Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7300

Search results for: social capitals

7300 Operationalizing the Concept of Community Resilience through Community Capitals Framework-Based Index

Authors: Warda Ajaz

Abstract:

This study uses the ‘Community Capitals Framework’ (CCF) to develop a community resilience index that can serve as a useful tool for measuring resilience of communities in diverse contexts and backgrounds. CCF is an important analytical tool to assess holistic community change. This framework identifies seven major types of community capitals: natural, cultural, human, social, political, financial and built, and claims that the communities that have been successful in supporting healthy sustainable community and economic development have paid attention to all these capitals. The framework, therefore, proposes to study the community development through identification of assets in these major capitals (stock), investment in these capitals (flow), and the interaction between these capitals. Capital based approaches have been extensively used to assess community resilience, especially in the context of natural disasters and extreme events. Therefore, this study identifies key indicators for estimating each of the seven capitals through an extensive literature review and then develops an index to calculate a community resilience score. The CCF-based community resilience index presents an innovative way of operationalizing the concept of community resilience and will contribute toward decision-relevant research regarding adaptation and mitigation of community vulnerabilities to climate change-induced, as well as other adverse events.

Keywords: adverse events, community capitals, community resilience, climate change, economic development, sustainability

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7299 Access to the Forest Ecosystem Services: Understanding the Interaction between Livelihood Capitals and Access

Authors: Abu S. M. G. Kibria, Alison M. Behie, Robert Costanza, Colin Groves, Tracy Farrell

Abstract:

This study is aimed to understand the level of access and the influence of livelihood capitals in maintaining access and control of ecosystem services (ESS) in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh. Besides the villagers, we consider other stakeholders including the forest department, coast guard, police, merchants, pirates and villagers who ‘controlled’ or ‘maintained’ access to ESS (crab catching, shrimp fry, honey, shrimp, mixed fish, fuel wood) in this region. Villagers used human, physical, natural and social capitals to gain access to ESS. The highest level of access was observed in crab catching and the lowest was found in honey collection, both of which were done when balancing the costs and benefits of accessing one ESS against another. The outcomes of these ongoing access negotiations were determined by livelihood capitals of the households. In addition, it was often found that the certain variables could have a positive effect on one ESS and a negative effect on another. For instance, human, social and natural capitals (eldest daughter’s education and No. of livelihood group membership and) had significant positive effects on honey collection while two components of human and social capitals including ‘eldest son’s education’ and ‘severity of pirate problem’ had exactly the opposite impact. These complex interactions were also observed in access to other ESS. It thus seems that access to ESS is not anything which is provided, but rather it is achieved by using livelihood capitals. Protecting any ecosystem from over exploitation and improve wellbeing can be achieved by properly balancing the livelihood capital-access nexus.

Keywords: provisioning services, access level, livelihood capital, interaction, access gain

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7298 Motherhood Practices and Symbolic Capital: A Study of Teen Mothers in Northeastern Thailand

Authors: Ampai Muensit, Maniemai Thongyou, Patcharin Lapanun

Abstract:

Teen mothers have been viewed as ‘a powerless’ facing numerous pressures including poverty, immaturity of motherhood, and especially social blame.This paper argues that, to endure as an agent, they keep struggling to overcome all difficulties in their everyday life by using certain symbols to negotiate the situations they encounter, and to obtain a social position without surrendering to the dominating socio-cultural structure. Guided by Bourdieu’s theory of practice, this study looks at how teen mothers use symbolic capital in their motherhood practices. Although motherhood practices can be found in different contexts with various types of capital utilization, this paper focuses on the use of symbolic capitals in teen mothers’ practices within the contexts of the community. The study employs a qualitative methodology; data was collected from 12 informants through life history, in-depth interview, observation and the content analytical method was employed for data analysis. The findings show that child and motherhood were key symbolic capitals in motherhood practices. Employing such capitals teen mothers can achieve an acceptance from community – particularly from the new community. These symbolic capitals were the important sources of teen mothers’ power to turn the tide by changing their status – from “the powerless” to be “the agent”. The use of symbolic capitals also related to habitus of teen mothers in better compromising for an appropriate social position.

Keywords: teen mother, motherhood practice, symbolic capital, community

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7297 Forms of Social Provision for Housing Investments in Local Planning Acts for European Capitals: Comparative Study and Spatial References

Authors: Agata Twardoch

Abstract:

The processes of commodification of real estate and changes in housing markets have led to a situation where the prices of free market housing in European capitals are significantly higher than the purchasing value of average wages. This phenomenon has many negative social and spatial consequences. At the same time, the attractiveness of real estate as an asset makes these processes progress. Out of concern for sustainable social development, city authorities apply solutions to balance the burdensome effects of codification of housing. One of them is a social provision for housing investments. The article presents a comparative study of solutions applied in selected European capitals, on the example of Warsaw, Paris, London, Berlin, Copenhagen, and Vienna. The study was conducted along with works on expert report for the master plan for Warsaw. The forms of commissions applied in Local Planning Acts were compared, with particular reference to spatial solutions. The results of the analysis made it possible to determine common features of the solutions applied and to establish recommendations for further practice. Major findings of the study indicate that requirement of social provision is achievable in spatial planning documents. Study shows that application of social provision in private housing investments is a useful tool in housing policy against commodification.

Keywords: affordable housing, housing provision, spatial planning, sustainable social development

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7296 The Role of Social Civil Competencies in Organizational Performance

Authors: I. Martins, A. Martins

Abstract:

The European Union supports social and civil competencies as being a core element to develop sustainability of organizations, people and regions. These competencies are fundamental for the well-being of the community because they include interpersonal, intrapersonal as well as their civil, active and democratic participation in organizations. The combination of these competencies reveals the organizational socio-emotional maturity and allows relevant levels of performance. It also allows the development of various capitals, namely, human, structural, relational and social, with direct influence on performance. But along this path, the emotional aspect has not been valued as a capital, given that contemporary society is based on knowledge capital and is flooded with information viewed as a capital. The present study, based on the importance of these socio-emotional capitals, aims to show that the competencies of cooperation, interpersonal understanding, empathy, kindness, ability to listen, and tolerance, to mention a few, are strategic in consolidating knowledge within organizations. This implies that the humanizing processes, both inside and outside the organizations, are revitalized. The question is how to go about doing this and its implementation; as well as, where to begin and which guidelines to take on. These are the foci that guide the present study, bearing in mind the directions of the knowledge economy.

Keywords: civil competencies, humanizing, performance, social competencies

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7295 Climate-Smart Adaptations to Traditional Milpa Farming Practices in Mayan Communities of Southern Belize

Authors: Kristin Drexler

Abstract:

Climate change has exacerbated food and livelihood insecurity for Mayan milpa farmers in southern Belize, Central America. For centuries, the traditional milpa has been sustainable for subsistence; however, in the past 50 years, it has become less reliable due to accelerating climate change, re-source degradation, declining markets, poverty, and other factors. Increasing climate-smart agriculture (CSA) aspects of existing traditional milpa practices (i.e., no-burn mulching, soil enrichment) may be needed. Using a modified Community Capitals Framework, this study finds four key Community Capitals, Human-Capacity, Financial, Infrastructure, and Governance-Justice Capitals, are barriers for increasing CSA practices in milpa communities. Barriers include lack of CSA technology sharing and pest management (Human-Capacity), unreliable water service and poor roads (Infrastructure), low budget for Extension services, and overall sense of marginalization of Maya communities (Governance-Justice), and closure of small markets and crop-buying programs (Financial). Government action to reduce barriers for these four Capitals can positively influence CSA practices. Increasing CSA aspects of traditional milpa practices can increase crop productivity, promote food and livelihood security, and enable climate resilience of Mayan milpa communities in Belize.

Keywords: socio-ecological systems, sustainability, milpa farming, belize, climate-smart agriculture, food security, community capitals

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7294 De-Learning Language at Preschool: A Case of Nepal

Authors: Meenakshi Dahal

Abstract:

Generally, children start verbal communication by the age of eighteen months. Though they have difficulties in constructing complete sentences, they try to make their thought s understandable to the audience. By the age of 36 months, when they enroll in preschool, their Language and communication skills are enhanced. Children need plenty of classroom experiences that will help them to develop their oral language skills. Oral language is the primary means through which each individual child is enabled to structure, evaluate, describe and to express his/her experiences. In the context of multi lingual and multi-cultural country like Nepal, the languages used in preschool and the communities vary. In such a case, the language of instruction in the preschool is different from the language used by the children to communicate at home. Using qualitative research method the socio-cultural aspect of the language learning has been analyzed. This has been done by analyzing and exploring preschool activities as well as the language of instruction and communication in the preschools in rural Nepal. It is found that the language of instruction is different from the language of communications primarily used by the children. Teachers seldom use local language resulting in difficulties for the children to understand. Instead of recognizing their linguistic, social and cultural capitals teachers conform to using the Nepali language which the children are not familiar with. Children have to adapt to new language structures and patterns of usage resulting them to be slow in oral language and communication in the preschool. The paper concludes that teachers have to recognize the linguistic capitals of the children and schools need to be responsible to facilitate this process for all children, whatever their language background.

Keywords: children, language, preschool, socio-culture

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7293 The Moment of Departure: Redefining Self and Space in Literacy Activism

Authors: Sofie Dewayani, Pratiwi Retnaningdyah

Abstract:

Literacy practice is situated within the identity enactment in a particular time and space. The literacy practices in public places, ranging from city parks, urban slums to city roads are meeting places of discursive practices produced by dynamic interactions, and sometimes contestations, of social powers and capitals. The present paper examines the ways the literacy activists construct their sense of space in attempts to develop possibilities for literacy programs as they are sent to work with marginalized communities far away from their hometowns in Indonesia. In particular, this paper analyzes the activists’ reflections of identity enactment - othering, familiarity, and sense of comfort - as they are trying to make meaning of the communities’ literacy capitals and practices in the process of adapting with the communities. Data collected for this paper were travel diaries - serving as literacy narratives - obtained from a literacy residency program sponsored by the Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture. The residency program itself involved 30 youths (18 to 30 years old) to work with marginalized communities in literacy activism programs. This paper analyzes the written narratives of four focal participants using Bakhtin’s chronotopes - the configurations of time and space - that figure into the youth’s meaning-making of literacy as well as their exercise of power and identity. Follow-up interviews were added to enrich the analysis. The analysis considers the youth’s ‘moment of departure’ a critical point in their reconstructions of self and space. This paper expands the discussions of literacy discourse and spatiality while lending its supports to literacy activism in highly diverse multicultural settings.

Keywords: chronotopes, discourse, identity, literacy activism

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7292 The Role of Sport-Centered Social Capitals on Student's Tendency in Sports Activities

Authors: Esmaeil Zabihi, Seyed Hossein Alavi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is the review and prioritizes of sport-centered social capital on Islamic Azad university of Garmsar student’s tendency in sports activities, especially public sports based on Bourdieu viewpoint. 365 students at of 6254 students (3140 male and 3114 female) of Islamic Azad university of Garmsar branch were selected randomly, Morgan also used. 272 person answer questionnaire (with the help of specific questionnaires moeinaldini, 1391) it has 30 questions. Researchers have confirmed the validity of this questionnaire justifiability. Reliability was achieved through Cronbach's alpha 84%. The analysis of data done by, SPSS software and independent t-tests, friedman, u Mann Whitney, Kruskal Wallis test. friedman test showed below things : environmental dimension (MR=4.71) social and economic factors (MR=3.57) and family (MR=3.47). These factors have significant role on sports activities of students (P≤1.0). Also, comparison of these dimensions showed that the men believe to university (t-4.30) in increasing students participation. These results show that environment like (such as) governmental organization, going to the stadium and life environment is the most important factor which can effect on sport and body activities of the students.

Keywords: cultural capital, social capital, Bourdieu viewpoint, sport for all

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7291 Demographic Dividend and Creation of Human and Knowledge Capital in Liberal India: An Endogenous Growth Process

Authors: Arjun K., Arumugam Sankaran, Sanjay Kumar, Mousumi Das

Abstract:

The paper analyses the existence of endogenous growth scenario emanating from the demographic dividend in India during the liberalization period starting from 1980. Demographic dividend creates a fertile ground for the cultivation of human and knowledge capitals contributing to technological progress which can be measured using total factor productivity. The relationship among total factor productivity, human and knowledge capitals are examined in an open endogenous framework for the period 1980-2016. The control variables such as foreign direct investment, trade openness, energy consumption are also employed. The data are sourced from Reserve Bank of India, World Bank, International Energy Agency and The National Science and Technology Management Information System. To understand the dynamic association among variables, ARDL bounds approach to cointegration followed by Toda-Yamamoto causality test are used. The results reveal a short run and long run relationship among the variables supported by the existence of causality. This calls for an integrated policy to build and augment human capital and research and development activities to sustain and pace up growth and development in the nation.

Keywords: demographic dividend, young population, open endogenous growth models, human and knowledge capital

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7290 Youth Branches of the Ruling Political Party as an Intersection Point: An Examination in the Context of Capital Type

Authors: Merve Ak Efe

Abstract:

Youth branches in Turkey are one of the sub-fields where political ideologies are intersected with daily life practices. When the youth branches are examined within the framework of daily life practices, a social area can be defined where many types of capital turn into gains. The relationship between politics and capital is not only financial but can also be observed in the form of social, cultural, or emotional capital. This paper examines the political mobilization of young people who are members of the Youth Branch of the Justice and Development Party. The reason why JDP (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi) was chosen is that they have been the ruling party for twenty years and there is a considerable number of young members within the party. Since Bayrampaşa is a district where JDP is politically active, This study is based on Bayrampaşa's youth branches. The study examines how young people who are members of the party are mobilized and the everyday life practices and emotions underlying this mobilization. The data was collected through in-depth interviews with 13 young people and the participant observation method was applied at the weekly meetings of the Justice and Development Party Bayrampaşa Youth Branch. Youth Branches represent a political space in which emotions turn into action for the young people who are involved in the party. During the field study at the micro-level, it has been observed that Bayrampaşa JDP Youth Branch hosted a transformation that incorporates political and social practices into modern tactics. One of the other results shows that being a member of youth branches causes a significant rise in social capital for young people. On the other hand, for the members with low cultural capital, there is an increase in social capital. However, an increase in cultural capital is not prominent.

Keywords: political mobilization, everyday practices, emotional capitals, social capital, cultural capital

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7289 Resilience-Vulnerability Interaction in the Context of Disasters and Complexity: Study Case in the Coastal Plain of Gulf of Mexico

Authors: Cesar Vazquez-Gonzalez, Sophie Avila-Foucat, Leonardo Ortiz-Lozano, Patricia Moreno-Casasola, Alejandro Granados-Barba

Abstract:

In the last twenty years, academic and scientific literature has been focused on understanding the processes and factors of coastal social-ecological systems vulnerability and resilience. Some scholars argue that resilience and vulnerability are isolated concepts due to their epistemological origin, while others note the existence of a strong resilience-vulnerability relationship. Here we present an ordinal logistic regression model based on the analytical framework about dynamic resilience-vulnerability interaction along adaptive cycle of complex systems and disasters process phases (during, recovery and learning). In this way, we demonstrate that 1) during the disturbance, absorptive capacity (resilience as a core of attributes) and external response capacity explain the probability of households capitals to diminish the damage, and exposure sets the thresholds about the amount of disturbance that households can absorb, 2) at recovery, absorptive capacity and external response capacity explain the probability of households capitals to recovery faster (resilience as an outcome) from damage, and 3) at learning, adaptive capacity (resilience as a core of attributes) explains the probability of households adaptation measures based on the enhancement of physical capital. As a result, during the disturbance phase, exposure has the greatest weight in the probability of capital’s damage, and households with absorptive and external response capacity elements absorbed the impact of floods in comparison with households without these elements. At the recovery phase, households with absorptive and external response capacity showed a faster recovery on their capital; however, the damage sets the thresholds of recovery time. More importantly, diversity in financial capital increases the probability of recovering other capital, but it becomes a liability so that the probability of recovering the household finances in a longer time increases. At learning-reorganizing phase, adaptation (modifications to the house) increases the probability of having less damage on physical capital; however, it is not very relevant. As conclusion, resilience is an outcome but also core of attributes that interacts with vulnerability along the adaptive cycle and disaster process phases. Absorptive capacity can diminish the damage experienced by floods; however, when exposure overcomes thresholds, both absorptive and external response capacity are not enough. In the same way, absorptive and external response capacity diminish the recovery time of capital, but the damage sets the thresholds in where households are not capable of recovering their capital.

Keywords: absorptive capacity, adaptive capacity, capital, floods, recovery-learning, social-ecological systems

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7288 Managerial Advice-Seeking and Supply Chain Resilience: A Social Capital Perspective

Authors: Ethan Nikookar, Yalda Boroushaki, Larissa Statsenko, Jorge Ochoa Paniagua

Abstract:

Given the serious impact that supply chain disruptions can have on a firm's bottom-line performance, both industry and academia are interested in supply chain resilience, a capability of the supply chain that enables it to cope with disruptions. To date, much of the research has focused on the antecedents of supply chain resilience. This line of research has suggested various firm-level capabilities that are associated with greater supply chain resilience. A consensus has emerged among researchers that supply chain flexibility holds the greatest potential to create resilience. Supply chain flexibility achieves resilience by creating readiness to respond to disruptions with little cost and time by means of reconfiguring supply chain resources to mitigate the impacts of the disruption. Decisions related to supply chain disruptions are made by supply chain managers; however, the role played by supply chain managers' reference networks has been overlooked in the supply chain resilience literature. This study aims to understand the impact of supply chain managers on their firms' supply chain resilience. Drawing on social capital theory and social network theory, this paper proposes a conceptual model to explore the role of supply chain managers in developing the resilience of supply chains. Our model posits that higher level of supply chain managers' embeddedness in their reference network is associated with increased resilience of their firms' supply chain. A reference network includes individuals from whom supply chain managers seek advice on supply chain related matters. The relationships between supply chain managers' embeddedness in reference network and supply chain resilience are mediated by supply chain flexibility.

Keywords: supply chain resilience, embeddedness, reference networks, social capitals

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7287 Social Entrepreneurship: When Social Innovation Is Driven by Value Creation

Authors: Zeinab Hmama, Majda Alaoui

Abstract:

Social entrepreneurship is seen as a response to social problem. The literature on social entrepreneurship highlights two elements: social value creation and economic value creation. The creation of social value is a process that results from the creation of a value with 'value' for society that leads to a social change. However, theoretical thoughts consider that social value is a multidimensional concept that is difficult to define. Many definitions of social value and social change have been proposed. Most of these definitions use financial and economic value to justify the social value created. As a result, social value is often identified in monetary value. Referring to the economic concept to explain social value is not a false approach but limits the understanding of the creation of social value and reduces exploration of opportunities and analysis of other facets of this value. In this article, we explore the dimensions of social entrepreneurship and try to better understand the concept of social value based on the different visions conveyed in the literature.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, social impact, social change, measurement, social value, social problem, value creation

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
7286 Spiritual Recovery of People with Bipolar Disorder in Malaysia: A Grounded Theory Study

Authors: Mohamad Shariff Nurasikin, Paul Crawford, Nicola Wright

Abstract:

People with any mental disorder can get benefit from the spiritual aspects of life for recovery, particularly in searching for the meaning of life and engaging in meaningful activities. However, little is known about such effects in the population of bipolar disorder. The concepts of spirituality are highly contestable, as they are too broad and removed from the original religious understanding. The concepts are more notable as encompassing multi-dimensional aspects of people’s lives such as social, emotional, and psychological. Viewing that Western or secular worldview dominates most of the literature in spirituality, it is time to explore the concept of spirituality from the Eastern and religious worldview, such as the Malaysian view. Thus, the aim of this study is to provide a conceptual understanding of people with bipolar disorder with a religious affiliation in Malaysia. This study employs a Grounded Theory and explores the narratives from the interviews of 25 participants. The narratives strongly suggest the salient resources or can be referred to as various forms of capital, as in the capital theory, namely, religious, social, psychological, and medicinal. More important is how these capitals are the enablers for recovery in mental health and well-being, where the participants in the sample engage in a more meaningful life and positive adaptations. This study also extends the Bourdieusian spiritual capital, in which the salient resources are termed as the capital bundle. More significant is how the capital bundles are working contiguously in building and accumulating the spiritual capital. This process is conducive to recovery within the social life of people with bipolar disorder or perhaps other mental disorders.

Keywords: bipolar, Bourdeau, recovery, spiritual

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7285 Predicting Foreign Direct Investment of IC Design Firms from Taiwan to East and South China Using Lotka-Volterra Model

Authors: Bi-Huei Tsai

Abstract:

This work explores the inter-region investment behaviors of integrated circuit (IC) design industry from Taiwan to China using the amount of foreign direct investment (FDI). According to the mutual dependence among different IC design industrial locations, Lotka-Volterra model is utilized to explore the FDI interactions between South and East China. Effects of inter-regional collaborations on FDI flows into China are considered. Evolutions of FDIs into South China for IC design industry significantly inspire the subsequent FDIs into East China, while FDIs into East China for Taiwan’s IC design industry significantly hinder the subsequent FDIs into South China. The supply chain along IC industry includes IC design, manufacturing, packing and testing enterprises. I C manufacturing, packaging and testing industries depend on IC design industry to gain advanced business benefits. The FDI amount from Taiwan’s IC design industry into East China is the greatest among the four regions: North, East, Mid-West and South China. The FDI amount from Taiwan’s IC design industry into South China is the second largest. If IC design houses buy more equipment and bring more capitals in South China, those in East China will have pressure to undertake more FDIs into East China to maintain the leading position advantages of the supply chain in East China. On the other hand, as the FDIs in East China rise, the FDIs in South China will successively decline since capitals have concentrated in East China. Prediction of Lotka-Volterra model in FDI trends is accurate because the industrial interactions between the two regions are included. Finally, this work confirms that the FDI flows cannot reach a stable equilibrium point, so the FDI inflows into East and South China will expand in the future.

Keywords: Lotka-Volterra model, foreign direct investment, competitive, Equilibrium analysis

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7284 Nutrition Program Planning Based on Local Resources in Urban Fringe Areas of a Developing Country

Authors: Oktia Woro Kasmini Handayani, Bambang Budi Raharjo, Efa Nugroho, Bertakalswa Hermawati

Abstract:

Obesity prevalence and severe malnutrition in Indonesia has increased from 2007 to 2013. The utilization of local resources in nutritional program planning can be used to program efficiency and to reach the goal. The aim of this research is to plan a nutrition program based on local resources for urban fringe areas in a developing country. This research used a qualitative approach, with a focus on local resources including social capital, social system, cultural system. The study was conducted in Mijen, Central Java, as one of the urban fringe areas in Indonesia. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques are used to determine participants. A total of 16 participants took part in the study. Observation, interviews, focus group discussion, SWOT analysis, brainstorming and Miles and Huberman models were used to analyze the data. We have identified several local resources, such as the contributions from nutrition cadres, social organizations, social financial resources, as well as the cultural system and social system. The outstanding contribution of nutrition cadres is the participation and creativity to improve nutritional status. In addition, social organizations, like the role of the integrated health center for children (Pos Pelayanan Terpadu), can be engaged in the nutrition program planning. This center is supported by House of Nutrition to assist in nutrition program planning, and provide social support to families, neighbors and communities as social capitals. The study also reported that cultural systems that show appreciation for well-nourished children are a better way to improve the problem of balanced nutrition. Social systems such as teamwork and mutual cooperation can also be a potential resource to support nutritional programs and overcome associated problems. The impact of development in urban areas such as the introduction of more green areas which improve the perceived status of local people, as well as new health services facilitated by people and companies, can also be resources to support nutrition programs. Local resources in urban fringe areas can be used in the planning of nutrition programs. The expansion of partnership with all stakeholders, empowering the community through optimizing the roles of nutrition care centers for children as our recommendation with regard to nutrition program planning.

Keywords: developing country, local resources, nutrition program, urban fringe

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7283 Nationalization of the Social Life in Argentina: Accumulation of Capital, State Intervention, Labor Market, and System of Rights in the Last Decades

Authors: Mauro Cristeche

Abstract:

This work begins with a very simple question: How does the State spend? Argentina is witnessing a process of growing nationalization of social life, so it is necessary to find out the explanations of the phenomenon on the specific dynamic of the capitalist mode of production in Argentina and its transformations in the last decades. Then the new question is: what happened in Argentina that could explain this phenomenon? Since the seventies, the capital growth in Argentina faces deep competitive problems. Until that moment the agrarian wealth had worked as a compensation mechanism, but it began to find its limits. In the meantime, some important demographical and structural changes had happened. The strategy of the capitalist class had to become to seek in the cheapness of the labor force the main source of compensation of its weakness. As a result, a tendency to worsen the living conditions and fragmentation of the working class started to develop, manifested by unemployment, underemployment, and the fall of the purchasing power of the salary as a highlighted fact. As a consequence, it is suggested that the role of the State became stronger and public expenditure increased, as a historical trend, because it has to intervene to face the contradictions and constant growth problems posed by the development of capitalism in Argentina. On the one hand, the State has to guarantee the process of buying the cheapened workforce and at the same time the process of reproduction of the working class. On the other hand, it has to help to reproduce the individual capitals but needs to ‘attack’ them in different ways. This is why the role of the State is said to be the general political representative to the national portion of the total social capital. What will be studied is the dynamic of the intervention of the Argentine State in the context of the particular national process of capital growth, and its dynamics in the last decades. What this paper wants to show are the main general causes that could explain the phenomenon of nationalization of the social life and how it has impacted the life conditions of the working class and the system of rights.

Keywords: Argentina, nationalization, public policies, rights, state

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7282 Conceptual Model Design for E-Readiness of Entrepreneurial City Case Study: Entrepreneurial Cities in Iran

Authors: Mohsen Yaghmoor, Sima Radmanesh, Ameneh Gholami

Abstract:

Cities are the principal ground for manifestation of an information society. To create an entrepreneurial city, it is required that just and equal access to opportunities are provided for all segments of the city and technologies are intelligently employed. Furthermore, it is necessary for us to be electronically ready in all political, economic, social, cultural, and technological aspects. Also e-city creates enormous potentials and opportunities for development of the entrepreneurial city. After improvement of e-readiness for establishment of entrepreneurial e-city, potentials, and capitals of the city become productive and more suitable opportunities are offered to citizens, state sectors, and private sectors in order to become entrepreneurs. To create and develop an entrepreneurial city, we need to have readiness to detection and creation of entrepreneurial opportunities and finally exploitation of these opportunities which, in turn, lead to use of entrepreneurial events and their quality in the city. In this model, the quality of entrepreneurial events, the productivity of activities, the necessity of reducing the digital gap, positive and active attendance in information society and compatibility and aligning with the global society are emphasized. In an entrepreneurial city, citizens are not help seekers, private sector is not passive, and the government is entrepreneurial.

Keywords: e-city, e-readiness, entrepreneurial city, entrepreneurial events, technological entrepreneurship

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7281 The EU Omnipotence Paradox: Inclusive Cultural Policies and Effects of Exclusion

Authors: Emmanuel Pedler, Elena Raevskikh, Maxime Jaffré

Abstract:

Can the cultural geography of European cities be durably managed by European policies? To answer this question, two hypotheses can be proposed. (1) Either European cultural policies are able to erase cultural inequalities between the territories through the creation of new areas of cultural attractiveness in each beneficiary neighborhood, city or country. Or, (2) each European region historically rooted in a number of endogenous socio-historical, political or demographic factors is not receptive to exogenous political influences. Thus, the cultural attractiveness of a territory is difficult to measure and to impact by top-down policies in the long term. How do these two logics - European and local - interact and contribute to the emergence of a valued, popular sense of a common European cultural identity? Does this constant interaction between historical backgrounds and new political concepts encourage a positive identification with the European project? The European cultural policy programs, such as ECC (European Capital of Culture), seek to develop new forms of civic cohesion through inclusive and participative cultural events. The cultural assets of a city elected ‘ECC’ are mobilized to attract a wide range of new audiences, including populations poorly integrated into local cultural life – and consequently distant from pre-existing cultural offers. In the current context of increasingly heterogeneous individual perceptions of Europe, the ECC program aims to promote cultural forms and institutions that should accelerate both territorial and cross-border European cohesion. The new cultural consumption pattern is conceived to stimulate integration and mobility, but also to create a legitimate and transnational ideal European citizen type. Our comparative research confronts contrasting cases of ‘European Capitals of Culture’ from the south and from the north of Europe, cities recently concerned by the ECC political mechanism and cities that were elected ECC in the past, multi-centered cultural models vs. highly centralized cultural models. We aim to explore the impacts of European policies on the urban cultural geography, but also to understand the current obstacles for its efficient implementation.

Keywords: urbanism, cultural policies, cultural institutions, european cultural capitals, heritage industries, exclusion effects

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7280 Anti-Social Media: Implications of Social Media in the Form of Stressors on Our Daily Lives

Authors: Aimen Batool Bint-E-Rashid, Huma Irfan

Abstract:

This research aims to investigate the role of social media (Snapchat, Facebook, Twitter, etc.) in our daily lives and its implication on our everyday routine in the form of stressors. The study has been validated by a social media survey with 150 social media users belonging to various age groups. The study explores how social media can make an individual anti-social in his or her life offline. To explain the phenomenon, we have proposed and evaluated a model based on social media usage and stressors including burnout and social overload. Results, through correlation and regression tests, have revealed that with increase in social media usage, social overload and burnout also increases. Evidence for the fact that excessive social media usage causes social overload and burnout has been provided in the study.

Keywords: burnout, emotional exhaustion, fatigue, stressors, social networking, social media, social overload

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7279 Intellectual Capital Disclosure: Profiles of Spanish Public Universities

Authors: Yolanda Ramírez, Ángel Tejada, Agustín Baidez

Abstract:

In the higher education setting, there is a current trend in society toward greater openness and transparency. The economic, social and political changes that have occurred in recent years in public sector universities (particularly the New Public Management, the Bologna Process and the emergence of the “third mission”) call for a wider disclosure of value created by universities to support fundraising activities, to ensure accountability in the use of public funds and the outcomes of research and teaching, as well as close relationships with industries and territories. The paper has two purposes: 1) to explore the intellectual capital (IC) disclosure in Spanish universities through their websites, and 2) to identify university profiles. This study applies a content analysis to analyze the institutional websites of Spanish public universities and a cluster analysis. The analysis reveals that Spanish universities’ website content usually relates to human capital, while structural and relational capitals are less widely disclosed. Our research identifies three behavioral profiles of Spanish universities with regard to the online disclosure of IC (universities more proactive, universities less proactive and universities adopt a middle position in this regard. The results can serve as encouragement to university managers to enhance online IC disclosure to meet the information needs of university stakeholders.

Keywords: universities, intellectual capital, disclosure, internet

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7278 Relationships between Social Entrepreneurship, CSR and Social Innovation: In Theory and Practice

Authors: Krisztina Szegedi, Gyula Fülöp, Ádám Bereczk

Abstract:

The shared goal of social entrepreneurship, corporate social responsibility and social innovation is the advancement of society. The business model of social enterprises is characterized by unique strategies based on the competencies of the entrepreneurs, and is not aimed primarily at the maximization of profits, but rather at carrying out goals for the benefit of society. Corporate social responsibility refers to the active behavior of a company, by which it can create new solutions to meet the needs of society, either on its own or in cooperation with other social stakeholders. The objectives of this article are to define concepts, describe and integrate relevant theoretical models, develop a model and introduce some examples of international practice that can inspire initiatives for social development.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, CSR, social innovation, social entrepreneurship

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7277 Vine Growers' Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in Hungary

Authors: Gabor Kiraly

Abstract:

Wine regions are based on equilibria between climate, soil, grape varieties, and farming expertise that define the special character and quality of local vine farming and wine production. Changes in climate conditions may increase risk of destabilizing this equilibrium. Adaptation decisions, including adjusting practices, processes and capitals in response to climate change stresses – may reduce this risk. However, farmers’ adaptive behavior are subject to a wide range of factors and forces such as links between climate change implications and production, farm - scale adaptive capacity and other external forces that might hinder them to make efficient response to climate change challenges. This paper will aim to study climate change adaptation practices and strategies of grape growers in a way of applying a complex and holistic approach involving theories, methods and tools both from environmental and social sciences. It will introduce the field of adaptation studies as an evidence - based discourse by presenting an overview of examples from wine regions where adaptation studies have already reached an advanced stage. This will serve as a theoretical background for a preliminary research with the aim to examine the feasibility and applicability of such a research approach in the Hungarian context.

Keywords: climate change, adaptation, viticulture, Hungary

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7276 The Essential but Uncertain Role of the Vietnamese Association of Cities of Vietnam in Promoting Community-Based Housing Upgrading

Authors: T. Nguyen, H. Rennie, S. Vallance, M. Mackay

Abstract:

Municipal Associations, also called Unions, Leagues or Federations of municipalities have been established worldwide to represent the interests and needs of urban governments in the face of increasing urban issues. In 2008, the Association of Cities of Vietnam (ACVN) joined the Asian Coalition of Community Action Program (ACCA program) and introduced the community-based upgrading approach to help Vietnamese cities to address urban upgrading issues. While this community-based upgrading approach has only been implemented in a small number of Vietnamese cities and its replication has faced certain challenges, it is worthy to explore insights on how the Association of cities of Vietnam played its role in implementing some reportedly successful projects. This paper responds to this inquiry and presents results extracted from the author’s PhD study that sets out with a general objective to critically examine how social capital dimensions (i.e., bonding, bridging and linking) were formed, mobilized and maintained in a local collective and community-based upgrading process. Methodologically, the study utilized the given general categorization of bonding, bridging and linking capitals to explore and confirm how social capital operated in the real context of a community-based upgrading process, particularly in the context of Vietnam. To do this, the study conducted two exploratory and qualitative case studies of housing projects in Friendship neighbourhood (Vinh city) and Binh Dong neighbourhood (Tan An city). This paper presents the findings of the Friendship neighbourhood case study, focusing on the role of the Vietnamese municipal association in forming, mobilizing and maintaining bonding, bridging and linking capital for a community-based upgrading process. The findings highlight the essential but uncertain role of ACVN - the organization that has a hybrid legitimacy status - in such a process. The results improve our understanding both practically and theoretically. Practically, the results offer insights into the performance of a municipal association operating in a transitioning socio-political context of Vietnam. Theoretically, the paper questions the necessity of categorizing social capital dimensions (i.e., bonding, bridging and linking) by suggesting a holistic approach of looking at social capital for urban governance issues within the Vietnamese context and perhaps elsewhere.

Keywords: bonding capital, bridging capital, municipal association, linking capital, social capital, housing upgrading

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7275 Economic Analysis of Endogenous Growth Model with ICT Capital

Authors: Shoji Katagiri, Hugang Han

Abstract:

This paper clarifies the role of ICT capital in Economic Growth. Albeit ICT remarkably contributes to economic growth, there are few studies on ICT capital in ICT sector from theoretical point of view. In this paper, production function of ICT which is used as input of intermediate good in final good and ICT sectors is incorporated into our model. In this setting, we analyze the role of ICT on balance growth path and show the possibility of general equilibrium solutions for this model. Through the simulation of the equilibrium solutions, we find that when ICT impacts on economy and economic growth increases, it is necessary that increases of efficiency at ICT sector and of accumulation of non-ICT and ICT capitals occur simultaneously.

Keywords: endogenous economic growth, ICT, intensity, capital accumulation

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7274 Orientation towards Social Entrepreneurship-Prioritary: Givens for Overcoming Social Inequality

Authors: Revaz Gvelesiani

Abstract:

Nowadays, social inequality increasingly strengthens the trend from business entrepreneurship to social entrepreneurship. It can be said that business entrepreneurs, according to their interests, move towards social entrepreneurship. Effectively operating markets create mechanisms, which lead to 'good' behavior. This is the most important feature of the rationally functioning society. As for the prospects of social entrepreneurship, expansion of entrepreneurship concept at the social arena may lead to such an outcome, when people who are skeptical about business, become more open towards entrepreneurship as a type of activity. This is the way which by means of increased participation in entrepreneurship promotes fair distribution of wealth. Today 'entrepreneurship for all' is still a dream, although the one, which may come true.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, business entrepreneurship, functions of entrepreneurship, social inequality, social interests, interest groups, interest conflicts

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7273 Social Business: Opportunities and Challenges

Authors: Muhammad Mustafizur Rahaman

Abstract:

Social business is a new concept in the field of Business Economics and Capitalist Economy. It has increased the importance in economic and social development in emerging economies. Professor Muhammad Yunus is the founding father of the notion. While conventional business underscores profit maximization as a core business principle, social business calls for addressing social problems at the expense of profit. This underlying principle gives social business advantageous position over conventional businesses to serve those who live at the bottom of the pyramid. It also poses grave challenges to the social business because social business sacrifices profit at one hand and seeks financial sustainability on the other. For the sake of its financial sustainability, the social business might increase the price of its product or service which might lower its social impact, thus, makes the business self-defeating. Therefore, social business should be more innovative in every business process including production, marketing, and management. Otherwise, the business is unlikely to be driven out from the society.

Keywords: innovativeness, self-defeat, social business, social problem

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7272 Determinants of Internationalization of Social Enterprises: A 20-Year Review

Authors: Xiaoqing Li

Abstract:

Social entrepreneurship drives the global movement as social enterprises create best ways to satisfy social needs through connecting international resources. However, what determines social enterprises to internationalize is underexplored. This study aims to answer this question by conducting a systematic review of studies of past 20 years on social enterprises' internationalization. Findings reveal that factors at the individual (entrepreneur), firm, and environment (home and host country) levels determine the degree of social enterprises' internationalization. Future research is challenged by: a. adopting an integrated approach examining the three levels to explain social enterprises' internationalization; b. the different nature of social enterprises from commercial businesses demands scholars to refine and develop appropriate theoretical models to capture the dynamism of social enterprises' internationalization behavior.

Keywords: determinants, entrepreneurship, internationalization, social enterprises

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7271 Islamic Art and Architecture on Religious Buildings of Dagestan, Russia

Authors: Anahita Shahrokhi, Hamed Kazemzadeh

Abstract:

Various issues are included in cultural relations between societies. Art styles along with architectural similarities are by far one of the most noticeable cultural-historic relations. The Dagestan Republic located in the south of Russia Federation in the North Caucasus has had cultural relations with historical Iran since long ago and is considered as a part of the Islamic world. From Sassanid era and Islamic Empire prior to Tsars’ government, such relations had been maintained largely due to Iran and Islam’s political and social dominance over the region. The presence of the Iranians, mostly for business and commerce, is evident through not only written documents but also other cultural elements including architecture and art. Southern Dagestan and northern provinces of Iran, not distant from each other by sea, have a lot of artistic and cultural aspects in common. The architecture used in some structures such as religious centers, Tekie and Saqa Nafars strongly resembles religious centers in the south of Dagestan. The majority of these similarities lie in the wooden carvings, engravings, and paintings of the interior decorations on the pillars, capitals, walls, and ceilings, as well as the similarity of the plans. Such designs were formed in Safavid dynasty first in Mazandaran and later in Dagestan so that this style is currently named Persiski, meaning Persian, in the Dagestan Republic. These similarities indicate the relationship between the artists and educated people from Iran and Dagestan and the Iranians’ role on the religious and cultural development of Dagestan from the 17th and 18th centuries.

Keywords: wooden works, Mazandaran, Dagestan, Saqa Nafar, ritual and Islamic architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 409