Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

Search results for: Dingwei Xiang

46 Construction of a Low Carbon Eco-City Index System Based on CAS Theory: A Case of Hexi Newtown in Nanjing, China

Authors: Yilun Xu, Xu Tao, Dingwei Xiang, Yaofei Sun

Abstract:

The practice of urban planning and construction based on the concept of the “low carbon eco-city” has been universally accepted by the academic community in response to urban issues such as population, resources, environment, and social development. Based on this, the current article first analyzes the concepts of low carbon eco-city, then builds a complex adaptive system (CAS) theory based on Chinese traditional philosophical thinking, and analyzes the adaptive relationship between material and non-material elements. A three-dimensional evaluation model of natural ecology, economic low carbon, and social harmony was constructed. Finally, the construction of a low carbon eco-city index system in Hexi Newtown of Nanjing was used as an example to verify the effectiveness of the research results; this paradigm provides a new way to achieve a low carbon eco-city system.

Keywords: model, Complex Adaptive System, low carbon ecology, index system

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
45 Urban Resilience and Planning in the Perspective of Community

Authors: Yilun Xu, Xu Tao, Dingwei Xiang, Yaofei Sun

Abstract:

Urban community is constitute the entire city and its management ‘cell’, let ‘cells’ with growth and self-regeneration capacity and persistence, to allow the city with infinite vigor and vitality of the source; with toughness community mankind's adaptation to the basic unit of social risk, toughness of the city from the community to create a point of building is urban toughness of top-down construction mode of supplement, is of positive significance on the toughness of the urban construction. Based on the basic concept of resilience, this paper reviews the research on the four main areas of the study of urban resilience (i.e., the engineering toughness, ecological resilience, economic resilience, and social resilience, etc.). Studies and comments and summarizes the basic characteristic and main content of the four kind of toughness. Based on, from the city - community level and community level for building community resilience, including the level of urban community and create a Unicom, inclusiveness and openness of the community; community-level lifted from the four angles of the engineering community toughness, ecological toughness, resilience, social resilience, mainly including enhanced the toughness of the infrastructure, green infrastructure of toughness, resilience, social network and social relations, building with a sense of belonging, inclusive, multicultural community. Finally, summarize and prospect the resilience of the community.

Keywords: Resilience, Community Resilience, Urban Resilience, Construction Strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
44 The Effect of Heat Stress on the Gastro-Intestinal Microbiota of Pigs

Authors: Yadnyavalkya Patil, Ravi Gooneratne, Xiang-Hong Ju

Abstract:

Heat stress (HS) negatively affects the physiology of pigs. In this study, 6 pigs will be subjected to temperatures of 35 ± 2℃ for 12 hrs/day for a duration of 21 days. The changes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota will be observed by analyzing the freshly collected faeces on days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21. The changes will be compared to faeces from a set of 6 control pigs kept simultaneously at temperatures of 26 ± 2℃ for the same duration of 21 days. Different types of stresses such a weaning have a detrimental effect on GIT microflora. Similarly, HS is expected to have a harmful effect on the microbial diversity of the GIT. How these changes affect the immune system of the pigs will be studied and therapeutics to reduce the negative effects of HS will be developed.

Keywords: Therapeutics, Immune System, Heat Stress, GIT microbiota

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
43 A Study on the Mechanism of the Regeneration of ‘Villages-in-City’ under Rapid Urbanization: Cases Study of Luojiazhuang

Authors: Xiang Chen, Mengying Du

Abstract:

‘villages-in-city’ is the unique product of rapid urbanization in China which embodies the contradiction between historical context and urbanization. This article mainly analyzes the corresponding strategy to the common problems such as urban texture, historical context, community structure, and industry pattern during the regeneration of ‘villages-in-city’ of Luojiazhuang. Taking government investment, community demands, the trend of urban renewal and transformation models of the ‘villages-in-city’ into consideration, the author propose a mechanism to balance those factors, and to achieve mutual confirmation with the instance of Luojiazhuang.

Keywords: Urbanization, historical context, community demands, villages-in-city

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
42 DAG Design and Tradeoff for Full Live Virtual Machine Migration over XIA Network

Authors: Dalu Zhang, Xiang Jin, Dejiang Zhou, Jianpeng Wang, Haiying Jiang

Abstract:

Traditional TCP/IP network is showing lots of shortages and research for future networks is becoming a hotspot. FIA (Future Internet Architecture) and FIA-NP (Next Phase) are supported by US NSF for future Internet designing. Moreover, virtual machine migration is a significant technique in cloud computing. As a network application, it should also be supported in XIA (expressive Internet Architecture), which is in both FIA and FIA-NP projects. This paper is an experimental study aims at verifying the feasibility of VM migration over XIA. We present three ways to maintain VM connectivity and communication states concerning DAG design and routing table modification. VM migration experiments are conducted intra-AD and inter-AD with KVM instances. The procedure is achieved by a migration control protocol which is suitable for the characters of XIA. Evaluation results show that our solutions can well supports full live VM migration over XIA network respectively, keeping services seamless.

Keywords: DAG, downtime, virtual machine migration, XIA

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
41 Test Research on Damage Initiation and Development of a Concrete Beam Using Acoustic Emission Technology

Authors: Xiang Wang

Abstract:

In order to validate the efficiency of recognizing the damage initiation and development of a concrete beam using acoustic emission technology, a concrete beam is built and tested in the laboratory. The acoustic emission signals are analyzed based on both parameter and wave information, which is also compared with the beam deflection measured by displacement sensors. The results indicate that using acoustic emission technology can detect damage initiation and development effectively, especially in the early stage of the damage development, which can not be detected by the common monitoring technology. Furthermore, the positioning of the damage based on the acoustic emission signals can be proved to be reasonable. This job can be an important attempt for the future long-time monitoring of the real concrete structure.

Keywords: Positioning, concrete beam, acoustic emission technology, parameter analysis, wave analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
40 Three Dimensional Numerical Analysis for Longitudinal Seismic Response of Tunnels under Asynchronous Earthquake

Authors: Peng Li, Er-xiang Song

Abstract:

Numerical analysis of longitudinal tunnel seismic response due to spatial variation of earthquake ground motion is an important issue that cannot be ignored in the design and safety evaluation of tunnel structures. In this paper, numerical methods for analysis of tunnel longitudinal response under asynchronous seismic wave is extensively studied, including the improvement of the 1D time-domain finite element method, three dimensional numerical simulation technique for the site asynchronous earthquake response as well as the 3-D soil-tunnel structure interaction analysis. The study outcome will be beneficial to aid further research on the nonlinear meticulous numerical analysis and seismic response mechanism of tunnel structures under asynchronous earthquake motion.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, asynchronous input, longitudinal seismic response, tunnel structure, traveling wave effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
39 Comparison of ANN and Finite Element Model for the Prediction of Ultimate Load of Thin-Walled Steel Perforated Sections in Compression

Authors: Zhi-Jun Lu, Qi Lu, Meng Wu, Qian Xiang, Jun Gu

Abstract:

The analysis of perforated steel members is a 3D problem in nature, therefore the traditional analytical expressions for the ultimate load of thin-walled steel sections cannot be used for the perforated steel member design. In this study, finite element method (FEM) and artificial neural network (ANN) were used to simulate the process of stub column tests based on specific codes. Results show that compared with those of the FEM model, the ultimate load predictions obtained from ANN technique were much closer to those obtained from the physical experiments. The ANN model for the solving the hard problem of complex steel perforated sections is very promising.

Keywords: finite element method (FEM), artificial neural network (ANN), perforated sections, thin-walled Steel, ultimate load

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
38 The Sustainable Development of Chinese Rural Areas Promoted by Agricultural Cultural and Creative Industries

Authors: Jin Chuhao, Chen Xiang

Abstract:

In recent years, due to the rapid development of Chinese urbanization, a great deal of rural population surge into urban to make a living. This fact causes the vicious circulation of rural development including sharp decrease of agricultural labor force in rural area, the obvious increase of rural land price, the shrinking of traditional agriculture and the bigger gap between Chinese urban and rural areas. With the improvement of living condition and ideological level of the Chinese people, the use and renewal of the traditional villages are gaining more and more attention, thus agricultural cultural and creative industries appears. Basing on the investigation of practical projects, this paper discusses how the agricultural cultural and creative industries promote the sustainable development of Chinese rural areas.

Keywords: Sustainable Design, renewal, Chinese rural areas, agricultural cultural and creative industries

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
37 Recycling of Sclareolide in the Crystallization Mother Liquid of Sclareolide by Adsorption and Chromatography

Authors: Xiang Li, Kui Chen, Bin Wu, Min Zhou

Abstract:

Sclareolide is made from sclareol by oxidiative synthesis and subsequent crystallization, while the crystallization mother liquor still contains 15%~30%wt of sclareolide to be reclaimed. With the reaction material of sclareol is provided as plant extract, many sorts of complex impurities exist in the mother liquor. Due to the difficulty in recycling sclareolide after solvent recovery, it is common practice for the factories to discard the mother liquor, which not only results in loss of sclareolide, but also contributes extra environmental burden. In this paper, a process based on adsorption and elution has been presented for recycling of sclareolide from mother liquor. After pretreatment of the crystallization mother liquor by HZ-845 resin to remove parts of impurities, sclareolide is adsorbed by HZ-816 resin. The HZ-816 resin loaded with sclareolide is then eluted by elution solvent. Finally, the eluent containing sclareolide is concentrated and fed into the crystallization step in the process. By adoption of the recycle from mother liquor, total yield of sclareolide increases from 86% to 90% with a stable purity of the final sclareolide products maintained.

Keywords: Chromatography, Adsorption, resin, sclareolide

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
36 Short-Term Energy Efficiency Decay and Risk Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pump System

Authors: Tu Shuyang, Zhang Xu, Zhou Xiang

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of short-term heat exchange decay of ground heat exchanger (GHE) on the ground source heat pump (GSHP) energy efficiency and capacity. A resistance-capacitance (RC) model was developed and adopted to simulate the transient characteristics of the ground thermal condition and heat exchange. The capacity change of the GSHP was linked to the inlet and outlet water temperature by polynomial fitting according to measured parameters given by heat pump manufacturers. Thus, the model, which combined the heat exchange decay with the capacity change, reflected the energy efficiency decay of the whole system. A case of GSHP system was analyzed by the model, and the result showed that there was risk that the GSHP might not meet the load demand because of the efficiency decay in a short-term operation. The conclusion would provide some guidances for GSHP system design to overcome the risk.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Capacity, heat exchange, GSHP

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
35 Method of Parameter Calibration for Error Term in Stochastic User Equilibrium Traffic Assignment Model

Authors: Xiang Zhang, David Rey, S. Travis Waller

Abstract:

Stochastic User Equilibrium (SUE) model is a widely used traffic assignment model in transportation planning, which is regarded more advanced than Deterministic User Equilibrium (DUE) model. However, a problem exists that the performance of the SUE model depends on its error term parameter. The objective of this paper is to propose a systematic method of determining the appropriate error term parameter value for the SUE model. First, the significance of the parameter is explored through a numerical example. Second, the parameter calibration method is developed based on the Logit-based route choice model. The calibration process is realized through multiple nonlinear regression, using sequential quadratic programming combined with least square method. Finally, case analysis is conducted to demonstrate the application of the calibration process and validate the better performance of the SUE model calibrated by the proposed method compared to the SUE models under other parameter values and the DUE model.

Keywords: Transportation Planning, parameter calibration, sequential quadratic programming, stochastic user equilibrium, traffic assignment

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
34 The Effect of the Deposition Parameters on the Microstructural and Optical Properties of Mn-Doped GeTe Chalcogenide Materials

Authors: Adam Abdalla Elbashir Adam, Xiaomin Cheng, Xiang Shui Miao

Abstract:

In this work, the effect of the magnetron sputtering system parameters on the optical properties of the Mn doped GeTe were investigated. The optical properties of the Ge1-xMnxTe thin films with different thicknesses are determined by analyzing the transmittance and reflectance data. The energy band gaps of the amorphous Mn-doped GeTe thin films with different thicknesses were calculated. The obtained results demonstrated that the energy band gap values of the amorphous films are quite different and they are dependent on the films thicknesses. The extinction coefficients of amorphous Mn-doped GeTe thin films as function of wavelength for different thicknesses were measured. The results showed that the extinction coefficients of all films are varying inversely with their optical transmission. Moreover, the results emphasis that, not only the microstructure, electrical and magnetic properties of Mn doped GeTe thin films vary with the films thicknesses but also the optical properties differ with the film thickness.

Keywords: transmittance, absorbance, phase change magnetic materials, extinction coefficients

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
33 A Study on the Influence of Pin-Hole Position Error of Carrier on Mesh Load and Planet Load Sharing of Planetary Gear

Authors: Kyung Min Kang, Peng Mou, Dong Xiang, Gang Shen

Abstract:

For planetary gear system, Planet pin-hole position accuracy is one of most influential factor to efficiency and reliability of planetary gear system. This study considers planet pin-hole position error as a main input error for model and build multi body dynamic simulation model of planetary gear including planet pin-hole position error using MSC. ADAMS. From this model, the mesh load results between meshing gears in each pin-hole position error cases are obtained and based on these results, planet load sharing factor which reflect equilibrium state of mesh load sharing between whole meshing gear pair is calculated. Analysis result indicates that the pin-hole position error of tangential direction cause profound influence to mesh load and load sharing factor between meshing gear pair.

Keywords: Multibody Dynamics, planetary gear, load sharing factor, pin-hole position error

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
32 Influence of Agricultural Utilization of Sewage Sludge Vermicompost on Plant Growth

Authors: Meiyan Xing, Cenran Li, Liang Xiang

Abstract:

Impacts of excess sludge vermicompost on the germination and early growth of plant were tested. The better effect of cow dung vermicompost (CV) on seed germination and seedling growth proved that cow dung was indeed the preferred additive in sludge vermicomposting as reported by plentiful researchers worldwide. The effects and the best amount of application of CV were further discussed. Results demonstrated that seed germination and seedling growth (seedlings number, plant height, stem diameter) were the best and heavy metal (Zn, Pb, Cr and As) contents of plant were the lowest when soil amended with CV by 15%. Additionally, CV fostered higher contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b compared to the control when concentration ranged from 5 to 15%, thereafter a slight increase in chlorophyll content was observed form 15% to 25%. Thus, CV at the optimum proportion of 15% could serve as a feasible and satisfactory way of sludge agricultural utilization of sewage sludge. In summary, sewage sludge can be gainfully utilized in producing organic fertilizer via vermicomposting, thereby not only providing a means of sewage sludge treatment and disposal, but also stimulating the growth of plant and the ability to resist disease.

Keywords: seed germination, seedling growth, cow dung vermicompost, sludge utilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
31 Computational Analysis of the Scaling Effects on the Performance of an Axial Compressor

Authors: Junting Xiang, Jörg Uwe Schlüter, Fei Duan

Abstract:

The miniaturization of gas turbines promises many advantages. Miniature gas turbines can be used for local power generation or the propulsion of small aircraft, such as UAV and MAV. However, experience shows that the miniaturization of conventional gas turbines, which are optimized at their current large size, leads to a substantial loss of efficiency and performance at smaller scales. This may be due to a number of factors, such as the Reynolds-number effect, the increased heat transfer, and manufacturing tolerances. In the present work, we focus on computational investigations of the Reynolds number effect and the wall heat transfer on the performance of axial compressor during its size change. The NASA stage 35 compressors are selected as the configuration in this study and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to carry out the miniaturization process and simulations. We perform parameter studies on the effect of Reynolds number and wall thermal conditions. Our results indicate a decrease of efficiency, if the compressor is miniaturized based on its original geometry due to the increase of viscous effects. The increased heat transfer through wall has only a small effect and will actually benefit compressor performance based on our study.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, CFD, Reynolds number, axial compressor, miniature gas turbines

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
30 A Study on the Influence of Planet Pin Parallelism Error to Load Sharing Factor

Authors: Yong Yang, Kyung Min Kang, Peng Mou, Dong Xiang, Gang Shen

Abstract:

In this paper, planet pin parallelism error, which is one of manufacturing error of planet carrier, is employed as a main variable to influence planet load sharing factor. This error is categorize two group: (i) pin parallelism error with rotation on the axis perpendicular to the tangent of base circle of gear(x axis rotation in this paper) (ii) pin parallelism error with rotation on the tangent axis of base circle of gear(y axis rotation in this paper). For this study, the planetary gear system in 1.5MW wind turbine is applied and pure torsional rigid body model of this planetary gear is built using Solidworks and MSC.ADAMS. Based on quantified parallelism error and simulation model, dynamics simulation of planetary gear is carried out to obtain dynamic mesh load results with each type of error and load sharing factor is calculated with mesh load results. Load sharing factor formula and the suggestion for planetary reliability design is proposed with the conclusion of this study.

Keywords: planetary gears, planet load sharing, MSC. ADAMS, parallelism error

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
29 Design and Thermal Simulation Analysis of the Chinese Accelerator Driven Sub-Critical System Injector-I Cryomodule

Authors: Rui-Xiong Han, Rui Ge, Shao-Peng Li, Lin Bian, Liang-Rui Sun, Min-Jing Sang, Rui Ye, Ya-Ping Liu, Xiang-Zhen Zhang, Jie-Hao Zhang, Zhuo Zhang, Jian-Qing Zhang, Miao-Fu Xu

Abstract:

The Chinese Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system (C-ADS) uses a high-energy proton beam to bombard the metal target and generate neutrons to deal with the nuclear waste. The Chinese ADS proton linear has two 0~10 MeV injectors and one 10~1500 MeV superconducting linac. Injector-I is studied by the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) under construction in the Beijing, China. The linear accelerator consists of two accelerating cryomodules operating at the temperature of 2 Kelvin. This paper describes the structure and thermal performances analysis of the cryomodule. The analysis takes into account all the main contributors (support posts, multilayer insulation, current leads, power couplers, and cavities) to the static and dynamic heat load at various cryogenic temperature levels. The thermal simulation analysis of the cryomodule is important theory foundation of optimization and commissioning.

Keywords: Structure, Thermal Simulation, C-ADS, cryomodule, static heat load, dynamic heat load

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
28 Electronic/Optoelectronic Property Tuning in Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides via High Pressure

Authors: Juan Xia, Jiaxu Yan, Ze Xiang Shen

Abstract:

The tuneable interlayer interactions in two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichlcogenides (TMDs) offer an exciting platform for exploring new physics and applications by material variety, thickness, stacking sequence, electromagnetic filed, and stress/strain. Compared with the five methods mentioned above, high pressure is a clean and powerful tool to induce dramatic changes in lattice parameters and physical properties for 2D TMD materials. For instance, high pressure can strengthen the van der Waals interactions along c-axis and shorten the covalent bonds in atomic plane, leading to the typical first-order structural transition (2Hc to 2Ha for MoS2), or metallization. In particular, in the case of WTe₂, its unique symmetry endows the significant anisotropy and the corresponding unexpected properties including the giant magnetoresistance, pressure-induced superconductivity and Weyl semimetal states. Upon increasing pressure, the Raman peaks for WTe₂ at ~120 cm⁻¹, are gradually red-shifted and totally suppressed above 10 GPa, attributed to the possible structural instability of orthorhombic Td phase under high pressure and phase transition to a new monoclinic T' phase with inversion symmetry. Distinct electronic structures near Fermi level between the Td and T' phases may pave a feasible way to achieve the Weyl state tuning in one material without doping.

Keywords: high pressure, first-principles calculations, electronic property

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
27 The Droplet Generation and Flow in the T-Shape Microchannel with the Side Wall Fluctuation

Authors: Yan Pang, Xiang Wang, Zhaomiao Liu

Abstract:

Droplet microfluidics, in which nanoliter to picoliter droplets acted as individual compartments, are common to a diverse array of applications such as analytical chemistry, tissue engineering, microbiology and drug discovery. The droplet generation in a simplified two dimension T-shape microchannel with the main channel width of 50 μm and the side channel width of 25 μm, is simulated to investigate effects of the forced fluctuation of the side wall on the droplet generation and flow. The periodic fluctuations are applied on a length of the side wall in the main channel of the T-junction with the deformation shape of the double-clamped beam acted by the uniform force, which varies with the flow time and fluctuation periods, forms and positions. The fluctuations under most of the conditions expand the distribution range of the droplet size but have a little effect on the average size, while the shape of the fixed side wall changes the average droplet size chiefly. Droplet sizes show a periodic pattern along the relative time when the fluctuation is forced on the side wall near the T-junction. The droplet emerging frequency is not varied by the fluctuation of the side wall under the same flow rate and geometry conditions. When the fluctuation period is similar with the droplet emerging period, the droplet size shows a nice stability as the no fluctuation case.

Keywords: droplet generation, droplet size, flow flied, forced fluctuation

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
26 Distributed Control Strategy for Dispersed Energy Storage Units in the DC Microgrid Based on Discrete Consensus

Authors: Qi Li, Weirong Chen, Hanqing Yang, Xiang Meng

Abstract:

The SOC (state of charge) based droop control has limitations on the load power sharing among different energy storage units, due to the line impedance. In this paper, a distributed control strategy for dispersed energy storage units in the DC microgrid based on discrete consensus is proposed. Firstly, a sparse information communication network is built. Thus, local controllers can communicate with its neighbors using voltage, current and SOC information. An average voltage of grid can be evaluated to compensate voltage offset by droop control, and an objective virtual resistance fulfilling above requirement can be dynamically calculated to distribute load power according to the SOC of the energy storage units. Then, the stability of the whole system and influence of communication delay are analyzed. It can be concluded that this control strategy can improve the robustness and flexibility, because of having no center controller. Finally, a model of DC microgrid with dispersed energy storage units and loads is built, the discrete distributed algorithm is established and communication protocol is developed. The co-simulation between Matlab/Simulink and JADE (Java agent development framework) has verified the effectiveness of proposed control strategy.

Keywords: communication delay, state of charge, dispersed energy storage units, discrete consensus algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
25 Review of Current Literature on Use of Prazosin for Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Related Sleep Disturbances in Child and Adolescent Population

Authors: Davit Khachatryan, Shuo Xiang

Abstract:

Numerous published studies on the use of prazosin in the treatment of PTSD-related sleep disturbances in adult population have resulted in updates to the recommendation for prazosin for nightmares that showed its strength of evidence elevated from C to B in the US Department of Veterans Affairs clinical practice guideline. In addition, the American Academy of Sleep Medicine clinical practice guideline gave prazosin a level-A recommendation for the treatment of PTSD-associated nightmares. The aim of this review is to summarize the available literature for prazosin use for nightmares and other sleep disturbances in children and adolescents with PTSD. Method: A comprehensive search for studies on prazosin use for sleep disturbances in child and adolescent population with PTSD has been performed. We looked at MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, AMED, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases. Results: Compared to adult population with similar psychopathology, the available literature in child and adolescent population is scarce. Despite increased interest in prazosin in the management of PTSD, only six studies investigating this medication in children and adolescents have been published. Conclusion: A large randomized control trial on this topic is needed for more definite evidence on the efficacy and safety of prazosin in the treatment of nightmares in children and adolescents with PTSD.

Keywords: guidelines, sleep disturbance, PTSD, prazosin

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
24 Power Grid Line Ampacity Forecasting Based on a Long-Short-Term Memory Neural Network

Authors: Joe-Air Jiang, Xiang-Yao Zheng, Jen-Cheng Wang

Abstract:

Improving the line ampacity while using existing power grids is an important issue that electricity dispatchers are now facing. Using the information provided by the dynamic thermal rating (DTR) of transmission lines, an overhead power grid can operate safely. However, dispatchers usually lack real-time DTR information. Thus, this study proposes a long-short-term memory (LSTM)-based method, which is one of the neural network models. The LSTM-based method predicts the DTR of lines using the weather data provided by Central Weather Bureau (CWB) of Taiwan. The possible thermal bottlenecks at different locations along the line and the margin of line ampacity can be real-time determined by the proposed LSTM-based prediction method. A case study that targets the 345 kV power grid of TaiPower in Taiwan is utilized to examine the performance of the proposed method. The simulation results show that the proposed method is useful to provide the information for the smart grid application in the future.

Keywords: Smart Grid, electricity dispatch, line ampacity prediction, dynamic thermal rating, long-short-term memory neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
23 The Coalescence Process of Droplet Pairs in Different Junctions

Authors: Yan Pang, Xiang Wang, Zhaomiao Liu

Abstract:

Droplet-based microfluidics have been studied extensively with the development of the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) which bears the advantages of high throughput, high efficiency, low cost and low polydispersity. Droplets, worked as versatile carriers, could provide isolated chambers as the internal dispersed phase is protected from the outside continuous phase. Droplets are used to add reagents to start or end bio-chemical reactions, to generate concentration gradients, to realize hydrate crystallization or protein analyses, while droplets coalescence acts as an important control technology. In this paper, deionized water is used as the dispersed phase, and several kinds of oil are used as the continuous phase to investigate the influence of the viscosity ratio of the two phases on the coalescence process. The microchannels are fabricated by coating a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer onto another PDMS flat plate after corona treatment. All newly made microchannels are rinsed with the continuous oil phase for hours before experiments to ensure the swelling fully developed. High-speed microscope system is used to document the serial videos with a maximum speed of 2000 frames per second. The critical capillary numbers (Ca*) of droplet pairs in various junctions are studied and compared. Ca* varies with different junctions or different liquids within the range of 0.002 to 0.01. However, droplets without extra control would have the problem of synchronism which reduces the coalescence efficiency.

Keywords: Concentration, coalescence, critical capillary number, droplet pair, split

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
22 The Intersection/Union Region Computation for Drosophila Brain Images Using Encoding Schemes Based on Multi-Core CPUs

Authors: Ming-Yang Guo, Cheng-Xian Wu, Wei-Xiang Chen, Chun-Yuan Lin, Yen-Jen Lin, Ann-Shyn Chiang

Abstract:

With more and more Drosophila Driver and Neuron images, it is an important work to find the similarity relationships among them as the functional inference. There is a general problem that how to find a Drosophila Driver image, which can cover a set of Drosophila Driver/Neuron images. In order to solve this problem, the intersection/union region for a set of images should be computed at first, then a comparison work is used to calculate the similarities between the region and other images. In this paper, three encoding schemes, namely Integer, Boolean, Decimal, are proposed to encode each image as a one-dimensional structure. Then, the intersection/union region from these images can be computed by using the compare operations, Boolean operators and lookup table method. Finally, the comparison work is done as the union region computation, and the similarity score can be calculated by the definition of Tanimoto coefficient. The above methods for the region computation are also implemented in the multi-core CPUs environment with the OpenMP. From the experimental results, in the encoding phase, the performance by the Boolean scheme is the best than that by others; in the region computation phase, the performance by Decimal is the best when the number of images is large. The speedup ratio can achieve 12 based on 16 CPUs. This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology under the grant MOST 106-2221-E-182-070.

Keywords: Parallel Processing, OpenMP, Drosophila driver image, Drosophila neuron images, intersection/union computation

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
21 Fortification of Concentrated Milk Protein Beverages with Soy Proteins: Impact of Divalent Cations and Heating Treatment on the Physical Stability

Authors: Biye Chen, Xiang Li, Yichao Liang, Steven R. Dimler

Abstract:

This study investigated the effects of adding calcium and magnesium chloride on heat and storage stability of milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate (8:2 respectively) mixtures containing 10% w/w total protein subjected to the in-container sterilization (115 °C x 15 min). The particle size does not change when emulsions are heated at pH between 6.7 and 7.3 irrespective of the mixed protein ratio. Increasing concentration of divalent cation salts resulted in an increase in protein particle size, dry sediment formation and sediment height and a decrease in pH, heat stability and hydration in milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate mixtures solutions on sterilization at 115°C. Fortification of divalent cation salts in milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate mixture solutions resulted in an accelerated protein sedimentation and two unique sediment regions during accelerated storage stability testing. Moreover, the heat stability decreased upon sterilization at 115°C, with addition of MgCl₂ causing a greater increase in sedimentation velocity and compressibility than CaCl₂. Increasing pH value of protein milk concentrate-soy protein isolate mixtures solutions from 6.7 to 7.2 resulted in an increase in viscosity following the heat treatment. The study demonstrated that the type and concentration of divalent cation salts used strongly impact heat and storage stability of milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate mixture nutritional beverages.

Keywords: soy protein isolate, storage stability, divalent cation salts, heat stability, milk protein concentrate

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
20 Multi-Objective Optimization of Intersections

Authors: Xiang Li, Jian-Qiao Sun

Abstract:

As the crucial component of city traffic network, intersections have significant impacts on urban traffic performance. Despite of the rapid development in transportation systems, increasing traffic volumes result in severe congestions especially at intersections in urban areas. Effective regulation of vehicle flows at intersections has always been an important issue in the traffic control system. This study presents a multi-objective optimization method at intersections with cellular automata to achieve better traffic performance. Vehicle conflicts and pedestrian interference are considered. Three categories of the traffic performance are studied including transportation efficiency, energy consumption and road safety. The left-turn signal type, signal timing and lane assignment are optimized for different traffic flows. The multi-objective optimization problem is solved with the cell mapping method. The optimization results show the conflicting nature of different traffic performance. The influence of different traffic variables on the intersection performance is investigated. It is observed that the proposed optimization method is effective in regulating the traffic at the intersection to meet multiple objectives. Transportation efficiency can be usually improved by the permissive left-turn signal, which sacrifices safety. Right-turn traffic suffers significantly when the right-turn lanes are shared with the through vehicles. The effect of vehicle flow on the intersection performance is significant. The display pattern of the optimization results can be changed remarkably by the traffic volume variation. Pedestrians have strong interference with the traffic system.

Keywords: Multi-objective optimization, cellular automata, intersection, traffic system

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19 Residual Lifetime Estimation for Weibull Distribution by Fusing Expert Judgements and Censored Data

Authors: Zhijun Cheng, Xiang Jia

Abstract:

The residual lifetime of a product is the operation time between the current time and the time point when the failure happens. The residual lifetime estimation is rather important in reliability analysis. To predict the residual lifetime, it is necessary to assume or verify a particular distribution that the lifetime of the product follows. And the two-parameter Weibull distribution is frequently adopted to describe the lifetime in reliability engineering. Due to the time constraint and cost reduction, a life testing experiment is usually terminated before all the units have failed. Then the censored data is usually collected. In addition, other information could also be obtained for reliability analysis. The expert judgements are considered as it is common that the experts could present some useful information concerning the reliability. Therefore, the residual lifetime is estimated for Weibull distribution by fusing the censored data and expert judgements in this paper. First, the closed-forms concerning the point estimate and confidence interval for the residual lifetime under the Weibull distribution are both presented. Next, the expert judgements are regarded as the prior information and how to determine the prior distribution of Weibull parameters is developed. For completeness, the cases that there is only one, and there are more than two expert judgements are both focused on. Further, the posterior distribution of Weibull parameters is derived. Considering that it is difficult to derive the posterior distribution of residual lifetime, a sample-based method is proposed to generate the posterior samples of Weibull parameters based on the Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) method. And these samples are used to obtain the Bayes estimation and credible interval for the residual lifetime. Finally, an illustrative example is discussed to show the application. It demonstrates that the proposed method is rather simple, satisfactory, and robust.

Keywords: Information Fusion, Weibull distribution, expert judgements, residual lifetime

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18 The Discussion on the Composition of Feng Shui by the Environmental Planning Viewpoint

Authors: Jhuang Jin-Jhong, Hsieh Wei-Fan

Abstract:

Climate change causes natural disasters persistently. Therefore, nowadays environmental planning objective tends to the issues of respecting nature and coexisting with nature. As a result, the natural environment analysis, e.g., the analysis of topography, soil, hydrology, climate, vegetation, is highly emphasized. On the other hand, Feng Shui has been a criterion of site selection for residence in Eastern since the ancient times and has had farther influence on site selection for castles and even for temples and tombs. The primary criterion of site selection is judging the quality of Long: mountain range, Sha: nearby mountains, Shui: hydrology, Xue: foundation, Xiang: aspect, which are similar to the environmental variables of mountain range, topography, hydrology and aspect. For the reason, a lot researchers attempt to probe into the connection between the criterion of Feng Shui and environmental planning factors. Most researches only discussed with the composition and theory of space of Feng Shui, but there is no research which explained Feng Shui through the environmental field. Consequently, this study reviewed the theory of Feng Shui through the environmental planning viewpoint and assembled essential composition factors of Feng Shui. The results of this study point. From literature review and comparison of theoretical meanings, we find that the ideal principles for planning the Feng Shui environment can also be used for environmental planning. Therefore, this article uses 12 ideal environmental features used in Feng Shui to contrast the natural aspects of the environment and make comparisons with previous research and classifies the environmental factors into climate, topography, hydrology, vegetation, and soil.

Keywords: Environmental Planning, Site selection, the composition of Feng Shui, main components of the Feng Shui environment

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17 Assessment and Control for Oil Aerosol

Authors: Chane-Yu Lai, Xiang-Yu Huang

Abstract:

This study conducted an assessment of sampling result by using the new development rotation filtration device (RFD) filled with porous media filters integrating the method of cyclone centrifugal spins. The testing system established for the experiment used corn oil and potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate (PST) as challenge aerosols and were produced by using an Ultrasonic Atomizing Nozzle, a Syringe Pump, and a Collison nebulizer. The collection efficiency of RFD for oil aerosol was assessed by using an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) and a Fidas® Frog. The results of RFD for the liquid particles condition indicated the cutoff size was 1.65 µm and 1.02 µm for rotation of 0 rpm and 9000 rpm, respectively, under an 80 PPI (pores per inch)foam with a thickness of 80 mm, and sampling velocity of 13.5 cm/s. As the experiment increased the foam thickness of RFD, the cutoff size reduced from 1.62 µm to 1.02 µm. However, when increased the foam porosity of RFD, the cutoff size reduced from 1.26 µm to 0.96 µm. Moreover, as increased the sampling velocity of RFD, the cutoff size reduced from 1.02 µm to 0.76 µm. These discrepancies of above cutoff sizes of RFD all had statistical significance (P < 0.05). The cutoff size of RFD for three experimental conditions of generated liquid oil particles, solid PST particles or both liquid oil and solid PST particles was 1.03 µm, 1.02 µm, or 0.99 µm, respectively, under a 80 PPI foam with thickness of 80 mm, rotation of 9000 rpm, and sampling velocity of 13.5 cm/s. In addition, under the best condition of the experiment, two hours of sampling loading, the RFD had better collection efficiency for particle diameter greater than 0.45 µm, under a 94 PPI nickel mesh with a thickness of 68 mm, rotation of 9000 rpm, and sampling velocity of 108.3 cm/s. The experiment concluded that increased the thickness of porous media, face velocity, and porosity of porous media of RFD could increase the collection efficiency of porous media for sampling oil particles. Moreover, increased the rotation speed of RFD also increased the collection efficiency for sampling oil particles. Further investigation is required for those above operation parameters for RFD in this study in the future.

Keywords: Rotation, Filtration, oil aerosol, porous media filter

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