Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 11

Search results for: neurosciences

11 Computational Neurosciences: An Inspiration from Biological Neurosciences

Authors: Harsh Sadawarti, Kamal Malik

Abstract:

Humans are the unique and the most powerful creature on this planet just because of the high level of intelligence gifted by nature. Computational Intelligence is highly influenced by the term natural intelligence, neurosciences and mathematics. To deal with the in-depth study of computational intelligence and to utilize it in real-life applications, it is quite important to understand its simulation with the human brain. In this paper, the three important parts, Frontal Lobe, Occipital Lobe and Parietal Lobe of the human brain, are compared with the ANN(Artificial Neural Network), CNN(Convolutional Neural network), and RNN(Recurrent Neural Network), respectively. Intelligent computational systems are created by combining deductive reasoning, logical concepts and high-level algorithms with the simulation and study of the human brain. Human brain is a combination of Physiology, Psychology, emotions, calculations and many other parameters which are of utmost importance that determines the overall intelligence. To create intelligent algorithms, smart machines and to simulate the human brain in an effective manner, it is quite important to have an insight into the human brain and the basic concepts of biological neurosciences.

Keywords: computational intelligence, neurosciences, convolutional neural network, recurrent neural network, artificial neural network, frontal lobe, occipital lobe, parietal lobe

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10 Embodied Cognition as a Concept of Educational Neuroscience and Phenomenology

Authors: Elham Shirvani-Ghadikolaei

Abstract:

In this paper, we examine the connection between the human mind and body within the framework of Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology. We study the role of this connection in designing more efficient learning environments, alongside the findings in physical recognition and educational neuroscience. Our research shows the interplay between the mind and the body in the external world and discusses its implications. Based on these observations, we make suggestions as to how the educational system can benefit from taking into account the interaction between the mind and the body in educational affairs.

Keywords: educational neurosciences, embodied cognition, pedagogical neurosciences, phenomenology

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9 Psychopathic Disorders and Judges Sentencing: Can Neurosciences Change this Aggravating Factor in a Mitigating Factor?

Authors: Kevin Moustapha

Abstract:

Psychopathy is perceived today as being «the most important concept in the criminal justice system» and as «the most important legal notion of the early 21 th century». The explosion of research related to psychopathy seems to perfectly illustrate this trend. Traditionally, many studies tend to focus on links between insanity defense and psychopathy. That is why our purpose in this article is to analyze psychopathic disorders in the scope of judges sentencing in Canada. Indeed, in every Canadian case related to dangerous offenders, judges must balance between fairness and protection of the individuals rights of the accused and protection of society from dangerous predators who may commit future acts of physical or sexual violence. Increasingly, psychopathic disorders are taking an important part in judge sentencing, especially in Canada. This phenomenon can be illustrated by the high proportion of psychopath offenders incarcerated in North American prisons. Many decisions in Canadians courtrooms seem to point out that psychopathy is often used as a strong argument by the judges to preserve public safety. The fact that psychopathy is often associated with violence, recklessness and recidivism, it could explain why many judges consider psychopathic disorders as an aggravating factor. Generally, the judge reasoning is based on article 753 of Canadian Criminal Code related to dangerous offenders, which is used for individuals who show a pattern of repetitive and persistent aggressive behaviour. However, with cognitive neurosciences, the psychopath’s situation in courtrooms would probably change. Cerebral imaging and news data provided by the neurosciences show that emotional and volitional functions in psychopath’s brains are impaired. Understanding these new issues could enable some judges to recognize psychopathic disorders as a mitigating factor. Two important questions ought to be raised in this article: can exploring psychopaths ‘brains really change the judge sentencing in Canadian courtrooms? If yes, can judges consider psychopathy more as a mitigating factor than an aggravating factor?

Keywords: criminal law, judges sentencing, neurosciences, psychopathy

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8 Teaching Neuroscience from Neuroscience: an Approach Based on the Allosteric Learning Model, Pathfinder Associative Networks and Teacher Professional Knowledge

Authors: Freddy Rodriguez Saza, Erika Sanabria, Jair Tibana

Abstract:

Currently, the important role of neurosciences in the professional training of the physical educator is known, highlighting in the teaching-learning process aspects such as the nervous structures involved in the adjustment of posture and movement, the neurophysiology of locomotion, the process of nerve impulse transmission, and the relationship between physical activity, learning, and cognition. The teaching-learning process of neurosciences is complex, due to the breadth of the contents, the diversity of teaching contexts required, and the demanding ability to relate concepts from different disciplines, necessary for the correct understanding of the function of the nervous system. This text presents the results of the application of a didactic environment based on the Allosteric Learning Model in morphophysiology students of the Faculty of Military Physical Education, Military School of Cadets of the Colombian Army (Bogotá, Colombia). The research focused then, on analyzing the change in the cognitive structure of the students on neurosciences. Methodology. [1] The predominant learning styles were identified. [2] Students' cognitive structure, core concepts, and threshold concepts were analyzed through the construction of Pathfinder Associative Networks. [3] Didactic Units in Neuroscience were designed to favor metacognition, the development of Executive Functions (working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibitory control) that led students to recognize their errors and conceptual distortions and to overcome them. [4] The Teacher's Professional Knowledge and the role of the assessment strategies applied were taken into account, taking into account the perspective of the Dynamizer, Obstacle, and Questioning axes. In conclusion, the study found that physical education students achieved significant learning in neuroscience, favored by the development of executive functions and by didactic environments oriented with the predominant learning styles and focused on increasing cognitive networks and overcoming difficulties, neuromyths and neurophobia.

Keywords: allosteric learning model, military physical education, neurosciences, pathfinder associative networks, teacher professional knowledge

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7 Epistemological and Ethical Dimensions of Current Concepts of Human Resilience in the Neurosciences

Authors: Norbert W. Paul

Abstract:

Since a number of years, scientific interest in human resilience is rapidly increasing especially in psychology and more recently and highly visible in neurobiological research. Concepts of resilience are regularly discussed in the light of liminal experiences and existential challenges in human life. Resilience research is providing both, explanatory models and strategies to promote or foster human resilience. Surprisingly, these approaches attracted little attention so far in philosophy in general and in ethics in particular. This is even more astonishing given the fact that the neurosciences as such have been and still are of major interest to philosophy and ethics and even brought about the specialized field of neuroethics, which, however, is not concerned with concepts of resilience, so far. As a result of the little attention given to the topic of resilience, the whole concept has to date been a philosophically under-theorized. This abstinence of ethics and philosophy in resilience research is lamentable because resilience as a concept as well as resilience interventions based on neurobiological findings do undoubtedly pose philosophical, social and ethical questions. In this paper, we will argue that particular notions of resilience are crossing the sometimes fine line between maintaining a person’s mental health despite the impact of severe psychological or physical adverse events and ethically more debatable discourses of enhancement. While we neither argue for or against enhancement nor re-interpret resilience research and interventions by subsuming them strategies of psychological and/or neuro-enhancement, we encourage those who see social or ethical problems with enhancement technologies should also take a closer look on resilience and the related neurobiological concepts. We will proceed in three steps. In our first step, we will describe the concept of resilience in general and its neurobiological study in particular. Here, we will point out some important differences in the way ‘resilience’ is conceptualized and how neurobiological research understands resilience. In what follows we will try to show that a one-sided concept of resilience – as it is often presented in neurobiological research on resilience – does pose social and ethical problems. Secondly, we will identify and explore the social and ethical challenges of (neurobiological) enhancement. In the last and final step of this paper, we will argue that a one-sided reading of resilience can be understood as latent form of enhancement in transition and poses ethical questions similar to those discussed in relation to other approaches to the biomedical enhancement of humans.

Keywords: resilience, neurosciences, epistemology, bioethics

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6 Video Games Technologies Approach for Their Use in the Classroom

Authors: Daniel Vargas-Herrera, Ivette Caldelas, Fernando Brambila-Paz, Rodrigo Montufar-Chaveznava

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the advances corresponding to the implementation of a set of educational materials based on video games technologies. Essentially these materials correspond to projects developed and under development as bachelor thesis of some Computer Engineering students of the Engineering School. All materials are based on the Unity SDK; integrating some devices such as kinect, leap motion, oculus rift, data gloves and Google cardboard. In detail, we present a virtual reality application for neurosciences students (suitable for neural rehabilitation), and virtual scenes for the Google cardboard, which will be used by the psychology students for phobias treatment. The objective is these materials will be located at a server to be available for all students, in the classroom or in the cloud, considering the use of smartphones has been widely extended between students.

Keywords: virtual reality, interactive technologies, video games, educational materials

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5 Absence of Embodied Subject in History of Philosophy: Reasons and Roots

Authors: Elham Shirvani

Abstract:

There have happened a few important breakthroughs in the philosophy of mind, philosophy of religion, and neurosciences in the recent century. These breakthroughs, despite their complexities and different opinion about them in each field, almost all of them tend to think of human consciousness as a virtually concrete fact which is related to the physiologic, social, and environmental situation. Such breakthroughs bring this question about why there has not only been such a dominant attitude in the history of philosophy, but there were a number of inclinations to deny it; why an issue like embodied knowledge, which is a revolutionary approach in both philosophy and neuroscience, and has excellent implications in a variety of fields, from educational sciences to artificial intelligence, has to be rejected by great philosophers all over the history of philosophy? To meet this question, in the present paper, a variety of reasons for that has been discussed; first, the origins of it had been retraced to Greeks (figures such as Anaxagoras, Plato, and Aristotle), then the reason for the continuation of this stream among moderns (figures like Descartes and Kant) was discussed. Afterward, the approaches and attitudes of pioneer philosophers, such as Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, who did not follow that mainstream, are studied.

Keywords: embodied knowledge, reason, language, metaphysic subject, embodied subject

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4 Curating Pluralistic Futures: Leveling up for Whole-Systems Change

Authors: Daniel Schimmelpfennig

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This paper attempts to delineate the idea to curate the leveling up for whole-systems change. Curation is the act fo select, organize, look after, or present information from a professional point of view through expert knowledge. The trans-paradigmatic, trans-contextual, trans-disciplinary, trans-perspective of trans-media futures studies hopes to enable a move from a monochrome intellectual pursuit towards breathing a higher dimensionality. Progressing to the next level to equip actors for whole-systems change is in consideration of the commonly known symptoms of our time as well as in anticipation of future challenges, both a necessity and desirability. Systems of collective intelligence could potentially scale regenerative, adaptive, and anticipatory capacities. How could such a curation then be enacted and implemented, to initiate the process of leveling-up? The suggestion here is to focus on the metasystem transition, the bio-digital fusion, namely, by merging neurosciences, the ontological design of money as our operating system, and our understanding of the billions of years of time-proven permutations in nature, biomimicry, and biological metaphors like symbiogenesis. Evolutionary cybernetics accompanies the process of whole-systems change.

Keywords: bio-digital fusion, evolutionary cybernetics, metasystem transition, symbiogenesis, transmedia futures studies

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3 Neurosciences in Entrepreneurship: The Multitasking Case in Favor of Social Entrepreneurship Innovation

Authors: Berger Aida

Abstract:

Social entrepreneurship has emerged as an active area of practice and research within the last three decades and has called for a focus on Social Entrepreneurship innovation. Areas such as academics, practitioners , institutions or governments have placed Social Entrepreneurship on the priority list of reflexion and action. It has been accepted that Social entrepreneurship (SE) shares large similarities with its parent, Traditional Entrepreneurship (TE). SE has grown over the past ten years exploring entrepreneurial cognition and the analysis of the ways of thinking of entrepreneurs. The research community believes that value exists in grounding entrepreneurship in neuroscience and notes that SE, like Traditional Entrepreneurship, needs to undergo efforts in clarification, definition and differentiation. Moreover, gaps in SE research call for integrative multistage and multilevel framework for further research. The cognitive processes underpinning entrepreneurial action are similar for SE and TE even if Social Entrepreneurship orientation shows an increased empathy value. Theoretically, there is a need to develop sound models of how to process functions and how to work more effectively as entrepreneurs and research on efficiency improvement calls for the analysis of the most common practices in entrepreneurship. Multitasking has been recognized as a daily and unavoidable habit of entrepreneurs. Hence, we believe in the need of analyzing the multiple task phenomena as a methodology for skill acquisition. We will conduct our paper including Social Entrepreneurship within the wider spectrum of Traditional Entrepreneurship, for the purpose of simplifying the neuroscientific lecture of the entrepreneurial cognition. A question to be inquired is to know if there is a way of developing multitasking habits in order to improve entrepreneurial skills such as speed of information processing , creativity and adaptability . Nevertheless, the direct link between the neuroscientific approach to multitasking and entrepreneurship effectiveness is yet to be uncovered. That is why an extensive Literature Review on Multitasking is a propos.

Keywords: cognitive, entrepreneurial, empathy, multitasking

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2 The Impact of Acoustic Performance on Neurodiverse Students in K-12 Learning Spaces

Authors: Michael Lekan-Kehinde, Abimbola Asojo, Bonnie Sanborn

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Good acoustic performance has been identified as one of the critical Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) factors for student learning and development by the National Research Council. Childhood presents the opportunity for children to develop lifelong skills that will support them throughout their adult lives. Acoustic performance of a space has been identified as a factor that can impact language acquisition, concentration, information retention, and general comfort within the environment. Increasingly, students learn by communication between both teachers and fellow students, making speaking and listening crucial. Neurodiversity - while initially coined to describe individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) - widely describes anyone with a different brain process. As the understanding from cognitive and neurosciences increases, the number of people identified as neurodiversity is nearly 30% of the population. This research looks at guidelines and standard for spaces with good acoustical quality and relates it with the experiences of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), their parents, teachers, and educators through a mixed methods approach, including selected case studies interviews, and mixed surveys. The information obtained from these sources is used to determine if selected materials, especially properties relating to sound absorption and reverberation reduction, are equally useful in small, medium sized, and large learning spaces and methodologically approaching. The results describe the potential impact of acoustics on Neurodiverse students, considering factors that determine the complexity of sound in relation to the auditory processing capabilities of ASD students. In conclusion, this research extends the knowledge of how materials selection influences the better development of acoustical environments for autism students.

Keywords: acoustics, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), children, education, learning, learning spaces, materials, neurodiversity, sound

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1 Developing and Standardizing Individual Care Plan for Children in Conflict with Law in the State of Kerala

Authors: Kavitha Puthanveedu, Kasi Sekar, Preeti Jacob, Kavita Jangam

Abstract:

In India, The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015, the law related to children alleged and found to be in conflict with law, proposes to address to the rehabilitation of children in conflict with law by catering to the basic rights by providing care and protection, development, treatment, and social re-integration. A major concern in addressing the issues of children in conflict with law in Kerala the southernmost state in India identified were: 1. Lack of psychological assessment for children in conflict with law, 2. Poor psychosocial intervention for children in conflict with law on bail, 3. Lack of psychosocial intervention or proper care and protection of CCL residing at observation and special home, 4. Lack convergence with systems related with mental health care. Aim: To develop individual care plan for children in conflict with law. Methodology: NIMHANS a premier Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, collaborated with Social Justice Department, Govt. of Kerala to address this issue by developing a participatory methodology to implement psychosocial care in the existing services by integrating the activities through multidisciplinary and multisectoral approach as per the Sec. 18 of JJAct 2015. Developing individual care plan: Key informant interviews, focus group discussion with multiple stakeholders consisting of legal officers, police, child protection officials, counselors, and home staff were conducted. Case studies were conducted among children in conflict with law. A checklist on 80 psychosocial problems among children in conflict with law was prepared with eight major issues identified through the quantitative process such as family and parental characteristic, family interactions and relationships, stressful life event, social and environmental factors, child’s individual characteristics, education, child labour and high-risk behavior. Standardised scales were used to identify the anxiety, caseness, suicidality and substance use among the children. This provided a background data understand the psychosocial problems experienced by children in conflict with law. In the second stage, a detailed plan of action was developed involving multiple stakeholders that include Special juvenile police unit, DCPO, JJB, and NGOs. The individual care plan was reviewed by a panel of 4 experts working in the area of children, followed by the review by multiple stakeholders in juvenile justice system such as Magistrates, JJB members, legal cum probation officers, district child protection officers, social workers and counselors. Necessary changes were made in the individual care plan in each stage which was pilot tested with 45 children for a period of one month and standardized for administering among children in conflict with law. Result: The individual care plan developed through scientific process was standardized and currently administered among children in conflict with law in the state of Kerala in the 3 districts that will be further implemented in other 14 districts. The program was successful in developing a systematic approach for the psychosocial intervention of children in conflict with law that can be a forerunner for other states in India.

Keywords: psychosocial care, individual care plan, multidisciplinary, multisectoral

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