Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: embeddedness

27 Cultural Embeddedness of E-Participation Methods in Hungary

Authors: Hajnalka Szarvas


The research examines the effectiveness of e-participation tools and methods from a point of view of cultural fitting to the Hungarian community traditions. Participation can have very different meanings depending on the local cultural and historical traditions, experiences of the certain societies. Generally when it is about e-democracy or e-participation tools most of the researches are dealing with its technological sides and novelties, but there is not much said about the cultural and social context of the different platforms. However from the perspective of their success it would be essential to look at the human factor too, the actual users, how the certain DMS or any online platform is fitting to the way of thought, the way of functioning of the certain society. Therefore the paper will explore that to what extent the different online platforms like Loomio, Democracy OS, Your Priorities EVoks, Populus,, Liquid Democracy, Brain Bar Budapest Lab are compatible with the Hungarian mental structures and community traditions, the contents of collective mind about community functioning. As a result the influence of cultural embeddedness of the logic of e-participation development tools on success of these methods will be clearly seen. Furthermore the most crucial factors in general which determine the efficiency of e-participation development tools in Hungary will be demonstrated.

Keywords: cultural embeddedness, e-participation, local community traditions, mental structures

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26 Research on Traditional Rammed Earth Houses in Southern Zhejiang, China: Based on the perspective of "Geographical Embeddedness"

Authors: Han Wu, Jie Wang


Zhejiang’s special geographical environment has created characteristic mountain dwellings with climate adaptability. Among them, the terrain of southern Zhejiang is dominated by mountainous and hilly landforms, and its traditional dwellings have distinctive characteristics. They are often adapted to local conditions and laid out in accordance with the mountains. In order to block the severe winter weather conditions, local traditional building materials such as rammed earth are mostly used. However, with the development of urbanization, traditional villages have undergone large-scale changes, gradually losing their original uniqueness. In order to solve this problem, this paper takes traditional villages around Baishanzu National Park in Zhejiang as an example and selects nine typical villages in Jingning County and Longquan, respectively. Based on field investigations, extracting the environmental adaptability of local traditional rammed earth houses from the perspective of “geographical embeddedness”. And then combined with case analysis, discussing the translation and development of its traditional architectural methods in contemporary rammed earth buildings in southern Zhejiang.

Keywords: geographical embeddedness , lighting, modernization translation, rammed earth building, ventilation

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25 Examining the Antecedents and Consequences of Work-Family Enrichment

Authors: Rujuta Matapurkar, Shivganesh Bhargava


This paper discusses work-family enrichment and its relationship with certain antecedents and outcomes while considering effect of mindfulness and organizational pride as moderators. The work-family enrichment has been the topic of interest for researchers as well as practitioners for decades now. It focusses on the positive side of work family interaction rather that the scarcity or balance principle. Research shows that work family enrichment is linked to multiple work place outcomes like job satisfaction, organization citizenship behavior and turnover intention. Enrichment is also linked to life outcomes like life satisfaction, wellbeing. Thus not only the individuals but the organizations too want to engage in the activities resulting in the positive spillover between work and non-work domains. One of the recent focus areas in organization behavior literature has been Mindfulness. Mindfulness is defined as a trait or state in which the mind focuses on the present. It is the conscious attention and awareness of the present thought. The research in the area of mindfulness at work suggests that the same is related to work family balance and job satisfaction. This paper discusses the possibility of mindfulness having effect on the relationship between antecedents of enrichment and enrichment. On the outcome side job embeddedness and job ambivalence are the newest additions to the retention literature. Job ambivalence talks about having strong positive as well as negative feelings about the job. Job ambivalence is the work outcome which is linked to turnover intention. This paper talks about the relationship between enrichment and job ambivalence. Another measure for work place outcomes which is discussed in recent research is job embeddedness. This term talks about the advantages of continuing with the job rather than quitting it. It is described as like a net or a web in which an individual can become stuck and is focused on why people stay rather than on how they leave. The research has have found that establishing or increasing job embeddedness is likely to increase retention, attendance, citizenship and job performance. This paper studies the relationship between enrichment and embeddedness. Lastly this paper studies whether organizational pride has an an effect on the relationship between enrichment and its outcomes. This paper concludes with the direction for future research.

Keywords: work-family enrichment, mindfulness, job ambivalence, job embeddedness, organizational pride

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24 The Antecedents of Continued Usage on Social-Oriented Virtual Communities Based on Automaticity Mechanism

Authors: Hsiu-Hua Cheng


In recent years, the number of social-oriented virtual communities users has increased significantly. Corporate investment in advertising on social-oriented virtual communities increases quickly. With the gigantic commercial value of the digital market, competitions between virtual communities are keen. In this context, how to retain existing customers to continue using social-oriented virtual communities is an urgent issue for virtual community managers. This study employs the perspective of automaticity mechanism and combines the social embeddedness theory with the literature of involvement and habit in order to explore antecedents of users’ continuous usage on social-oriented virtual communities. The results can be a reference for scholars and managers of social-oriented virtual communities.

Keywords: continued usage, habit, social embeddedness, involvement, virtual community

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23 Managerial Advice-Seeking and Supply Chain Resilience: A Social Capital Perspective

Authors: Ethan Nikookar, Yalda Boroushaki, Larissa Statsenko, Jorge Ochoa Paniagua


Given the serious impact that supply chain disruptions can have on a firm's bottom-line performance, both industry and academia are interested in supply chain resilience, a capability of the supply chain that enables it to cope with disruptions. To date, much of the research has focused on the antecedents of supply chain resilience. This line of research has suggested various firm-level capabilities that are associated with greater supply chain resilience. A consensus has emerged among researchers that supply chain flexibility holds the greatest potential to create resilience. Supply chain flexibility achieves resilience by creating readiness to respond to disruptions with little cost and time by means of reconfiguring supply chain resources to mitigate the impacts of the disruption. Decisions related to supply chain disruptions are made by supply chain managers; however, the role played by supply chain managers' reference networks has been overlooked in the supply chain resilience literature. This study aims to understand the impact of supply chain managers on their firms' supply chain resilience. Drawing on social capital theory and social network theory, this paper proposes a conceptual model to explore the role of supply chain managers in developing the resilience of supply chains. Our model posits that higher level of supply chain managers' embeddedness in their reference network is associated with increased resilience of their firms' supply chain. A reference network includes individuals from whom supply chain managers seek advice on supply chain related matters. The relationships between supply chain managers' embeddedness in reference network and supply chain resilience are mediated by supply chain flexibility.

Keywords: supply chain resilience, embeddedness, reference networks, social capitals

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22 Psychological Contract and Job Embeddedness Perspectives to Understand Cynicism as a Behavioural Response to Pressures in the Workplace

Authors: Merkouche Wassila, Marchand Alain, Renaud Stéphane


Organizations are facing competitive pressures constraining them to modify their practices and change initial work conditions of employees, however, these modifications have to sustain initial quality of work and engagements toward the workforce. We focus on the importance of promises in the perspective of psychological contract. According to this perspective, employees perceiving a breach of the expected obligations from the employer may become unsatisfied at work and develop organizational withdrawal behaviors. These are negative counterproductive behaviours aiming to damage the organisation according to the principle of reciprocity and social exchange. We present an integrative model of the determinants and manifestations of organizational withdrawal (OW), a set of behaviors allowing the employee to leave his job or avoid his assigned work. OW contains two main components often studied in silos: work withdrawal (delays, absenteeism and other adverse behaviors) and job withdrawal (turnover). We use the systemic micro, meso and macro sociological approach designing the individual at the heart of a system containing individual, organizational, and environmental determinants. Under the influence of these different factors, the individual assesses the type of behavior to adopt. We provide better lighting for understanding OW using both psychological contract approach through the perception of its respect by the organization and job embeddedness approach which explains why the employee does not leave the organization and then remains in his post while practicing negative and counterproductive behaviors such as OW. We study specifically cynicism as a type of OW as it is a dimension of burnout. We focus on the antecedents of cynicism to try to prevent it in the workplace.

Keywords: burnout, cynicism, job embeddedness, organizational withdrawal, psychological contract

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21 The Impact of Research and Development Cooperation Partner Diversity, Knowledge Source Diversity and Knowledge Source Network Embeddedness on Radical Innovation: Direct Relationships and Interaction with Non-Price Competition

Authors: Natalia Strobel, Jan Kratzer


In this paper, we test whether different types of research and development (R&D) alliances positively impact the radical innovation performance of firms. We differentiate between the R&D alliances without extern R&D orders and embeddedness in knowledge source network. We test the differences between the domestically diversified R&D alliances and R&D alliances diversified abroad. Moreover, we test how non-price competition influences the impact of domestically diversified R&D alliances, and R&D alliance diversified abroad on radical innovation performance. Our empirical analysis is based on the comprehensive Swiss innovation panel, which allowed us to study 3520 firms between the years between 1996 and 2011 in 3 years intervals. We analyzed the data with a linear estimation with Swamy-Aurora transformation using plm package in R software. Our results show as hypothesized a positive impact of R&D alliances diversity abroad as well as domestically on radical innovation performance. The effect of non-price interaction is in contrast to our hypothesis, not significant. This suggests that diversity of R&D alliances is highly advantageous independent of non-price competition.

Keywords: R&D alliances, partner diversity, knowledge source diversity, non-price competition, absorptive capacity

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20 Japan as a Tourism Nation: Emerging Immigrant Entrepreneurship in the Tourism Sector of Kyoto

Authors: Szabó Renáta Andrea


In 2012 Japan created a new plan in order to become a tourism nation. The number of foreign tourists rises rapidly year by year, and with the upcoming Olympics in 2020, tourism turned into a prioritized national strategy. This paper offers a new perspective of tourism research: instead of focusing on the host nation or the inbound tourists, it represents an emerging in-between group: foreign entrepreneur residents. Despite the fact that Japan continuously scores as one of the lowest in East and South Asia related to entrepreneurial activity, in recent years, the activity of foreign entrepreneur residents is on the rise. This study is focused on Kyoto - the former capital of Japan and a popular tourist destination - and applies the mixed embeddedness model, which was used to understand this new phenomena and explore this emerging mediator group between locals and foreign tourists. Immigrant entrepreneurship is often related to a disadvantageous situation, and the businesses are introduced as the sole purpose of making a profit. The study seeks to argue with this point of view and augment the standard approaches to immigrant entrepreneurship. The findings introduce the key factors of this lifestyle choice besides profit and present how entrepreneurship is becoming an escape route to avoid standard working environment while living in Japan. It also shows the gap in the visa system and raises awareness about the emerging trend.

Keywords: immigrant entrepreneurship, Japan, lifestyle entrepreneurship, mixed embeddedness model, tourism

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19 Support for and Participation in 'Spontaneous' Mass Protest in Iceland: The Moderating Effects of Biographical Availability, Critical Mass, and Social Embeddedness

Authors: Jon Gunnar Bernburg


The present study addresses a topic that is fundamental to social movement theory, namely, the contingent link between movement support and movement participation. Usually, only a small fraction of those who agree with the cause of a social movement is mobilized into participating in it (a pattern sometimes referred to as 'the collective action problem'). However, historical moments sometimes emerge when many supporters become mobilized to participate in the movement, greatly enhancing the chance of movement success. By studying a case in point, this paper addresses the limited work on how support and participation are related at such critical moments. Specifically, the paper examines the association between supporting and participating in a huge 'pro-democracy' protest in Iceland in April 2016, in the wake of the global Panama Papers scandal. Organized via social media by only a handful of activists, but supported by a majority of Icelanders, the protest attracted about a fourth of the urban population, leading to a snap election and government change. Surveying Iceland’s urban population, this paper tests hypotheses about the processes mobilizing supporters to participate in the protest. The findings reveal how variables derived from the theories of biographical availability (males vs. females, working class vs. professionals), critical mass (expectations, prior protest success), and social embeddedness (close ties with protesters) moderate the association between protest support and participation. The study helps to account for one of the largest protests in Iceland’s history while contributing to the theory about how historical contexts shape the behavior of movement supporters.

Keywords: Iceland, crisis, protest support vs. participation, theories of mass mobilization

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18 Social Enterprises in Rural Canada

Authors: Prescott C. Ensign


Social enterprises play a vital role in Canada’s rural and northern communities. Most operate as non-profit organizations, use market approaches, and generate revenue from services or goods to support goals that address social, cultural, and environmental issues. As provincial and federal governments make reductions to programs providing social services to local communities, rural and northern residents who already have fewer resources from which to draw will be especially affected. Social enterprises will be called on to take up the slack. The aim of this paper is to provide a more comprehensive picture of the social enterprise as an organization and to understand the impact that context/ecosystem has on a social enterprise as it develops.

Keywords: social enterprises, structuration, embeddedness, ecosystem

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17 Research Networks and Knowledge Sharing: An Exploratory Study of Aquaculture in Europe

Authors: Zeta Dooly, Aidan Duane


The collaborative European funded research and development landscape provides prime environmental conditions for multi-disciplinary teams to learn and enhance their knowledge beyond the capability of training and learning within their own organisation cocoons. Whilst the emergence of the academic entrepreneur has changed the focus of educational institutions to that of quasi-businesses, the training and professional development of lecturers and academic staff are often not formalised to the same level as industry. This research focuses on industry and academic collaborative research funded by the European Commission. The impact of research is scalable if an optimum research network is created and managed effectively. This paper investigates network embeddedness, the nature of relationships, links, and nodes within a research network, and the enhancement of the network’s knowledge. The contribution of this paper extends our understanding of establishing and maintaining effective collaborative research networks. The effects of network embeddedness are recognized in the literature as pertinent to innovation and the economy. Network theory literature claims that networks are essential to innovative clusters such as Silicon valley and innovation in high tech industries. This research provides evidence to support the impact collaborative research has on the disparate individuals toward their innovative contributions to their organisations and their own professional development. This study adopts a qualitative approach and uncovers some of the challenges of multi-disciplinary research through case study insights. The contribution of this paper recommends the establishment of scaffolding to accommodate cooperation in research networks, role appointment, and addressing contextual complexities early to avoid problem cultivation. Furthermore, it suggests recommendations in relation to network formation, intra-network challenges in relation to open data, competition, friendships, and competency enhancement. The network capability is enhanced by the adoption of the relevant theories; network theory, open innovation, and social exchange, with the understanding that the network structure has an impact on innovation and social exchange in research networks. The research concludes that there is an opportunity to deepen our understanding of the impact of network reuse and network hoping that provides scaffolding for the network members to enhance and build upon their knowledge using a progressive approach.

Keywords: research networks, competency building, network theory, case study

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16 A Review of Existing Turnover Intention Theories

Authors: Pauline E. Ngo-Henha


Existing turnover intention theories are reviewed in this paper. This review was conducted with the help of the search keyword “turnover intention theories” in Google Scholar during the month of July 2017. These theories include: The Theory of Organizational Equilibrium (TOE), Social Exchange Theory, Job Embeddedness Theory, Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, the Resource-Based View, Equity Theory, Human Capital Theory, and the Expectancy Theory. One of the limitations of this review paper is that data were only collected from Google Scholar where many papers were sometimes not freely accessible. However, this paper attempts to contribute to the research in clarifying the distinction between theories and models in the context of turnover intention.

Keywords: Literature Review, Theory, Turnover, Turnover intention

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15 Organizational Ideologies and Their Embeddedness in Fashion Show Productions in Shanghai and London Fashion Week: International-Based-Chinese Independent Designers' Participatory Behaviors in Different Fashion Cities

Authors: Zhe Wang


The fashion week, as a critical international fashion event in shaping world fashion cities, is one of the most significant world events that serves as the core medium for designers to stage new collections. However, its role in bringing about and shaping design ideologies of major fashion cities have long been neglected from a fashion ecosystem perspective. With the expanding scale of international fashion weeks in terms of culture and commerce, the organizational structures of these fashion weeks are becoming more complex. In the emerging fashion city, typified by Shanghai, a newly-formed 'hodgepodge' transforming the current global fashion ecosystem. A city’s legitimate fashion institutions, typically the organizers of international fashion weeks, have cultivated various cultural characteristics via rules and regulations pertaining to international fashion weeks. Under these circumstances, designers’ participatory behaviors, specifically show design and production, are influenced by the cultural ideologies of official organizers and institutions. This research compares international based Chinese (IBC) independent designers’ participatory behavior in London and Shanghai Fashion Weeks: specifically, the way designers present their clothing and show production. both of which are found to be profoundly influenced by cultural and design ideologies of fashion weeks. They are, to a large degree, manipulated by domestic institutions and organizers. Shanghai fashion week has given rise to a multiple, mass-ended entertainment carnival design and cultural ideology in Shanghai, thereby impacting the explicit cultural codes or intangible rules that IBC designers must adhere to when designing and producing fashion shows. Therefore, influenced by various cultural characteristics in the two cities, IBC designers’ show design and productions, in turn, play an increasingly vital role in shaping the design characteristic of an international fashion week. Through researching the organizational systems and design preferences of organizers of London and Shanghai fashion weeks, this paper demonstrates the embeddedness of design systems in the forming of design ideologies under various cultural and institutional contexts. The core methodology utilized in this research is ethnography. As a crucial part of a Ph.D. project on innovations in fashion shows under a cross-cultural context run by Edinburgh College of Art, School of Design, the fashion week’s organizational culture in various cultural contexts is investigated in London and Shanghai for approximately six months respectively. Two IBC designers, Angel Chen and Xuzhi Chen were followed during their participation of London and Shanghai Fashion Weeks from September 2016 to June 2017, during which two consecutive seasons were researched in order to verify the consistency of design ideologies’ associations with organizational system and culture.

Keywords: institutional ideologies, international fashion weeks, IBC independent designers; fashion show

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14 De-Commoditisation of Food: How Organic Farmers from the Madrid Region Reconnect Products and Places through Web Marketing

Authors: Salvatore Pinna


The growth of organic farming practices in the last few decades is continuing to stimulate the international debate about this alternative food market. As a part of a PhD project research about embeddedness in Alternative Food Networks (AFNs), this paper focuses on the promotional aspects of organic farms websites from the Madrid region. As a theoretical tool, some knowledge categories drawn on the geographic studies literature are used to classify the many ideas expressed in the web pages. By analysing texts and pictures of 30 websites, the study aims to question how and to what extent actors from organic world communicate to the potential customers their personal beliefs about farming practices, products qualities, and ecological and social benefits. Moreover, the paper raises the question of whether organic farming laws and regulations lack of completeness about the social and cultural aspects of food.

Keywords: alternative food networks, de-commoditisation, organic farming, madrid, reconnection of food

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13 A Randomised Controlled Trial and Process Evaluation of the Lifestart Parenting Programme

Authors: Sharon Millen, Sarah Miller, Laura Dunne, Clare McGeady, Laura Neeson


This paper presents the findings from a randomised controlled trial (RCT) and process evaluation of the Lifestart parenting programme. Lifestart is a structured child-centred programme of information and practical activity for parents of children aged from birth to five years of age. It is delivered to parents in their own homes by trained, paid family visitors and it is offered to parents regardless of their social, economic or other circumstances. The RCT evaluated the effectiveness of the programme and the process evaluation documented programme delivery and included a qualitative exploration of parent and child outcomes. 424 parents and children participated in the RCT: 216 in the intervention group and 208 in the control group across the island of Ireland. Parent outcomes included: parental knowledge of child development, parental efficacy, stress, social support, parenting skills and embeddedness in the community. Child outcomes included cognitive, language and motor development and social-emotional and behavioural development. Both groups were tested at baseline (when children were less than 1 year old), mid-point (aged 3) and at post-test (aged 5). Data were collected during a home visit, which took two hours. The process evaluation consisted of interviews with parents (n=16 at baseline and end-point), and focus groups with Lifestart Coordinators (n=9) and Family Visitors (n=24). Quantitative findings from the RCT indicated that, compared to the control group, parents who received the Lifestart programme reported reduced parenting-related stress, increased knowledge of their child’s development, and improved confidence in their parenting role. These changes were statistically significant and consistent with the hypothesised pathway of change depicted in the logic model. There was no evidence of any change in parents’ embeddedness in the community. Although four of the five child outcomes showed small positive change for children who took part in the programme, these were not statistically significant and there is no evidence that the programme improves child cognitive and non-cognitive skills by immediate post-test. The qualitative process evaluation highlighted important challenges related to conducting trials of this magnitude and design in the general population. Parents reported that a key incentive to take part in study was receiving feedback from the developmental assessment, which formed part of the data collection. This highlights the potential importance of appropriate incentives in relation to recruitment and retention of participants. The interviews with intervention parents indicated that one of the first changes they experienced as a result of the Lifestart programme was increased knowledge and confidence in their parenting ability. The outcomes and pathways perceived by parents and described in the interviews are also consistent with the findings of the RCT and the theory of change underpinning the programme. This hypothesises that improvement in parental outcomes, arising as a consequence of the programme, mediate the change in child outcomes. Parents receiving the Lifestart programme reported great satisfaction with and commitment to the programme, with the role of the Family Visitor being identified as one of the key components of the programme.

Keywords: parent-child relationship, parental self-efficacy, parental stress, school readiness

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12 Ubiquitous Learning Environments in Higher Education: A Scoping Literature Review

Authors: Mari A. Virtanen, Elina Haavisto, Eeva Liikanen, Maria Kääriäinen


Ubiquitous learning and the use of ubiquitous learning environments herald a new era in higher education. Ubiquitous environments fuse together authentic learning situations and digital learning spaces where students can seamlessly immerse themselves into the learning process. Definitions of ubiquitous learning are wide and vary in the previous literature and learning environments are not systemically described. The aim of this scoping review was to identify the criteria and the use of ubiquitous learning environments in higher education contexts. The objective was to provide a clear scope and a wide view for this research area. The original studies were collected from nine electronic databases. Seven publications in total were defined as eligible and included in the final review. An inductive content analysis was used for the data analysis. The reviewed publications described the use of ubiquitous learning environments (ULE) in higher education. Components, contents and outcomes varied between studies, but there were also many similarities. In these studies, the concept of ubiquitousness was defined as context-awareness, embeddedness, content-personalization, location-based, interactivity and flexibility and these were supported by using smart devices, wireless networks and sensing technologies. Contents varied between studies and were customized to specific uses. Measured outcomes in these studies were focused on multiple aspects as learning effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, satisfaction, and usefulness. This study provides a clear scope for ULE used in higher education. It also raises the need for transparent development and publication processes, and for practical implications of ubiquitous learning environments.

Keywords: higher education, learning environment, scoping review, ubiquitous learning, u-learning

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11 The Impact of Neighborhood Effects on the Economic Mobility of the Inhabitants of Three Segregated Communities in Salvador (Brazil)

Authors: Stephan Treuke


The paper analyses the neighbourhood effects on the economic mobility of the inhabitants of three segregated communities of Salvador (Brazil), in other words, the socio-economic advantages and disadvantages affecting the lives of poor people due to their embeddedness in specific socio-residential contexts. Recent studies performed in Brazilian metropolis have concentrated on the structural dimensions of negative externalities in order to explain neighbourhood-level variations in a field of different phenomena (delinquency, violence, access to the labour market and education) in spatial isolated and socially homogeneous slum areas (favelas). However, major disagreement remains whether the contiguity between residents of poor neighbourhoods and higher-class condominio-dwellers provides structures of opportunities or whether it fosters socio-spatial stigmatization. Based on a set of interviews, investigating the variability of interpersonal networks and their activation in the struggle for economic inclusion, the study confirms that the proximity of Nordeste de Amaralina to middle-/upper-class communities affects positively the access to labour opportunities. Nevertheless, residential stigmatization, as well as structures of social segmentation, annihilate these potentials. The lack of exposition to individuals and groups extrapolating from the favela’s social, educational and cultural context restricts the structures of opportunities to local level. Therefore, residents´ interpersonal networks reveal a high degree of redundancy and localism, based on bonding ties connecting family and neighbourhood members. The resilience of segregational structures in Plataforma contributes to the naturalization of social distance patters. It’s embeddedness in a socially homogeneous residential area (Subúrbio Ferroviário), growing informally and beyond official urban politics, encourages the construction of isotopic patterns of sociability, sharing the same values, social preferences, perspectives and behaviour models. Whereas it’s spatial isolation correlates with the scarcity of economic opportunities, the social heterogeneity of Fazenda Grande II interviewees and the socialising effects of public institutions mitigate the negative repercussions of segregation. The networks’ composition admits a higher degree of heterophilia and a greater proportion of bridging ties accounting for the access to broader information actives and facilitating economic mobility. The variability observed within the three different scenarios urges to reflect about the responsability of urban politics when it comes to the prevention or consolidation of the social segregation process in Salvador. Instead of promoting the local development of the favela Plataforma, public housing programs priorize technocratic habitational solutions without providing the residents’ socio-economic integration. The impact of negative externalities related to the homogeneously poor neighbourhood is potencialized in peripheral areas, turning its’ inhabitants socially invisible, thus being isolated from other social groups. The example of Nordeste de Amaralina portrays the failing interest of urban politics to bridge the social distances structuring the brazilian society’s rigid stratification model, founded on mecanisms of segmentation (unequal access to labour market and education system, public transport, social security and law protection) and generating permanent conflicts between the two socioeconomically distant groups living in geographic contiguity. Finally, in the case of Fazenda Grande II, the public investments in both housing projects and complementary infrastructure (e.g. schools, hospitals, community center, police stations, recreation areas) contributes to the residents’ socio-economic inclusion.

Keywords: economic mobility, neighborhood effects, Salvador, segregation

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10 Transnational Migration of Sports Workers from Africa to Foreign Countries: The Impact of their Assistance to the Domestic Community Through their Socioeconomic Choices of Action

Authors: Ernest Yeboah Acheampong, Malek Bouhaouala, Michel Raspaud


Studies on African sport workers’ migration have given less attention to examining the extent to which the individual (sports workers) contributes to a socio-economic development of their domestic communities. The decision to support or not to support can also have a debilitating effect on the domestic communities. This article therefore, analyses the choices of action of these actors with an exact focus on footballers to the domestic community. This exploratory survey focuses on 13 UEFA countries leagues of footballers from 43 African countries, including seventeen interviews and four autobiographies of the players. Max Weber theory of individual subjectivity can underpin their decisions making processes to either offer assistance or not to their locales. This study revealed some players closed relationships, particularly those raised in the typical locales as they often provide support via projects like building hospitals, schools, sporting facilities, health centres, and scholarship schemes among others. While others shown commitment and readiness to offer assistance, touch livelihood, and promote social development based on their lived experiences abroad. With many lamenting against lack of support from local and national authorities as disincentive to do more yet committed to the cause of the society. This article can conclude that football athletes logics of action depend on the individual values and conceptions from evidence of their socio-economic projects, as well as social embeddedness in the locality

Keywords: choices of action, domestic development, footballers, transnational migration

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9 The Differentiation of Performances among Immigrant Entrepreneurs: A Biographical Approach

Authors: Daniela Gnarini


This paper aims to contribute to the field of immigrants' entrepreneurial performance. The debate on immigrant entrepreneurship has been dominated by cultural explanations, which argue that immigrants’ entrepreneurial results are linked to groups’ characteristics. However, this approach does not consider important dimensions that influence entrepreneurial performances. Furthermore, cultural theories do not take into account the huge differences in performances also within the same ethnic group. For these reason, this study adopts a biographical approach, both at theoretical and at methodological level, which can allow to understand the main aspects that make the difference in immigrants' entrepreneurial performances, by exploring the narratives of immigrant entrepreneurs, who operate in the restaurant sector in two different Italian metropolitan areas: Milan and Rome. Through the qualitative method of biographical interviews, this study analyses four main dimensions and their combinations: a) individuals' entrepreneurial and migratory path: this aspect is particularly relevant to understand the biographical resources of immigrant entrepreneurs and their change and evolution during time; b) entrepreneurs' social capital, with a particular focus on their networks, through the adoption of a transnational perspective, that takes into account both the local level and the transnational connections. This study highlights that, though entrepreneurs’ connections are significant, especially as far as those with family members are concerned, often their entrepreneurial path assumes an individualised trajectory. c) Entrepreneurs' human capital, including both formal education and skills acquired through informal channels. The latter are particularly relevant since in the interviews and data collected the role of informal transmission emerges. d) Embeddedness within the social, political and economic context, to understand the main constraints and opportunities both at local and national level. The comparison between two different metropolitan areas within the same country helps to understand this dimension.

Keywords: biographies, immigrant entrepreneurs, life stories, performance

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8 Towards Sustainable Consumption: A Framework for Assessing Supplier's Commitment

Authors: O. O. Oguntoye


Product consumption constitutes an important consideration for sustainable development. Seeing how product consumption could be highly unsustainable, coupled with how existing policies on corporate responsibility do not particularly address the consumption aspect of product lifecycle, conducting this research became necessary. The research makes an attempt to provide a framework by which to gauge corporate responsibility of product suppliers in terms of their commitment towards the sustainable consumption of their products. Through an exploration of relevant literature, independently established ideas with which to assess a given product supplier were galvanised into a four-criterion framework. The criteria are: (1) Embeddedness of consumption as a factor in corporate sustainability policy, (2) Level of understanding of consumption behaviour, (3) Breadth of behaviour-influencing strategies adopted, and (4) Inclusiveness for all main dimensions of sustainability. This resulting framework was then applied in a case study involving a UK-based furniture supplier where interviews and content analysis of corporate documents were used as the mode for primary data collection. From the case study, it was found that the supplier had performed to different levels across the four themes of the assessment. Two major areas for improvement were however identified – one is for the furniture supplier to focus more proactively on understanding consumption behaviour and, two is for it to widen the scope of its current strategies for enhancing sustainable consumption of supplied furniture. As a generalisation, the framework presented here makes it possible for companies to reflect with a sense of guidance, how they have demonstrated commitment towards sustainable consumption through their values, culture, and operations. It also provides a foundation for developing standardized assessment which the current widely used frameworks such as the GRI, the Global Compact, and others do not cover. While these popularly used frameworks mainly focus on sustainability of companies within the production and supply chain management contexts (i.e. mostly ‘upstream’), the framework here provides an extension by bringing the ‘downstream’ or consumer bit into light.

Keywords: corporate sustainability, design for sustainable consumption, extended producer responsibility, sustainable consumer behaviour

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7 Evolution of Relations among Multiple Institutional Logics: A Case Study from a Higher Education Institution

Authors: Ye Jiang


To examine how the relationships among multiple institutional logics vary over time and the factors that may impact this process, we conducted a 15-year in-depth longitudinal case study of a Higher Education Institution to examine its exploration in college student management. By employing constructive grounded theory, we developed a four-stage process model comprising separation, formalization, selective bridging, and embeddedness that showed how two contradictory logics become complementary, and finally become a new hybridized logic. We argue that selective bridging is an important step in changing inter-logic relations. We also found that ambidextrous leadership and situational sensemaking are two key factors that drive this process. Our contribution to the literature is threefold. First, we enhance the literature on the changing relationships among multiple institutional logics and our findings advance the understanding of relationships between multiple logics through a dynamic view. While most studies have tended to assume that the relationship among logics is static and persistently in a contentious state, we contend that the relationships among multiple institutional logics can change over time. Competitive logics can become complementary, and a new hybridized logic can emerge therefrom. The four-stage logic hybridization process model offers insights on the logic hybridization process, which is underexplored in the literature. Second, our research reveals that selective bridging is important in making conflicting logics compatible, and thus constitutes a key step in creating new hybridized logic dynamics. Our findings suggest that the relations between multiple logics are manageable and can thus be manipulated for organizational innovation. Finally, the factors influencing the variations in inter-logic relations enrich the understanding of the antecedents of these dynamics.

Keywords: institutional theory, institutional logics, ambidextrous leadership, situational sensemaking

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6 Differences in Production of Knowledge between Internationally Mobile versus Nationally Mobile and Non-Mobile Scientists

Authors: Valeria Aman


The presented study examines the impact of international mobility on knowledge production among mobile scientists and within the sending and receiving research groups. Scientists are relevant to the dynamics of knowledge production because scientific knowledge is mainly characterized by embeddedness and tacitness. International mobility enables the dissemination of scientific knowledge to other places and encourages new combinations of knowledge. It can also increase the interdisciplinarity of research by forming synergetic combinations of knowledge. Particularly innovative ideas can have their roots in related research domains and are sometimes transferred only through the physical mobility of scientists. Diversity among scientists with respect to their knowledge base can act as an engine for the creation of knowledge. It is therefore relevant to study how knowledge acquired through international mobility affects the knowledge production process. In certain research domains, international mobility may be essential to contextualize knowledge and to gain access to knowledge located at distant places. The knowledge production process contingent on the type of international mobility and the epistemic culture of a research field is examined. The production of scientific knowledge is a multi-faceted process, the output of which is mainly published in scholarly journals. Therefore, the study builds upon publication and citation data covered in Elsevier’s Scopus database for the period of 1996 to 2015. To analyse these data, bibliometric and social network analysis techniques are used. A basic analysis of scientific output using publication data, citation data and data on co-authored publications is combined with a content map analysis. Abstracts of publications indicate whether a research stay abroad makes an original contribution methodologically, theoretically or empirically. Moreover, co-citations are analysed to map linkages among scientists and emerging research domains. Finally, acknowledgements are studied that can function as channels of formal and informal communication between the actors involved in the process of knowledge production. The results provide better understanding of how the international mobility of scientists contributes to the production of knowledge, by contrasting the knowledge production dynamics of internationally mobile scientists with those being nationally mobile or immobile. Findings also allow indicating whether international mobility accelerates the production of knowledge and the emergence of new research fields.

Keywords: bibliometrics, diversity, interdisciplinarity, international mobility, knowledge production

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5 Diplomacy in Times of Disaster: Management through Reputational Capital

Authors: Liza Ireni-Saban


The 6.6 magnitude quake event that occurred in 2003 (Bam, Iran) made it impossible for the Iranian government to handle disaster relief efforts domestically. In this extreme event, the Iranian government reached out to the international community, and this created a momentum that had to be carried out by trust-building efforts on all sides, often termed ‘Disaster Diplomacy’. Indeed, the circumstances were even more critical when one considers the increasing political and economic isolation of Iran within the international community. The potential for transformative political space to be opened by disaster has been recognized by dominant international political actors. Despite the fact that Bam 2003 post-disaster relief efforts did not catalyze any diplomatic activities on all sides, it is suggested that few international aid agencies have successfully used disaster recovery to enhance their popular legitimacy and reputation among the international community. In terms of disaster diplomacy, an actor’s reputational capital may affect his ability to build coalitions and alliances to achieve international political ends, to negotiate and build understanding and trust with foreign publics. This study suggests that the post-disaster setting may benefit from using the ecology of games framework to evaluate the role of bridging actors and mediators in facilitating collaborative governance networks. Recent developments in network theory and analysis provide means of structural embeddedness to explore how reputational capital can be built through brokerage roles of actors engaged in a disaster management network. This paper then aims to structure the relations among actors that participated in the post-disaster relief efforts in the 2003 Bam earthquake (Iran) in order to assess under which conditions actors may be strategically utilized to serve as mediating organizations for future disaster events experienced by isolated nations or nations in conflict. The results indicate the strategic use of reputational capital by the Iranian Ministry of Foreign Affairs as key broker to build a successful coordinative system for reducing disaster vulnerabilities. International aid agencies rarely played brokerage roles to coordinate peripheral actors. U.S. foreign assistance (USAID), despite coordination capacities, was prevented from serving brokerage roles in the system.

Keywords: coordination, disaster diplomacy, international aid organizations, Iran

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4 Barriers for Sustainable Consumption of Antifouling Products in the Baltic Sea

Authors: Bianca Koroschetz, Emma Mäenpää


The purpose of this paper is to study consumer practices and meanings of different antifouling methods in order to identify the main barriers for sustainable consumption of antifouling products in the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea is considered to be an important tourism area. More than 3.5 million leisure boaters use the sea for recreational boating. Most leisure boat owners use toxic antifouling paint to keep barnacles from attaching to the hull. Attached barnacles limit maneuverability and add drag which in turn increases fuel costs. Antifouling paint used to combat barnacles causes particular problems, as the use of these products continuously adds to the distribution of biocides in the coastal ecosystem and leads to the death of marine organisms. To keep the Baltic Sea as an attractive tourism area measures need to be undertaken to stop the pollution coming from toxic antifouling paints. The antifouling market contains a wide range of environment-friendly alternative products such as a brush wash for boats, hand scrubbing devices, hull covers and boat lifts. Unfortunately, not a lot of boat owners use these environment-friendly alternatives and instead prefer the use of the traditional toxic copper paints. We ask “Why is the unsustainable consumption of toxic paints still predominant when there is a big range of environment-friendly alternatives available? What are the barriers for sustainable consumption?” Environmental psychology has concentrated on developing models of human behavior, including the main factors that influence pro-environmental behavior. The main focus of these models was directed to the individual’s attitudes, principals, and beliefs. However, social practice theory emphasizes the importance to study practices, as they have a stronger explanatory power than attitude-behavior to explain unsustainable consumer behavior. Thus, the study focuses on describing the material, meaning and competence of antifouling practice in order to understand the social and cultural embeddedness of the practice. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with boat owners using antifouling products such as paints and alternative methods. This data collection was supplemented with participant observations in marinas. Preliminary results indicate that different factors such as costs, traditions, advertising, frequency of use, marinas and application of method impact on the consumption of antifouling products. The findings have shown that marinas have a big influence on the consumption of antifouling goods. Some marinas are very active in supporting the sustainable consumption of antifouling products as for example in Stockholm area several marinas subsidize costs for using environmental friendly alternatives or even forbid toxic paints. Furthermore the study has revealed that environmental friendly methods are very effective and do not have to be more expensive than painting with toxic paints. This study contributes to a broader understanding why the unsustainable consumption of toxic paints is still predominant when a big range of environment-friendly alternatives exist. Answers to this phenomenon will be gained by studying practices instead of attitudes offering a new perspective on environmental issues.

Keywords: antifouling paint, Baltic Sea, boat tourism, sustainable consumption

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3 The Relevance of Personality Traits and Networking in New Ventures’ Success

Authors: Caterina Muzzi, Sergio Albertini, Davide Giacomini


The research is aimed to investigate the role of young entrepreneurs’ personality traits and their contextual background on the success of entrepreneurial initiatives. In the literature, the debate is still open about the main drivers in predicting entrepreneurial success. Classical theories are focused on looking at specific personality traits that could lead to successful start-ups initiatives, while emerging approaches are more interested in young entrepreneurs’ contextual background (such as the family of origin, the previous experience and their professional network). An online survey was submitted to the participants of an entrepreneurial training initiative organised by the Italian Young Entrepreneurs Association (Confindustria) in Brescia headquarter (AIB). At the time the authors started data collection for this research, the third edition of the initiative was just concluded and involved a total amount of 37 young future entrepreneurs. In the literature General self-efficacy (GSE) and, more specifically, entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) have often been associated to positive performances, as they allow future entrepreneurs to effectively cope with entrepreneurial activities, both at an early stage and in new venture management. In a counter-intuitive manner, optimism is not always associated with entrepreneurial positive results. Too optimistic people risk taking hazardous risks and some authors suggest that moderately optimistic entrepreneurs achieve more positive results than over-optimistic ones. Indeed highly optimistic individuals often hold unrealistic expectations, discount negative information, and mentally reconstruct experiences so as to avoid contradictions The importance of context has been increasingly considered in entrepreneurship literature and its role strongly emerges starting from the earliest entrepreneurial stage and it is crucial to transform the “intention of entrepreneurship” into the actual start-up. Furthermore, coherently with the “network approach to entrepreneurship”, context embeddedness allow future entrepreneurs to leverage relationships built through previous experiences and/or thanks to the fact of belonging to families of entrepreneurs. For the purpose of this research, entrepreneurial success was measured by the fact of having or not founded a new venture after the training initiative. In this research, the authors measured GSE, ESE and optimism using already tested items that showed to be reliable also in this case. They collected 36 completed questionnaires. The t-test for independent samples run to measure significant differences in means between those that already funded the new venture and those that did not. No significant differences emerged with respect to all the tested personality traits, but a logistic regression analysis, run with contextual variables as independent ones, showed that personal and professional networking, made both before and during the master, is the most relevant variable in determining new venture success. These findings shed more light on the process of new venture foundation and could encourage national and local policy makers to invest on networking as one of the main drivers that could support the creation of new ventures.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, networking, new ventures, personality traits

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2 Cultivating Students’ Competences through Social Innovation Education

Authors: Ioanna Garefi, Irene Kalemaki


Education is not solely about preparing young people for the world of work but also about equipping them with competences that will enable them to become socially proactive, empowered, responsible, and engaged citizens who will collectively contribute to and benefit from an inclusive and sustainable future. Hence, progress assessment towards competence development is an ongoing process where continuous efforts are needed. This paper abstract presents the work of the H2020 NEMESIS project that aims to investigate, experiment and co-create together with schools a model for introducing and embedding social innovation education (SIE henceforth) in European primary and secondary schools. All in all, during the 2018-2019 academic year, 8 schools from 5 European countries involving 56 teachers, 1030 students, and 80 external stakeholders, experimented with different methodologies for embedding SIE in their contexts. This paper captures briefly the impact of these efforts towards the cultivation and progression of students’ social innovation (SI henceforth) competences. As part of the model, 14 SI competences, whose progress was evaluated, have been introduced falling under 3 interrelated categories: competences for identifying opportunities for social and collective value creation, competences for developing collaborations and building meaningful relations and competences for taking action both on an individual and collective level. Methodologically wise, the evaluation strategy employed was informed by a realist approach, enabling the researchers to go beyond synthesizing 'what happened' and towards understanding 'why it happened', delving into ‘what works, for whom and in what circumstances’. The reason for choosing such an approach was because it goes beyond attempting to answer the basic yes or no question of evaluation and focus on an ‘explanatory quest’ tracing the limits of when and where intervention is effective. A rich mix of sources of evidence have been employed, from focus groups with 80 people from the 5 EU countries to an online survey to 206 students, classroom observations, students’ narratives granting them with the opportunity to freely express their opinions, short stories letting students express their feelings through their imagination and also, drawings so that younger children can express their perception of reality. All these evidences offered insights on the impact of SIE on the development of students’ competences. Research findings showed that students progressed in all 14 SI competences through their involvement in the different activities. This positive progression is attributed to the model’s three core principles: 1) the student-centered approach, rendering students active and self-determined producers of their own learning, 2) the co-creation process fostering intergenerational interactions, empowering thus students by making their voices heard and valued and also, 3) the transformative social action whereby through their projects, students are able to witness the impact they are bringing about with their actions. Concluding, these initial findings, together with the forthcoming evaluation research to a pool of 30 schools around Europe, have the potential to raise the dynamics of the under-investigated field of SIE and encourage its embeddedness in more schools around Europe.

Keywords: competence development, education, social innovation, students

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1 Describing Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer's Disease via a Picture Description Writing Task

Authors: Marielle Leijten, Catherine Meulemans, Sven De Maeyer, Luuk Van Waes


For the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a large variety of neuropsychological tests are available. In some of these tests, linguistic processing - both oral and written - is an important factor. Language disturbances might serve as a strong indicator for an underlying neurodegenerative disorder like AD. However, the current diagnostic instruments for language assessment mainly focus on product measures, such as text length or number of errors, ignoring the importance of the process that leads to written or spoken language production. In this study, it is our aim to describe and test differences between cognitive and impaired elderly on the basis of a selection of writing process variables (inter- and intrapersonal characteristics). These process variables are mainly related to pause times, because the number, length, and location of pauses have proven to be an important indicator of the cognitive complexity of a process. Method: Participants that were enrolled in our research were chosen on the basis of a number of basic criteria necessary to collect reliable writing process data. Furthermore, we opted to match the thirteen cognitively impaired patients (8 MCI and 5 AD) with thirteen cognitively healthy elderly. At the start of the experiment, participants were each given a number of tests, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination test (MMSE), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), the forward and backward digit span and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (EHI). Also, a questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic information (age, gender, eduction) of the subjects as well as more details on their level of computer literacy. The tests and questionnaire were followed by two typing tasks and two picture description tasks. For the typing tasks participants had to copy (type) characters, words and sentences from a screen, whereas the picture description tasks each consisted of an image they had to describe in a few sentences. Both the typing and the picture description tasks were logged with Inputlog, a keystroke logging tool that allows us to log and time stamp keystroke activity to reconstruct and describe text production processes. The main rationale behind keystroke logging is that writing fluency and flow reveal traces of the underlying cognitive processes. This explains the analytical focus on pause (length, number, distribution, location, etc.) and revision (number, type, operation, embeddedness, location, etc.) characteristics. As in speech, pause times are seen as indexical of cognitive effort. Results. Preliminary analysis already showed some promising results concerning pause times before, within and after words. For all variables, mixed effects models were used that included participants as a random effect and MMSE scores, GDS scores and word categories (such as determiners and nouns) as a fixed effect. For pause times before and after words cognitively impaired patients paused longer than healthy elderly. These variables did not show an interaction effect between the group participants (cognitively impaired or healthy elderly) belonged to and word categories. However, pause times within words did show an interaction effect, which indicates pause times within certain word categories differ significantly between patients and healthy elderly.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, keystroke logging, matching, writing process

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