Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37782

Search results for: study abroad

37782 The Sociocultural and Critical Theories under the Empiricism of a Study Abroad Program

Authors: Magda Silva


This paper presents the sociocultural and critical theories used in the creation of a study abroad program in Brazil, as well as the successful results obtained in the fourteen years of experience provided by the program in distinct regions of Brazil. This program maximizes students’ acquisition of the Portuguese language, and affords them an in-depth intercultural and intracultural competence by on site studies in cosmopolitan Rio de Janeiro, afro-heritage Salvador da Bahia, and Amazonian Belém do Pará. The program provides the means to acknowledge the presence, influence, similarities, and differences of Portuguese-speaking Brazil in Latin America.

Keywords: study abroad, critical thinking, sociocultural theory, foreign language, empirical, theoretical

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
37781 An Assessment of Experiential Learning Outcomes of Study Abroad Programs in Hospitality: A Learning Style Perspective

Authors: Radesh Palakurthi


The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of experiential learning on learning outcomes in hospitality education. This paper presents the results of an online survey of students from the U.S. studying abroad and their self-reported change in learning outcomes as assessed using the Core Competencies Model for the Hospitality Industry developed by Employment and Training Development Office of the U.S. Department of Labor. The impact of student learning styles on learning outcomes is also evaluated in this study. Kolb’s Learning Styles Inventory Model was used to assess students’ learning style. The results show that students reported significant improvements in their learning outcomes because of engaging in study abroad experiential learning programs. The learning styles of the students had significant effect on one of core learning outcomes- personal effectiveness.

Keywords: hospitality competencies, hospitality education, Kolb’s learning style inventory, learning outcomes, study abroad

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
37780 Sociocultural and Critical Approach for Summer Study Abroad Program in Higher Education

Authors: Magda Silva


This paper presents the empirical and the theoretical principles associated with the Duke in Brazil Summer Program. Using a sociocultural model and critical theory, this study abroad maximizes students’ ability to enrich language competence, intercultural skills, and critical thinking. The fourteen-year implementation of this project demonstrates the global importance of foreign language teaching as the program unfolds into real life scenarios within the cultures of distinct regions of Brazil; Cosmopolitan Rio, in the southeast, and rural Belém, northern Amazon region.

Keywords: study abroad, critical thinking, sociocultural theory, foreign language, empirical, theoretical

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
37779 The Impact of Study Abroad Experience on Interpreting Performance

Authors: Ruiyuan Wang, Jing Han, Bruno Di Biase, Mark Antoniou


The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between working memory (WM) capacity and Chinese-English consecutive interpreting (CI) performance in interpreting learners with different study abroad experience (SAE). Such relationship is not well understood. This study also examines whether Chinese interpreting learners with SAE in English-speaking countries, demonstrate a better performance in inflectional morphology and agreement, notoriously unstable in Chinese speakers of English L2, in their interpreting output than learners without SAE. Fifty Chinese university students, majoring in Chinese-English Interpreting, were recruited in Australia (n=25) and China (n=25). The two groups matched in age, language proficiency, and interpreting training period. Study abroad (SA) group has been studying in an English-speaking country (Australia) for over 12 months, and none of the students recruited in China (the no study abroad = NSA group) had ever studied or lived in an English-speaking country. Data on language proficiency and training background were collected via a questionnaire. Lexical retrieval performance and working memory (WM) capacity data were collected experimentally, and finally, interpreting data was elicited via a direct CI task. Main results of the study show that WM significantly correlated with participants' CI performance independently of learning context. Moreover, SA outperformed NSA learners in terms of subject-verb number agreement. Apart from that, WM capacity was also found to correlate significantly with their morphosyntactic accuracy. This paper sheds some light on the relationship between study abroad, WM capacity, and CI performance. Exploring the effect of study abroad on interpreting trainees and how various important factors correlate may help interpreting educators bring forward more targeted teaching paradigms for participants with different learning experiences.

Keywords: study abroad experience, consecutive interpreting, working memory, inflectional agreement

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37778 The Implementation of Educational Partnerships for Undergraduate Students at Yogyakarta State University

Authors: Broto Seno


This study aims to describe and examine more in the implementation of educational partnerships for undergraduate students at Yogyakarta State University (YSU), which is more focused on educational partnerships abroad. This study used descriptive qualitative approach. The study subjects consisted of a vice-rector, two staff education partnerships, four vice-dean, nine undergraduate students and three foreign students. Techniques of data collection using interviews and document review. Validity test of the data source using triangulation. Data analysis using flow models Miles and Huberman, namely data reduction, data display, and conclusion. Results of this study showed that the implementation of educational partnerships abroad for undergraduate students at YSU meets six of the nine indicators of the success of strategic partnerships. Six indicators are long-term, strategic, mutual trust, sustainable competitive advantages, mutual benefit for all the partners, and the separate and positive impact. The indicator has not been achieved is cooperative development, successful, and world class / best practice. These results were obtained based on the discussion of the four formulation of the problem, namely: 1) Implementation and development of educational partnerships abroad has been running good enough, but not maximized. 2) Benefits of the implementation of educational partnerships abroad is providing learning experiences for students, institutions of experience in comparison to each faculty, and improving the network of educational partnerships for YSU toward World Class University. 3) The sustainability of educational partnerships abroad is pursuing a strategy of development through improved management of the partnership. 4) Supporting factors of educational partnerships abroad is the support of YSU, YSU’s partner and society. Inhibiting factors of educational partnerships abroad is not running optimally management.

Keywords: partnership, education, YSU, institutions and faculties

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37777 Key Drivers Motivating Prospective International Students to Study Abroad and Their Attitude to University Rankings

Authors: Dasha Karzunina, Laura Bridgestock


Our oral presentation will be based on our qualitative and quantitative findings into motivations and challenges faced by international and UK students when choosing a university abroad. The insight was gathered through a series of over 60 focus groups held with prospective university students all over the world, including masters and PhD applicants. We spoke to students face-to-face in Latin America, North American, India, China, South East Asia and the major European cities. A survey was carried out alongside, to gather additional insight on their priorities and attitudes to universities’ reputation, collecting over 1,800 responses. The session’s aims are to break down some of the myths about the perspectives of international students and inform university leaders interested in recruiting more highly talented students from abroad and those currently working with international students. As a provider of one of the most demanded resources in higher education, QS World University Rankings, we specialize in understanding universities’ performance, their institutional brand and the impact of rankings on student recruitment. We therefore feel we are well placed to carry out and present this research. We hope for our findings to act as a bridge between bright students and their future universities abroad. We intend for our session to be interactive and so are happy to go into more depth on any of the destinations we visited, depending on what the audience is most interested in and which questions we receive.

Keywords: international student recruitment, market research, rankings, study abroad

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37776 Using Immersive Study Abroad Experiences to Strengthen Preservice Teachers’ Critical Reflection Skills on Future Classroom Practices

Authors: Meredith Jones, Susan Catapano, Carol McNulty


Study abroad experiences create unique learning opportunities for preservice teachers to strengthen their reflective thinking practices through applied learning experiences. Not only do study abroad experiences provide opportunities for students to expand their cultural sensitivity, but incorporating applied learning experiences in study abroad trips creates unique opportunities for preservice teachers to engage in critical reflection on their teaching skills. Applied learning experiences are designed to nurture learning and growth through a reflective, experiential process outside the traditional classroom setting. As students participate in applied learning experiences, they engage in critical reflection independently, with their peers, and with university faculty. Critical reflection within applied learning contexts generates, deepens, and documents learning but must be intentionally designed to be effective. Grounded in Dewey’s model of reflection, this qualitative study examines longitudinal data from various study abroad cohorts from a particular university. Reflective data was collected during the study abroad trip, and follow up data on critical reflection of teaching practices were collected six months and a year after the trip. Dewey’s model of reflection requires preservice teachers to make sense of their experiences by reflecting on theoretical knowledge, experiences, and pedagogical knowledge. Guided reflection provides preservice teachers with a framework to respond to questions and ideas critical to the applied learning outcomes. Prompts are used to engage preservice teachers in reflecting on situations they have experienced and how they can be transferred to their teaching. Findings from this study noted that students with previous field experiences, or work in the field, engaged in more critical reflection on pedagogical knowledge throughout their applied learning experience. Preservice teachers with limited experiences in the field benefited from engaging in critical reflection prompted by university faculty during the applied learning experience. However, they were able to independently engage in critical reflection once they began work in the field through university field placements, internships, or student teaching. Finally, students who participated in study abroad applied learning experiences reported their critical reflection on their teaching practices, and cultural sensitivity enhanced their teaching and relationships with children once they formally entered the teaching profession.

Keywords: applied learning experiences, critical reflection, cultural sensitivity, preservice teachers, teacher education

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37775 Hybrid Incentives for Excellent Abroad Students Study for High Education Degrees

Authors: L. Sun, C. Hardacre, A. Garforth, N. Zhang


Higher Education (HE) degrees in the UK are attractive for international students. The recognized reputation of the HE and the world-leading researchers in some areas in the UK imply that the HE degree from the UK might be a passport to a successful career for abroad students. However, it is a challenge to inspire outstanding students applying for the universities in the UK. The incentives should be country-specific for undergraduates and postgraduates. The potential obstacles to stop students applying for the study in the UK mainly lie in these aspects: different HE systems between the UK and other countries, such as China; less information for the application procedures; worries for the study in English for those non-native speakers; and expensive international tuition fees. The hybrid incentives have been proposed by the efforts from the institutions, stuffs, and students themselves. For example, excellent students from top universities would join us based on the abroad exchange programs or ‘2+2 programme’ with discount tuition. They are potential PhD candidates in the further study in the UK. Diversity promotions are implemented to share information and answer queries for potential students and their guardians. Face to face presentations, workshops, and seminars deliver chances for students to admire teaching and learning in the UK, and give students direct answers for their confusions. WeChat official account and Twitter as the online information platform are set up to post messages of recruitment, the guidance for the application procedures, and international collaboration in teaching and research as well. Students who are studying in the UK and the alumni would share their experiences in the study and lives in the UK and their careers after obtaining the HE degree would play as a positive stimulus to our potential students. Short term modules in the UK with exchangeable credits in summer holidays would give abroad students firsthand experiences of the study in the reputable schools with excellent academics, different cultures and the network with international students. Successful cases at the University of Manchester illustrated the effectiveness of these presented methodologies.

Keywords: abroad students, degree study, high education, hybrid incentives

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37774 Decision Making to Study Abroad among Indonesian Student Migrants in Europe: The Role of Communication Technology

Authors: Inayah Hidayati


Innovation in communication technology has opened up opportunities for student to migrate and study abroad. The increasing number of Indonesian students migrating to study abroad suggests the importance of understanding the reason underline their movements. Objective: This research aims to explain the migration decision-making process of Indonesian student migrants in Europe. In detail, this research will consider the innovation in communication technology in the migration decision-making process of students who emigrated from Indonesia and how they use that in the context of the migration decision-making process. Methods: The data collected included qualitative data from in-depth interviews. An interview guide was formulated to facilitate the in-depth interviews and generate a better understanding of migration behavior. Expectation: 1). Innovation in communication technology help Indonesian student migrants on migration decision making process. 2). Student migrants use communication technology platforms for searching information about destination area. Result: Student migrant in Europe use their communication technology platforms to gain information before they choose that country for study. They use WhatsApp and LINE to making contact with their friends and colleagues in the destination country. WhatsApp and LINE group help Indonesian student to get information about school and daily life.

Keywords: international migration, student, decision making process, communication technology platforms

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
37773 The Role of Short-Term Study Abroad Experience on Intercultural Communication Competence

Authors: Zeynep Aksoy


Since global mobility of capital, information and people increase more and more, intercultural communication and management become a growing study field of investigating various aspects of the interaction between people from different cultural backgrounds. Human mobility, caused by several intentions from tourism to forced migration, often put people in facing communication barriers, issues or sometimes conflicts. This reality naturally enforces education institutions to develop international policies and programs for students in order to improve their intercultural experiences along with the educative objectives. Study-abroad programs, particularly the student exchanges in higher education provide an environment for participants to encounter with cultural differences. Therefore, international exchange programs (i.e. Erasmus Student Mobility, Global Exchange Program) are accepted to bring opportunities for intergroup contact, which may lead students to obtain new perspectives about the host culture, either in positive or negative ways, and new intercultural communication skills. This study aims to explore the role of short-term study abroad experience on intercultural communication competence with a qualitative approach. It attempts to reveal a comparative analysis, which is derived from two field studies conducted in Izmir (Turkey) and in Amsterdam (the Netherlands) in 2015 and 2016. They were both organized in two phases as pre-and-posttest to gain an insight into the changes (if any) in students’ attitudes and knowledge regarding the host culture, and their further motivations towards cross-cultural interactions. With this aim, focus group sessions and in-depth interviews have been taken place with participants at the beginning of their stay and at the end of the semester. The sample covers students mainly from Erasmus program (20 students in Izmir and 14 students in Amsterdam), and few from Global Exchange Program (5 students in Amsterdam). Data obtained from both studies were thematically analyzed and essential themes were identified within the framework of intercultural communication competence.

Keywords: Erasmus student mobility, intercultural communication competence, student exchange, short-term study abroad

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37772 Depression among Pregnant Women with Husbands Abroad during the Pregnancy

Authors: Usama Bin Zubair, Syed Azhar Ali


Introduction: Depression is emerging as a major public health problem in all parts of the world. Developing countries have a unique socioeconomic structure that affects the lives of its inhabitants in several ways. Going abroad for employment is one of the common social problems which have been faced by young males in developing countries. This included both highly qualified individuals as well as the labor class. Objective: To determine the difference in the presence of depressive symptoms among pregnant women with husbands living abroad and those with husbands living with them in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Methods: The sample population comprised of pregnant women reporting for an antenatal checkup at Amna hospital Rawalakot. Cases constituted the pregnant women with husbands living abroad while controls were the pregnant women with husbands living with them. Patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was used to record the presence and severity of depressive symptoms. Age, gestation, parity, rural or urban origin, education, level of family income, daily contact hours on the telephone or what’s app, previous pregnancy loss or complications, number of years abroad and visits to home per year were associated with the presence of depressive symptoms. Findings: The mean age of the study participants was 29.73 ±5.395 years. Sixty-six had significant depression in the case group, while 14 had in the control group (p-value<0.001). Education and rural background had a significant difference between the case and the control group. Less number of visits per year of the husband was strongly linked with the presence of depressive symptoms among the cases. Conclusion: Pregnant women with husbands abroad were found more prone to develop depressive symptoms as compared to those with husbands living with them. Special attention should be paid to the women whose husband had a lesser number of visits to the country.

Keywords: depression, pregnancy, lack of support, war zone

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37771 Pursuing Professional Status in Women’s Football: A Qualitative Analysis of Empowerment and Social Independence

Authors: G. Obrentri, C. Whajah, E. Yeboah Acheampong


Professional status for African male players guarantees them socioeconomic benefits that may not necessarily be the case for female footballers. The study’s rationale is to understand how female footballers achieve professional status abroad. That contributes to analyzing how female players from Africa especially, Ghana, manage their professional status to improve their family’s social welfare and the community. Relying on football migration and feminization, we identify their migration process and its relevance to their social mobility in society. Analysis through interviews with some female footballers revealed the importance of playing professional abroad that goes to increase their social status and national identity. Findings show that some female footballers with secondary education achieved career empowerment and social independence via their profession. Thus becoming medical doctors and nurses, sports administrators, football coaches and welfare officers for clubs. These achievements of the female footballers can provide useful information and lessons for young female African players aspiring to play professionally abroad.

Keywords: empowerment, female footballers, football migration, professional status, social independence

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37770 Applied Transdisciplinary Undergraduate Research in Costa Rica: Five Weeks Faculty-Led Study Abroad Model

Authors: Sara Shuger Fox, Oscar Reynaga


This session explains the process and lessons learned as Central College (USA) faculty and staff developed undergraduate research opportunities within the model of a short-term faculty-led study abroad program in Costa Rica. The program in Costa Rica increases access to research opportunities across the disciplines and was developed by faculty from English, Biology, and Exercise Science. Session attendees will benefit from learning how faculty and staff navigated the program proposal process at a small liberal arts college and, in particular, how the program was built to be inclusive of departments with lower enrollment, like those currently seen in the humanities. Vital to this last point, presenters will explain how they negotiated issues of research supervision and disciplinary authority in such a way that the program is open to students from multiple disciplines without forcing the program budget to absorb costs for multiple faculty supervisors traveling and living in-country. Additionally, session attendees will learn how scouting laid the groundwork for mutually beneficial relationships between the program and the communities with which it collaborates. Presenters will explain how they built a coalition of students, faculty advisors, study abroad staff and local research hosts to support the development of research questions that are of value not just to the students, but to the community in which the research will take place. This program also incorporates principles of fair-trade learning by intentionally reporting research findings to local community members, as well as encouraging students to proactively share their research as a way to connect with local people.

Keywords: Costa Rica, research, sustainability, transdisciplinary

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37769 Designing Short-Term Study Abroad Programs for Graduate Students: The Case of Morocco

Authors: Elaine Crable, Amit Sen


Short-term study abroad programs have become a mainstay of MBA programs. The benefits of international business experiences, along with its exposure to global cultures, are well documented. However, developing a rewarding study, abroad program at the graduate level can be challenging for Faculty, especially when devising such a program for a group of part-time MBA students who come with a wide range of experiences and demographic characteristics. Each student has individual expectations for the study abroad experience. This study provides suggestions and considerations for Faculty that are planning to design a short-term study abroad program, especially for part-time MBA students. Insights are based on a recent experience leading a group of twenty-one students on a ten-day program to Morocco. The trip was designed and facilitated by two faculty members and a local Moroccan facilitator. This experience led to a number of insights and recommendations. First, the choice of location is critical. The choice of Morocco was very deliberate, owing to its multi-faceted cultural landscape and international business interest. It is an Islamic State with close ties to Europe both culturally and geographically and Morocco is a multi-lingual country with some combination of three languages spoken by most – English, Arabic, and French. Second, collaboration with a local ‘academic’ partner allowed the level of instruction to be both rigorous and significantly more engaging. Third, allowing students to participate in the planning of the trip enabled the trip participants to collaborate, negotiate, and share their own experiences and strengths. The pre-trip engagement was structured by creating four sub-groups, each responsible for an assigned city. Each student sub-group had to provide a historical background of the assigned city, plan the itinerary including sites to visit, cuisine to experience, industries to explore, markets to visit, plus provide a budget for that city’s expenses. The pre-planning segment of the course was critical for the success of the program as students were able to contribute to the design of the program through collaboration and negotiation with their peers. Fourth, each student sub-group was assigned industry to study within Morocco. The student sub-group prepared a presentation and a group paper with their analysis of the chosen industries. The pre-planning activities created strong bonds among the trip participants, which was evident when faced with on-ground challenges, especially when it was necessary to quickly evacuate due to a surprise USA COVID evacuation notice. The entire group supported each other when quickly making their way back to the United States. Unfortunately, the trip was cut short by two days due to this emergency exit, but the feedback regarding the program was very positive all around. While the program design put pressure on the Faculty leads regarding planning and coordination upfront, the outcome in terms of student engagement, student learning, collaboration and negotiation were all favorable and worth the effort. Finally, an added value, the cost of the program for the student was significantly lower compared to running a program with a professional provider.

Keywords: business education, experiential learning, international education, study abroad

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37768 The Impact of Research and Development Cooperation Partner Diversity, Knowledge Source Diversity and Knowledge Source Network Embeddedness on Radical Innovation: Direct Relationships and Interaction with Non-Price Competition

Authors: Natalia Strobel, Jan Kratzer


In this paper, we test whether different types of research and development (R&D) alliances positively impact the radical innovation performance of firms. We differentiate between the R&D alliances without extern R&D orders and embeddedness in knowledge source network. We test the differences between the domestically diversified R&D alliances and R&D alliances diversified abroad. Moreover, we test how non-price competition influences the impact of domestically diversified R&D alliances, and R&D alliance diversified abroad on radical innovation performance. Our empirical analysis is based on the comprehensive Swiss innovation panel, which allowed us to study 3520 firms between the years between 1996 and 2011 in 3 years intervals. We analyzed the data with a linear estimation with Swamy-Aurora transformation using plm package in R software. Our results show as hypothesized a positive impact of R&D alliances diversity abroad as well as domestically on radical innovation performance. The effect of non-price interaction is in contrast to our hypothesis, not significant. This suggests that diversity of R&D alliances is highly advantageous independent of non-price competition.

Keywords: R&D alliances, partner diversity, knowledge source diversity, non-price competition, absorptive capacity

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37767 Tourism Competitiveness Survey Analysis of Serbian Ski Resorts

Authors: Marijana Pantić, Saša Milijić


In Serbia as a continental country, the tourism industry relies on city-break, spa and mountain tourism, where ski resorts have primacy during the winter season. Even though the number of tourists has recently increased, the share of domestic tourists remained predominant. It is also noticed that tourists from Serbia eagerly travel abroad, which was so far researched in the context of summer holidays but not in the framework of ski resorts. Therefore, this paper examines the competitiveness of ski resorts in Serbia from the perspective of domestic tourists. A survey was used as a data collection method, covering various competitiveness dimensions. The aim is to recognize the main motives of consumers when choosing a ski resort in Serbia or abroad. The results showed that the choices of Serbian tourists are predominantly shaped by the cost of an offer – of accommodation above all others. They are attentive by estimating the value for money, which is the most common reason to choose a ski resort abroad over a domestic one. The crowd at ski resorts and ski runs appears to be a result of unbalanced accommodation capacities on the one hand and ski infrastructure on the other, which is currently the most notable competitiveness drawback of ski resorts in Serbia.

Keywords: mountain tourism, Serbia, ski resorts, tourism competitiveness

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37766 A Study of Key Technologies for the Realization of Smart Grid and Its Research Situation in Pakistan and Abroad

Authors: Arjmand Khaliq, Pemra Sohaib


In this paper smart grid technologies which converts conventional grid into smart grid has been discussed. Integration of advanced technologies including two way communication, advanced control system, sensors, smart metering system and other provide opportunity to make conventional grid a intelligent and automatic system which is named as smart grid. This paper gives the concept of smart grid and functional characteristics of smart grid technology, summed up the research progress in Pakistan and abroad and the significance of developing smart grid. Based on the analysis of the smart grid, smart grid technologies will result a reliable and energy efficient power system in the future. On the other hand smart grid technologies have been reviewed in this paper highlighting the key technologies of smart grid, and points out the problems and challenges in the realization of smart grid.

Keywords: energy, power system reliability, power system monitoring and control, sensor, smart grid, two-way communication

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37765 Attitudes towards People with Disability and Career Interest in Disability Studies: A Study of Clinical Medical Students of a Tertiary Institution in Southeastern Nigeria

Authors: Ebele V. Okoli, Emmanuel Nwobi, Dozie Ezechukwu, Ijeoma Itanyi


One in seven people worldwide suffer from a disability. 80% of people with disabilities live in developing countries. Negative attitudes and misconceptions among health-care providers constitute barri¬ers to optimal health care for people with disabilities. This underscores the relevance of a study of the attitude of Nigerian medical students towards disability and their willingness to work in the disability sector. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 254 penultimate and final year medical students of a university in southeastern Nigeria. The mean age of the students was 24.8 ± 3.12 years. Majority of the students were male (75.2%), single (96.9%), of the Igbo tribe (86.6%), Christian (97.6%) and grew up in urban areas (68.1%). Results indicated that the medical students had a predominantly positive attitude towards people with disability as 73.8% had a positive attitude and mean attitude score was 67.03 ± 0.14 (positive attitude = 61 – 120, negative attitude = 0 - 60). Chi-square analysis did not show any significant effect of demographic and social factors on the students’ attitude towards People with Disabilities. The students were mostly willing to work in areas that address the challenges of people with disability (70.4%) but a greater proportion had never heard about Disability Studies (67.5%). About a third of the students (33.2%) would like to travel abroad to practice in the disability sector. Conclusions: The students generally had a positive attitude towards people with disability and a greater percentage were willing to work in the disability sector in their future career. About two-thirds had however, never heard about disability studies. There was some potential for brain drain among the students as a third of the population intended to practice abroad on graduation.

Keywords: attitudes, career interest, disability, medical students

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37764 MEET (Maximise the Erasmus Experience Together): Gains, Challenges and Proposals

Authors: Susana Olmos, Catherine Spencer


Every year our School in DIT (Dublin Institute of Technology) hosts approximately 80 Erasmus students from partner universities across Europe. Our own students are required to spend a compulsory 3rd year abroad on study and/or work placements. This is an extremely rewarding experience for all of the students, however, it can also be a challenging one. With this in mind, we started a project which aimed to make this transition as easy and productive as possible. The project, which is called MEET: Maximise the Erasmus Experience Together, focuses on the students’ own active engagement in learning and preparation – outside of the classroom –and their own self-directed pursuit of opportunities to develop their confidence and preparedness, which would work as an important foundation for the transformative learning that study abroad implies. We focussed on creating more structured opportunities where Erasmus students from our partner universities (currently studying at DIT) and our second-year students could interact and learn from each other, and in so doing improve both their language and intercultural skills. Our experience so far has been quite positive and we have seen how students taking part in this project have developed as autonomous learners as well as enhanced both their linguistic and intercultural knowledge. As the linguistic element of our project was one of our main priorities, we asked the students to keep a reflective diary on the activities that were organised by the group in the TL. Also, we use questionnaires as well as personal interviews to assess their development. However, there are challenges and proposals we would make to bring this project forward for the near future.

Keywords: erasmus, intercultural competence, linguistic competence, extra curriculum activities

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37763 Home-Country’s Competitive Assets of the Emerging Countries' Multinational Enterprises (EMNEs)

Authors: Philippe Gugler


The aim of this study is to investigate how home country patterns may influence the competitiveness of EMNEs in international markets and more specifically their ability to invest abroad. The study examines the dynamic relationship between home country specific advantage and firms’ competitiveness. Are EMNEs still driven by strong country specific advantages or are EMNEs increasingly relying on their own firm specific competitiveness? EMNEs are not commonly recognized as a ‘homogeneous group’. Therefore, the approaches to these questions need to be specific while still attempting to extract some common evidence. The aim of the study is to elaborate a framework to investigate this issue in a dynamic context of international business’s strategies. The study focuses on two major research questions. The first one relates to the role of the home-base context in the internationalization process of EMNEs and more specifically the home-base assets’ influence on EMNEs competitiveness. Another question is to investigate the interactions among home-base context, recipient country context and EMNEs competitiveness. The evolution of EMNEs’ competitiveness is shaped by the evolution of the home country’s business environment. The nature of the home-based components in EMNEs’ specific advantages has changed over time due to the increased integration of emerging countries in the world market and the inherent changes related to their institutional, structural and regulatory patterns. The home country offers not only inherited assets but also a productive business environment, allowing firms to innovate, be more productive, create unique value for customers and finally, to face international competition successfully. The more sophisticated the home business environment is, the more opportunities there are for firms to developed exclusive and unique competitive assets. The international expansion of EMNEs is a fascinating but challenging issue. Among the numerous questions raised by the involvement of EMNEs in international competition is the evolving role of the home market. The purpose of this study is to examine some of the theoretical ideas and empirical evidence to allow us to deepen our understanding of the role of emerging home countries in the internationalization process of their domestic firms and more specifically in their ability to compete successfully abroad. How much do home specific assets still influence EMNEs’ foreign investment? Which home country assets provide the main competitive drivers to invest and compete abroad? How do EMNEs combine home country assets and host country assets to strengthen their competitive advantages? These questions as well as various others deserve further examination by the scientific community.

Keywords: competitiveness, emerging countries' multinational enterprises, foreign direct investments, international business

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37762 Exploring Causes of Irregular Migration: Evidence from Rural Punjab, India

Authors: Kulwinder Singh


Punjab is one of the major labour exporting states of India. Every year more than 20,000 youths from Punjab attempt irregular migration. About 84 irregular migrants are from rural areas and 16 per cent from urban areas. Irregular migration could only be achieved if be organized through highly efficient international networks with the countries of origin, transit, and destination. A good number of Punjabis continue to immigrate into the UK for work through unauthorized means entering the country on visit visas and overstaying or getting ‘smuggled into’ the country with the help of transnational networks of agents. Although, the efforts are being made by the government to curb irregular migration through The Punjab Prevention of Human Smuggling Rules (2012, 2014) and Punjab Travel Regulation Act (2012), but yet it exists parallel to regular migration. Despite unprecedented miseries of irregular migrants and strict laws implemented by the state government to check this phenomenon, ‘why do Punjabis migrate abroad irregularly’ is the important question to answer. This study addresses this question through the comparison of irregular migration with regular one. In other words, this analysis reveals major causes, specifically economic ones, of irregular migration from rural Punjab. This study is unique by presenting economics of irregular migration, given previous studies emphasize the role of sociological and psychological factors. Addressing important question “why do Punjabis migrate abroad irregularly?”, the present study reveals that Punjabi, being far-sighted, endeavor irregular migration as it is, though, economically nonviable in short run, but offers lucrative economic gains as gets older. Despite its considerably higher cost viz-a-viz regular migration, it is the better employment option to irregular migrants with higher permanent income than local low paid jobs for which risking life has become the mindset of the rural Punjabis. Although, it carries considerably lower economic benefits as compared to regular migration, but provides the opportunity of migrating abroad to less educated, semi-skilled and language-test ineligible Punjabis who cannot migrate through regular channels. As its positive impacts on source and destination countries are evident, it might not be restricted, rather its effective management, through liberalising restrictive migration policies by destination nations, can protect the interests of all involved stakeholders.

Keywords: cost, migration, income, irregular, regular, remittances

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37761 Accidental U.S. Taxpayers Residing Abroad: Choosing between U.S. Citizenship or Keeping Their Local Investment Accounts

Authors: Marco Sewald


Due to the current enforcement of exterritorial U.S. legislation, up to 9 million U.S. (dual) citizens residing abroad are subject to U.S. double and surcharge taxation and at risk of losing access to otherwise basic financial services and investment opportunities abroad. The United States is the only OECD country that taxes non-resident citizens, lawful permanent residents and other non-resident aliens on their worldwide income, based on local U.S. tax laws. To enforce these policies the U.S. has implemented ‘saving clauses’ in all tax treaties and implemented several compliance provisions, including the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA), Qualified Intermediaries Agreements (QI) and Intergovernmental Agreements (IGA) addressing Foreign Financial Institutions (FFIs) to implement these provisions in foreign jurisdictions. This policy creates systematic cases of double and surcharge taxation. The increased enforcement of compliance rules is creating additional report burdens for U.S. persons abroad and FFIs accepting such U.S. persons as customers. FFIs in Europe react with a growing denial of specific financial services to this population. The numbers of U.S. citizens renouncing has dramatically increased in the last years. A case study is chosen as an appropriate methodology and research method, as being an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context; when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident; and in which multiple sources of evidence are used. This evaluative approach is testing whether the combination of policies works in practice, or whether they are in accordance with desirable moral, political, economical aims, or may serve other causes. The research critically evaluates the financial and non-financial consequences and develops sufficient strategies. It further discusses these strategies to avoid the undesired consequences of exterritorial U.S. legislation. Three possible strategies are resulting from the use cases: (1) Duck and cover, (2) Pay U.S. double/surcharge taxes, tax preparing fees and accept imposed product limitations and (3) Renounce U.S. citizenship and pay possible exit taxes, tax preparing fees and the requested $2,350 fee to renounce. While the first strategy is unlawful and therefore unsuitable, the second strategy is only suitable if the U.S. citizen residing abroad is planning to move to the U.S. in the future. The last strategy is the only reasonable and lawful way provided by the U.S. to limit the exposure to U.S. double and surcharge taxation and the limitations on financial products. The results are believed to add a perspective to the current academic discourse regarding U.S. citizenship based taxation, currently dominated by U.S. scholars, while providing sufficient strategies for the affected population at the same time.

Keywords: citizenship based taxation, FATCA, FBAR, qualified intermediaries agreements, renounce U.S. citizenship

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37760 Tracing Graduates of Vocational Schools with Transnational Mobility Experience: Conclusions and Recommendations from Poland

Authors: Michal Pachocki


This study investigates the effects of mobility in the context of a different environment and work culture through analysing the learners perception of their international work experience. Since this kind of professional training abroad is becoming more popular in Europe, mainly due to the EU funding opportunities, it is of paramount importance to assess its long-term impact on educational and career paths of former students. Moreover, the tracer study aimed at defining what professional, social and intercultural competencies were gained or developed by the interns and to which extent those competences proved to be useful meeting the labor market requirements. Being a populous EU member state which actively modernizes its vocational education system (also with European funds), Poland can serve as an illustrative case study to investigate the above described research problems. However, the examined processes are most certainly universal, wherever mobility is included in the learning process. The target group of this research was the former mobility participants and the study was conducted using quantitative and qualitative methods, such as the online survey with over 2 600 questionnaires completed by the former mobility participants; -individual in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 20 Polish graduates already present in the labour market; - 5 focus group interviews (FGIs) with 60 current students of the Polish vocational schools, who have recently returned from the training abroad. As the adopted methodology included a data triangulation, the collected findings have also been supplemented with data obtained by the desk research (mainly contextual information and statistical summary of mobility implementation). The results of this research – to be presented in full scope within the conference presentation – include the participants’ perception of their work mobility. The vast majority of graduates agrees that such an experience has had a significant impact on their professional careers and claims that they would recommend training abroad to persons who are about to enter the labor market. Moreover, in their view, such form of practical training going beyond formal education provided them with an opportunity to try their hand in the world of work. This allowed them – as they accounted for them – to get acquainted with a work system and context different from the ones experienced in Poland. Although the work mobility becomes an important element of the learning process in the growing number of Polish schools, this study reveals that many sending institutions suffer from a lack of the coherent strategy for planning domestic and foreign training programmes. Nevertheless, the significant number of graduates claims that such a synergy improves the quality of provided training. Despite that, the research proved that the transnational mobilities exert an impact on their future careers and personal development. However, such impact is, in their opinion, dependant on other factors, such as length of the training period, the nature and extent of work, recruitment criteria and the quality of organizational arrangement and mentoring provided to learners. This may indicate the salience of the sending and receiving institutions organizational capacity to deal with mobility.

Keywords: learning mobility, transnational training, vocational education and training graduates, tracer study

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37759 Detonalization of Punjabi: Towards a Loss of Linguistic Indigeneity

Authors: Sukhvinder Singh


Punjabi language is related to the languages of New Indo-Aryan group that, in turn, is related to the branch of Indo-European language family. Punjabi language covers the areas of Western part (that is in Pakistan) and Eastern part (the Punjab state, Haryana, Delhi Himachal and J&K) and abroad (particularly Canada, USA, U.K. and Arab Emirates), where it is spoken widely. Besides India and Pakistan, Punjabi is the third language spoken in Canada after English, French having more than one hundred millions speakers worldwide. It is the fourth language spoken in Canada after English, French, and Chinese. It is also being taught as second language in most of the community school of British Columbia. The total number of Punjabi speakers is more than one hundred millions including India, Pakistan and abroad. Punjabi has a long tradition of linguistic tradition. A large number of scholars have studied Punjabi at different linguistic levels. Various studies are devoted to its special phonological characteristics, especially the tone, which has now started disappearing in favour of aspiration, a rare example of a language change in progress in its reversal direction. This process of language change in progress in reversal is dealt with in this paper a change towards a loss of linguistic indigeneity. The tone being a distinctive linguistic feature of Punjabi language is getting lost due to the increasing influence of Hindi and English particularly in the speech Urban Punjabi and Punjabi settled abroad. In this paper, an attempt has been made to discuss the sociolinguistics and sociology of Punjabi language and Punjab to trace the initiation and progression of this change towards a loss of Linguistic Indigeneity.

Keywords: language change in reversal, reaspiration, detonalization, new Indo-Aryan group

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37758 Analyzing the Effect of Remittances Transfer on the Socio-Economic Well-Being of Left behind Parents: A Study of Pakistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir

Authors: Asia Ashfaq, Muhammad Saud


The present study aims to highlight the socio-economic aspect of international migration by analyzing the effect of remittances sent by adult male children on the well-being of left behind parents. Well-being of left behind parents was operationalized through two indicators as financial security and health-care facilities. For this purpose, quantitative research design was employed and a survey was conducted in three cities i.e. Gujrat, Jhelum and Mirpur. The data was collected from 94 respondents chosen--purposively--on the basis of certain characteristics including demographic profile of the respondents and their male children who must be living abroad. The findings of the study revealed that parents were getting money from their sons regularly. Parents were getting financial assistance from their children for managing their household expenditures, visiting good hospitals and the specialist doctors in case of illness. Lastly, the study concluded that the economic aspect of migration of male children has a significant impact on the health status of left behind parents with the value of correlation (r) =0.241 and level of significance as 0.019. The research study also gives some suggestions and provides future directions for research.

Keywords: international migration, left behind parents, Pakistan, remittances, well-being

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37757 Analyzing the Sociolinguistic Profile of the Algerian Community in the UK in terms of French Language Use: The Case of Émigré Ph.D. Students

Authors: Hadjer Chellia


the present study reports on second language use among Algerian international students in the UK. In Algeria, French has an important status among the Algerian verbal repertoires due to colonial reasons. This has triggered many language conflicts and many debates among policy makers in Algeria. In higher education, Algerian English students’ sociolinguistic profile is characterised by the use of French as a sign of prestige. What may leave room for debate is the effect of crossing borders towards the UK as a result of international mobility programmes, a transition which could add more complexity since French, is not so significant as a language in the UK context. In this respect, the micro-objective is to explore the fate of French use among Ph.D. students in the UK as a newly established group vis-à-vis English. To fulfill the purpose of the present inquiry, the research employs multiple approaches in which semi-structured interview is a primary source of data to know participants’ attitudes about French use, targeting both their pre-migratory experience and current one. Web-based questionnaires are set up to access larger population. Focus group sessions are further procedures of scrutiny in this piece of work to explore the actual linguistic behaviours. Preliminary findings from both interviews and questionnaires reveal that students’ current experience, particularly living in the UK, affects their pre-migratory attitudes towards French language and its use. The overall findings are expected to bring manifold contributions to the field of research among which is setting factors that influence language use among newly established émigrés communities. The research is also relevant to international students’ experience of study abroad in terms of language use in the guise of internationalization of higher education, mobility and exchange programmes. It could contribute to the sociolinguistics of the Algerian diaspora: the dispersed residence of non-native communities - not to mention its significance on the Algerian research field abroad.

Keywords: Algerian diaspora, French language, language maintenance, language shift, mobility

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37756 Relation between Tourism and Health: Case Study AIDS in Lebanon

Authors: Viana Hassan


Each year, 600 million tourists travelled abroad to practice several types of tourism. Nowadays, whatever is the type of tourism practiced it considered as a real public health problem which can contribute the spread of several diseases such as AIDS, H1N1, NDM1 With regard to HIV/AIDS, Lebanon is always considered as a low HIV prevalence country. However, the potential risks associated with the mobility of the population, migration and tourism. The total number of cases reported by the ministry of health since 1989 until the end of 2011 is of 1455 cases, with an average of 85 new cases per year over the last three years. The main reason of the increased number is Travel and migration which represent 50% of the risks reported by cumulative cases. Given the interest of this kind of epidemic it would be interesting to study the Evolution of HIV/ AIDS and its relation with travel and tourism The main aim of this research is to study in general the relation between tourism and health, more specific to understand the relation between Tourism and AIDS, the problem of the transmission of HIV in Lebanon, the ways of contamination and the countries in which these people are contaminated.

Keywords: AIDS, tourism, health, Lebanon

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37755 Researching International PhD Algerian Students’ Communication Challenges in Speaking When Discussing and Interacting with Their British Peers: A Researcher’s Interpretive Perspective through the Use of Semi-Structured Interview

Authors: H. Maita


This paper addresses the issue of the speaking challenges that the Algerian PhD students experience during their studies abroad, particularly in UK territory; more specifically, this study describes how these students may deal with such challenges and whether the cultural differences is one core reason in such dilemma or not. To this end, an understanding and interpretation of what actually encompasses both linguistic interference and cultural differences are required. Throughout the paper there is an attempt to explain the theoretical basis of the interpretive research and to theoretically discuss the pivotal use of the interview, as a data collection tool, in interpretive research. Thus, the central issue of this study is to frame the theoretical perspective of the interpretive research through the discussion of PhD Algerian’s communication and interaction challenges in the EFL context. This study is a corner stone for other research studies to further investigate the issue related to communication challenges because no specific findings will be pointed out in this research.

Keywords: communication, EFL, interaction, linguistic interference

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37754 Oral Fluency: A Case Study of L2 Learners in Canada

Authors: Maaly Jarrah


Oral fluency in the target language is what many second language learners hope to achieve by living abroad. Research in the past has demonstrated the role informal environments play in improving L2 learners' oral fluency. However, living in the target country and being part of its community does not ensure the development of oral fluency skills. L2 learners' desire to communicate and access to speaking opportunities in the host community are key in achieving oral fluency in the target language. This study attempts to identify differences in oral fluency, specifically speech rate, between learners who communicate in the L2 outside the classroom and those who do not. In addition, as the desire to communicate is a crucial factor in developing oral fluency, this study investigates whether or not learners' desire to speak the L2 outside the classroom plays a role in their frequency of L2 use outside the classroom. Finally, given the importance of the availability of speaking opportunities for L2 learners in order to practice their speaking skills, this study reports on the participants' perceptions of the speaking opportunities accessible to them in the target community while probing whether or not their perceptions differed based on their oral fluency level and their desire to communicate. The results suggest that exposure to the target language and daily communication with the native speakers is strongly related to the development of learners' oral fluency. Moreover, the findings suggest that learners' desire to communicate affects their frequency of communication in their L2 outside the classroom. At the same time, all participants, regardless of their oral fluency level and their desire to communicate, asserted that speaking opportunities beyond the classroom are very limited. Finally, the study finds there are marked differences in the perceptions learners have regarding opportunities for learning offered by the same language program. After reporting these results, the study concludes with recommendations for ESL programs that serve international students.

Keywords: ESL programs, L2 Learners, oral fluency, second language

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37753 Study on Conservation and Regeneration of the Industrial Buildings

Authors: Rungpansa Noichan, Bart Julian Dewancker


The conservation and regeneration of historical industrial building is one of the most important issues to be solved in today’s urban development in the world. There are growing numbers of industrial building in which promoting heritage conservation maybe a helpful tool for a sustainable city in social, urban restructuring, environmental and economic component. This paper identifies the key attributes of conservation and regeneration industrial building from the literature, were discussed by reviewing its development at home and abroad. The authors have investigated 93 industrial buildings, which were used as industrial building before and reused into buildings with another function afterward. The data to be discussed below were mainly collected from various publications but also from available internet sources. This study focuses on green transformation, historical culture heritage, transformation techniques, and urban regeneration based on the empirical researches on the historical industrial building and site. Moreover, we focus on social, urban environment and sustainable development. The implications of the study provide suggestions for future improvements in the conservation and regeneration of historical industrial building, and inspire new ways of use, so the building becomes flexible and can consequently be adaptable to changes in order to survive time. Therefore, the building does not take into account only its future impact in the environment and society. Instead, it focuses on its entire life cycle.

Keywords: industrial building, heritage conservation, green transformation, regeneration, sustainable development

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