
457 Parental Rejection and Psychological Adjustment among Adolescents: Does the Peer Rejection Mediate?

Authors: Sultan Shujja, Farah Malik

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The study examined the mediating role of peer rejection in direct relationship of parental rejection and psychological adjustment among adolescents. Researchers used self-report measures e.g., Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ), Children Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire (PARQ), and Personality Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ) to assess perception of parent-peer rejection, psychological adjustment among adolescents (14-18 years). Findings revealed that peer rejection did not mediate the parental rejection and psychological adjustment whereas parental rejection emerged as strong predictor when demographic variables were statistically controlled. On average, girls were psychologically less adjusted than that of boys. Despite of equal perception of peer rejection, girls more anxiously anticipated peer rejection than did the boys. It is suggested that peer influence on adolescents, specifically girls, should not be underestimated.

Keywords: peer relationships, parental perception, psychological adjustment, applied psychology

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
456 An Exploratory Study of Reliability of Ranking vs. Rating in Peer Assessment

Authors: Yang Song, Yifan Guo, Edward F. Gehringer

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Fifty years of research has found great potential for peer assessment as a pedagogical approach. With peer assessment, not only do students receive more copious assessments; they also learn to become assessors. In recent decades, more educational peer assessments have been facilitated by online systems. Those online systems are designed differently to suit different class settings and student groups, but they basically fall into two categories: rating-based and ranking-based. The rating-based systems ask assessors to rate the artifacts one by one following some review rubrics. The ranking-based systems allow assessors to review a set of artifacts and give a rank for each of them. Though there are different systems and a large number of users of each category, there is no comprehensive comparison on which design leads to higher reliability. In this paper, we designed algorithms to evaluate assessors' reliabilities based on their rating/ranking against the global ranks of the artifacts they have reviewed. These algorithms are suitable for data from both rating-based and ranking-based peer assessment systems. The experiments were done based on more than 15,000 peer assessments from multiple peer assessment systems. We found that the assessors in ranking-based peer assessments are at least 10% more reliable than the assessors in rating-based peer assessments. Further analysis also demonstrated that the assessors in ranking-based assessments tend to assess the more differentiable artifacts correctly, but there is no such pattern for rating-based assessors.

Keywords: peer assessment, peer rating, peer ranking, reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
455 Analysis of Exploitation Damages of the Frame Scaffolding

Authors: A. Robak, M. Pieńko, E. Błazik-Borowa, J. Bęc, I. Szer

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The analyzes and classifications presented in the article were based on the research carried out in year 2016 and 2017 on a group of nearly one hundred scaffoldings assembled and used on construction sites in different parts of Poland. During scaffolding selection process efforts were made to maintain diversification in terms of parameters such as scaffolding size, investment size, type of investment, location and nature of conducted works. This resulted in the research being carried out on scaffoldings used for church renovation in a small town or attached to the facades of classic apartment blocks, as well as on scaffoldings used during construction of skyscrapers or facilities of the largest power plants. This variety allows to formulate general conclusions about the technical condition of used frame scaffoldings. Exploitation damages of the frame scaffolding elements were divided into three groups. The first group includes damages to the main structural components, which reduce the strength of the scaffolding elements and hence the whole structure. The qualitative analysis of these damages was made on the basis of numerical models that take into account the geometry of the damage and on the basis of computational nonlinear static analyzes. The second group focuses on exploitation damages such as the lack of a pin on the guardrail bolt which may cause an imminent threat to people using scaffolding. These are local damages that do not affect the bearing capacity and stability of the whole structure but are very important for safe use. The last group consider damages that reduce only aesthetic values and do not have direct impact on bearing capacity and safety of use. Apart from qualitative analyzes the article will present quantitative analyzes showing how frequently given type of damage occurs.

Keywords: scaffolding, damage, safety, numerical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
454 The Effect of Peer Pressure and Leisure Boredom on Substance Use Among Adolescents in Low-Income Communities in Capetown

Authors: Gaironeesa Hendricks, Shazly Savahl, Maria Florence

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The aim of the study is to determine whether peer pressure and leisure boredom influence substance use among adolescents in low-income communities in Cape Town. Non-probability sampling was used to select 296 adolescents between the ages of 16–18 from schools located in two low-income communities. The measurement tools included the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test, the Resistance to Peer Influence and Leisure Boredom Scales. Multiple regression revealed that the combined influence of peer pressure and leisure boredom predicted substance use, while peer pressure emerged as a stronger predictor than leisure boredom on substance use among adolescents.

Keywords: substance use, peer pressure, leisure boredom, adolescents, multiple regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 489
453 Intrusion Detection System Based on Peer to Peer

Authors: Alireza Pour Ebrahimi, Vahid Abasi

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Recently by the extension of internet usage, Research on the intrusion detection system takes a significant importance. Many of improvement systems prevent internal and external network attacks by providing security through firewalls and antivirus. In recently years, intrusion detection systems gradually turn from host-based systems and depend on O.S to the distributed systems which are running on multiple O.S. In this work, by considering the diversity of computer networks whit respect to structure, architecture, resource, services, users and also security goals requirement a fully distributed collaborative intrusion detection system based on peer to peer architecture is suggested. in this platform each partner device (matched device) considered as a peer-to-peer network. All transmitted information to network are visible only for device that use security scanning of a source. Experimental results show that the distributed architecture is significantly upgradeable in respect to centralized approach.

Keywords: network, intrusion detection system, peer to peer, internal and external network

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
452 Peer-Review as a Means to Improve Students' Translation Skills

Authors: Bahia Braktia, Ahlem Ghamri

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Years ago, faculties and administrators realized that students entering college were not prepared for the academic sphere; however, as a type of collaborative learning, peer-review gave students a social context in which they could learn more efficiently. Peer-review has proven its effectiveness in higher education. Numerous studies have been conducted on peer review and its effects on the quality of students’ writing, and several publications recommended peer-review as part of the feedback process. Student writers showed a tendency towards making significant meaning-level revisions and surface-level revisions. Last but not least, studies reported that peer-review helps students develop their self-assessment skills as well as critical thinking. The use of peer-review has become well known and widely adopted to the L2 classroom environment. However, little is known about peer review on translation students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the students' perspective on peer-review, and whether this method affected the quality of their translation. A mixed method design was adopted. Students were requested to translate two texts from Arabic into English, and they gave and received structured feedback to their classmates' translations. A survey was administered, followed by semi-structured interviews, to examine the students' attitudes toward peer-review. The results of the study showed that peer-review was considered a good proofreading method for most students. The students also showed a positive attitude toward it, and they reported that they benefited from the interaction with their peers. The findings implied that the inclusion of peer-review can be an effective pedagogical practice for teaching translation and writing to foreign language learners.

Keywords: language teaching, feedback, peer-review, translation

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
451 A Comparative Study of Self, Peer and Teacher Assessment Based on an English Writing Checklist

Authors: Xiaoting Shi, Xiaomei Ma

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In higher education, students' self-assessment and peer assessment of compositions in writing classes can effectively improve their ability of evaluative judgment. However, students' self-assessment and peer assessment are not advocated by most teachers because of the significant difference in scoring compared with teacher assessment. This study used a multi-faceted Rasch model to explore whether an English writing checklist containing 30 descriptors can effectively improve rating consistency among self-assessment, peer assessment and teacher assessment. Meanwhile, a questionnaire was adopted to survey students’ and teachers’ attitudes toward self-assessment and peer assessment using the writing checklist. Results of the multi-faceted Rasch model analysis show that the writing checklist can effectively distinguish the students’ writing ability (separate coefficient = 2.05, separate reliability = 0.81, chi-square value (df = 32) = 123.4). Moreover, the results revealed that the checklist could improve rating consistency among self-assessment, peer assessment and teacher assessment. (separate coefficient = 1.71, separate reliability = 0.75, chi-square value (df=4) = 20.8). The results of the questionnaire showed that more than 85% of students and all teachers believed that the checklist had a good advantage in self-assessment and peer assessment, and they were willing to use the checklist to conduct self-assessment and peer assessment in class in the future.

Keywords: english writing, self-assessment, peer assessment, writing checklist

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
450 An Ethnographic Study on Peer Support Work-Ers in a Peer Driven Non Governmental Organization: The Colorado Mental Wellness Network

Authors: Shawna M. Margesson

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This research study seeks to explore the lived experience of peer support workers (PSWs) in a peer-led non-governmental organization in Denver, Colorado, USA. The Colorado Mental Wellness Network offers supportive wellness recovery services such as wellness recovery action plans (WRAP), advocacy trainings for anti-stigma campaigns, and PSWs to work with and for consumers in the community. This study suggests that a peer-run environment is a unique community setting for PSWs to work given all employees are living in mental wellness recovery. Little has been documented about PSWs' personal accounts of working within a recovery-oriented organization and their first-person accounts to working with consumers. The importance of this study is to provide an ethnographic account of both subjects; the lived experiences of PSWs of both organizational and consumer-driven recovery. This study seeks to add to the literature and the social work profession the personal accounts of PSWs as they provide services to others like themselves. It also will provide an additional lens to view the peer-driven movement in mental health and wellness recovery.

Keywords: peer to peer movement, mental health, ethnography, peer support workers

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449 Peer-To-Peer Lending and Macroeconomics: Searching for a Link

Authors: Asror Nigmonov Asqar Ogli, Sitora Inoyatova Amonovna

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It has been a decade when the crowdfunding and P2P lending opportunities were created. Today, the market of these modern alternative investments is becoming increasingly complex to navigate. There are overwhelming amount of peer-to-peer lending platforms both in developed and emerging economies. This study looks into this market via the cross country empirical study. In this respect, it tests the effect of various macroeconomic factors on P2P loan lending. Based on the existing literature that largely lacks empirical investigations, it builds regression model that aims to explore the relationship between economy and P2P lending. Though the author found it extremely difficult to compare the findings with earlier studies, this paper had identified certain tendencies in the data and had certain policy implications. However, the paper could not find any significant effect of economic variables on P2P lending. The paper can be considered as a starting point in empirical investigation of P2P lending and highlights room further research based on limitations of the study.

Keywords: peer-to-peer lending, crowdfunding, marketplace lending, alternative finance, fintech

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
448 A Hybrid P2P Storage Scheme Based on Erasure Coding and Replication

Authors: Usman Mahmood, Khawaja M. U. Suleman

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A peer-to-peer storage system has challenges like; peer availability, data protection, churn rate. To address these challenges different redundancy, replacement and repair schemes are used. This paper presents a hybrid scheme of redundancy using replication and erasure coding. We calculate and compare the storage, access, and maintenance costs of our proposed scheme with existing redundancy schemes. For realistic behaviour of peers a trace of live peer-to-peer system is used. The effect of different replication, and repair schemes are also shown. The proposed hybrid scheme performs better than existing double coding hybrid scheme in all metrics and have an improved maintenance cost than hierarchical codes.

Keywords: erasure coding, P2P, redundancy, replication

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
447 Optimal Peer-to-Peer On-Orbit Refueling Mission Planning with Complex Constraints

Authors: Jing Yu, Hongyang Liu, Dong Hao

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On-Orbit Refueling is of great significance in extending space crafts' lifetime. The problem of minimum-fuel, time-fixed, Peer-to-Peer On-Orbit Refueling mission planning is addressed here with the particular aim of assigning fuel-insufficient satellites to the fuel-sufficient satellites and optimizing each rendezvous trajectory. Constraints including perturbation, communication link, sun illumination, hold points for different rendezvous phases, and sensor switching are considered. A planning model has established as well as a two-level solution method. The upper level deals with target assignment based on fuel equilibrium criterion, while the lower level solves constrained trajectory optimization using special maneuver strategies. Simulations show that the developed method could effectively resolve the Peer-to-Peer On-Orbit Refueling mission planning problem and deal with complex constraints.

Keywords: mission planning, orbital rendezvous, on-orbit refueling, space mission

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
446 Teaching Young Learners How to Work Together: Pedagogical Ideas for Language Teachers

Authors: Tomas Kos

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An increasing body of research has explored patterns of interaction and peer support among young learners. Although some studies suggest that young learners can collaborate and support each other, other studies indicate that young learners may lack the ability to work together and support one another when interacting on classroom tasks. Moreover, despite the claims that peer collaboration is conducive to learning, studies have not paid enough attention to the “how” to enhance peer collaboration on classroom tasks. To fill this gap, this “how-to” article proposes that teaching young learners how to work together is a powerful pedagogical tool that can greatly improve collaborative behavior and a sense of mutuality among young learners. This article will pay particular attention to primary schools and the context of English as a foreign language. It will first review literature related to patterns of interaction and peer support conducted in the cognitive and sociocultural framework. It will then address what it actually means to collaborate. At the heart of the article, it will discuss some practical pedagogical ideas for language teachers, which entail teaching collaborative principles and strategies that will help their students to support each other and engage in communication with each other.

Keywords: young learners, peer collaboration, peer interaction, peer support, patterns of interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
445 Integrating Blogging into Peer Assessment on College Students’ English Writing

Authors: Su-Lien Liao

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Most of college students in Taiwan do not have sufficient English proficiency to express themselves in written English. Teachers spent a lot of time correcting students’ English writing, but the results are not satisfactory. This study aims to use blogs as a teaching and learning tool in written English. Before applying peer assessment, students should be trained to be good reviewers. The teacher starts the course by posting the error analysis of students’ first English composition on blogs as the comment models for students. Then the students will go through the process of drafting, composing, peer response and last revision on blogs. Evaluation Questionnaires and interviews will be conducted at the end of the course to see the impact and students’ perception for the course.

Keywords: blog, peer assessment, English writing, error analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
444 A Comparative Study of Substance Abusers and Non-Abusers on Peer Pressure, Tendency to Risk Taking Behavior and Anxiety

Authors: Musarrat Jabeen Khan, Uzma Azam, Kainat Umar, Jazba Amber Satti, Aiman Shehzadi, Nimo Omer

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This study aimed to examine the comparison between substance abusers and non-abusers on anxiety, peer pressure, and risk-taking behavior among young adults. The sample consisted of 138 individuals including 64 female and 71 males, age range from 17-35 years, drawn from non-clinical population through convenient sampling. Questionnaire technique was used for the information assortment and the scales were susceptibility to peer pressure (Dieman, Pamella, Shope & Butchart, 1987), Zung self-rating anxiety scale (Zung, 1971), and risk-taking questionnaire (Gullone, Moore, Moss & Boyd, 2000) having alpha reliability of .54, .88, and .80 respectively. Results showed that anxiety negatively correlates with the risk-taking behavior. High level of anxiety stops an individual to involve himself in risk taking activities. Peer pressure have positive correlation with risk-taking behavior. Females are more susceptible to peer pressure irrespective of being abusers or non-abusers as compared to male abusers and non-abusers. Substance abusers have less anxiety as compared to non-abusers but are more susceptible to peer pressure and risk-taking behaviors.

Keywords: substance, substance abuse, anxiety, peer pressure, risk-taking behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
443 An Experimental Study of Online Peer-to-Peer Language Learning

Authors: Abrar Al-Hasan

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Web 2.0 has significantly increased the amount of information available to users not only about firms and their offerings, but also about the activities of other individuals in their networks and markets. It is widely acknowledged that this increased availability of ‘social’ information, particularly about other individuals, is likely to influence a user’s behavior and choices. However, there are very few systematic studies of how such increased information transparency on the behavior of other users in a focal users’ network influences a focal users’ behavior in the emerging marketplace of online language learning. This study seeks to examine the value and impact of ‘social activities’ – wherein, a user sees and interacts with the learning activities of her peers – on her language learning efficiency. An online experiment in a peer-to-peer language marketplace was conducted to compare the learning efficiency of users with ‘social’ information versus users with no ‘social’ information. The results of this study highlight the impact and importance of ‘social’ information within the language learning context. The study concludes by exploring how these insights may inspire new developments in online education.

Keywords: e-Learning, language learning marketplace, peer-to-peer, social network

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
442 Correlates of Peer Influence and Resistance to HIV/AIDS Counselling and Testing among Students in Tertiary Institutions in Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: A. S. Haruna, M. U. Tambawal, A. A. Salawu

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The psychological impact of peer influence on its individual group members, can make them resist HIV/AIDS counselling and testing. This study investigated the correlate of peer influence and resistance to HIV/AIDS counselling and testing among students in tertiary institutions in Kano state, Nigeria. To achieve this, three null hypotheses were postulated and tested. Cross-Sectional Survey Design was employed in which 1512 sample was selected from a student population of 104,841.Simple Random Sampling was used in the selection. A self-developed 20-item scale called Peer Influence and Psychological Resistance Inventory (PIPRI) was used for data collection. Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMCC) via test-retest method was applied to estimate a reliability coefficient of 0.86 for the scale. Data obtained was analyzed using t-test and PPMCC at 0.05 level of confidence. Results reveal 26.3% (397) of the respondents being influenced by their peer group, while 39.8% showed resistance. Also, the t-tests and PPMCC statistics were greater than their respective critical values. This shows that there was a significant gender difference in peer influence and a difference between peer influence and resistance to HIV/AIDS counselling and testing. However, a positive relationship between peer influence and resistance to HIV/AIDS counselling and testing was shown. A major recommendation offered suggests the use of reinforcement and social support for positive attitudes and maintenance of safe behaviour among students who patronize HIV/AIDS counselling.

Keywords: peer group influence, HIV/AIDS counselling and testing, psychological resistance, students

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
441 Going the Distance – Building Peer Support during a Time of Crisis

Authors: Lisa Gray, Henry Kronner, Tameca Harris-Jackson, Mimi Sodhi, Ruth Gerritsen-McKane, Donette Considine

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The MSW Peer Mentorship Program (PMP) was developed as one of several approaches to foster student success. The key purposes of the PMP are to help new graduate students transition to a graduate program, facilitate relationship building between students, grow and sustain student satisfaction, and build a strong connection to the MSW program. This pilot program also serves as an additional source of support for students during the era of the Covid-19 pandemic. Further, the long-term goals of the program are to assist in student retention. Preliminary findings suggest that both mentors and mentees enrolled in PMP find the peer mentoring relationship to have a positive impact on their graduate learning experience.

Keywords: covid-19, mentorship, peer support, student success

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
440 Does One Size Fit All: Immigrant Youths, Bullying and Peer-Aggression

Authors: Shila Khayambashi

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For the past few decades, Western researchers studied different youth issues, such as bullying, peer-aggression, depression, self-harm, and suicide, in a formulated and standardized manner. These researchers have grounded their studies upon a series of introduced characteristics and traits, which pragmatically defined the action of the individuals involved in these activities (Olweus, 1994). The phenomena of bullying and peer-aggression have touched the lives of many immigrant youths, as well. However, in the case of these immigrant young adults, the Police investigated, and later dismissed, the victims’ involvement in drugs and gangs’ activities, instead of questioning the possibility of the peer-aggression. This paper argues that neither government officials nor school personnel has ever investigated any cyber-documentation which would clarify these youth’s untimely deaths or search for any indication of peer-aggression at school. Through my ongoing research, I will problematize the Eurocentric definition of bullying and its limitations. I question the assumed universality of these definitions’ characteristics and their lack of minority representation. This research questions explicitly the positionality of the displaced youth within the promised multiculturality of Canada. I will ask: Does one size fit all, considering the bio-psycho-socio-economic differences between the Eastern and the Western worlds? More importantly, how does the epidemy of the communicative devices, like smartphones, and communicative apps, like Twitter and Snapchats, facilitate or hinder peer-aggression for the displaced youths?

Keywords: Bullying , Immigrant youths, Peer aggression, Minority population

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
439 Fund Seekers’ Deception in Peer-to-Peer Lending in Times of COVID

Authors: Olivier Mesly

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This article examines the likelihood of deception on the part of borrowers wishing to obtain credit from institutional or private lenders. In our first study, we identify five explanatory variables that account for nearly forty percent of the propensity to act deceitfully: a poor credit history, debt, risky behavior, and to a much lesser degree, irrational behavior and disconnection from the bundle of needs, goals, and preferences. For the second study, we remodeled the initial questionnaire to adapt it to the needs of institutional bankers and borrowers, especially those that engage in money on-line peer-to-peer lending, a growing business fueled by the COVID pandemic. We find that the three key psychological variables that help to indirectly predict the likelihood of deceitful behaviors and possible default on loan reimbursement, i.e., risky behaviors, ir-rationality, and dis-connection, interact with each other to form a loop. This study presents two benefits: first, we provide evidence that it is to some degree possible to tighten control over lending practices. Second, we offer a pragmatic tool: a questionnaire, that lenders can use or adapt to gauge potential borrowers’ deceit, notably by combining their results with standard hard-data measures of risk.

Keywords: bundle of needs, default, debt, deception, risk, peer-to-peer lending

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438 The Impact of Scaffolding on Motivation of Vocational Special Education Students in Kakamega Program for Persons with Hearing Impaired in Kenya

Authors: J. W. Mbogani, B. A. Bunyasi

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The special skills for five students in the vocational class in Kakamega program for Hearing impaired were identified within one term period of the Kenyan education system. Three students were identified as having a liking for tailoring. The remaining two students did not show any interest in any vocational subject. The three students were attached to two professionals in practicing general tailors within the school vicinity for scaffolding purposes. The students were allowed to attend general classes under the normal curriculum and were withdrawn after eleven in the morning for tailoring classes. The students were then monitored with the guideline of a checklist. The purpose of monitoring was to establish whether the behavior of the students reflected a motivated student. It was established that two of them improved in their school attendance in terms of regularity, punctuality and responsibility accomplishment. The third student ended up attending only tailoring classes. The socialization aspect of the two students improved a lot. They also tended to identify more with the teachers than their fellow students. We recommend that learners with special needs in education should be subjected to the normal curriculum. They may benefit more and attain a skill that could help them economically. Further study should also be done to in several institutions involving learners in other classes.

Keywords: general tailoring, scaffolding, term, vocational class

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
437 Investigation of Chord Protocol in Peer to Peer Wireless Mesh Network with Mobility

Authors: P. Prasanna Murali Krishna, M. V. Subramanyam, K. Satya Prasad

Abstract:

File sharing in networks are generally achieved using Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications. Structured P2P approaches are widely used in adhoc networks due to its distributed and scalability features. Efficient mechanisms are required to handle the huge amount of data distributed to all peers. The intrinsic characteristics of P2P system makes for easier content distribution when compared to client-server architecture. All the nodes in a P2P network act as both client and server, thus, distributing data takes lesser time when compared to the client-server method. CHORD protocol is a resource routing based where nodes and data items are structured into a 1- dimensional ring. The structured lookup algorithm of Chord is advantageous for distributed P2P networking applications. Though, structured approach improves lookup performance in a high bandwidth wired network it could contribute to unnecessary overhead in overlay networks leading to degradation of network performance. In this paper, the performance of existing CHORD protocol on Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) when nodes are static and dynamic is investigated.

Keywords: wireless mesh network (WMN), structured P2P networks, peer to peer resource sharing, CHORD Protocol, DHT

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436 Self-Reliant Peer Learning for Nursing Students

Authors: U.-B. Schaer, M. Wehr, R. Hodler

Abstract:

Background: Most nursing students require more training time for necessary nursing skills than defined by nursing schools curriculum to acquire basic nursing skills. Given skills training lessons are too brief to enable effective student learning, meaning in-depth skills practice and repetition various learning steps. This increases stress levels and the pressure to succeed for a nursing student with slower learning capabilities. Another possible consequence is that nursing students are less prepared in the required skills for future clinical practice. Intervention: The Bern College of Higher Education of Nursing, Switzerland, started the independent peer practice learning program in 2012. A concept was developed which defines specific aims and content as well as student’s rights and obligations. Students enlist beforehand and order the required materials. They organize themselves and train in small groups in allocated training location in the area of Learning Training and Transfer (LTT). During the peer practice, skills and knowledge can be repeatedly trained and reflected in the peer groups without the presence of a tutor. All invasive skills are practiced only on teaching dummies. This allows students to use all their potential. The students may access learning materials as literature and their own student notes. This allows nursing students to practice their skills and to deepen their knowledge on corresponding with their own learning rate. Results: Peer group discussions during the independent peer practice learning support the students in gaining certainty and confidence in their knowledge and skills. This may improve patient safety in future daily care practice. Descriptive statics show that the number of students who take advantage of the independent peer practice learning increased continuously (2012-2018). It has to be mentioned that in 2012, solely students of the first semester attended the independent peer practice learning program, while in 2018 over one-third of the participating students were in their fifth semester and final study year. It is clearly visible that the demand for independent peer practice learning is increasing. This has to be considered in the development of future teaching curricula.

Keywords: learning program, nursing students, peer learning, skill training

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435 The Effect of Motivational Postures as a Concomitant Factor and Peer Reporting Behavior on Taxpayer Compliance Decisions

Authors: Elen Puspitasari, Yeye Susilowati, Wahyu Meiranto

Abstract:

This study uses an experiment to examine the effect of motivational postures and peer’s reporting behavior on taxpayer compliance decisions. The motivational postures of taxpayers placed as a concomitant variable. Taxpayers were randomly assigned to alternate peer reporting behavior as an experimental variable with two level treatments and then responded to tax reporting scenarios. A motivational posture was measured with 29 statements developed by Braithwaite. Therefore, this experimental research uses Quasi-Experimental Design Between-Subject with Covariate with random assignment method. The subject in this experiment is the taxpayers who has a tax ID and have experience in reporting their tax revenue. The most important is that they earn income from their own business. The analysis technique used was Analysis of Covariate. The results showed that the posture of motivation as concomitant factors does not affect tax compliance decisions. Furthermore, this study proves that peer reporting behavior will determine the decisions of tax compliance. The findings in this study are intended to provide some practical implications for improving tax compliance.

Keywords: motivational postures, concomitant, tax compliance decisions, peer reporting behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 202