Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3656

Search results for: cultural identity

3656 The Mediating Effect of Resilience on the Relationship between Cultural Identity and Self-Concordance among Tibetan, Han and Hui Students

Authors: Chunhua Ma

Abstract:

Background: There is a relationship between cultural identity and psychological health. Resilience is an important factor of psychological health, and cultural identity will protect the resilience. The research showed that the cultural identity, resilience, and self-concordance of students from different cultures. It should be a theoretical basis to improve mental health of different nationalities students. And the role of resilience factors for adults’ cultural identity and self-concordance was deserve studied. Aims: The current study aimed to examine the relationship between cultural identity and self-concordance among Chinese academician from 3 minorities, postulating mediating by resilience. Methods: This study used cross-sectional and correlational design. Participants were 328 Chinese aged between 18 and 25 years. Data was collected via self-reports including both closed and opened questions. Results: Linear regression analysis controlling for age, gender, the result showed that: (a) Cultural identity was related to self-concordance, resilience was related to self-concordance and cultural identity was related to resilience, (b) Resilience mediated the link between cultural identity and self-concordance, respectively. Discussion: Our findings suggested that resilience and cultural identity are important factors in self-concordance. If minority college students realized the heterogeneous culture, it would alleviate their psychological conflict, stimulate their strength potential and improve their self-concordance.

Keywords: cultural identity, resilience, self-concordance, mediating effect

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3655 On the Difference between Cultural and Religious Identities

Authors: Mputu Ngandu Simon

Abstract:

Culture and religion are two of the most significant markers of an individual or group's identity. Religion finds its expression in a given culture, and culture is the costume in which a religion is dressed. In other words, there is a crucial relationship between religion and culture which should not be ignored. On the one hand, religion influences the way in which a culture is consumed. A person's consumption of a certain cultural practice is influenced by his/her religious identity. On the other hand, cultural identity plays an important role in how a religion is practiced by its adherents. Some cultural practices become more credible when interpreted in religious terms just as religious doctrines and dogmas need cultural interpretation to be understood by a given people in a given context. This relationship goes so deep that sometimes the boundaries between culture and religion become blurred, and people end up mixing religion and culture. In some cases, the two are considered to be one and the same thing. However, despite this apparent sameness, religion and culture are two distinct aspects of identity, and they should always be considered as such. One results from knowledge, while the other has beliefs as its foundation. This essay explores the difference between cultural and religious identity by drawing from existing literature on this topic as a whole before applying that knowledge to two specific case studies: Christianity and Islam in some African and Asian countries.

Keywords: culture, religion, identity, knowledge, belief

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3654 Migration and Identity Erosion: An Exploratory Study of First Generation Nigerian-Americans

Authors: Lolade Siyonbola

Abstract:

Nigerians are often celebrated as being the most educated cultural group in America. The cultural values and history that have led to this reality are particular to a generation that came of age post colonialism. Many of these cultural values have been passed down from post-colonial parent to millennial child, but most have not. This study, based on interviews and surveys of Nigerian millennials and their parents in the United States, explores the degree to which identity has been eroded in the millennial generation due to a lack of imparted cultural values and knowledge from the previous generation. Most of the subjects do not speak their native language or identify with their cultural heritage sufficiently to build ties with their native land. Most are experiencing some degree of identity crisis, and therefore limited self-actualization, with little to no support; as there are few successful tools available to this population. If governmental programs to reverse these trends are not implemented within this generation, the implications to the individual, family and home nation (Nigeria), will be felt for generations to come.

Keywords: identity, culture, self-actualization, social identity theory, migration, transnationalism, value systems

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3653 Cultural Identity in Environmental Protection Areas of Nova Friburgo: Heritage, Tourism, and Traditions

Authors: Camila Dazzi, Crisitiane Passos de Mattos, Thiago Leite

Abstract:

The paper discusses the cultural identity of the communities located in Environmental Protection Area (APAs), in the mountainous region of Rio de Janeiro, constituted almost entirely by descendants of Swiss immigrants who arrived in Brazil in the nineteenth century. The communication is the result of an extension project named "Cultural Identity in Environmental Protection Areas of Nova Friburgo." The objectives of this project were framed in the identification of local history, cultural demonstrations, crafts, religious events, festivals, the "know-how" and traditions. While an extension project, developed by students and teachers of a Bachelor of Tourism Management program, the work provided a more practical action: awareness the communities that inhabit the APAs on the possible implementation of the cultural community-based tourism, a sustainable alternative for economic development, involving local people as propagators of local culture, and tourism as a way of valuing and safeguarding of Intangible Heritage.

Keywords: tourism and cultural heritage, tourism and cultural impacts, tourism and cultural change, cultural identity

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3652 Reflections on the Role of Cultural Identity in a Bilingual Education Program

Authors: Lina Tenjo, Ilba Rodríguez

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The role of cultural identity in bilingual programs has been barely discussed in regards to SLA. This research focuses on providing relevant information that helps in having more knowledge about the experiences that an elementary student has during the second language learning process in a bilingual program within a multicultural context. This study explores the experience of 18 students in a dual language program, in a public elementary school in Northern Virginia, USA. It examines their dual language experience and the different ways this experience contributes to the formation of their cultural identity. The findings were studied with the purpose of determining the relationship between participants and certain aspects of cultural identity in a multicultural context. The reflections that originate from the voices of children are the key source that helps us to better understand the particular needs that young learners have during their participation in a DLP.

Keywords: acculturation, bilingual education, culture, dual language program, identity, second language acquisition

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3651 Investigating Cultural Identities in Contemporary Greek Art: the Case of Greek Artists in Paris in 1980s

Authors: Sapfo Mortaki

Abstract:

Over the years, Greeks were leaving their homeland looking for better luck, including artists - painters and sculptors. Until mid-1940's, few were the ones who lived, worked, studied and were distinguished abroad. After the end of the Second World War, the group exit towards the cultural centers of the West commences. Since the mid-1970s, and especially in the early 1980s, Modern Greek Diaspora has undergone a new period. The creation of the European Community affects both the character of the immigration of artists as well as the creation of their identity within cultural pluralism. Since 1980 the situation in Greece changed significantly, and the contacts of artists with their homeland became greatly enhanced. Based on the above, this paper examines the cultural identity of the Greek artists in Paris during the 1980s, in comparison to the creation of the identity of the artists of the previous migratory movements, since this decade constitutes a critical point. Their cultural presence in Paris, as reflected in French and Greek daily press and journals of the period, is also investigated. At the same time, their connection with Greece and their contribution to the development and evolution of Contemporary Greek Art is discussed.

Keywords: artistic migration in Paris, cultural identity, cultural interaction, greek artists, greek contemporary art

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3650 Enhancing Visual Corporate Identity on Festive Money Packets Design with Cultural Symbolisms

Authors: Noranis Ismail, Shamsul H. A. Rahman

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to accentuate the importance of Visual Corporate Identity by utilizing Malay motifs amalgamated with Malay proverbs to enhance the corporate brand of The Design School (TDS) of Taylor’s University. The researchers aim to manipulate festive money packet as a mean to communicate to the audience by using non-verbal visual cues such as colour, languages, and symbols that reflect styles and cultural heritage. The paper concluded that it is possible to utilize Hari Raya packet as a medium for creative expressions by creating high-impact design through the symbolism of selected Malay proverbs and traditional Malay motifs to enhance TDS corporate visual identity. It also provides a vital contribution to other organizations to understand an integral part of corporate visual identity in heightening corporate brand by communicating indirectly to its stakeholders using visual mnemonic and cultural heritage.

Keywords: corporate branding, cultural cues, Malay culture, visual identity

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3649 Neo-Filipino: A Study on the Impact of Internet and Mobile Technology on the Identity Formation of Selected Filipino Third Culture Kids (TCKs)

Authors: Erika Mae L. Valencia

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Third Culture Kids (TCKs) are children who experienced a cross-cultural upbringing – being raised and lived outside their parents’ culture. As a result, TCKs experience the difficulty of building and attaining a concrete cultural identity. However, in the context of globalization and the emergence of ICTs, the internet, and mobile technology creates better ways of constructing cultural identities. This study investigates the social and cultural impacts of the internet and mobile technology on the multi-cultural identity development among selected Filipino TCKs. Moreover, this research seeks to understand how the Filipino TCKs form their identity and address their complex issue of belonging with the use of different internet platforms and mobile technology. To explore the lived experiences of Filipino TCKs, this research employs a transcendental phenomenological design. Also, this study uses purposive and snowball sampling and conduct in-depth interviews through Skype, phone call, or face-to-face. This study utilizes Pierre Bourdieu’s social capital as a theoretical lens to gain understanding of the TCKs’ identity formation process in relation to the said ICTs. This research argues that the internet and mobile technology play a significant role in facilitating multi-cultural identity formation of Filipino TCKs, as well as potentially broadening their social network through its various technological platforms.

Keywords: identity, internet, third culture kids, mobile technology

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3648 Gender Identity: Omani College Students Negotiate Their Cultural Expectations

Authors: Mohammed Alkharusi

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This study addresses issues of gender identity faced by female and male Omani students studying at educational higher institutions. The study interviewed 16 male and female students to understand how cultural expectations of gender influence these students’ communication, and as a result how these students negotiate their gender identity to facilitate communication practices (or not) with the opposite sex. The context, focus, and theoretical underpinnings of the study are presented. Given that the researcher is also an Omani Arab, methodological and ethical challenges (e.g., recruiting and engaging with participants, and conducting semi-structured face-to-face interviews) will be discussed reflexively. The analysis found that students continued to following cultural expectations. They kept minimum interaction with the opposite sex that was illustrated by preferring to work with the same sex in group assignments only, avoiding sitting alone with the opposite sex, and not participating in academic activities. In the social context, the students started negotiating their gender identity and adopted communication practices that facilitated their social communication with the opposite sex. For example, they accepted to work with the opposite sex in different social mixed activities. In conclusion, students desired to maintain their cultural expectations but adopted certain communication practices to interact with the opposite sex.

Keywords: communication, cultural expectations, gender, identity, negotiation

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3647 Exploring the Cross-Cultural Practice of Transnational Community in Taiwan

Authors: Ya-Hsuan Wang

Abstract:

This project of intercultural education aimed to explore pluricultural people’s interpretation and evaluation of the transnational community in Taiwan. Based on transnationalism and transculturalism, this study concerns the human right issues for immigrants and pluricultural people. Research participants as immigrants in Taiwan were asked about their typical thinking styles in the transnational community, their cultural integration in terms of transnational behaviors, and their collective memory of the transnational community. Interview questions included what key factors were involved in their identity negotiation, what roles the transnational community and collective memory would be for their identity negotiation and what were the positive or negative aspects impacting cross-border identity. Based on the experiences of pluricultural people and transnational communities, this project expected to enhance the depth and width of developing transcultural knowledge in textbook reform on History in K-12 schools. It is to transform cross-border identity into knowledge embedded with local culture in response to globalization and localization. The purpose of this paper is to portrait the cross-cultural practice of transnational community for Taiwan’s immigrants. It is to report their external socio-cultural expectation of ethnic economics, to understand their internal life course of national identity, and to clarify transnational community in relation to their cross-border identity. In conclusion, the cross-cultural practice of transnational community combined the external contexts such as ethnic economic interaction among transnational communities, social report and ethnic industry, and the internal contexts such as ethnic identity, language use, and collective memory in ethnic history.

Keywords: cross-cultural practice, immigrants, pluricultural people, transnational community

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3646 Globalization and Women's Social Identity in Iran: A Case Study of Educated Women in the 'World City' of Yazd

Authors: Mohammad Tefagh

Abstract:

The process of globalization has transformed many social and cultural phenomena and has entered the world into a new era and arena. This phenomenon has introduced new methods, ideas, and identity interactions to human beings and has caused great changes in individual and social identity. Women have also been affected by globalization. Globalization has made the presence of women more and more effective and has caused identity changes and changes in the dimensions of identity in them. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of globalization of culture on changes in the social identity of educated women in the global city of Yazd. This study will discuss identity change and identity reconstruction due to globalization. The method of this study is qualitative, and the research data is obtained through in-depth interviews with 15 Yazdi-educated women at the Ph.D. level. The method of data analysis is thematic analysis. Findings of the research show that educated Yazdi women have changed their identity due to new communication processes and globalization, including faster, easier, and cheaper communication with other women in the world near and far. Women's social identity has also changed in the face of elements of globalization in various dimensions such as national, gender, religious, and group identities. The analysis of the interviews revealed the confronting elements such as using new cultural goods and communication technologies, membership in social networks, and increasing awareness of environmental change.

Keywords: globalization, social identity, educated women, Yazd

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3645 Moving Images and Re-Articulations of Self-Identity: Young People's Experiences of Viewing Representations Disability in Films

Authors: Alison Wilde, Stephen Millett

Abstract:

The cultural value of disabled people has largely been overlooked within forms of media and cultural analysis until the 1980s, when disabled people and disability studies highlighted the cultural misrecognition of disabled people and called for improved forms of cultural recognition and representation. Despite an increase in cultural analysis of representations of disabled people, much has been assumed about how images are read, and little work has been done on the value attributed to disabled people by media audiences and the viewing interests and encounters of film audiences. In particular, there has been little work on film reception, or on the way that young people interpret images of disability. We set out to understand some of the ways that young people read disability imagery, by showing small groups of young people different types of film featuring impairments, chosen from three different eras in film. These were Freaks, Rear Window (remake), and Finding Nemo. The discussions after these films allowed them to explore their own experiences of disability alongside the evolution of cultural representations; in so doing they discussed significant themes of cultural value and reflected on their own identities, e.g. in/dependency, autonomy, and competency and the ways these intersected with self-identity, and attitudes to disabled people.

Keywords: film, audience, identity, disability

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3644 Translation and Transculturality in Contemporary Chinese Art: A Case Study of Gu Wenda’s 'Forest of Stone Steles' and 'United Nations: Temple of Heaven'

Authors: Rui Zhang

Abstract:

Translation has been elevated to one of the key notions in contemporary cultural discourse for a wide range of fields. It focuses not only on communication or transmission of meaning between different languages, but also on ways in which the very act of translation can be understood as a metaphor for cultural process. In recent years, the notion of translation is employed by some contemporary Chinese artists in a conceptual way, whose works contribute to constructing/deconstructing global/local cultural discourse and their own cultural identities. This study examines two artworks by contemporary Chinese artist Gu Wenda from a translational perspective, namely Forest of Stone Steles - Retranslation & Rewriting of Tang Poetry and United Nations - China Monument: Temple of Heaven, aiming to broaden the scope of Translation Studies to investigate visual culture and enrich methodological approach to contemporary Chinese art. Focusing on the relationship between translation, visuality and materiality in these two works, this study explores the nature of translation as part of the production of cultural discourse in the age of globalization as well as a way of establishing cultural identity. Gu Wenda, one of the most prestigious artists in contemporary China, is considered a pioneer in ‘85 Art Movement of China, and thereafter he went abroad for his artistic pursuits. His transnational experience enriches his cultural identity and the underlying discourse constructed/deconstructed in many of his works. In the two works already mentioned, the concept of translation is deployed by Gu Wenda on both linguistic level and metaphorical level for artistic expression. These two works produce discourses in which the artist’s perception of cultural identity in a transnational context is articulated by the tension between source text and target text. Based on the conceptual framework of cultural identity proposed by Stuart Hall, analyses of Gu Wenda’s cultural identity revealed through translation in these two works are centred on two axes, i.e., the axis of similarity and continuity with Chinese intellectual culture and the axis of difference and rupture with it, and the dialogic relationship between these two vectors. It argues that besides serving as a means of constructing visuality in the two works, translation metaphorizes Gu Wenda’s journey from overcoming his cultural identity anxiety to re-establishing a transcultural identity embedded in the underlying discourse.

Keywords: contemporary Chinese art, cultural identity, transculturality, translation

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3643 The Analysis of the Role of Handicrafts in Consolidating Iran National Identity

Authors: Nadia Pourabbas Tahvildari

Abstract:

National identity is formed in the process of time and in the community while influenced by the historical events. The country which has a more coherent national and historical identity would be successful as well as strengthening solidarity and social cohesion. Among the international community where the various likes challenge the subject of identity, taking into consideration the components which using identity seems to be very critical. Handicrafts as reflecting the historical and cultural characteristics of the product location can be used as an important component in order to introduce the culture and identity to be evaluated. As one of the most durable crafts for man, handicrafts have played a continuous role in sustaining human culture. Today without the presence of handicrafts, restoration of culture and national identity and religious beliefs of the past clans and people, is not only difficult but is even impossible also. Due to its brilliant historical experience and having rich culture and civilization, Iran has accomplished to the high competence in the field of traditional arts and handicrafts. This article is a scientific approach which by using descriptive – analytic method based on library studies tried to address the issue of handicrafts looking to examine the position of the industry to consolidate the national identity. Studies indicate that Iran as one of the original human habitats in the field of handicrafts has adequate enrichment and in case there will be an appropriate planning and investment away from oil-based industry, it would be beneficent. Furthermore, the quality and variety of handicrafts can be used as an essential yardstick for the consolidation of Iran national identity in the age of globalization.

Keywords: handicrafts, Iran national identity, globalization, cultural heritage

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3642 Language Factor in the Formation of National and Cultural Identity of Kazakhstan

Authors: Andabayeva Dina, Avakova Raushangul, Kortabayeva Gulzhamal, Rakhymbay Bauyrzhan

Abstract:

This article attempts to give an overview of the language situation and language planning in Kazakhstan. Statistical data is given and excursion to history of languages in Kazakhstan is done. Particular emphasis is placed on the national- cultural component of the Kazakh people, namely the impact of the specificity of the Kazakh language on ethnic identity. Language is one of the basic aspects of national identity. Recently, in the Republic of Kazakhstan purposeful work on language development has been conducted. Optimal solution of language problems is a factor of interethnic relations harmonization, strengthening and consolidation of the peoples and public consent. Development of languages - one of the important directions of the state policy in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The problem of the state language, as part of national (civil) identification play a huge role in the successful integration process of Kazakh society. And quite rightly assume that one of the foundations of a new civic identity is knowing Kazakh language by all citizens of Kazakhstan. The article is an analysis of the language situation in Kazakhstan in close connection with the peculiarities of cultural identity.

Keywords: Kazakhstan, mentality, language policy, ethnolinguistics, language planning, language personality

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3641 Ubuntombi (Virginity) Among the Zulus: An Exploration of a Cultural Identity and Difference from a Postcolonial Feminist Perspective

Authors: Goodness Thandi Ntuli

Abstract:

The cultural practice of ubuntombi (virginity) among the Zulus is not easily understood from the outside of its cultural context. The empirical study that was conducted through the interviews and focus group discussions about the retrieval of ubuntombi as a cultural practice within the Zulu cultural community indicated that there is a particular cultural identity and difference that can be unearthed from this cultural practice. Being explored from the postcolonial feminist perspective, this cultural identity and difference is discerned in the way in which a Zulu young woman known as intombi (virgin) exercises her power and authority over her own sexuality. Taking full control of her own sexuality from the cultural viewpoint enables her not only to exercise her uniqueness in the midst of multiculturalism and pluralism but also to assert her cultural identity of being intombi. The assertion of the Zulu young woman’s cultural identity does not only empower her to stand on her life principles but also empowers her to lift herself up from the margins of the patriarchal society that otherwise would have kept her on the periphery. She views this as an opportunity for self-development and enhancement through educational opportunities that will enable her to secure a future with financial independence. The underlying belief is that once she has been educationally successful, she would secure a better job opportunity that will enable her to be self-sufficient and not to rely on any male provision for her sustenance. In this, she stands better chances of not being victimized by social patriarchal influences that generally keep women at the bottom of the socio-economic and political ladder. Consequently, ubuntombi (virginity) as a Zulu heritage and cultural identity becomes instrumental in the empowerment of the young women who choose this cultural practice as their adopted lifestyle. In addition, it is the kind of self-empowerment with the intrinsic motivation that works with the innate ability to resist any distraction from an individual’s set goals. It is thus concluded that this kind of motivation is a rare characteristic of the achievers in life. Once these young women adhere to their specified life principles, nothing can stop them from achieving the dreams of their hearts. This includes socio-economic autonomy that will ensure their liberation and emancipation as women in the midst of social and patriarchal challenges that militate against them in the hostile communities of their residence. Another hidden achievement would be to turn around the perception of being viewed as the “other”; instead, they will have to be viewed differently. Their difference lies in the turning around of the archaic kind of cultural practice into a modern tool of self-development and enhancement in contemporary society.

Keywords: cultural, difference, identity, postcolonial, ubuntombi, zulus

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3640 Manifestation of Hybridity in Marie Jones’s "Stones in His Pockets"

Authors: Mahsa Mahjoub Laleh, Nasser Dasht Peyma

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This paper explores Marie Jones’s Stones in His Pockets in the light of the postcolonial notion of hybridity. The play is a tragicomedy about a small village in Ireland where many of the locales are extras in a Hollywood film. The actions of the play revolve around a local teenager named Sean who has been vilipended by a famous film star. The Sean character commits suicide by drowning himself with stones in his pockets. This paper explored how the attempts to gain cultural identity is manifested in Marie Jones’s play and how authority causes a change in the culture and destiny of people. Apparently, the play demonstrates that the political, economic and social realities directly affect people’s destiny and identity.

Keywords: cultural identity, hybridity, identity, postcolonial

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3639 Examining Kokugaku as a Pattern of Defining Identity in Global Comparison

Authors: Mária Ildikó Farkas

Abstract:

Kokugaku of the Edo period can be seen as a key factor of defining cultural (and national) identity in the 18th and early 19th century based on Japanese cultural heritage. Kokugaku focused on Japanese classics, on exploring, studying and reviving (or even inventing) ancient Japanese language, literature, myths, history and also political ideology. ‘Japanese culture’ as such was distinguished from Chinese (and all other) cultures, ‘Japanese identity’ was thus defined. Meiji scholars used kokugaku conceptions of Japan to construct a modern national identity based on the premodern and culturalist conceptions of community. The Japanese cultural movement of the 18-19th centuries (kokugaku) of defining cultural and national identity before modernization can be compared not to the development of Western Europe (where national identity strongly attached to modern nation states) or other parts of Asia (where these emerged after the Western colonization), but rather with the ‘national awakening’ movements of the peoples of East Central Europe, a comparison which have not been dealt with in the secondary literature yet. The role of a common language, culture, history and myths in the process of defining cultural identity – following mainly Miroslav Hroch’s comparative and interdisciplinary theory of national development – can be examined compared to the movements of defining identity of the peoples of East Central Europe (18th-19th c). In the shadow of a cultural and/or political ‘monolith’ (China for Japan and Germany for Central Europe), before modernity, ethnic groups or communities started to evolve their own identities with cultural movements focusing on their own language and culture, thus creating their cultural identity, and in the end, a new sense of community, the nation. Comparing actual texts (‘narratives’) of the kokugaku scholars and Central European writers of the nation building period (18th and early 19th centuries) can reveal the similarities of the discourses of deliberate searches for identity. Similar motives of argument can be identified in these narratives: ‘language’ as the primary bearer of collective identity, the role of language in culture, ‘culture’ as the main common attribute of the community; and similar aspirations to explore, search and develop native language, ‘genuine’ culture, ‘original’ traditions. This comparative research offering ‘development patterns’ for interpretation can help us understand processes that may be ambiguously considered ‘backward’ or even ‘deleterious’ (e.g. cultural nationalism) or just ‘unique’. ‘Cultural identity’ played a very important role in the formation of national identity during modernization especially in the case of non-Western communities, who had to face the danger of losing their identities in the course of ‘Westernization’ accompanying modernization.

Keywords: cultural identity, Japanese modernization, kokugaku, national awakening

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3638 Puerto Rico and Pittsburg: A Social Psychology Perspective on How Perceived Infringement on Job and Cultural Identity Unite Racially Different Working-Class Groups

Authors: Reagan Rodriguez

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With a growing divide between political echo chambers in the United States, exacerbated by race and income inequality, it might seem to be unfathomable to draw connections that tie working class in an industrial city and a U.S. territory. Yet, in regions where either the economy has been hit due to dwindling job infrastructure or natural disasters have left indelible marks on an island already once marked by colonial imperialism, a larger social shared identity is at play. Fracking has long been an intergenerational and stable work opportunity for many in the Pittsburg PA, yet the rising severity of global climate change may soon impact the policy and even presidential elections which could result in the reduction of jobs in the industry. Cock-fighting, considered a cultural mainstay within the island of Puerto Rico, has already had legislation banning activity and thus cutting out one of the most lucrative aspects of a severely injured economy. Insecurity, infringement, and isolation while being tied to a working-class bracket with no other opportunities in proximity have left both groups expressing similar frustration and while another larger shared identity politic is giving little other options to develop social mobility. This paper utilizes a thematic analysis and compares convergent and divergent themes on internet forums amongst unionized fracking workers in Pittsburg and cockfighters in Puerto Rico. This research examines how group identity in relation to job and cultural identity is most strong and at which points its most malleable; when intergenerational job identity becomes a part of one’s cultural identity, its override may be strongest when it is perceived as threatened. Final findings and limitations were comprehensively outlined.

Keywords: identity threat, social psychology, group identity, culture and social mobility

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3637 Regained Oral Tradition and Identity Construction in House Made of Dawn

Authors: Yi Hu

Abstract:

House Made of Dawn is famous novelist N. Scott Momaday’s Pulitzer-winning novel in 1968. The novel tells a story of the struggling life of an Indian named Abel, following the pattern of leaving home, coming home, leaving again, and returning home at the closure of the story. It touches upon the theme of the relationship between Indianness, identity, and tradition. Abel’s confusion over his identity and his constant struggle and exploration of his identity are pivoted on the tradition of oral literature in the form of story-telling. Therefore, this paper aims to analyze the important role of oral tradition in constructing Abel’s Indian cultural identity. The significance of the research lies in two aspects: first of all, the research aims to provide an enlightening perspective for Momaday’s House Made of Dawn in order to gain a better understanding of the novel. Secondly, by emphasizing the importance of traditional culture in identity construction, the research hopes to provide some referential value for people who suffer from identity predicament in modern society. Finally, the paper draws a conclusion that alienation from traditional tribal culture will result in a serious physical and psychological crisis for Indian people. Indian people should adhere to their traditional culture in order to construct their unique cultural identity.

Keywords: House Made of Dawn, identity, N.Scott.Momaday, oral tradition

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3636 The Potential of Walkability in Evoking People’s Perception of Place Identity

Authors: Ibrahim Shinbira

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In urban design, much has been discussed on the significance of the physical qualities in creating the place identity; however, the role of walkability as a physical quality that can evokes people's perception of place identity has not been adequately explored. This paper is based on the part findings of a doctoral research examining place identity in the city centre of Misurata, Libya. A number of 176 questionnaire and 23 face-to-face interviews were conducted with residents of the city to investigate physical qualities of place identity that evoked resident's perception. The finding demonstrates that walkability within the city centre is strong and it influences the users’ perception on the place identity. These were regarded as very important in sustaining the socio-cultural values, enjoyment, options, vitality and comfort. The paper concludes by establishing that walkability has a substantial contribution to the place identity, therefore should be considered in the design of urban places specifically the redevelopment one.

Keywords: perception, walkability, physical environment, place identity, residents

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3635 Cultural Studies in the Immigration Movements: Memories and Social Collectives

Authors: María Eugenia Peltzer, María Estela Rodríguez

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This work presents an approach to the cultural aspects of the Immigrants as part of the Cultural Intangible Heritage of Argentina. The intangible cultural heritage consists of the manifestations, practices, uses, representations, expressions, knowledge, techniques and cultural spaces that communities and groups recognize as an integral part of their cultural heritage. This heritage generates feelings of identity and establishes links with the collective memory, as well as being transmitted and recreated over time according to its environment, its interaction with nature and its history contributing to promote respect for cultural diversity and Human creativity. The Immigrants brings together those who came from other lands and their descendants, thus maintaining their traditions through time and linking the members of each cultural group with a strong sense of belonging through a communicative and effective process.

Keywords: cultural, immigration, memories, social

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3634 Sociological Portrait of the Korean Diaspora in Kazakhstan

Authors: Yefrem Yefremov

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In Kazakhstan, there are approximately 100,000 ethnic Koreans with the ethnonym "Koryo Saram". They are part of the global Korean diaspora around the world, deported to Kazakhstan by Stalin’s decree in 1937. Koryo Saram's diasporic identity is a composite of numerous identities based on a shared cultural heritage of the USSR and independent Kazakhstan and has mosaic character. The author has conducted a sociological survey to find out the main features of the identity of the Koryo Saram diaspora. The purpose of this paper is to depict the degree of ethnic, cultural, and diasporic identity of Koryo Saram and which effect on the preserving Korean diaspora in Kazakhstna do they have. The following elements impacting the above-mentioned identities were investigated in the survey: criteria by which Koryo Saram perceive themselves to be Korean, attitude of Koryo Saram to their ethnicity, degree of feeling of ethnocultural similarity between Koreans of Kazakhstan and Koreans of the Republic of Korea, degree of association of Koreans of Kazakhstan with other Koreans living in other CIS countries, degree of practicing Korean traditions Koryo Saram's attitudes towards interethnic marriages. The primary factor in defining the identity among the respondents is the factor of ethnic origin. Nationality is the second most significant component in establishing Koryo Saram’s identity. The maintenance of "Koreanness" of Koryo Sarams in the context of a multiethnic community, particularly in Kazakhstan, is based on genetic elements as well as the preservation of the culture. In conclusion, the high level of preserving Korean identity is being observed in the Korean Diaspora of Kazakhstan.

Keywords: diasporic identity, diaspora, ethnic identity, identity markers, korean diaspora, koreans of kazakhstan, koryo saram, multiethnicity

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3633 Tatak Noy-Pi: The Branding Evolution of Tesoro's Philippine Handicrafts- A Philippines Creative and Cultural Industry

Authors: Regine R. Villanueva

Abstract:

The study looks into how a cultural industry such as Tesoro’s Philippine Handicrafts underwent the brand revitalization process throughout its 70 years of existence in the Philippine market. This study uses a historical approach which analyzes the changes in product development and promotional strategies. Similarly, its brand identity was determined as well in terms of its internal processes and archival data such as history, mission – vision, customer relations, products, and promotions. The product life cycle model and the brand identity planning model were used as theoretical framework for the study. The life cycle was used in historically tracing the company’s developments and changes in terms of its branding, more specifically the products, promotions, and identity. Interviews were conducted among informants who included the CEO and the heads of each department in the business. The researcher also utilized textual analysis to have an in-depth understanding of Tesoro’s’ brand identity portrayal through its advertisements. The results showed how the company has undergone a progressive and innovative transition in its life cycle. With the changing markets and increased competition, the brand started active promotions and engaged in product development. In terms of identity, they are branded as pioneers of the handicraft industry in the Philippines. They started their brand revitalization to be able to imbibe this identity to their consumers through advertisement communication and identifying their segmented markets.

Keywords: cultural industry, handicrafts, case study, philippines

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3632 From Cultural Policy to Social Practice: Literary Festivals as a Platform for Social Inclusion in Pakistan

Authors: S. Jabeen

Abstract:

Though Pakistan has a rich cultural history and a diverse population; its global image is tarnished with labels of Muslim ‘fundamentalism’ and ‘extremism.’ Cultural policy is a tool that can be used by the government of Pakistan to ameliorate this image, but instead, this fundamentalist reputation is reinforced in the 2005 draft of Pakistan’s cultural policy. With its stern focus on a homogenized cultural identity, this 2005 draft bases itself largely on forced participation from the largely Muslim public and leaves little or no benefits to them or cultural minorities in Pakistan. The effects of this homogenized ‘Muslim’ identity linger ten years later where the study and celebration of the cultural heritage of Pakistan in schools and educational festivals focus entirely on creating and maintaining a singular ‘Islamic’ cultural identity. The current lack of inclusion has many adverse effects that include the breeding of extremist mindsets through the usurpation of minority rights and lack of safe cultural public spaces. This paper argues that Pakistan can improve social inclusivity and boost its global image through cultural policy. The paper sets the grounds for research by surveying the effectiveness of different cultural policies across nations with differing socioeconomic status. Then, by sampling two public literary festivals in Pakistan as case studies, the National Youth Peace Festival hosted with a nationalistic agenda using public funds and the Lahore Literary Festival (LLF) that aims to boost the cultural literacy scene of Lahore using both private and public efforts, this paper looks at the success of the private, more inclusive LLF. A revision of cultural policy is suggested that combines public and private efforts to host cultural festivals for the sake of cultural celebration and human development, without a set nationalistic agenda. Consequently, this comparison which is grounded in the human capabilities approach, recommends revising the 2005 draft of the Cultural Policy to improve human capabilities in order to support cultural diversity and ultimately contribute to economic growth in Pakistan.

Keywords: cultural policy, festivals, human capabilities, Pakistan

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3631 Fashion as Identity Architect: Sikhs in Perspective

Authors: Anupreet B. Dugal, Suruchi Mittar

Abstract:

The research prospect explores fashion as a tool to effectively emancipate the Sikh identity. The study presents information on how fashion has played a critical and visible role in reflecting and helping to construct identities based on religiosity. It discusses the Sikh identity, its’ origin; its continuity and the contemporary ambivalence. Fashion has mostly, if not always been used as a means of establishing identity. This research creates a gateway to discuss the impact that fashion can have on the existing socio-cultural and religious models. The study focuses on the Sikhs, a small community of India with regard to their visual appearance. The research will be based on the case study of 1469, a store infusing Sikhism as a style quotient. Subsequently, in the research framework, a sample study would be conducted with Sikh youth (18-25 years old) hailing from New Delhi, the capital city of India. 1469 formulates a striking case study for examining the relationship between fashion and religious and personal identity.

Keywords: fashion, identity, sikh identity, textiles

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3630 Paradigm Shift of the World Is Globalization: Identity Crisis, Violence and Cultural War

Authors: Shahla Bukhtair

Abstract:

A paradigm presents a consensus view of a particular or collective community, accepted into by the members of that community, either consciously pronounced or, more likely, simply assumed and not intentionally acknowledged but is articulated. Paradigm shift is based on the behavioral attitude of the community. Change is inexorable. The world is suffering with the innovative creation of globalization. Media boosted this paradigm shift all over the world. Globalization is a vigorous process which impacts differentially on various cultures around the world. The outcome of the globalization is permeates cultural boundaries and in the process results in the spread of Western ideologies and values across the world. The term flourished in 20th century. Globalization is regarded as having substantial impact on such crises through its encouragement of conflicts rather than conciliation; through opportunities of expression, various groups get benefit with it. Identity crisis refers to inflexible mechanism i.e. cultural and political conflicts among polarized groups, which struggle with each other over the definition of a national identity. Violence is not only a kind of physical but it also psychological as well. Due to identity crisis, a person is having an issue of fear, anxiety, and lack of security. Everything has negative and positive aspects. Newspaper columns, magazine articles, films, made-for-TV movies, television special reports, and talk shows are all public arenas where images of political agenda of their own interest are constructed, debated, and reproduced. From these resources, individuals construct their own conceptions of what is normal and acceptable. This bias affects images in the media, and in turn has a negative effect on public development in a society. This paper investigates the relationship between globalization and cultural war, identity crisis and the role of violence. Objectives: - To determine which type of media plays an important role in shaping perceptions and attitudes of public negatively; - To analyze the impact of globalization on identity crisis, violence and global culture (positive and negative).

Keywords: paradigm shift, globalization, identity crisis, cultural war

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3629 Regional Identity Construction of Acehnese English Teachers in Professional Practice

Authors: Ugahara Bin Mahyuddin Yunus

Abstract:

In English Language Teaching, it cannot be denied that the backgrounds of English teachers do affect the way they teach English to their students, which in turn will affect their students’ English learning itself. Thus, it is very important to understand who the English teachers are so that how they teach English to their students can be understood. One of their backgrounds that is essential to be highlighted is their culture. Certainly, they wittingly or not will bring the perspectives and values of their culture into their daily teaching practices. In other words, their cultural identities do shape how they teach their students. Cultural identities themselves actually consist of some elements, one of which is regional identity. Indeed, the culture of the region in which English teachers identify with has impact on their beliefs and actions during teaching. For this reason, this study aims to understand how the regional identity of English teachers influence the way they teach English to their students. This study is a qualitative study conducted in a multilingual and multicultural setting, namely Aceh, Indonesia. Here, four Acehnese English teachers were involved as the research participants. In addition, this study adopted poststructuralist perspective to identity as the theoretical framework. Three research instruments were used in this study, namely semi-structured interviews, classroom observation, and teacher journal. The data gained from these instruments were then analyzed by using thematic analysis. Obviously, the research about the regional identity of English teachers in English Language Teaching has been studied worldwide. However, little is still known about it in Indonesian context, let alone Indonesia itself is a super diverse country with 34 regions. As a result, this study presents a good opportunity to advance the knowledge of how the regional identity construction of English teachers in this setting is. The findings of the study revealed that their regional identity construction in teaching was highly influenced by their indigenous language and religious faith. Even, how they teach English in classroom, in fact, is related to these two things. The conclusion that can be drawn from this study is for these English teachers, in fact, their regional identity itself constitutes their use of local language and religious identity, which are considered by them as their core identity.

Keywords: English language teaching, English teachers, identity construction, regional identity

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3628 Academic Identities in Transition

Authors: Caroline Selai, Sushrut Jadhav

Abstract:

Background: University College London (UCL), the first secular university in England to admit students regardless of their religion and gender, has nearly 29,000 students of which approximately 30% are international students. The UCL Cultural Consultation Service (CCS) for staff and students is a unique service that provides assistance to staff and students experiencing challenges in their teaching, enabling, support work or studies which they believe may have a cultural component. The service provides one-to-one and group consultations, lectures, seminars, ‘grand rounds’, interactive workshops and bespoke interventions. Data: This paper presents a content analysis of CCS referrals over the last 36 months. We focus on the experience of international students, many of whom experience not only a challenge to their academic identity but also a profound challenge to their personal cultural identity. We also present 3 vignettes to illustrate how students interpret, accept, contest and resist changes in their cultural and academic identity. Discussion: This paper highlights (i) how students from collectivist cultures attempt to assimilate within an individualistic, highly competitive western university that is bound by its own institutional norms; (ii) problems in negotiating challenges at the interface of culture and gender (iii) the impact of culturally different hierarchies of power, discrimination and authority and (iv) the significance of earlier traumatic and kinship conflicts. Many international students’ social identities are shaped by their cultural and family scripts. A large number have been taught that their teachers are to be revered and their teachings unchallenged. This is at odds with quintessential goal of the western university to encourage healthy scepticism and hone students’ critical thinking skills. Conclusions: Pupil-teacher ‘cultural transference’ and shifts in cultural academic identities of students underscore critical aspects of developmental and learning challenges for students. Staff-student cultural conflict requires a broader, systemic analysis of students, staff and the wider organisation. Our findings challenge Eurocentric psychodynamic concepts such as the nature of parent-child relationship in Western Europe. We argue for a broader, more inclusive approach to develop both effective pedagogic skills in euro-american academic institutions and culturally- appropriate psychodynamic theory to underpin counselling international students.

Keywords: academic identity, cultural transference, cultural consultation in higher education, cultural formulation, cultural identity.

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3627 The Relationship between the Feeling of Distributive Justice and National Identity of the Youth

Authors: Leila Batmany

Abstract:

This research studies the relationship between the feeling of distributive justice and national identity of the youth. The present analysis intends to experimentally investigate the various dimensions of the justice feeling and its effect on the national identity components. The study has taken justice into consideration from four different points of view on the basis of availability of valuable social sources such as power, wealth, knowledge and status in the political, economic, and cultural and status justice respectively. Furthermore, the national identity has been considered as the feeling of honour, attachment and commitment towards national society and its seven components i.e. history, language, culture, political system, religion, geographical territory and society. The 'field study' has been used as the method for the research with the individual as unit, taking 368 young between the age of 18 and 29 living in Tehran, chosen randomly according to Cochran formula. The individual samples have been randomly chosen among five districts in north, south, west, east, and centre of Tehran, based on the multistage cluster sampling. The data collection has been performed with the use of questionnaire and interview. The most important results are as follows: i) The feeling of economic justice is the weakest one among the youth. ii) The strongest and the weakest dimensions of the national identity are, respectively, the historical and the social dimension. iii) There is a positive and meaningful relationship between the feeling political and statues justice and then national identity, whereas no meaningful relationship exists between the economic and cultural justice and the national identity. iv) There is a positive and meaningful relationship between the feeling of justice in all dimensions and legitimacy of the political system. There is also such a relationship between the legitimacy of the political system and national identity. v) Generally, there is a positive and meaningful relationship between the feeling of distributive justice and national identity among the youth. vi) It is through the legitimacy of the political system that justice feeling can have an influence on the national identity.

Keywords: distributive justice, national identity, legitimacy of political system, Cochran formula, multistage cluster sampling

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