Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2349

Search results for: sector

2349 The Relationship between Value-Added and Energy Consumption in Iran’s Industry Sector

Authors: Morteza Raei Dehaghi, Mojtaba Molaahmadi, Seyed Mohammad Mirhashemi

Abstract:

This study aimed to explore the relationship between energy consumption and value-added in Iran’s industry sector during the time period 1973-2011. Annual data related to energy consumption and value added in the industry sector were used. The results of the study revealed a positive relationship between energy consumption and value-added of the industry sector. Similarly, the results showed that there is one-way causality between energy consumption and value-added in the industry sector.

Keywords: economic growth, energy consumption, granger causality test, industry sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
2348 Challenges to Effective Public Sector Management in Developing Countries: The Networking and Communication Functions of Public Sector Managers in Nigeria and Ghana

Authors: Ethelbert Chinedu Nwokorie

Abstract:

This empirical study analyzes the impact of communication and networking functions of Nigerian and Ghanaian public sector managers’ on public sector effectiveness. The focus is on which of these management functions public sector managers’ in these countries perform most, why, how and how does it affect effectiveness of public sector organizations in the two countries. This qualitative analysis was done by interviewing middle and top level managers in some selected public sector organizations in the two countries on their practical experiences. Findings reveal that ineffectiveness of public sector organizations in Ghana persists because public sector managers perform more of networking functions to promote their individual carrier success and progression in their various organizations, rather than achieving the organizations goals and objectives. In Nigeria, though majority of the interviewed public sector managers perform more communication functions than networking, they do this mostly by treating files and correspondences, instead of face-to-face communication and interaction with employees’. Hence, they hardly relate directly with their employees’ to find out how they are performing their jobs, their challenges, where they are having problems and why. The findings and recommendations of this study will help in improving effectiveness, quality and service delivery in Nigerian and Ghanaian public sector organizations and beyond.

Keywords: effectiveness, communication, employees, management, networking, organization, public sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
2347 Financial Problems Met in the Tourism Sector in Turkey: A Survey on the Tourism Businesses

Authors: Raif Parlakkaya, Huseyin Cetin, Halil Akmese, Mesut Murat Adabali

Abstract:

As the economies of other countries in the Mediterranean Basin, the tourism sector in our country has a high denominator in economics. Tourism businesses, which are building blocks of tourism, sector faces with a variety of problems during their activities. These problems faced make business efficiency and competition conditions of the businesses difficult. Most of the problems faced by the tourism businesses and the information of consumers about consumers’ rights were used in this study, which is conducted to determine the problems of tourism businesses in the Central Anatolia Region. It is aimed to contribute the awareness of staff and executives working at tourism sector and to attract attention of businesses active concurrently with tourism sector and legislators.

Keywords: financial problems, the problems of tourism businesses, tourism businesses, tourism sector in Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
2346 Perception of Agricultural Extension Agents of Private Sector Participation in Extension Services in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: E. O. Fakoya, B. G. Abiona, J. O. Soetan

Abstract:

The study determined Perception of Agricultural Extension Agents of Private Sector Participation in Extension Services in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 80 respondents with a well-structured questionnaire. The result of the findings showed that there is need for private sector participation in extension services (=4.313), private extension services has facilities than public extension services (=4.97). Private sector participated in extension services by: giving of loans and credits to farmers (=4.50). Major constraints identified by the respondents were: Transportation problem (=2.88) and lack of fund (=2.77) A significant relationship (P<0.05) exists between factors affecting public extension services(r = 0.641, p = 0.00) and private sector participation in extension services. It was concluded from the study that there is need for private sector to participate in extension service in order to improve productivity of the farmers.

Keywords: agricultural extension, extension agent, private sector, perception

Procedia PDF Downloads 473
2345 Analysis of Marketing: Frozen Fruit and Vegetables Sector in Turkey

Authors: Pınar Aydın, Şule Turhan

Abstract:

Today, with the change of people's consumption habits, the importance of frozen fruit and vegetable sector has been increased. In Turkey, sector is based on export. It is growing very fast and external demand is constantly increasing. About 80% of frozen fruits and vegetables produced in Turkey are being exported. More than 90% of the exports go to European Union countries. About 49% of frozen fruits and vegetables in Turkey is being exported to Germany, England and France. In the sector which the abroad demand is continuously increasing, although it has been estimated that around 25% of the average annual growth rate, the domestic consumption is very low. Although the frozen food consumption per person in Turkey is about %2 of United States, the growing rate of the sector is higher than the United States and Europe. This situation reflects that it is such a sector that has a growing demand in both domestic and foreign markets.

Keywords: frozen food, fruit and vegetable sector, exports, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
2344 The Application of Lean-Kaizen in Course Plan and Delivery in Malaysian Higher Education Sector

Authors: Nur Aishah Binti Awi, Zulfiqar Khan

Abstract:

Lean-kaizen has always been applied in manufacturing sector since many years ago. What about education sector? This paper discuss on how lean-kaizen can also be applied in education sector, specifically in academic area of Malaysian’s higher education sector. The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of lean kaizen in course plan and delivery. Lean-kaizen techniques have been used to identify waste in the course plan and delivery. A field study has been conducted to obtain the data. This study used both quantitative and qualitative data. The researcher had interviewed the chosen lecturers regarding to the problems of course plan and delivery that they encountered. Secondary data of students’ feedback at the end of semester also has been used to improve course plan and delivery. The result empirically shows that lean-kaizen helps to improve the course plan and delivery by reducing the wastes. Thus, this study demonstrates that lean-kaizen can also help education sector to improve their services as achieved by manufacturing sector.

Keywords: course delivery, education, Kaizen, lean

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
2343 60 GHz Multi-Sector Antenna Array with Switchable Radiation-Beams for Small Cell 5G Networks

Authors: N. Ojaroudi Parchin, H. Jahanbakhsh Basherlou, Y. Al-Yasir, A. M. Abdulkhaleq, R. A. Abd-Alhameed, P. S. Excell

Abstract:

A compact design of multi-sector patch antenna array for 60 GHz applications is presented and discussed in details. The proposed design combines five 1×8 linear patch antenna arrays, referred to as sectors, in a multi-sector configuration. The coaxial-fed radiation elements of the multi-sector array are designed on 0.2 mm Rogers RT5880 dielectrics. The array operates in the frequency range of 58-62 GHz and provides switchable directional/omnidirectional radiation beams with high gain and high directivity characteristics. The designed multi-sector array exhibits good performances and could be used in the fifth generation (5G) cellular networks.

Keywords: mm-wave communications, multi-sector array, patch antenna, small cell networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
2342 Mergers and Acquisitions in the Banking Sector: The West African Experience

Authors: Sunday Odunaiya

Abstract:

The statistics of banks in operation in this current dispensation compared to some decades ago has brought about a lot of changes on the face of the financial system. The demand of customers, technological advancement, and government policies among others has therefore generated a lot of heat for financial sector’s growth, sustenance and survival. This paper discusses mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in banking sector using West Africa as a yardstick of evaluation. It explains rigorously the conditions that warrant mergers and acquisitions in the banking sector, its effect, and how to ensure mergers and acquisitions effectiveness in the banking sector. The conceptual and empirical review of the relevant literature were done systematically while value-increasing and value-decreasing theories were used to substantiate the discourse. Findings of this paper show that mergers and acquisitions is a practical and conscious activity in Nigeria, Ghana and Ivory Coast from earliest time till date with tremendous turnaround in the financial sector. It was found out that M&A is consensually arrived at by the targets and the acquirer on a value-based account. In other words, merger and acquisition is a deliberate decision reached by the management of such bank for a ‘just cause’.

Keywords: acquisitions, merger, management, financial sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
2341 Behavioural-Orientation and Continuity of Informality in Ghana

Authors: Yvonne Ayerki Lamptey

Abstract:

The expanding informal sector in developing countries and in Ghana in particular from the 1980s has now been aggravated by the growing population and downsizing in both the public and private sectors, with displaced workers finding alternative livelihoods in the informal sector. Youth and graduate unemployment also swell the numbers and further promote the continuity of the sector. Formal workers and institutions facilitate the growth and complicate demarcations between informality within the formal and informal sectors. In spite of its growth and increasing importance, the informal economy does not feature in policy debates and has often been neglected by the Ghana government. The phenomenon has evolved with modernity into myriad unimaginable forms. Indeed, actors within the sector often clash with the interventions provided by policy makers - because neither the operatives nor the activities they perform can be clearly defined. This study uses in-depth interviews to explore the behavioural nature of the informal workers in Ghana to understand how the operatives describe and perceive the sector, and to identify the factors that influence their drive to stay within the sector. This paper concludes that the operatives clearly distinguish between the formal and informal sectors and identify the characteristics and conditions that constitute the informal sector. Other workers are trapped between formality and informality. The findings also enumerate the push and pull factors contributing to the growth of the sector.

Keywords: informal employment, informal sector, informal work, informality

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
2340 Conditions Required for New Sector Emergence: Results from a Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Laurie Prange-Martin, Romeo Turcan, Norman Fraser

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to identify the conditions required and describe the process of emergence for a new economic sector created from new or established businesses. A systematic literature review of English-language studies published from 1983 to 2016 was conducted using the following databases: ABI/INFORM Complete; Business Source Premiere; Google Scholar; Scopus; and Web of Science. The two main terms of business sector and emergence were used in the systematic literature search, along with another seventeen synonyms for each these main terms. From the search results, 65 publications met the requirements of an empirical study discussing and reporting the conditions of new sector emergence. A meta-analysis of the literature examined suggest that there are six favourable conditions and five key individuals or groups required for new sector emergence. In addition, the results from the meta-analysis showed that there are eighteen theories used in the literature to explain the phenomenon of new sector emergence, which can be grouped in three study disciplines. With such diversity in theoretical frameworks used in the 65 empirical studies, the authors of this paper propose the development of a new theory of sector emergence.

Keywords: economic geography, new sector emergence, economic diversification, regional economies

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
2339 The Nature of Problems Faced by Organization in Recruitment: A Comparative Analysis between Public and Private Sector of Russia

Authors: Zarema Urustamova, Chunsheng Shi, Ghulam Mujtaba Kayani 

Abstract:

This research paper helps to understand the comparative analysis of recruitment problems which majorly faced by HRD of Public/Semi-Govt. and private sectors of Russia. The natures of different recruitment problems faced by HRD are different in both sector of Russia. Recruitment is one of very critical and important decision taken by HR department and some recruitment problems are highly faced by HR department of public/semi Govt. sector but are not major problems for private sector. Moreover, some problems are majorly influence in private sector but are not major problems in public/semi-govt. sector of Russia in recruitment. It is also identified that some recruitment problems are majorly affect in recruitment in both sectors. This paper helps to understand the recruitment problems faced by HR department while recruiting the new employee in both sectors. This paper also identified that “environment” and “prejudice” in public sector have higher affect and considered as a major problems in employee recruitment and “reference”, “selection standards” are considered as a least affecting problems of recruitment in public sector. Further, in private sector, “prejudice” and “culture” are major issues and “selection standards” and “reference” is considered as least affecting recruitment problems in private sector of Russia. So, HR department will be able to hire right person on right time, and it is possible when different HR departments focus to overcome these recruitment problems more efficiently and effectively.

Keywords: Govt. /Semi-Govt. vs. private sector, HR department, recruitment problems, Russia

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
2338 SCM Challenges and Opportunities in the Timber Construction Sector

Authors: K. Reitner, F. Staberhofer, W. Ortner, M. Gerschberger

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to identify the main challenges faced by companies in the timber construction sector and to provide improvement opportunities that can be implemented on a short-, medium- and long-term basis. To identify the challenges and propose actions for each company a literature review and a multiple case research were conducted using the Quick Scan Audit Methodology. Finally, the findings and outcomes are compared with each other to support companies in the timer construction sector when implementing and restructuring their day-to-day activities.

Keywords: supply chain management, supply chain challenges and opportunities, timber construction sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
2337 Incidence and Prevalence of Dry Eye Syndrome in Different Occupational Sector of Society

Authors: Vergeena Varghese, G. Gajalakshmi, Jayarajini Vasanth

Abstract:

The present study deals with the indication of prevalence of dry eye and evaluates environmental risk factors attributed to dry eye in different occupational sectors. 240 subjects above 20 years and below 45 years of age were screened for dry eye. Mcmonnies dry eye questionnaire based history and Schirmer’s test were used to diagnose dry eye. For Schirmer’s test Whatman strip and paracaine drop used as an anesthetic. Subject’s demographics include age, sex, smoking, alcoholism, occupation history and working environment. Out of a total of 240 subjects, 52 subjects were positive for dry eye syndrome (21.7%). The highest prevalence of dry eye syndrome in software sector was 14subjects (26.9%) out of a total of 40 subjects. In the construction sector, the prevalence of dry eye syndrome had 12 subjects (23.1%) out of 40 subjects and 9 subjects (17.3%) out of 40 subjects in agriculture sector. 7 subjects (13.5%) who had dry eye out of 40 subjects in the transport sector and in industrial 6 subjects (11.5%). In a normal sector, this was taken as control group had dry eye in 4 subjects (7.7%) out of 40 subjects. We also found the prevalence of dry eye in OS was higher than OD. Dry eye is a most common ocular condition. The highest prevalence of dry eye syndrome in software sector was 14 members than other sector. There was a significant correlation between environmental and occupational factors to cause dry eye. Excessive exposure to sunlight, wind, high temperature, and air pollution, electromagnetic radiation are the factors affect the tear film and ocular surface causing the dry eye syndrome.

Keywords: DES – dry eye syndrome, Mcmonnies dry eye questionnaire, schirmer’s test, whatman vstrip

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
2336 The Implementation of Information Security Audits in Public Sector: Perspective from Indonesia

Authors: Nur Imroatun Sholihat, Gresika Bunga Sylvana

Abstract:

Currently, cyber attack became an incredibly serious problem due to its increasing trend all over the world. Therefore, information security becomes prominent for every organization including public sector organization. In Indonesia, unfortunately, Ministry of Finance (MoF) is the only public sector organization that has already formally established procedure to assess its information security adequacy by performing information security audits (November 2017). We assess the implementation of information security audits in the MoF using qualitative data obtained by interviewing IT auditors and by analysis of related documents. For this reason, information security audit practice in the MoF could become the acceptable benchmark for all other public sector organizations in Indonesia. This study is important because, to the best of the author’s knowledge, our research into information security audits practice in Indonesia’s public sector have not been found yet. Results showed that information security audits performed mostly by doing pentest (penetration testing) to MoF’s critical applications.

Keywords: information security audit, information technology, Ministry of Finance of Indonesia, public sector organization

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
2335 Barriers to Job Localization Policy in Private Sector: Case Study from Oman

Authors: Yahya Al Nahdi

Abstract:

Even though efforts to increase the participation of nationals in the workforce have been in place for more than a decade in the Sultanate of Oman, the results are not impressive. Citizens’ workforce participation – it is argued in the literature – is hindered by institutional, as well as attitudinal concerns. The purpose of this study was to determine barriers to Omanization (employment of Omani nationals) in the private sector as perceived by the senior managers in government and private sector. Data were collected predominantly through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with managers who directly deal with Omanization policies from both the public and private sector. Results from the data analysis have shown that the majority of participants acknowledged a work preference in the movement (public sector). The private sector employees' compensation and benefits package was perceived to be less attractive than that offered in the government (public sector). The negative perceptions (stereotypes) shared by expatriates regarding work attitudes and competencies of citizens in the local labour market was also overwhelmingly perceived as a major hindrance. Furthermore, institutional issues such as, ineffectiveness of rules and regulation regarding Omanization, inappropriate quota system and lack of public awareness towards private sector’s jobs, are also perceived problematic to successful Omanization. Finally, results from the data analysis were used in recommending strategies for potential consideration in the pursuit of a successful Omanization programme.

Keywords: localization, job security, labour force structure, Omanization, private sector, public sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
2334 Understanding How Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism Are Conducted through the Real Estate Sector in the Middle East and North Africa Region

Authors: Haytham Yassine

Abstract:

This research seeks to identify how money laundering activities are executed through the real estate sector. This article provides academics with literature on the topic and provides scholars, and practitioners with a better understanding of the risks and challenges involved. Data are gathered through survey in the Middle East and North Africa region and review of the available research. The results of the analysis will help identifying the factors attracting criminals to the real estate sector and develop an understanding of the methods used to launder illicit funds through this sector and the indicators of suspicion for reporting entities. Further analysis reveals the risks posed by money laundering and terrorist financing on the real estate sector and challenges facing states in this regard.

Keywords: money laundering, terrorism financing, real estate sector, Middle East and North Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
2333 Problems of Youth Employment in Agricultural Sector of Georgia and Causes of Migration

Authors: E. Kharaishvili, M. Chavleishvili, M. Lobzhanidze, N. Damenia, N. Sagareishvili

Abstract:

The article substantiates that youth employment in Georgia, especially in the agricultural sector, is an acute socio-economic problem. The paper analyzes the indicators of youth employment and unemployment rates by age and gender in the agriculture sector. Research revealed that over the past decade, the unemployment rate in rural areas has decreased; however, the problem of unemployment is more sensitive than in the city in this field. The article established youth unemployment rates in rural areas; it assesses labor and educational migration causes. Based on the survey, there are proposed findings and recommendations of the agricultural sector about improving youth employment, reducing unemployment rate, reaching migration processes optimization.

Keywords: youth employment, the agricultural sector, unemployment rate, youth migration, agricultural education

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
2332 Empirical Study on the Organizational Role Stress and its Effect on Private and Government Sector Employees

Authors: Rashmi Shahu

Abstract:

This is a comparative study of the Organizational Role Stress among the private and government sector employees. There was no known similar kind of Organizational Role Stress study in the field area i.e. Nagpur city. Hence, in order to understand the ORS level pertaining to the government and private sector employees in various offices it was taken as the subject for this study. The Method used for this study was the incidental sampling method. The Organizational Role Scale containing 50 statements related to the ten different ORS areas was used for observations. All 60 participants were tested. The results of the study show that there was a significant difference in only one area of ORS i.e. Personal Inadequacy for the participants. The employees from the private sector showed higher Personal Inadequacy than the government employees. Rest of the ORS areas showed no significant difference meaning that the employees were well adjusted in the respective areas.

Keywords: organozational role stress, private sector, government sector, personal inadequacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
2331 A Shift in the Structure of Economy and Synergy of University: Developing Potential Through Research and Development Center of SMEs in Jember

Authors: Muhamad Nugraha

Abstract:

Economic growth always correlate positively with the magnitude of the unemployment rate. This is caused by labor which one of important variable to keep growth in the real sector of the region. Meanwhile, the economic structure in districts of Jember showed an increase of economic activity began to shift towards the industrial sector and some other economic sectors, so they have an affects to considerations for policy makers to increase economic growth in Jember as an autonomous region in East Java Province. At the fact, SMEs is among the factors driving economic growth in the region. This is shown by the high amount of SMEs. However, employment in the sector grew slightly slowed. It is caused by a lack of productivity in SMEs. Through the analysis of the transformation of economic structure theory, and the theory of Triple Helix using descriptive analytical method Location Quotient and Shift - Share, found that the results of the economic structure in Jember slowly shifting from the agricultural sector to the industrial sector, because it is dominated by trade sector, hotel and restaurant sector. In addition, SMEs is the potential sector of economic growth in Jember. While to maximizing role and functions of the institution's Research and Development Center of SMEs, there are three points to be known, that are Business Landscape, Business Architecture and Value Added.

Keywords: economic growth, SMEs, labor, Research and Development Center of SMEs

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
2330 Attributes of Ethical Leadership and Ethical Guidelines in Malaysian Public Sector

Authors: M. Norazamina, A. Azizah, Y. Najihah Marha, A. Suraya

Abstract:

Malaysian Public Sector departments or agencies are responsible to provide efficient public services with zero corruption. However, corruption continues to occur due to the absence of ethical leadership and well-execution of ethical guidelines. Thus, the objective of this paper is to explore the attributes of ethical leadership and ethical guidelines. This study employs a qualitative research by analyzing data from interviews with key informers of public sector using conceptual content analysis (NVivo11). The study reveals eight attributes of ethical leadership which are role model, attachment, ethical support, knowledgeable, discipline, leaders’ spirituality encouragement, virtue values and shared values. Meanwhile, five attributes (guidelines, communication, check and balance, concern on stakeholders and compliance) of ethical guidelines are identified. These identified attributes should become the ethical identity and ethical direction of Malaysian Public Sector. This could enhance the public trust as well as the international community trust towards the public sector.

Keywords: check and balance, ethical guidelines, ethical leadership, public sector, spirituality encouragement

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
2329 Employment Opportunities in Automobile Sector-Indian Scenario

Authors: A. K. Sarathe, N. P. Patidar

Abstract:

The Indian automobile sector is comprised of independent manufacturers and joint ventures with their foreign counterpart companies by making use of the Foreign Direct Investment policy of the Government of India. These manufacturers started capturing the hearts of Indian customers with their choice of technological and innovative product features, with quality and reliability. This transformed the automobile scene from a “sellers market to buyers market”. The potential benefits from the auto sector have been recognized by the planners, managers, and administrators of both the sectors –government and private. Generation of employment for the readily available technical workforce has been achieved not only through the manufacturers, but also through the growing ancillaries and service providers of the auto industries. The main purpose of this paper is to come up with the identification of possible working areas and associated job functions of mechanical and automobile diploma holders having employment opportunities in auto sector of India.

Keywords: automobile sector, diploma holder, employment, job description

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
2328 A Model of Sustainability in the Accommodation Sector

Authors: L. S. Zavodna, J. Zavodny Pospisil

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to identify the factors for sustainability in the accommodation sector. Although sustainability is a current trend in tourism, not many facilities know how to apply the concept in practice. This paper presents a model for the implementation of sustainability in hotels, hostels, campgrounds, or other facilities. First, there are identified sections of each accommodation facility, which can contribute to sustainability. Furthermore, concrete steps are presented to transfer this model into reality.

Keywords: accommodation sector, model, sustainable tourism, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
2327 Necessity of Using Cellular Lightweights Concrete in Construction Sector

Authors: Soner Guler, Fuat Korkut

Abstract:

Recently, the using of lightweights concretes in construction sector is rapidly increasing all over the world. Faster construction, low density and thermal transmitting coefficient and high fire resistance are the remarkable characteristics of the lightweight concretes. Lightweight concrete can be described as a type of concrete which enhance the volume of the mixture while giving additional advantages such as to reduce the dead weight of the structures. It is lighter than the conventional concrete. The use of lightweight concrete has been widely spread across countries such as USA, United Kingdom, and Sweden. In this study, the necessity of the using of lightweights concretes in the construction sector is emphasized and evaluated briefly for the architectures and civil engineers.

Keywords: lightweights concretes, low density, low thermal coefficient, construction sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 432
2326 Analysis on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Potential by Deploying the Green Cars in Korean Road Transport Sector

Authors: Sungjun Hong, Yanghon Chung, Nyunbae Park, Sangyong Park

Abstract:

South Korea, as the 7th largest greenhouse gas emitting country in 2011, announced that the national reduction target of greenhouse gas emissions was 30% based on BAU (Business As Usual) by 2020. And the reduction rate of the transport sector is 34.3% which is the highest figure among all sectors. This paper attempts to analyze the environmental effect on deploying the green cars in Korean road transport sector. In order to calculate the greenhouse gas emissions, the LEAP model is applied in this study.

Keywords: green car, greenhouse gas, LEAP model, road transport sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 525
2325 Conflicts of Interest in the Private Sector and the Significance of the Public Interest Test

Authors: Opemiposi Adegbulu

Abstract:

Conflicts of interest is an elusive, diverse and engaging subject, a cross-cutting problem of governance; all levels of governance, ranging from local to global, public to corporate or financial sectors. In all these areas, its mismanagement could lead to the distortion of decision-making processes, corrosion of trust and the weakening of administration. According to Professor Peters, an expert in the area, conflict of interest, a problem at the root of many scandals has “become a pervasive ethical concern in our professional, organisational, and political life”. Conflicts of interest corrode trust, and like in the public sector, trust is mandatory for the market, consumers/clients, shareholders and other stakeholders in the private sector. However, conflicts of interest in the private sector are distinct and must be treated in like manner when regulatory efforts are made to address them. The research looks at identifying conflicts of interest in the private sector and differentiating them from those in the public sector. The public interest is submitted as a criterion which allows for such differentiation. This is significant because it would for the use of tailor-made or sector-specific approaches to addressing this complex issue. This is conducted through extensive review of literature and theories on the definition of conflicts of interest. This study will employ theoretical, doctrinal and comparative methods. The nature of conflicts of interest in the private sector will be explored, through an analysis of the public sector where the notion of conflicts of interest appears more clearly identified, reasons, why they are of business ethics concern, will be advanced, and then, once again, looking at public sector solutions and other solutions, the study will identify ways of mitigating and managing conflicts in the private sector. An exploration of public sector conflicts of interest and solutions will be carried out because the typologies of conflicts of interest in both sectors appear very similar at the core and thus, lessons can be learnt with regards to the management of these issues in the private sector. Conflicts of interest corrode trust, and like in the public sector, trust is mandatory for the market, consumers/clients, shareholders and other stakeholders in the private sector. This research will then focus on some specific challenges to understanding and identifying conflicts of interest in the private sector; origin, diverging theories, the psychological barrier to the definition, similarities with public sector conflicts of interest due to the notions of corrosion of trust, ‘being in a particular kind of situation,’ etc. The notion of public interest will be submitted as a key element at the heart of the distinction between public sector and private sector conflicts of interests. It will then be proposed that the appreciation of the notion of conflicts of interest differ according to sector, country to country, based on the public interest test, using the United Kingdom (UK), the United States of America (US), France and the Philippines as illustrations.

Keywords: conflicts of interest, corporate governance, global governance, public interest

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
2324 Privatization of Pakistan Gas Sector: Role of Regulator

Authors: Lala Rukh, Muhammad Abbas Choudhary, Saddam Akber Abbasi

Abstract:

In Pakistan, the privatization of major sector of the national economy i.e. power, telecom, and gas is very strongly advocated since 80s. With varying degree of progress made in these sectors, it has been the government’s approach that the privatization accelerates the sectorial growth, increases operational efficiency and attracts the foreign investment and is of special significance for developing economies. The gas sector was not an exception and the privatization in this sector has moved through various stages during this time within the realms of socio-political agenda. This paper presents the overview of the gas sector in the country. The Oil and Gas Regulatory Authority (OGRA) Ordinance and privatization commission policy position as depicted in the press briefings provides philosophical foundations to the privatization and sectorial restructuring in this paper. The role of the major players from privatization perspective is discussed with special reference to the importance of natural gas sector. The case study further discusses the economic regulations that are being adopted by utility regulators in Pakistan and elsewhere in the world and some issues that the Regulatory Authority will be concerned are outlined. Major operators in the gas sector including Oil & Gas Development Corporation (OGDC), Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited (SNGPL), Sui Southern Gas Pipelines Limited (SSGPL) is also presented.

Keywords: privatization, economic regulation, OGDCL, SSGCL, SNGPL

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
2323 The Challenges of Innovation Leadership in the Public Sector

Authors: Shaker A. Aladwan

Abstract:

This paper aims to explore the Barriers to innovation leadership in Jordanian public sector organizations. Qualitative approach was adopted, and content analysis was used to analyze the 18 assessment reports which are extracted from the public innovation award in Jordan, then, 20 semi-structured interviews were conducted with the key persons who are involved with innovation initiatives in the public sector organizations in Jordan. Several Barriersthat face the innovation leadership in the Jordanian public sector organizations. Managerially, the challenges include lack of innovation vision, implementation lack of innovation core values, lack of strategic planning for innovation, bad bureaucracy culture, and excessive centralization. Technically, the challenges include lack of task assignment for employees, lack of resources, lack of innovative training programs, lack of knowledge sharing, and the failure of governments to formulate policies and regulations. most of the studies focused on innovation in the non-public sector organizations, and most of them were conducted in the American and Western countries, which are different in terms of culture, kinds of innovation, barriers, and drivers. Thus, this paper provides new insights into barriers to innovation leadership in the public sector and in a new research context. This paper also provides a theoretical contribution by diagnosing the barriers facing innovation within the context of public administration in developing countries.

Keywords: innovation, excellence award, challenges, public sector, jordan

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
2322 Formal Innovations vs. Informal Innovations: The Case of the Mining Sector in Nigeria

Authors: Jegede Oluseye Oladayo

Abstract:

The study mapped innovation activities in the formal and informal mining sector in Nigeria. Data were collected through primary and secondary sources. Primary data were collected through guided questionnaire administration, guided interviews and personal observation. A purposive sampling method was adopted to select firms that are micro, small and medium enterprises. The study covered 100 (50 in the formal sector and 50 in the informal sector) purposively selected companies in south-western Nigeria. Secondary data were collected from different published sources. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Of the four types of technological innovations sampled, organisational innovation was found to be highest both in the formal (100%) and informal (100%) sectors, followed by process innovation: 60% in the formal sector and 28% in the informal sector, marketing innovation and diffusion based innovation were implemented by 64% and 4% respectively in the formal sector. There were no R&D activities (intramural or extramural) in both sectors, however, innovation activities occur at moderate levels in the formal sector. This is characterised by acquisition of machinery, equipment, hardware (100%), software (56), training (82%) and acquisition of external knowledge (60%) in the formal sector. In the informal sector, innovation activities were characterised by acquisition of external knowledge (100%), training/learning by experience (100%) and acquisition of tools (68%). The impact of innovation on firm’s performance in the formal sector was expressed mainly as increased capacity of production (100%), reduced production cost per unit of labour (88%), compliance with governmental regulatory requirements (72%) and entry on new markets (60%). In the informal sector, the impact of innovation was mainly expressed in improved flexibility of production (70%) and machinery/energy efficiency (70%). The important technological driver of process innovation in the mining sector was acquisition of machinery which accounts for the prevalence of 100% both in the formal and informal sectors. Next to this is training and re-training of technical staff, 74% in both the formal and the informal sector. Other factors influencing organisational innovation are skill of workforce with a prevalence of 80% in both the formal and informal sector. The important technological drivers include educational background of the manager/head of technical department (54%) for organisational innovation and (50%) for process innovation in the formal sector. The study concluded that innovation competence of the firms was mostly organisational changes.

Keywords: innovation prevalence, innovation activities, innovation performance, innovation drivers

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
2321 The Leadership Criterion: Challenges in Pursuing Excellence in the Jordanian Public Sector

Authors: Shaker Aladwan, Paul Forrester

Abstract:

This paper explores the challenges that face leaders when implementing business excellence programmes in the Jordanian public sector. The study adopted a content analysis approach to analyse the excellence assessment reports that have been produced by the King Abdullah II Centre for Excellence (KACE). The sample comprises ten public organisations which have participated in the King Abdullah Award for Excellence (KAA) more than once and acknowledge in their reports that they have failed to achieve satisfactory results. The key challenges to the implementation of leadership criteria in the public sector in Jordan were found to be poor strategic planning, lack of employee empowerment, weaknesses in benchmarking performance, a lack of financial resources, poor integration and coordination, and poor measurement system: This study proposes a conceptual model for the as assessment of challenges that face managers when seeking to implement excellence in leadership in the Jordanian public sector. Theoretically, this paper fills context gaps in the excellence literature in general and organisational excellence in the public sector in particular. Leadership challenges in the public sector are generally widely studied, but it is important to gain a better understanding of how these challenges can be overcome. In comparison to many existing studies, this research has provided specific and detailed insights these organisational excellence challenges in the public sector and provides a conceptual model for use by other researchers into the future.

Keywords: leadership criterion, organisational excellence, challenges, quality awards, public sector, Jordan

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
2320 Energy Unchained: An Analysis of Affordances of the Blockchain Technology in the Energy Sector

Authors: Jonas Kahlert

Abstract:

Blockchain technology has gained importance and momentum in the energy sector. Yet, there is no structured analysis of how specific features of the blockchain technology can create value in the energy sector. We employ a qualitative analysis on insights gained from the current literature and expert interviews. Along the four most prevalent use cases of blockchain technology in the energy sector, we discuss the potential of blockchain technology to support a transition to a more affordable, sustainable and reliable energy system. We show that in its current state, blockchain and adjacent technologies are not a necessity but a sufficiency towards this transition. We also show how current limitations of the blockchain and adjacent technologies can be even counterproductive. Finally, we discuss implications for policy makers and managers.

Keywords: blockchain technology, affordance theory, energy trilemma, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 384