Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8094

Search results for: pain management

8094 Outcomes of Pain Management for Patients in Srinagarind Hospital: Acute Pain Indicator

Authors: Chalermsri Sorasit, Siriporn Mongkhonthawornchai, Darawan Augsornwan, Sudthanom Kamollirt

Abstract:

Background: Although knowledge of pain and pain management is improving, they are still inadequate to patients. The Nursing Division of Srinagarind Hospital is responsible for setting the pain management system, including work instruction development and pain management indicators. We have developed an information technology program for monitoring pain quality indicators, which was implemented to all nursing departments in April 2013. Objective: To study outcomes of acute pain management in process and outcome indicators. Method: This is a retrospective descriptive study. The sample population was patients who had acute pain 24-48 hours after receiving a procedure, while admitted to Srinagarind Hospital in 2014. Data were collected from the information technology program. 2709 patients with acute pain from 10 Nursing Departments were recruited in the study. The research tools in this study were 1) the demographic questionnaire 2) the pain management questionnaire for process indicators, and 3) the pain management questionnaire for outcome indicators. Data were analyzed and presented by percentages and means. Results: The process indicators show that nurses used pain assessment tool and recorded 99.19%. The pain reassessment after the intervention was 96.09%. The 80.15% of the patients received opioid for pain medication and the most frequency of non-pharmacological intervention used was positioning (76.72%). For the outcome indicators, nearly half of them (49.90%) had moderate–severe pain, mean scores of worst pain was 6.48 and overall pain was 4.08. Patient satisfaction level with pain management was good (49.17%) and very good (46.62%). Conclusion: Nurses used pain assessment tools and pain documents which met the goal of the pain management process. Patient satisfaction with pain management was at high level. However the patients had still moderate to severe pain. Nurses should adhere more strictly to the guidelines of pain management, by using acute pain guidelines especially when pain intensity is particularly moderate-high. Nurses should also develop and practice a non-pharmacological pain management program to continually improve the quality of pain management. The information technology program should have more details about non-pharmacological pain techniques.

Keywords: outcome, pain management, acute pain, Srinagarind Hospital

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8093 A Study of Emergency Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Pain

Authors: Liqun Zou, Ling Wang, Xiaoli Chen

Abstract:

Objective: Through the questionnaire about emergency nurses’ knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management to understand whether they are well mastered and practiced the related knowledge about pain management, providing a reference for continuous improvement of the quality of nursing care in acute pain and for improving the effect of management on emergency pain patients. Method: The Chinese version questionnaire about KASRP (knowledge and attitudes survey regarding pain) was handed out to 132 emergency nurses to do a study about the knowledge and attitude of pain management. Meanwhile, SPSS17.0 was used to do a descriptive analysis and variance analysis on collected data. Results: The emergency nurses’ correct answer rate about KASRP questionnaire is from 25% to 65% and the average correct rate is (44.65 + 7.85)%. In addition, there are 10 to 26 items being given the right answer. Therefore, the average correct items are (17.86 ± 3.14). Moreover, there is no statistical significant on the differences about the correct rate for different age, gender and work experience to answer; however, the difference of the correct rate in different education background and the professional title is significant. Conclusion: There is a remarkable lack of knowledge and attitude towards pain management in emergency nurses, whose basic knowledge of pain is sufficient. Besides, there is a deviation between the knowledge of pain management and clinical practice, which needs to be improved.

Keywords: emergency nurse, pain, KASRP questionnaire, pain management

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
8092 Use of Adjunctive Cannabinoids in Opioid Dosing for Patients with Chronic Pain

Authors: Kristina De Milt, Nicole Huang, Jihye Park

Abstract:

Opioids have been a mainstay of the treatment of chronic pain, but their overprescription and misuse have led to an opioid epidemic. Recently, as an attempt to decrease the number of opioids prescribed, the use of cannabinoid therapy has become an increasingly popular adjunctive chronic pain management choice among providers. This review of literature investigates the effects of adjunctive cannabinoids to opioids in the management of chronic pain. The nine articles are included in the literature review range from observational studies to meta-analyses published in the year 2016 and after. A majority of the studies showed a decrease in the need for opioids after adjunctive cannabinoids were introduced and, in some instances, the cessation of opioid consumption. More high-quality evidence is needed to further support this stance and providers should weigh the benefits and risks of adjunctive cannabinoids according to the clinical picture.

Keywords: cannabis, chronic pain, opioids, pain management

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
8091 A Study of Gender Differences in Expressing Pain

Authors: A. Estaji

Abstract:

The first part of the present paper studies the role of language in expressing pain. Pain is usually described as a personal and mental experience, so language has an important role in describing, expressing and measuring pain and sometimes it is believed that language is the only device for accessing this personal experience. The second part of this paper studies gender differences in expressing pain. Considering the biological, psychological and social differences between men and women, we raise this question whether men and women express their pain in the same way or differently. To answer this question, we asked 44 Farsi speaking participants to write about the most painful experience they had in the past. Qualitative analysis of the data shows that women, have expressed their pain more severely, have expressed their feelings about pain instead of describing the pain itself, have made their pain more personal and have given more details about the circumstances in which they experienced pain, while men have given a more neutral description of their pain and have given a description of their pain by distancing themselves from the painful event. Knowing these gender differences in expressing pain can help medical practitioners in assessing the pain level.

Keywords: discourse analysis, expressing pain, measuring pain, gender

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
8090 Pain Analysis in Musicians Using Digital Pain Drawings

Authors: Cinzia Cruder, Deborah Falla, Francesca Mangili, Laura Azzimonti, Liliana Araujo, Aaron Williamon, Marco Barbero

Abstract:

Background and aims: According to the existing literature, musicians are at risk to experience a range of musculoskeletal painful conditions. Recently, digital technology has been developed to investigate pain location and pain extent. The aim of this study was to describe pain location and pain extent in musicians using a digital method for pain drawing analysis. Additionally, the association between pain drawing (PD) variables and clinical features in musicians with pain were explored. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty-eight musicians (90 women and 68 men; age 22.4±3.6 years) were recruited from Swiss and UK conservatoires. Participants were asked to complete a survey including both background musical information and clinical features, the Quick Dash (QD) questionnaire and the digital PDs. Results: Of the 158 participants, 126 musicians (79.7%) reported having pain, with more prevalence in the areas of the neck and shoulders, the lower back and the right arm. The mean of pain extent was 3.1% ±6.5. The mean of QD was larger for musicians showing the presence of pain than for those without pain. Additionally, the results indicated a positive correlation between QD score and pain extent, and there were significant correlations between age and pain intensity, as well as between pain extent and pain intensity. Conclusions: The high prevalence of pain among musicians has been confirmed using a digital PD. In addition, positive correlations between pain extent and upper limb disability has been demonstrated. Our findings highlight the need for effective prevention and treatment strategies for musicians.

Keywords: pain location, pain extent, musicians, pain drawings

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8089 Disability and Quality of Life in Low Back Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Zarina Zahari, Maria Justine, Kamaria Kamaruddin

Abstract:

Low back pain (LBP) is a major musculoskeletal problem in global population. This study aimed to examine the relationship between pain, disability and quality of life in patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP). One hundred LBP participants were recruited in this cross-sectional study (mean age = 42.23±11.34 years old). Pain was measured using Numerical Rating Scale (11-point). Disability was assessed using the revised Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire (ODQ) and quality of life (QoL) was evaluated using the SF-36 v2. Majority of participants (58%) presented with moderate pain and 49% experienced severe disability. Thus, the pain and disability were found significant with negative correlation (r= -0.712, p<0.05). The pain and QoL also showed significant and positive correlation with both Physical Health Component Summary (PHCS) (r= .840, p<0.05) and Mental Health Component Summary (MHCS) (r= 0.446, p<0.05). Regression analysis indicated that pain emerged as an indicator of both disability and QoL (PHCS and MHCS) accounting for 51%, 71% and 21% of the variances respectively. This indicates that pain is an important factor in predicting disability and QoL in LBP sufferers.

Keywords: disability, low back pain, pain, quality of life

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8088 Assessing Pain Using Morbid Motion Monitor System in the Pain Management of Nurse Practitioner

Authors: Mohammad Reza Dawoudi

Abstract:

With the increasing rate of patients suffering from chronic pain, several methods for evaluating of chronic pain are suggested. Motion of morbid has been defined as the rate of pine and it is linked with various co-morbid conditions. This study provides a summary of procedure useful to statistics performing direct behavioral observation in hospital settings. We describe the need for and usefulness of comprehensive “morbid motions” observations; provide a primer on the identification, definition, and assessment of morbid behaviors; and outline and discuss specific statistical procedures, including formulating referral motions, describing and conducting the observation. We also provide practical devices for observing and analyzing the obtained information into a report that guides clinical intervention.

Keywords: assessing pain, DNA modeling, image matching technique, pain scale

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
8087 The Effect of Intrathecal Adenosine in Control of Neuropathic Pain after Lumbar Discectomy in One Level

Authors: Dawood Aghamohammadi, Mahmoud Eidi, Alireza Pishgahi, Azam Esmaeilnejad

Abstract:

Adenosine has an analgesic and anti-inflammatory role and its injections are used for peri-operative pain management. We want to study efficacy of intrathecal injection of adenosine for post operative radicular pain after lumbar discectomy. 40 patients with unilevel lumbar discectomy who had radicular lower limb pain were treated by 1000 micrograms of intrathecal injection of adenosine. Pain severity, pain killer consumption per day and sleep quality were assessed during a 3 months follow up period. Radicular pain severity was significantly reduced in 3 month follow-up period in comparison to the baseline (F=19760, DF=2.53, p-value<0.001). Further painkiller medication consumption rate in average during 3 month follow-up period after injection was significantly lower in comparison to baseline (F= 19.244, df= 1.98, p-value<0.001). This study suggests that intrathecal injection of adenosine is a safe method in order to reduce postoperative pain after lumbar discectomy.

Keywords: adenosine, intrathecal injection, discectomy, neuropathic pain

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8086 Cognitive Fusion and Obstacles to Valued Living: Beyond Pain-Specific Events in Chronic Pain

Authors: Sergio A. Carvalho, Jose Pinto-Gouveia, David Gillanders, Paula Castilho

Abstract:

The role of psychological processes has long been recognized as crucial factors in depressive symptoms in chronic pain (CP). Although some studies have explored the negative impact of being entangled with internal experiences (e.g., thoughts, emotions, physical sensations) – cognitive fusion, it is not extensively explored 1) whether these are pain-related or rather general difficult experiences, and 2) how they relate to experiencing obstacles in committing to valued actions. The current study followed a cross-sectional design in a sample of 231 participants with CP, in which a mediational model was tested through path analyses in AMOS software. The model presented a very good model fit (Χ²/DF = 1.161; CFI = .999; TLI = .996; RMSEA = .026, PCLOSE = .550.), and results showed that pain intensity was not directly related to depressive symptoms (β = .055; p = .239) but was mediated by cognitive fusion with both general and pain-related internal experiences (β = .181, 95%CI [.097; .271]; p = .015). Additionally, results showed that only general cognitive fusion (but not pain-specific fusion) was associated with experiencing obstacles to living a meaningful life, which mediated its impact on depressive symptoms (β = .197, 95%CI [.102; .307]; p = .001). Overall, this study adds on current literature by suggesting that psychological interventions to pain management should not be focused only on management of pain-related experiences, but also on developing more effective ways of relating to overall internal experiences.

Keywords: cognitive fusion, chronic pain, depressive symptoms, valued living

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
8085 Development of a Pain Detector Using Microwave Radiometry Method

Authors: Nanditha Rajamani, Anirudhaa R. Rao, Divya Sriram

Abstract:

One of the greatest difficulties in treating patients with pain is the highly subjective nature of pain sensation. The measurement of pain intensity is primarily dependent on the patient’s report, often with little physical evidence to provide objective corroboration. This is also complicated by the fact that there are only few and expensive existing technologies (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging-fMRI). The need is thus clear and urgent for a reliable, non-invasive, non-painful, objective, readily adoptable, and coefficient diagnostic platform that provides additional diagnostic information to supplement its current regime with more information to assist doctors in diagnosing these patients. Thus, our idea of developing a pain detector was conceived to take a step further the detection and diagnosis of chronic and acute pain.

Keywords: pain sensor, microwave radiometery, pain sensation, fMRI

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8084 Two Weeks of Multi-Modal Inpatient Treatment: Patients Suffering from Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain for over 12 Months

Authors: D. Schafer, H. Booke, R. Nordmeier

Abstract:

Patients suffering from chronic musculoskeletal pain ( > 12 months) are a challenging clientele for pain specialists. A multimodal approach, characterized by a two weeks inpatient treatment, often is the ultimate therapeutic attempt. The lasting effects of such a multimodal approach were analyzed, especially since two weeks of inpatient therapy, although very intense, often seem too short to make a difference in patients suffering from chronic pain for years. The study includes 32 consecutive patients suffering from chronic pain over years who underwent a two weeks multimodal inpatient treatment of pain. Twelve months after discharge, each patient was interviewed to objectify any lasting effects. Pain was measured on admission and 12 months after discharge using the numeric rating scale (NRS). For statistics, a paired students' t-test was used. Significance was defined as p < 0.05. The average intensity of pain on admission was 8,6 on the NRS. Twelve months after discharge, the intensity of pain was still reduced by an average of 48% (average NRS 4,4), p < 0.05. Despite this significant improvement in pain severity, two thirds (66%) of the patients still judge their treatment as not sufficient. In conclusion, inpatient treatment of chronic pain has a long-lasting effect on the intensity of pain in patients suffering from chronic musculoskeletal pain for more than 12 months.

Keywords: chronic pain, inpatient treatment, multimodal pain treatment, musculoskeletal pain

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8083 Nursing-Related Barriers to Children’s Pain Management at Selected Hospitals in Ghana: A Descriptive Qualitative Study

Authors: Abigail Kusi Amponsah, Evans Frimpong Kyei, John Bright Agyemang, Hanson Boakye, Joana Kyei-Dompim, Collins Kwadwo Ahoto, Evans Oduro

Abstract:

Staff shortages, deficient knowledge, inappropriate attitudes, demanding workloads, analgesic shortages, and low prioritization of pain management have been identified in earlier studies as the nursing-related barriers to optimal children’s pain management. These studies have mainly been undertaken in developed countries, which have different healthcare dynamics than those in developing countries. The current study, therefore, sought to identify and understand the nursing-related barriers to children’s pain management in the Ghanaian context. A descriptive qualitative study was conducted among 28 purposively sampled nurses working in the pediatric units of five hospitals in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Over the course of three months, participants were interviewed on the barriers which prevented them from optimally managing children’s pain in practice. Recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and deductively analysed based on a conceptual interest in pain assessment and management-related barriers. NVivo 12 plus software guided data management and analyses. The mean age of participating nurses was 30 years, with majority being females (n =24). Participants had worked in the nursing profession for an average of five years and in the pediatric care settings for an average of two years. The nursing-related barriers identified in the present study included communication difficulties in assessing and evaluating pain management interventions with children who have nonfunctional speech, insufficient training, misconceptions on the experience of pain in children, lack of assessment tools, and insufficient number of nurses to manage the workload and nurses’ inability to prescribe analgesics. The present study revealed some barriers which prevented Ghanaian nurses from optimally managing children’s pain. Nurses should be educated, empowered, and supported with the requisite material resources to effectively manage children’s pain and improve outcomes for families, healthcare systems, and the nation. Future studies should explore the facilitators and barriers from other stakeholders involved in pediatric pain management

Keywords: Nursing-Related Barriers, Children, Pain Management, Ghana

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8082 Case Report: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

Authors: Farah Al Zaabi, Sarah Amrani

Abstract:

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition that develops in an extremity following a fracture, soft tissue injury, or surgery. It is a neuropathic pain disorder that is accompanied by the characteristic skin manifestations that are needed for the diagnosis. We report the case of a 30 year old male, who has findings consistent with CRPS and has been followed for over two years by multiple specialties within the healthcare system without obtaining a diagnosis. The symptoms he presented with were treated based on the specialty he was seeing, rather than unified and recognized as a single disease process. Our case highlights the complexity of chronic pain, which can sometimes present with skin manifestations, and the importance of involving a pain specialist early for both the medical and physical recovery of CRPS patients.

Keywords: complex regional pain syndrome, chronic pain, skin changes of CRPS, dermatological manifestions of CRPS

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8081 Patterns of Change in Perception of Imagined and Physically Induced Pain over the Course of Repeated Thermal Stimulations

Authors: Boroka Gács, Tibor Szolcsányi, Árpad Csathó

Abstract:

Background: Individuals frequently show habituation to repeated noxious heat. However, given the defensive function of human pain processing, it is reasonable to assume that individuals imagine that they would become increasingly sensitive to repeated thermal pain stimuli. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no previous studies have, however, been addressed to this assumption. Therefore, in the current study, we investigated how healthy human individuals imagine the intensity of repeated thermal pain stimulations, and compared this with the intensity ratings given after physically induced thermal pain trials. Methods: Healthy participants (N = 20) gave pain intensity ratings in two conditions: imagined and real thermal pain. In the real pain condition thermal pain stimuli of two intensities (minimal and moderate pain) were delivered in four consecutive trials. The duration of the peak temperature was 20s, and stimulation was always delivered to the same location. In each trial, participants rated the pain intensity twice, 5s and 15s after the onset of the peak temperature. In the imagined pain condition, participants were subjected to a reference pain stimulus and then asked to imagine and rate the same sequence of stimulations as in the induced pain condition. Results: Ratings of imagined pain and physically induced pain followed opposite courses over repeated stimulation: Ratings of imagined pain indicated sensitization whereas ratings for physically induced pain indicated habituation. The findings were similar for minimal and moderate pain intensities. Conclusions: The findings suggest that, rather than habituating to pain, healthy individuals imagine that they would become increasingly sensitive to repeated thermal pain stimuli.

Keywords: habituation, imagined pain, pain perception, thermal stimulation

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8080 Pain Management in Burn Wounds with Dual Drug Loaded Double Layered Nano-Fiber Based Dressing

Authors: Sharjeel Abid, Tanveer Hussain, Ahsan Nazir, Abdul Zahir, Nabyl Khenoussi

Abstract:

Localized application of drug has various advantages and fewer side effects as compared with other methods. Burn patients suffer from swear pain and the major aspects that are considered for burn victims include pain and infection management. Nano-fibers (NFs) loaded with drug, applied on local wound area, can solve these problems. Therefore, this study dealt with the fabrication of drug loaded NFs for better pain management. Two layers of NFs were fabricated with different drugs. Contact layer was loaded with Gabapentin (a nerve painkiller) and the second layer with acetaminophen. The fabricated dressing was characterized using scanning electron microscope, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The double layered based NFs dressing was designed to have both initial burst release followed by slow release to cope with pain for two days. The fabricated nanofibers showed diameter < 300 nm. The liquid absorption capacity of the NFs was also checked to deal with the exudate. The fabricated double layered dressing with dual drug loading and release showed promising results that could be used for dealing pain in burn victims. It was observed that by the addition of drug, the size of nanofibers was reduced, on the other hand, the crystallinity %age was increased, and liquid absorption decreased. The combination of fast nerve pain killer release followed by slow release of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug could be a good tool to reduce pain in a more secure manner with fewer side effects.

Keywords: pain management, burn wounds, nano-fibers, controlled drug release

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8079 Pain Management Strategies for Effective Coping with Sickle Cell Disease: The Perspective of Patients in Ghana

Authors: V. A. Adzika, D. Ayim-Aboagye, T. Gordh

Abstract:

Background and aims: Prevalence of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is high in Ghana but not much is known in terms of research into non-medical strategies for managing and coping with the pain associated with SCD. This study was carried out to examine effective non-medical related strategies patients use to cope and manage their SCD condition. Methods: SCD patients (387) consisting of 180 males and 204 females between 18-65 years old years participated in the study. A cross-sectional research design was used in which participants completed questionnaires on pain, non-medical coping and management strategies, anxiety, and depression. Results of multiple regression analysis showed that socio-demographic characteristics contributed to the variance in the pain associated with SCD. Results: Over 90% of participants reported that pains associated with SCD were the main reason for seeking treatment in SCD crisis. In terms of non-medical related coping strategies, attending a place of worship and praying were the main coping strategies used in SCD crises, suggesting that patients’ beliefs, particularly in a supernatural being, served as a mitigating factor in the process of coping with the pain associated with SCD crisis. Also, avoidance and withdrawal from people and social activities were reported to be strategies used to cope effectively with the pain associated with SCD crisis. Conclusion: This indicates that it is imperative to incorporate non-medical related coping and management strategies, especially religious beliefs and psychosocial factors, to coping and management of the pain associated with SCD.

Keywords: anxiety, depression, sickle cell disease, quality of life, socio-demographic characteristics, Ghana

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
8078 Experience of Inpatient Life in Korean Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Phenomenological Study

Authors: Se-Hwa Park, En-Kyung Han, Jae-Young Lim, Hye-Jung Ahn

Abstract:

Purpose: The objective of this study is to provide basic data for understanding the substance of inpatient life with CRPS (Complex Regional Pain Syndrome) and developing efficient and effective nursing intervention. Methods: From September 2018 to November, we have interviewed 10 CRPS patients about inpatient experiences. To understand the implication of inpatient life experiences with CRPS and intrinsic structure, we have used the question: 'How about the inpatient experiences with CRPS'. For data analysis, the method suggested by Colaizzi was applied as a phenomenological method. Results: According to the analysis, the study participants' inpatient life process was structured in six categories: (a) breakthrough pain experience (b) the limitation of pain treatment, (c) worsen factors of pain during inpatient period, (d) treat method for pain, (e) positive experience for inpatient period, (f) requirements for medical team, family and people in hospital room. Conclusion: Inpatient with CRPS have experienced the breakthrough pain. They had expected immediate treatment for breakthrough pain, but they experienced severe pain because immediate treatment was not implemented. Pain-worsening factors which patients with CRPS are as follows: personal factors from negative emotions such as insomnia, stress, sensitive character, pain part touch or vibration stimulus on the bed, physical factors from high threshold or rapid speed during fast transfer, conflict with other people, climate factors such as humidity or low temperature, noise, smell, lack of space because of many visitors. Patients actively manage the pain committing into another tasks or diversion. And also, patients passively manage the pain, just suppress, give-up. They think positively about rehabilitation treatment. And they require the understanding and sympathy for other people, and emotional support, immediate intervention for medical team. Based on the results of this study, we suppose the guideline of systematic breakthrough pain management for the relaxation of sudden pain, using notice of informing caution for touch or vibration. And we need to develop non-medicine pain management nursing intervention.

Keywords: breakthrough pain, CRPS, complex regional pain syndrome, inpatient life experiences, phenomenological method

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8077 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Nurses on the Pain Assessment and Management in Level 3 Hospitals in Manila

Authors: Florence Roselle Adalin, Misha Louise Delariarte, Fabbette Laire Lagas, Sarah Emanuelle Mejia, Lika Mizukoshi, Irish Paullen Palomeno, Gibrianne Alistaire Ramos, Danica Pauline Ramos, Josefina Tuazon, Jo Leah Flores

Abstract:

Pain, often a missed and undertreated symptom, affects the quality of life of individuals. Nurses are key players in providing effective pain management to decrease morbidity and mortality of patients in pain. Nurses’ knowledge and attitude on pain greatly affect their ability on assessment and management. The Pain Society of the Philippines recognized the inadequacy and inaccessibility of data on the knowledge, skills, and attitude of nurses on pain management in the country. This study may be the first of its kind in the county, giving it the potential to contribute greatly to nursing education and practice through providing valuable baseline data. Objectives: This study aims to describe the level of knowledge and attitude, and current practices of nurses on pain assessment and management; and determine the relationship of nurses’ knowledge and attitude with years of experience, training on pain management and clinical area of practice. Methodology: A survey research design was employed. Four hospitals were selected through purposive sampling. A total of 235 Medical-Surgical Unit and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) nurses participated in the study. The tool used is a combination of demographic survey, Nurses’ Knowledge and Attitude Survey Regarding Pain (NKASRP), Acute Pain Evidence Based Practice Questionnaire (APEBPQ) with self-report questions on non-pharmacologic pain management. The data obtained was analysed using descriptive statistics, two sample T-tests for clinical areas and training; and Pearson product correlation to identify relationship of level of knowledge and attitude with years of experience. Results and Analysis: The mean knowledge and attitude score of the nurses was 47.14%. Majority answered ‘most of the time’ or ‘all the time’ on 84.12% of practice items on pain assessment, implementation of non-pharmacologic interventions, evaluation and documentation. Three of 19 practice items describing morphine and opioid administration in special populations were only done ‘a little of the time’. Most utilized non-pharmacologic interventions were deep breathing exercises (79.66%), massage therapy (27.54%), and ice therapy (26.69%). There was no significant relationship between knowledge scores and years of clinical experience (p = 0.05, r= -0.09). Moreover, there was not enough evidence to show difference in nurses’ knowledge and attitude scores in relation to presence of training (p = 0.41) or areas (Medical-Surgical or ICU) of clinical practice (p = 0.53). Conclusion and Recommendations: Findings of the study showed that the level of knowledge and attitude of nurses on pain assessment and management is suboptimal; and no relationship between nurses’ knowledge and attitude and years of experience. It is recommended that further studies look into the nursing curriculum on pain education, culture-specific pain management protocols and evidence-based practices in the country.

Keywords: knowledge and attitude, nurses, pain management, practices on pain management

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8076 An Examination of Low Engagement in a Group-Based ACT Intervention for Chronic Pain Management: Highlighting the Need for User-Attainment Focused Digitalised Interventions

Authors: Orestis Kasinopoulos, Maria Karekla, Vasilis Vasiliou, Evangelos Karademas

Abstract:

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is an empirically supported intervention for treating Chronic Pain Patients, yet its effectiveness for some chronic conditions or when adapted to other languages, has not been explored. An ACT group intervention was designed to explore the effectiveness of treating a Greek speaking heterogeneous sample of Chronic Pain patients with the aim of increasing quality of life, acceptance of pain and functionality. Sixty-nine patients were assessed and randomly assigned to an ACT or control group (relaxation techniques) for eight, 90-minute, sessions. Results are currently being analysed and follow-ups (6 and 12 month) are being completed. Low adherence rates and high attrition rates observed in the study, however point to the direction of future modified interventions. Such modifications may include web-based and smartphone interventions and their benefits in being implemented in chronic pain patients.

Keywords: chronic pain, ACT, internet-delivered, digitalised intervention, adherence, attrition

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8075 Evaluation of the Pain of Patients with Chronic Renal Disease in Hemodialysis

Authors: Fabiana Souza Orlandi, Izabel Cristina Chavez Gomes, Barbara Isabela De Paula Morais, Ana Carolina Ottaviani

Abstract:

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is considered a public health problem. Patients who present CKD in their more advanced stages usually present several biopsychosocial changes, which may include pain. Pain can be considered subjective and personal, and its perception is characterized as a multidimensional experience. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level and descriptors of pain of adults and elderly patients with chronic kidney disease, through the Multidimensional Pain Evaluation Scale (EMADOR). This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. The sample consisted of 100 subjects with CKD in hemodialysis treatment at a Renal Replacement Therapy Service in the interior of the state of São Paulo. Data were collected through an individual interview, using a Sociodemographic Characterization and Multidimensional Pain Evaluation Scale (EMADOR). All ethical precepts were respected. The majority of the respondents were men (61.0%), white (56.0%) and with a high school education (34.0%). Regarding the pain of the individuals, 89 patients reported pain, with Chronic Pain predominating (50.0%, n = 50), followed by Acute Pain (39.0%, n = 39). Of the subjects who presented acute pain most of the 89.0% described the pain felt as unbearable, and of those who presented chronic pain, 35.0% described the pain felt as painful, unbearable and uncomfortable. It was concluded that there was a significant presence of pain, being the chronic pain dominant in the studied population. Faced with such factors, the present study motivates researches in this population, in order to establish interventions with the objective of improving the quality of life of these individuals.

Keywords: pain, chronic kidney disease, dialysis, evaluation

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8074 Association of Preoperative Pain Catastrophizing with Postoperative Pain after Lower Limb Trauma Surgery

Authors: Asish Subedi, Krishna Pokharel, Birendra Prasad Sah, Pashupati Chaudhary

Abstract:

Objectives: To evaluate an association between preoperative Nepali pain catastrophizing scale (N-PCS) scores and postoperative pain intensity and total opioid consumption. Methods: In this prospective cohort study we enrolled 135 patients with an American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I or II, aged between 18 and 65 years, and scheduled for surgery for lower-extremity fracture under spinal anaesthesia. Maximum postoperative pain reported during the 24 h was classified into two groups, no-mild pain group (Numeric rating scale [NRS] scores 1 to 3) and a moderate-severe pain group (NRS 4-10). The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to compare the association between the baseline N-PCS scores and outcome variables, i.e., the maximum NRS pain score and the total tramadol consumption within the first 24 h after surgery. Logistic regression models were used to identify the predictors for the intensity of postoperative pain. Results: As four patients violated the protocol, the data of 131 patients were analysed. Mean N-PCS scores reported by the moderate-severe pain group was 27.39 ±9.50 compared to 18.64 ±10 mean N-PCS scores by the no-mild pain group (p<0.001). Preoperative PCS scores correlated positively with postoperative pain intensity (r =0.39, [95% CI 0.23-0.52], p<0.001) and total tramadol consumption (r =0.32, [95% CI 0.16-0.47], p<0.001). An increase in catastrophizing scores was associated with postoperative moderate-severe pain (odds ratio, 1.08 [95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.15], p=0.006) after adjusting for gender, ethnicity and preoperative anxiety. Conclusion: Patients who reported higher pain catastrophizing preoperatively were at increased risk of experiencing moderate-severe postoperative pain.

Keywords: nepali, pain catastrophizing, postoperative pain, trauma

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8073 Investigating Acute and Chronic Pain after Bariatric Surgery

Authors: Patti Kastanias, Wei Wang, Karyn Mackenzie, Sandra Robinson, Susan Wnuk

Abstract:

Obesity is a worldwide epidemic and is recognized as a chronic disease. Pain in the obese individual is a multidimensional issue. An increase in BMI is positively correlated with pain incidence and severity, especially in central obesity where individuals are twice as likely to have chronic pain. Both obesity and chronic pain are also associated with mood disorders. Pain is worse among obese individuals with depression and anxiety. Bariatric surgery provides patients with an effective solution for long-term weight loss and associated health problems. However, not much is known about acute and chronic pain after bariatric surgery and its contributing factors, including mood disorders. Nurse practitioners (NPs) at one large multidisciplinary bariatric surgery centre led two studies to examine acute and chronic pain and pain management over time after bariatric surgery. The purpose of the initial study was to examine the incidence and severity of acute and chronic pain after bariatric surgery. The aim of the secondary study was to further examine chronic pain, specifically looking at psychological factors that influence severity or incidence of both neuropathic and somatic pain as well as changes in opioid use. The initial study was a prospective, longitudinal study where patients having bariatric surgery at one surgical center were followed up to 6 months postop. Data was collected at 7 time points using validated instruments for pain severity, pain interference, and patient satisfaction. In the second study, subjects were followed longitudinally starting preoperatively and then at 6 months and 1 year postoperatively to capture changes in chronic pain and influencing variables over time. Valid and reliable instruments were utilized for all major study outcomes. In the first study, there was a trend towards decreased acute post-operative pain over time. The incidence and severity of chronic pain was found to be significantly reduced at 6 months post bariatric surgery. Interestingly, interference of chronic pain in daily life such as normal work, mood, and walking ability was significantly improved at 6 months postop however; this was not the case with sleep. Preliminary results of the secondary study indicate that pain severity, pain interference, anxiety and depression are significantly improved at 6 months postoperatively. In addition, preoperative anxiety, depression and emotional regulation were predictive of pain interference, but not pain severity. The results of our regression analyses provide evidence for the impact of pre-existing psychological factors on pain, particularly anxiety in obese populations.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, mood disorders, obesity, pain

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
8072 Chest Pain as a Predictor for Heart Issues in Geriatrics

Authors: Leila Kargar, Homa Abri, Golsa Safai

Abstract:

The occurrence of chest pain among geriatrics could be considered as a predictor of heart issues. There is a need for attention to this pain among this population. This review paper has tried to collect the recent data with attention to the chest pain among geriatrics. This review paper has focused on specific keywords, including chest pain, heart issues, and geriatrics, among published papers from 2015 till 2020. To collect data for this purpose, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and PubMed were used. After inserting related papers to the Endnote, an independent researcher checked the abstract, and papers with unclear methods or non-English language were excluded. Finally, 7-papers were included in this review paper. The findings of those papers showed that chest pain could be a predictor for heart issues, and also, there is a direct relationship between chest pain and heart issues among geriatrics. So, early detection and an accurate decision could be helpful to prevent heart issues in this population.

Keywords: pain, heart issue, geriatrics, health

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
8071 Sociocultural Context of Pain Management in Oncology and Palliative Nursing Care

Authors: Andrea Zielke-Nadkarni

Abstract:

Pain management is a question of quality of life and an indicator for nursing quality. Chronic pain which is predominant in oncology and palliative nursing situations is perceived today as a multifactorial, individual emotional experience with specific characteristics including the sociocultural dimension when dealing with migrant patients. This dimension of chronic pain is of major importance in professional nursing of migrant patients in hospices or palliative care units. Objectives of the study are: 1. To find out more about the sociocultural views on pain and nursing care, on customs and nursing practices connected with pain of both Turkish Muslim and German Christian women, 2. To improve individual and family oriented nursing practice with view to sociocultural needs of patients in severe pain in palliative care. In a qualitative-explorative comparative study 4 groups of women, Turkish Muslims immigrants (4 from the first generation, 5 from the second generation) and German Christian women of two generations (5 of each age group) of the same age groups as the Turkish women and with similar educational backgrounds were interviewed (semistructured ethnographic interviews using Spradley, 1979) on their perceptions and experiences of pain and nursing care within their families. For both target groups the presentation will demonstrate the following results in detail: Utterance of pain as well as “private” and “public” pain vary within different societies and cultures. Permitted forms of pain utterance are learned in childhood and determine attitudes and expectations in adulthood. Language, especially when metaphors and symbols are used, plays a major role for misunderstandings. The sociocultural context of illness may include specific beliefs that are important to the patients and yet seem more than far-fetched from a biomedical perspective. Pain can be an influential factor in family relationships where respect or hierarchies do not allow the direct utterance of individual needs. Specific resources are often, although not exclusively, linked to religious convictions and are significantly helpful in reducing pain. The discussion will evaluate the results of the study with view to the relevant literature and present nursing interventions and instruments beyond medication that are helpful when dealing with patients from various socio-cultural backgrounds in painful end-oflife situations.

Keywords: pain management, migrants, sociocultural context, palliative care

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
8070 The Evaluation of the Patients Related to Numeric Pain Scales: The Case of Turkey

Authors: Maide Yesilyurt, Saide Faydalı

Abstract:

Patients experience pain at different intensities in postoperative. The diagnosis of the pain, the assessment and the success of the treatment and care make the measurement of this finding compulsory. The aim of the study is to determine the evaluation differences numeric pain scales. The descriptive study was conducted with 360 patients with in postoperative. The data were obtained from questionnaires related to six numeric pain scales most preferred in clinical use, and a face-to-face interview technique was used by the researcher. Regarding to numeric pain scale, questions include forth positive and one negative statement. In evaluating the data; chi-square and Pearson correlation tests were used. For the study, the patients’ informed consents, the institution and the ethics committee received permission. In this study, patients' ages are between 18-80, 95.8% of the patients were not informed about pain assessment. Patients evaluated the 5-item numeric scale as the easy, can be answered quickly, accurate, and appropriate for clinical use and the 101 items numeric scale as complex than other scales. Regarding to numeric pain scales with positive statements between age, marital status, educational status, previous surgery, having chronic disease and getting information about pain assessment significant difference has been detected. All numeric pain scales are correlated to each other. As a result, it was determined that as the items in the numerical scales decreased, the patients were able to perceive the scales better, and the items in the scales increased, the patients were in trouble to understand.

Keywords: numeric pain scales, nurse, pain assessment, patient

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
8069 The Use of Regional Blocks Versus IV Opioid Analgesics for Acute Traumatic Pain Management in the Emergency Department

Authors: Lajeesh Jabbar, Shibu T. Varghese

Abstract:

Being under pain is a very distressing factor that it prolongs the healing of any kind of trauma and add to the post traumatic stressful state. Alleviating the pain from acute traumatic conditions like fracture, degloving injury etc will help in faster recovery and also decrease the incidence of post traumatic stress disorder. Most of the emergency departments in INDIA are using IV opioid analgesics to relieve the patient from pain in cases of acute traumatic injuries. None of the Emergency Departments practice regional blocks in the country. In this study, we are comparing the efficacy of Regional Blocks in relieving the pain in lower limb fractures versus the use of IV analgesics for the same in the emergency department. The site of study is Malabar Institute Of Medical Sciences in Calicut in Kerala in India and is a place which receives approximately 10-20 traumatic fracture cases per day. The fracture sites used for the study purpose are femur fracture and phalangeal fractures.

Keywords: regional blocks, IV analgesia, acute traumatic pain, femur fractures, phalanx fractures

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
8068 The Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Pain Relief in the Elderly: An Investigational Analysis of Seniors Residing in an Independent/Assisted Seniors’ Living Facility

Authors: Carol Cameletti

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The goal of this study was to perform a pilot survey to assess pain frequency and intensity in an elderly population and to assess treatment options for chronic pain that include complementary and alternative medicines (CAM). Ten participants were recruited from an independent and supportive living housing facility in Northern Ontario and asked to complete two questionnaires: 1) a self-assessment on pain, and 2) the use of CAM for pain. Results from our study show that 80% of the participants experienced pains other than the regular everyday pains such as minor headaches, sprains or toothaches. Although participants stated that on average the highest level of pain they experienced within the past 24 hours had a score of 6.5 (0=no pain, 10=worst pain imaginable) the level of pain they experienced moderately interfered with their daily activities. Unfortunately, participants stated that they were only able to attain minimal levels of pain relief using treatments or medications causing some of the participants to seek alternative therapies or self-help practices. The most commonly used CAMs were vitamins/minerals, herbs and supplements, and self-help practices such as meditation, prayer, visualization and relaxation techniques. Although some of the participants stated that they had received complementary treatments directly from their physician, four of the nine participants said that they had not disclosed CAM use to their physician thereby indicating a need to open the lines of communication between healthcare providers and patients with regards to CAM use. It is our hope that the data generated from this study will serve as the platform for a pain management clinic that is client-centered, consumer-driven and truly integrative and tailored in order to meet the unique needs of older adults in Great Sudbury, Ontario.

Keywords: alternative, complementary, elderly, medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
8067 Holistic Approach Illustrating the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Pain and Stress Management for Spinal Cord Injury

Authors: Priyanka Kalra

Abstract:

Background: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes various practices like Ayurveda, Yoga & Meditation Acupressure Acupuncture and Reiki. These practices are frequently used by patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). They have shown effectiveness in the management of pain and stress consequently improving overall quality of life post injury. Objective: The goals of the present case series were to evaluate the feasibility of 1) Using of Ayurvedic herbal oil massages in shoulder pain management, 2) Using yoga & meditation on managing the stress in spinal cord injury. Methodology: 15 SCI cases with muscular pain around shoulder were treated with Ayurvedic herbal oil massage for 10 days in CAM Department. Each session consisted of 30 min oil massage followed by 10 min hot towel fomentation. The patients continued regular therapy medications along with CAM. Another 15 SCI cases were treated with yoga and meditation for 15 days 30 min yoga (20 min Asana+ 10 min Pranayam + 15 min Meditation) in isolated yoga room of CAM department. Results: On the VAS scale the patients reported a reduction in their pain score by 70 %. On the PSS scale, the patients reported a reduction in their stress score by 80 %. Conclusion: These case series may encourage more people to explore CAM therapies.

Keywords: spinal cord injury, Ayurveda, complementary and alternative medicine, yoga, meditation

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
8066 Relationship Between Pain Intensity at the Time of the Hamstring Muscle Injury and Hamstring Muscle Lesion Volume Measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Grange Sylvain, Plancher Ronan, Reurink Guustav, Croisille Pierre, Edouard Pascal

Abstract:

The primary objective of this study was to analyze the potential correlation between the pain experienced at the time of a hamstring muscle injury and the volume of the lesion measured on MRI. The secondary objectives were to analyze a correlation between this pain and the lesion grade as well as the affected hamstring muscle. We performed a retrospective analysis of the data collected in a prospective, multicenter, non-interventional cohort study (HAMMER). Patients with suspected hamstring muscle injury had an MRI after the injury and at the same time were evaluated for their pain intensity experienced at the time of the injury with a Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) from 0 to 10. A total of 61 patients were included in the present analysis. MRIs were performed in an average of less than 8 days. There was a significant correlation between pain and the injury volume (r=0.287; p=0.025). There was no significant correlation between the pain and the lesion grade (p>0.05), nor between the pain and affected hamstring muscle (p>0.05). Pain at the time of injury appeared to be correlated with the volume of muscle affected. These results confirm the value of a clinical approach in the initial evaluation of hamstring injuries to better select patients eligible for further imaging.

Keywords: hamstring muscle injury, MRI, volume lesion, pain

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8065 A Case Study on the Effect of a Mobility Focused Exercise Training in Rehabilitation of an Elite Weightlifter with Shoulder Pain and Weakness

Authors: Lingling Li, Peng Zhao, Runze Guan, Alice Jones, Tao Yu

Abstract:

Background: Shoulder pain and weakness are associated with complex pathologies and often precludes weightlifters from participation in training. The role and mode of exercise training in weightlifters with shoulder pathology remains unclear. Objectives: This case report described an exercise program in management of an elite weightlifter with primary complaint of right shoulder pain and weakness. Methods: A 22-year-old weightlifter presented with 2-year duration of right shoulder pain and weakness which was worsened by routine weightlifting training, and symptoms were not relieved with steroid injection, manual therapy nor usual physiotherapy. There was a limitation in all active range of motion especially horizontal extension (13ᵒ) and external rotation (41ᵒ) with pain intensity at 4/10 and 10/10 (numeric pain rating score) respectively. Muscle weakness was most significant at supraspinatus and teres minor, 38% and 27% respectively compared to his left shoulder (hand-held dynamometry, Micro FET2). An exercise training program focusing on improving mobility was designed for this athlete following a comprehensive physical assessment. Exercises included specific stretching, muscle activating and scapular stability training; once per day, and for 60 minutes each session. All exercises were completed under instruction as pain allowed. Quantitative assessment was conducted at the end of each week for 3 weeks. Outcomes: After the program, the athlete was pain-free in all movements except the O’Brien active compression internal rotation test, the pain was however reduced from 10/10 to 3/10. The horizontal extension and external rotation range increased to 79ᵒ to 120ᵒ respectively, and strength of all rotator cuff muscles returned to normal. At 1-month follow up, the athlete was totally pain-free and had returned to normal function and weightlifting training activities. The outcomes sustained through 6-month and one year. Conclusion: This case report supports the use of a mobility-focused exercise program for management of shoulder pain and weakness in an elite weightlifter athlete.

Keywords: exercise training, mobility, rehabilitation, shoulder pain, weightlifting

Procedia PDF Downloads 109