Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1274

Search results for: intrinsic motivation

1274 Resilience Grit and Intrinsic Motivation Are Predictors of Better Studying Results among First-year Cadets in the Cadet Basic Training Course

Authors: Rosita Kanapeckaite


Every year, some candidates who enroll in Generolas Jonas Zemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania do not complete a basic seven weeks cadet course and leave the Academy. Experience in other countries shows that psychological resilience grit and intrinsic motivation can lead to better course completion results. We examined the psychological resilience grit and intrinsic motivation as predictors of better results among newcomers who participate in the Cadet Basic Training (CBT) course. Based on past research and theory of other countries' military academies, we expected that resilience grit, and intrinsic motivation would predict performance in the Cadet Basic Training course. Results of regression analyses revealed that resilience and grit can predict better course results, but intrinsic motivation can not predict retention. These findings suggest that resilience and grit assessment and training may prove valuable in enhancing performance and retention within military training environments.

Keywords: military, intrinsic motivation, grit, resilience

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1273 The Influence of Intrinsic Motivation on the Second Language Learners’ Writing Skill: The Case of Third Year Students of English at Constantine 1 University

Authors: Chadia Nasri


Researches in the field of foreign language learning have indicated the importance of the mastery of the four language skills; speaking, listening, writing and reading. As far as writing is concerned, recent studies have shown that this skill is unavoidable for learning a second language successfully. Writing is characterized as a complex system not easy to achieve. Writing has been proved to be affected by a variety of factors, particularly psychological ones; anxiety, intrinsic motivation, aptitude, etc. Intrinsic motivation is said to be the most influential factors in the foreign language learning process and is considered as the key factor for success. To investigate these two aspects; writing and intrinsic motivation, and the positive correlation between them, our hypothesis is designed on the basis that the degree of learners’ intrinsic motivation helps in facilitating their engagement in the writing tasks. Two questionnaires, one for teachers and the other for students, have been carried out to check the validity of the research hypothesis. As for the teachers’ questionnaire, the results have indicated their awareness of the importance of intrinsic motivation in the learning process and the role it plays in the mastery of their students’ writing skill. In addition, teachers have mentioned various procedures aiming at raising their students’ intrinsic motivation to write. The students’ questionnaire, on the other hand, has investigated students’ reasons for learning a foreign language with regard to their attitudes towards writing as an important skill that they need to master. Their answers to the questionnaire together with the marks they got in the second term test they have had in the writing module have been compared to see whether students’ writing proficiency can be determined by the degree of their intrinsic motivation. The comparison of the collected data has shown the positive correlation between both aspects.

Keywords: foreign language learning, intrinsic motivation, motivation, writing proficiency

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1272 Emerging Dimensions of Intrinsic Motivation for Effective Performance

Authors: Prachi Bhatt


Motivated workforce is an important asset of an organisation. Intrinsic motivation is one of the key aspects of people operations and performance. Researches have emphasized the significance of internal factors in individuals’ motivation. In the changing business scenario, it is a challenge for the organizations’ leaders to inspire and motivate their workforce. The present study deals with the intrinsic motivation potential of an individual which govern the innate capability of an individual driving him or her to behave or perform in the changing work environment, tasks, teams. Differences at individual level significantly influence differences in levels of motivation. In the above context, the present research attempts to explore behavioral trait dimensions which influence motivational potential of an individual. The present research emphasizes the significance of intrinsic motivational potential and the significance of exploring the differences in the intrinsic motivational potential levels of individuals at work places. Thus, this paper empirically tests the framework of behavioral traits which affects motivational potential of an individual. With the help of two studies i.e., Study 1 and Study 2, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, respectively, indicated a reliable measure assessing intrinsic motivational potential of an individual. Given the variety of challenges of motivating contemporary workforce, and with increasing importance of intrinsic motivation, the paper discusses the relevance of the findings and of the measure assessing intrinsic motivational potential. Assessment of such behavioral traits would assist in the effective realization of intrinsic motivational potential of individuals. Additionally, the paper discusses the practical implications and furnishes scope for future research.

Keywords: behavioral traits, individual differences, intrinsic motivational potential, intrinsic motivation, motivation, workplace motivation

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1271 Teacher-Student Relationship and Achievement in Chinese: Potential Mediating Effects of Motivation

Authors: Yuan Liu, Hongyun Liu


Teacher-student relationship plays an important role on facilitating students’ learning behavior, school engagement, and academic outcomes. It is believed that good relationship will enhance the human agency—the intrinsic motivation—mainly through the strengthening of autonomic support, feeling of relatedness, and the individual’s competence to increase the academic outcomes. This is in line with self-determination theory (SDT), which generally views that the intrinsic motivation imbedded with human basic needs is one of the most important factors that would lead to better school engagement, academic outcomes, and well-being. Based on SDT, the present study explored the relation of among teacher-student relationship (teacher’s encouragement, respect), students’ motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic), and achievement outcomes. The study was based on a large scale academic assessment and questionnaire survey conducted by the Center for Assessment and Improvement of Basic Education Quality in Mainland China (2013) on Grade 8 students. The results indicated that intrinsic motivation mediated the relation between teacher-student relationship and academic achievement outcomes.

Keywords: teacher-student relationship, intrinsic motivation, academic achievement, mediation

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1270 Effects of Gamification on Lower Secondary School Students’ Motivation and Engagement

Authors: Goh Yung Hong, Mona Masood


This paper explores the effects of gamification on lower secondary school students’ motivation and engagement in the classroom. Two-group posttest-only experimental design were employed to study the influence of gamification teaching method (GTM) when compared with conventional teaching method (CTM) on 60 lower secondary school students. The Student Engagement Instrument (SEI) and Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) were used to assess students’ intrinsic motivation and engagement level towards the respective teaching method. Finding indicates that students who completed the GTM lesson were significantly higher in intrinsic motivation to learn than those from the CTM. Although the result were insignificant and only marginal difference in the engagement mean, GTM still show better potential in raising student’s engagement in class when compared with CTM. This finding proves that the GTM is likely to solve the current issue of low motivation to learn and low engagement in class among lower secondary school students in Malaysia. On the other hand, despite being not significant, higher mean indicates that CTM positively contribute to higher peer support for learning and better teacher and student relationship when compared with GTM. As a conclusion, gamification approach is flexible and can be adapted into many learning content to enhance the intrinsic motivation to learn and to some extent, encourage better student engagement in class.

Keywords: conventional teaching method, gamification teaching method, motivation, engagement

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1269 Active Learning Role on Strategic I-Map Thinking in Developing Reasoning Thinking and the Intrinsic-Motivation Orientation

Authors: Khaled Alotaibi


This paper deals with developing reasoning thinking and the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation for learning, and enhancing the academic achievement of a sample of students at Teachers' College in King Saud University. The study sample included 58 students who were divided randomly into two groups; one was an experimental group with 20 students and the other was a control group with 22 students. The following tools were used: e-courses by using I-map, Reasoning Thinking Tes, questionnaire to measure the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation for learning and an academic achievement test. Experimental group was taught using e-courses by using I-map, while the control group was taught by using traditional education. The results showed that: - There were no statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in Reasoning thinking skills. - There were statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation for learning in favor of the experimental group. - There were statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in academic achievement in favor of the experimental group.

Keywords: reasoning, thinking, intrinsic motivation, active learning

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1268 Teacher Trainers’ Motivation in Transformation of Teaching and Learning: The Fun Way Approach

Authors: Malathi Balakrishnan, Gananthan M. Nadarajah, Noraini Abd Rahim, Amy Wong On Mei


The purpose of the study is to investigate the level of intrinsic motivation of trainers after attending a Continuous Professional Development Course (CPD) organized by Institute of Teacher Training Malaysia titled, ‘Transformation of Teaching and Learning the Fun Way’. This study employed a survey whereby 96 teacher trainers were given Situational Intrinsic Motivational Scale (SIMS) Instruments. Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out to get validity of this instrument in local setting. Data were analyzed with SPSS for descriptive statistic. Semi structured interviews were also administrated to collect qualitative data on participants experiences after participating in the two-day fun-filled program. The findings showed that the participants’ level of intrinsic motivation showed higher mean than the amotivation. The results revealed that the intrinsic motivation mean is 19.0 followed by Identified regulation with a mean of 17.4, external regulation 9.7 and amotivation 6.9. The interview data also revealed that the participants were motivated after attending this training program. It can be concluded that this program, which was organized by Institute of Teacher Training Malaysia, was able to enhance participants’ level of motivation. Self-Determination Theory (SDT) as a multidimensional approach to motivation was utilized. Therefore, teacher trainers may have more success using the ‘The fun way approach’ in conducting training program in future.

Keywords: teaching and learning, motivation, teacher trainer, SDT

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1267 Predictive Relationship between Motivation Strategies and Musical Creativity of Secondary School Music Students

Authors: Lucy Lugo Mawang


Educational Psychologists have highlighted the significance of creativity in education. Likewise, a fundamental objective of music education concern the development of students’ musical creativity potential. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between motivation strategies and musical creativity, and establish the prediction equation of musical creativity. The study used purposive sampling and census to select 201 fourth-form music students (139 females/ 62 males), mainly from public secondary schools in Kenya. The mean age of participants was 17.24 years (SD = .78). Framed upon self- determination theory and the dichotomous model of achievement motivation, the study adopted an ex post facto research design. A self-report measure, the Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R) was used in data collection for the independent variable. Musical creativity was based on a creative music composition task and measured by the Consensual Musical Creativity Assessment Scale (CMCAS). Data collected in two separate sessions within an interval of one month. The questionnaire was administered in the first session, lasting approximately 20 minutes. The second session was for notation of participants’ creative composition. The results indicated a positive correlation r(199) = .39, p ˂ .01 between musical creativity and intrinsic music motivation. Conversely, negative correlation r(199) = -.19, p < .01 was observed between musical creativity and extrinsic music motivation. The equation for predicting musical creativity from music motivation strategies was significant F(2, 198) = 20.8, p < .01, with R2 = .17. Motivation strategies accounted for approximately (17%) of the variance in participants’ musical creativity. Intrinsic music motivation had the highest significant predictive value (β = .38, p ˂ .01) on musical creativity. In the exploratory analysis, a significant mean difference t(118) = 4.59, p ˂ .01 in musical creativity for intrinsic and extrinsic music motivation was observed in favour of intrinsically motivated participants. Further, a significant gender difference t(93.47) = 4.31, p ˂ .01 in musical creativity was observed, with male participants scoring higher than females. However, there was no significant difference in participants’ musical creativity based on age. The study recommended that music educators should strive to enhance intrinsic music motivation among students. Specifically, schools should create conducive environments and have interventions for the development of intrinsic music motivation since it is the most facilitative motivation strategy in predicting musical creativity.

Keywords: extrinsic music motivation, intrinsic music motivation, musical creativity, music composition

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1266 Physics Motivation and Research: Understanding the 21st Century Learners of Today

Authors: Von Anthony G. Torio


Motivation and research are significant determinants of a student’s success in the school and in future careers. This study aimed to give a picture of the physics motivation of students in a tertiary level institution, as well as their research area and working preference, to create a picture of the nature of the representative youths of today. It was found that male students have higher motivation than female students in all components of motivation with intrinsic motivation leading the six components of motivation. In addition, male students (M = 4.27; SD = 0.74) were found to have significantly higher motivation as compared to female students (M = 3.77; SD = 0.89) with a computed t(64) value of 2.41 with p < 0.05 and Cohen’s d of 0.61. The students’ preference to work in groups of three rather than working individually suggests that students of the batch have small working groups that they depend on rather than working alone. The majority of the students also preferred conducting studies on the social sciences.

Keywords: motivation, physics, research, physics motivation, physics education, Philippines

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1265 Searching the Relationship among Components that Contribute to Interactive Plight and Educational Execution

Authors: Shri Krishna Mishra


In an educational context, technology can prompt interactive plight only when it is used in conjunction with interactive plight methods. This study, therefore, examines the relationships among components that contribute to higher levels of interactive plight and execution, such as interactive Plight methods, technology, intrinsic motivation and deep learning. 526 students participated in this study. With structural equation modelling, the authors test the conceptual model and identify satisfactory model fit. The results indicate that interactive Plight methods, technology and intrinsic motivation have significant relationship with interactive Plight; deep learning mediates the relationships of the other variables with Execution.

Keywords: searching the relationship among components, contribute to interactive plight, educational execution, intrinsic motivation

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1264 ARCS Model for Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation in Learning Biodiversity Subjects: A Case Study of Tertiary Level Students in Malaysia

Authors: Nadia Nisha Musa, Nur Atirah Hasmi, Hasnun Nita Ismail, Zulfadli Mahfodz


In Malaysian Education System, subject related to biodiversity has started in the curriculum from Foundation Study until tertiary education. Biodiversity become the focus of attention due to awareness on global warming which potentially leads to a loss of biodiversity. A loss in biodiversity means a loss in medicinal discoveries and reduces food supply. It is of great important to ensure that young generations become aware of biodiversity conservation. The more interactive approaches are needed to build society with a high awareness for biodiversity conservation. To address this challenge, the goal of this study is to enhance intrinsic motivation of biological students via ARCS model of instruction. Self-access learning materials such as tutorial, module and fieldwork were designed with ARCS elements to a sample size of 70 university students from the beginning of the semester. Both paper and online surveys were used to collect data from the respondents. The results showed that elements of attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction have a positive impact on intrinsic motivation of students and their academic performance.

Keywords: intrinsic motivation, ARCS model of instruction, biodiversity, self-access learning

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1263 Reading Out of Curiosity: Making Undergraduates Competent in English

Authors: Ruwan Gunawardane


Second language teaching and learning is a complex process in which various factors are identified as having a negative impact on the competency in English among undergraduates of Sri Lanka. One such issue is the lack of intrinsic motivation among them to learn English despite the fact that they all know the importance of English. This study attempted to ascertain how the intrinsic motivation of undergraduates to learn English can be improved through reading out of curiosity. Humans are curious by nature, and cognitive psychology says that curiosity facilitates learning, memory, and motivation. The researcher carried out this study during the closure of universities due to the outbreak of the coronavirus through ‘Online Reading Café’, an online reading programme introduced by himself. He invited 1166 students of the Faculty of Science, University of Ruhuna, to read 50 articles taken from CNN and the BBC and posted at least two to three articles on the LMS of the faculty almost every day over a period of 23 days. The themes of the articles were based on the universe, exploration of planets, scientific experiments, evolution, etc., and the students were encouraged to collect as many words, phrases, and sentence structures as possible while reading and to form meaningful sentences using them. The data obtained through the students’ feedback was qualitatively analyzed. It was found that these undergraduates were interested in reading something out of curiosity, due to which intrinsic motivation is enhanced, and it facilitates competence in L2.

Keywords: English, competence, reading, curiosity

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1262 How to Reconcile Financial Incentives and Pro-Social Motivations of Loan Officers in Microfinance?

Authors: Julie De Pril, Cécile Godfroid


Nowadays, achieving double bottom line has become a widely recognized objective for microfinance institutions (MFIs). They would like to be financially sustainable or even profitable while continuing to focus on their social mission. In order to rise their financial performance, MFIs tend to grant financial bonuses to loan officers so that they increase their performance and efficiency. However, as argued by motivation crowding theory, monetary rewards may not have only positive effects but can also erode intrinsic motivation. Since MFIs pursue social objectives in addition to their financial ones, their employees’ intrinsic motivations may include the willingness to help others, like in many non-profit organizations. This is called pro-social motivation in the psychology literature. Particularly, this type of motivation should be highly reflected among microfinance loan officers as a part of their role consists in improving clients’ welfare. Therefore, it seems to be crucial for MFIs to find an equilibrium between the efficiency benefits obtained thanks to the granting of financial incentives and the deterioration of social performance that may result from the reduction of the loan officers’ pro-social motivation. This paper attempts to suggest, with a mathematical model, an optimal incentive scheme MFIs could rely on.

Keywords: loan officers, microfinance, prosocial motivation, rewards

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1261 The Implementation of Self-Determination Theory on the Opportunities and Challenges for Blended E-Learning in Motivating Egyptian Logistics Learners

Authors: Aisha Noour, Nick Hubbard


Learner motivation is considered an important premise for the Blended e-Learning (BL) method. BL is an effective learning method in multiple domains, which opens several opportunities for its participants to engage in the learning environment. This research explores the learners’ perspective of BL according to the Self-Determination Theory (SDT). It identifies the opportunities and challenges for using the BL in Logistics Education (LE) in Egyptian Higher Education (HE). SDT is approached from different perspectives within the relationship between Intrinsic Motivation (IM), Extrinsic Motivation (EM) and Amotivation (AM). A self-administered face-to-face questionnaire was used to collect data from learners who were geographically widely spread around three colleges of International Transport and Logistics (CILTs) at the Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport (AAST&MT) in Egypt. Six hundred and sixteen undergraduates responded to a questionnaire survey. Respondents were drawn from three branches in Greater Cairo, Alexandria, and Port Said. The data analysis used was SPSS 22 and AMOS 18.

Keywords: intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation, blended e-learning, Self Determination Theory

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1260 Impact of Leadership Styles on Work Motivation and Organizational Commitment among Faculty Members of Public Sector Universities in Punjab

Authors: Wajeeha Shahid


The study was designed to assess the impact of transformational and transactional leadership styles on work motivation and organizational commitment among faculty members of universities of Punjab. 713 faculty members were selected as sample through convenient random sampling technique. Three self-constructed questionnaires namely Leadership Styles Questionnaire (LSQ), Work Motivation Questionnaire (WMQ) and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCMQ) were used as research instruments. Major objectives of the study included assessing the effect and impact of transformational and transactional leadership styles on work motivation and organizational commitment. Theoretical frame work of the study included Idealized Influence, Inspirational Motivation, Intellectual Stimulation, Individualized Consideration, Contingent Rewards and Management by Exception as independent variables and Extrinsic motivation, Intrinsic motivation, Affective commitment, Continuance commitment and Normative commitment as dependent variables. SPSS Version 21 was used to analyze and tabulate data. Cronbach's Alpha reliability, Pearson Correlation and Multiple regression analysis were applied as statistical treatments for the analysis. Results revealed that Idealized Influence correlated significantly with intrinsic motivation and Affective commitment whereas Contingent rewards had a strong positive correlation with extrinsic motivation and affective commitment. Multiple regression models revealed a variance of 85% for transformational leadership style over work motivation and organizational commitment. Whereas transactional style as a predictor manifested a variance of 79% for work motivation and 76% for organizational commitment. It was suggested that changing organizational cultures are demanding more from their leadership. All organizations need to consider transformational leadership style as an important part of their equipment in leveraging both soft and hard organizational targets.

Keywords: leadership styles, work motivation, organizational commitment, faculty member

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1259 Intrinsic Motivational Factor of Students in Learning Mathematics and Science Based on Electroencephalogram Signals

Authors: Norzaliza Md. Nor, Sh-Hussain Salleh, Mahyar Hamedi, Hadrina Hussain, Wahab Abdul Rahman


Motivational factor is mainly the students’ desire to involve in learning process. However, it also depends on the goal towards their involvement or non-involvement in academic activity. Even though, the students’ motivation might be in the same level, but the basis of their motivation may differ. In this study, it focuses on the intrinsic motivational factor which student enjoy learning or feeling of accomplishment the activity or study for its own sake. The intrinsic motivational factor of students in learning mathematics and science has found as difficult to be achieved because it depends on students’ interest. In the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) for mathematics and science, Malaysia is ranked as third lowest. The main problem in Malaysian educational system, students tend to have extrinsic motivation which they have to score in exam in order to achieve a good result and enrolled as university students. The use of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals has found to be scarce especially to identify the students’ intrinsic motivational factor in learning science and mathematics. In this research study, we are identifying the correlation between precursor emotion and its dynamic emotion to verify the intrinsic motivational factor of students in learning mathematics and science. The 2-D Affective Space Model (ASM) was used in this research in order to identify the relationship of precursor emotion and its dynamic emotion based on the four basic emotions, happy, calm, fear and sad. These four basic emotions are required to be used as reference stimuli. Then, in order to capture the brain waves, EEG device was used, while Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC) was adopted to be used for extracting the features before it will be feed to Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) to classify the valence and arousal axes for the ASM. The results show that the precursor emotion had an influence the dynamic emotions and it identifies that most students have no interest in mathematics and science according to the negative emotion (sad and fear) appear in the EEG signals. We hope that these results can help us further relate the behavior and intrinsic motivational factor of students towards learning of mathematics and science.

Keywords: EEG, MLP, MFCC, intrinsic motivational factor

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1258 Relationships between Motivation Factors and English Language Proficiency of the Faculty of Management Sciences Students

Authors: Kawinphat Lertpongmanee


The purposes of this study were (1) investigate the English language learning motivation and the attainment of their English proficiency, (2) to find out how motivation and motivational variables of the high and low proficiency subjects are related to their English proficiency. The respondents were 80 fourth-year from Faculty of Management Sciences students in Rajabhat Suansunadha University. The instruments used for data collection were questionnaires. The statistically analyzed by using the SPSS program for frequency, percentage, arithmetic mean, standard deviation (SD), t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Pearson correlation coefficient. The findings of this study are summarized as there was a significant difference in overall motivation between high and low proficiency groups of subjects at .05 (p < .05), but not in overall motivational variables. Additionally, the high proficiency group had a significantly higher level of intrinsic motivation than did the low proficiency group at .05 (p < .05).

Keywords: English language proficiency, faculty of management sciences, motivation factors, proficiency subjects

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1257 Testing a Motivational Model of Physical Education on Contextual Outcomes and Total Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity of Middle School Students

Authors: Arto Grasten


Given the rising trend in obesity in children and youth, age-related decline in moderate- to- vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) in several Western, African, and Asian countries in addition to limited evidence of behavioral, affective, cognitive outcomes in physical education, it is important to clarify the motivational processes in physical education classes behind total MVPA engagement. The present study examined the full sequence of the Hierarchical Model of Motivation in physical education including motivational climate, basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation, contextual behavior, affect, cognition, total MVPA, and associated links to body mass index (BMI) and gender differences. A cross-sectional data comprised self-reports and objective assessments of 770 middle school students (Mage = 13.99 ± .81 years, 52% of girls) in North-East Finland. In order to test the associations between motivational climate, psychological needs, intrinsic motivation, cognition, behavior, affect, and total MVPA, a path model was implemented. Indirect effects between motivational climate and cognition, behavior, affect and total MVPA were tested by setting basic needs and intrinsic motivation as mediators into the model. The findings showed that direct and indirect paths for girls and boys associated with different contextual outcomes and girls’ indirect paths were not related with total MVPA. Precisely, task-involving climate-mediated by physical competence and intrinsic motivation related to enjoyment, importance, and graded assessments within girls, whereas task-involving climate associated with enjoyment and importance via competence and autonomy, and total MVPA via autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and importance within boys. Physical education assessments appeared to be essential in motivating students to participate in greater total MVPA. BMI was negatively linked with competence and relatedness only among girls. Although, the current and previous empirical findings supported task-involving teaching methods in physical education, in some cases, ego-involving climate should not be totally avoided. This may indicate that girls and boys perceive physical education classes in a different way. Therefore, both task- and ego-involving teaching practices can be useful ways of driving behavior in physical education classes.

Keywords: achievement goal theory, assessment, enjoyment, hierarchical model of motivation, physical activity, self-determination theory

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1256 Servant Leadership, Motivation and Work Engagement at an International South African- based Engineering Organization

Authors: Marita Heyns, Sean McCallaghan, Ruan Pekelharing


Organizations are continuously looking at ways to enhance employee motivation and work engagement. This is mainly due to the personal and organizational advantages associated with enhanced motivation and engaged employees. A solution might be found in servant leadership. Servant leadership has shown to be an essential leadership style during times of uncertainty, change and places a high value on ethics and morality. However, research remains unenthusiastic to examine the indirect effect of motivation on the relationship between servant leadership and work engagement. Consequently, the primary objective of the research article was to examine servant leadership, motivation and work engagement at an engineering organization with an international footprint based in the economic hub of South Africa. The quantitative cross-sectional study collected 128 responses from a convenience sample. Participants completed measures through the Servant Leadership Survey, motivation through the Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivational scale and work engagement with the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. The statistical analysis included descriptive and reliability statistics, correlation analysis and a simple mediation model using the PROCESS macros. Servant leadership, motivation and work engagement are positively associated. The results indicated that an improvement of servant leadership further would improve motivation levels, and work engagement had a significant direct effect on motivation and work engagement. Motivation demonstrated a significant indirect effect on the relationship between servant leadership and work engagement. The study concludes that servant leadership is an essential contributor towards work engagement, and motivation would further enhance such a relationship.

Keywords: motivation, servant leadership, work engagement, South Africa

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1255 Self-Disclosure of Location: Influences of Personality Traits, Intrinsic Motivations and Extrinsic Motivations

Authors: Chechen Liao, Sheng Yi Lin


With the popularity of smartphone usage and the flourish of social networks, many people began to use the 'check-in' functions to share their location information and days of live and self-disclosure. In order to increase exposure and awareness, some stores provide discounts and other benefits to attract consumers to 'check-in' in their stores. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether personality traits, intrinsic motivations, extrinsic motivations, and privacy concerns would affect self-disclosure of location for consumers. Research data were collected from 407 individuals that have used Facebook check-in in Taiwan. This study used SmartPLS 2.0 structural equation modeling to validate the model. The results show that information sharing, information storage, enjoyment, self-presentation, get a feedback, economic reward, and keep up with trends had significant positive effects on self-disclosure. While extroversion and openness to use have significant positive effects on self-disclosure, conscientiousness and privacy concerns have significant negative effects on self-disclosure. The results of the study provide academic and practical implications for the future growth of location-based self-disclosure.

Keywords: check-in, extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, personality trait, self-disclosure

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1254 Organizational Innovativeness: Motivation in Employee’s Innovative Work Behaviors

Authors: P. T. Ngan


Purpose: The study aims to answer the question what are motivational conditions that have great influences on employees’ innovative work behaviors by investigating the case of SATAMANKULMA/ Anya Productions Ky in Kuopio, Finland. Design/methodology: The main methodology utilized was the qualitative single case study research, analysis was conducted with an adapted thematic content analysis procedure, created from empirical material that was collected through interviews, observation and document review. Findings: The paper highlights the significance of combining relevant synergistic extrinsic and intrinsic motivations into the organizational motivation system. The findings show that intrinsic drives are essential for the initiation phases while extrinsic drives are more important for the implementation phases of innovative work behaviors. The study also offers the IDEA motivation model-interpersonal relationships & networks, development opportunities, economic constituent and application supports as an ideal tool to optimize business performance. Practical limitations/ implications: The research was only conducted from the perspective of SATAMANKULMA/Anya Productions Ky, with five interviews, a few observations and with several reviewed documents. However, further research is required to include other stakeholders, such as the customers, partner companies etc. Also the study does not offer statistical validity of the findings; an extensive case study or a qualitative multiple case study is suggested to compare the findings and provide information as to whether IDEA model relevant in other types of firms. Originality/value: Neither the innovation nor the human resource management field provides a detailed overview of specific motivational conditions might use to stimulate innovative work behaviors of individual employees. This paper fills that void.

Keywords: employee innovative work behaviors, extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, organizational innovativeness

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1253 The English Classroom: Scope and Space for Motivation

Authors: Madhavi Godavarthy


The globalized world has been witnessing the ubiquity of the English language and has made it mandatory that students be equipped with the required Communication and soft skills. For students and especially for students studying in technical streams, gaining command over the English language is only a part of the bigger challenges they will face in the future. Linguistic capabilities if blended with the right attitude and a positive personality would deliver better results in the present environment of the digitalized world. An English classroom has that ‘space’; a space if utilized well by the teacher can pay rich dividends. The prescribed syllabus for English in the process of adapting itself to the challenges of a more and more technical world has meted out an indifferent treatment in including ‘literary’ material in their curriculum. A debate has always existed regarding the same and diversified opinions have been given. When the student is motivated to reach Literature through intrinsic motivation, it may contribute to his/her personality-development. In the present paper, the element of focus is on the scope and space to motivate students by creating a specific space for herself/himself amidst the schedules of the teaching-learning processes by taking into consideration a few literary excerpts for the purpose.

Keywords: English language, teaching and learning process, reader response theory, intrinsic motivation, literary texts

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1252 The Role of the Method of Conception in Description of Intensity and Type of Motivation for Parenthood

Authors: Mila Radovanovic, Jovana Jestrovic, Ivana Mihic


Deciding whether to have a child is a complex psychological process, and the child's birth is an everlasting change in the life of the family. Researchers from all over the world have been recognized the importance of the motivation for parenthood in latter family life, but there is no very clear picture of factors which make the difference in this motivation. One of these factors can be the method of conception and results of the earlier studies are different- some showed the differences, but the others did not. The aim of this study was to determine the type and intensity of motivation for parenting among women in Serbia and to examine whether there are differences in motivation depend on the method of conception. The total sample consisted of 94 women- 57 pregnant women who conceive naturally and the same number of women in the process of in vitro fertilization, who still haven’t known the final result of the process- are they pregnant or no. The Child Study Inventory, which estimates four types of motivation for parenthood- altruistic, instrumental, narcissistic and fatalistic-was used for this purpose. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to answer the main question of the study. The results indicate that there is no statistically significant difference between the two groups of women, while the most common is the altruistic motivation that emphasizes the psychological value of the child, and sees the motivation for parenting as a desire to give love to the child. The results are encouraging because altruistic motivation is intrinsic one and the protective factor for latter family relations and care about child and sensitivity of parents. Altruistic motivation is showed like a good predictor in developing stable emotional relationship between mother and her baby but also is correlated with the higher satisfaction with marriage.

Keywords: development of parental role, in vitro fertilization, motivation for parenthood, pregnancy

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1251 Assessing Student Attitudes toward Graded Readers, MReader and the MReader Challenge

Authors: Catherine Cheetam, Alan Harper, Melody Elliott, Mika Ito


This paper describes a pilot study conducted with English as a foreign language (EFL) students at a private university in Japan who used graded readers and the MReader website in class or independently to enhance their English reading skills. Each semester students who read 100,000 words with MReader quizzes passed enter into the ‘MReader Challenge,’ a reading contest that recognizes students for their achievement. The study focused specifically on the attitudes of thirty-six EFL students who successfully completed the Challenge in the 2015 spring semester using graded readers and MReader, and their motivation to continue using English in the future. The attitudes of these students were measured using their responses to statements on a Likert scaled survey. Follow-up semi-structured interviews were conducted with eleven students to gain additional insight into their opinions. The results from this study suggest that reading graded readers in general promoted intrinsic motivation among a majority of the participants. This study is preliminary and needs to be expanded and continued to assess the lasting impact of the extensive reading program. Limitations and future directions of the study are also summarized and discussed.

Keywords: attitudes, extensive, intrinsic, methodolgies, motivation, reading

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1250 Effect of Facilitation in a Problem-Based Environment on the Metacognition, Motivation and Self-Directed Learning in Nursing: A Quasi-Experimental Study among Nurse Students in Tanzania

Authors: Walter M. Millanzi, Stephen M. Kibusi


Background: Currently, there has been a progressive shortage not only to the number but also the quality of medical practitioners for the most of nursing. Despite that, those who are present exhibit unethical and illegal practices, under standard care and malpractices. The concern is raised in the ways they are prepared, or there might be something missing in nursing curricula or how it is delivered. There is a need for transforming or testing new teaching modalities to enhance competent health workforces. Objective: to investigate the Effect of Facilitation in a Problem-based Environment (FPBE) on metacognition, self-directed learning and learning motivation to undergraduate nurse student in Tanzanian higher learning institutions. Methods: quasi-experimental study (quantitative research approach). A purposive sampling technique was employed to select institutions and achieving a sample size of 401 participants (interventional = 134 and control = 267). Self-administered semi-structured questionnaire; was the main data collection methods and the Statistical Package for Service Solution (v. 20) software program was used for data entry, data analysis, and presentations. Results: The pre-post test results between groups indicated noticeably significant change on metacognition in an intervention (M = 1.52, SD = 0.501) against the control (M = 1.40, SD = 0.490), t (399) = 2.398, p < 0.05). SDL in an intervention (M = 1.52, SD = 0.501) against the control (M = 1.40, SD = 0.490), t (399) = 2.398, p < 0.05. Motivation to learn in an intervention (M = 62.67, SD = 14.14) and the control (n = 267, M = 57.75), t (399) = 2.907, p < 0.01). A FPBE teaching pedagogy, was observed to be effective on the metacognition (AOR = 1.603, p < 0.05), SDL (OR = 1.729, p < 0.05) and Intrinsic motivation in learning (AOR = 1.720, p < 0.05) against conventional teaching pedagogy. Needless, was less likely to enhance Extrinsic motivation (AOR = 0.676, p > 0.05) and Amotivation (AOR = 0.538, p > 0.05). Conclusion and recommendation: FPBE teaching pedagogy, can improve student’s metacognition, self-directed learning and intrinsic motivation to learn among nurse students. Nursing curricula developers should incorporate it to produce 21st century competent and qualified nurses.

Keywords: facilitation, metacognition, motivation, self-directed

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1249 The Use of Self-Determination Theory to Assess the Opportunities and Challenges for Blended E-Learning in Egypt: An Analysis of the Motivations of Logistics Lecturers

Authors: Aisha Tarek Noour, Nick Hubbard


Blended e-Learning (BL) is proving to be an effective pedagogical tool in many areas of business and management education, but there remains a number of barriers to overcome before its implementation. This paper seeks to analyse the views of lecturers towards BL according to Self-Determination Theory (SDT), and identifies the opportunities and challenges for using BL in Logistics Education in an Egyptian higher education establishment. SDT is approached from a different perspective and the relationship between intrinsic motivation (IM), extrinsic motivation (EM), and amotivation (AM) is analysed and related to the opportunities and challenges of the BL method. The case study methodology comprises of a series of interviews with lecturers employed at three Colleges of International Transport and Logistics (CITLs) at the Arab Academy for Science, Technology, Maritime and Transport (AAST&MT) in Egypt. A structured face-to-face interview was undertaken with 61 interviewees across all faculty positions: Deans, Associate Professors, Assistant Professor, Department Heads, Part-time instructors, Teaching Assistants, and Graduate Teaching Assistants. The findings were based on "content analysis" of the interview transcripts and use of the NVivo10 software program. The research contributes to the application of SDT within the field of BL through an analysis of the views of lecturers towards the opportunities and challenges that BL offers to logistics educators in Egypt.

Keywords: intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation, autonomy, competence, relatedness, self-determination theory and blended e-learning

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1248 Impact of Financial and Non-Financial Motivation on Motivating Employees

Authors: Al-Yaqdhan Al-Rawahi, Kaneez Fatima Sadriwala


The purpose of this paper is to discover the readiness of Civil Service Employee Pension Fund (CSEPF), a governmental organization, in motivating its staff. Exploratory survey has been conducted in order to extract needed information. For this purpose we proposed a questionnaire to understand staff viewpoint of motivation. Data was analyzed by using SPSS 15.0 for Windowsand Excel. Major results prove that good working conditions is the most important factor of staff and sympathetic help with personal problem is the least important one. Also the relationship between financial motivation and employee motivation is very weak, whereas with non-financial motivation and employee motivation is moderate. Future research may focus on studying all departments of CSEPF.

Keywords: financial motivation, non-financial motivation, employee motivation

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1247 Knowledge Management and Motivation Management: Important Constituents of Firm Performance

Authors: Yassir Mahmood, Nadia Ehsan


In current research stream, empirical work regarding knowledge and motivation management along their dimensions is sparse. This study partially filled this void by investigating the influence of knowledge management (tacit and explicit) and motivation management (intrinsic and extrinsic) on firm performance with the mediating effects of innovative performance. Based on the quantitative research method, data were collected through questionnaire from 284 employees working in 18 different firms across the citrus industry located in Sargodha region (Pakistan). The proposed relationships were tested through regression analysis while mediation relations were analyzed through Barron and Kenny (1986) technique. The results suggested that knowledge management (KM) and motivation management (MM) have significant positive impacts on innovative performance (IP). In addition, the role of IP as full mediator between KM and firm performance (FP) is confirmed. Also, IP proved to be a partial mediator between MM and FP. From the managerial perspective, the findings of the study are vital as some of the important constituents of FP have been highlighted. The study produced important underpinnings for managers. In last, implications for policymakers along with future research directions are discussed.

Keywords: innovative performance, firm performance, knowledge management, motivation management, Sargodha

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1246 The Teacher’s Role in Generating and Maintaining the Motivation of Adult Learners of English: A Mixed Methods Study in Hungarian Corporate Contexts

Authors: Csaba Kalman


In spite of the existence of numerous second language (L2) motivation theories, the teacher’s role in motivating learners has remained an under-researched niche to this day. If we narrow down our focus on the teacher’s role on motivating adult learners of English in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context in corporate environments, empirical research is practically non-existent. This study fills the above research niche by exploring the most motivating aspects of the teacher’s personality, behaviour, and teaching practices that affect adult learners’ L2 motivation in corporate contexts in Hungary. The study was conducted in a wide range of industries in 18 organisations that employ over 250 people in Hungary. In order to triangulate the research, 21 human resources managers, 18 language teachers, and 466 adult learners of English were involved in the investigation by participating in interview studies, and quantitative questionnaire studies that measured ten scales related to the teacher’s role, as well as two criterion measure scales of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The qualitative data were analysed using a template organising style, while descriptive, inferential statistics, as well as multivariate statistical techniques, such as correlation and regression analyses, were used for analysing the quantitative data. The results showed that certain aspects of the teacher’s personality (thoroughness, enthusiasm, credibility, and flexibility), as well as preparedness, incorporating English for Specific Purposes (ESP) in the syllabus, and focusing on the present, proved to be the most salient aspects of the teacher’s motivating influence. The regression analyses conducted with the criterion measure scales revealed that 22% of the variance in learners’ intrinsic motivation could be explained by the teacher’s preparedness and appearance, and 23% of the variance in learners’ extrinsic motivation could be attributed to the teacher’s personal branding and incorporating ESP in the syllabus. The findings confirm the pivotal role teachers play in motivating L2 learners independent of the context they teach in; and, at the same time, call for further research so that we can better conceptualise the motivating influence of L2 teachers.

Keywords: adult learners, corporate contexts, motivation, teacher’s role

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1245 Enhancing EFL Learners' Motivation and Classroom Interaction through Self-Disclosure in Moroccan Higher Education

Authors: Mohsine Jebbour


Motivation and classroom interaction are of prime significance for second/foreign language learning to take place effectively. Thus, a considerable amount of motivation and classroom interaction helps ensure students’ success in and continuation of learning the TL. One way to enhance students’ motivation and classroom interaction in the Moroccan EFL classroom then is through the use of self-disclosure. For the purposes of this study, self-disclosure has been defined as the verbal communication of positive personal information including opinions, feelings, experiences, family and friendship stories to classmates and teachers. This paper is meant to demonstrate that positive self-disclosure can serve as an effective tool for helping students develop favorable attitudes toward the EFL classroom (i.e., English courses, teacher of English, and classroom activities) and promoting their intrinsic motivation (IM to know and IM toward stimulation). A further objective is that since self-disclosure is reciprocal, when teachers of English reveal their personal information, students will uncover their personal matters in return. This will help ensure effective classroom participation, foster teacher-student communication, and encourage students to practice and hence improve their oral proficiency (i.e., the speaking skill). A questionnaire was used to collect data in this study. 164 undergraduate students (99 females and 65 males) from the department of English at the faculty of letters and humanities, Dher el Mehraz, Sidi Mohammed Ben Abd Allah University completed a questionnaire that assessed self-disclosure in relation to motivation (i.e., attitudes toward the learning situation and intrinsic motivation) and classroom interaction (i.e., teacher-student interaction, participation, and out-of-class communication) on a 1 to 5 scale with (1) Strongly Disagree and (5) Strongly Agree. The level of agreement on the positive dimension of self-disclosure was ranked first by the respondents. The hypothesis set at the very beginning of the study, which posited that positive self-disclosure is essential to enhancing motivation and classroom interaction in the EFL context, was confirmed. In this regard, the findings suggest that implementing self-disclosure in the Moroccan EFL classroom may serve as an effective tool to have positive affect of teacher, class and classroom activities. This in turn will encourage the learners to attend classes, enjoy the language learning activity, complete classroom assignments, participate in class discussions, and interact with their teachers and classmates. It is hoped that teachers benefit from the results of this study and hence encourage the use of positive self-disclosure to develop English language learning in the Moroccan context where opportunities of using English outside the classroom are limited.

Keywords: EFL classroom, classroom interaction, motivation, self-disclosure

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