Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: redness

35 Prediction of Changes in Optical Quality by Tissue Redness after Pterygium Surgery

Authors: Mohd Radzi Hilmi, Mohd Zulfaezal Che Azemin, Khairidzan Mohd Kamal, Azrin Esmady Ariffin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd Tamrin, Norfazrina Abdul Gaffur, Tengku Mohd Tengku Sembok

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to predict optical quality changes after pterygium surgery using tissue redness grading. Methods: Sixty-eight primary pterygium participants were selected from patients who visited an ophthalmology clinic. We developed a semi-automated computer program to measure the pterygium fibrovascular redness from digital pterygium images. The outcome of this software is a continuous scale grading of 1 (minimum redness) to 3 (maximum redness). The region of interest (ROI) was selected manually using the software. Reliability was determined by repeat grading of all 68 images and its association with contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and visual acuity (VA) was examined. Results: The mean and standard deviation of redness of the pterygium fibrovascular images was 1.88 ± 0.55. Intra- and inter-grader reliability estimates were high with intraclass correlation ranging from 0.97 to 0.98. The new grading was positively associated with CSF (p<0.01) and VA (p<0.01). The redness grading was able to predict 25% and 23% of the variance in the CSF and the VA respectively. Conclusions: The new grading of pterygium fibrovascular redness can be reliably measured from digital images and show a good correlation with CSF and VA. The redness grading can be used in addition to the existing pterygium grading.

Keywords: contrast sensitivity, pterygium, redness, visual acuity

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34 Increasing Redness and Microbial Stability of Low Nitrite Chicken Sausage by Encapsulated Tomato Pomace Extract

Authors: Bung-Orn Hemung, Nachayut Chanshotigul, Koo Bok Chin

Abstract:

Tomato pomace (TP) is the waste from tomato processing plants and its utilization as food ingredient may provide sustainable industry by reducing waste. TP was extracted by ethanol using microwave-assisted method at 180W for 90s. The ethanol was evaporated out, and an extract was encapsulated with maltodextrin (1:10) by spray drying to obtain an encapsulated TP extract (ETPE). The redness (a value) of ETPE powder was 6.5±0.05, and it was used as natural ingredient in the low-nitrite chicken sausage. Chicken emulsion sausage was prepared at 25 mg/kg of nitrite for being control. Effect of ETPE (1.0%) was evaluated along with the reference (150 mg/kg of nitrite without ETPE). The redness (a value) of sausage with ETPE was found at 6.8±0.03, which was higher than those of reference and control, which were at 4.8±.022 and 5.1±0.15, respectively. However, hardness, expressible moisture content and cooking yield values were reduced slightly. During storage at 10 °C in the air packed condition for 1 week, changes in color, pH, redness, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value were not significantly different. However, total microbial count of sausage samples with ETPE was lower than control for a 1 log cycle, suggesting microbial stability. Therefore, the addition of ETPE could be an alternative strategy to utilize TP as a natural colorant and antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of low-nitrite chicken sausage.

Keywords: antimicrobial ingredient, chicken sausage, ethanolic extract, low-nitrite sausage, tomato pomace

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33 The Evaluation of Caustic and Corrosive Poisoning in Children

Authors: Sabiha Sahin

Abstract:

Introduction: We have planned this study because of the increasing number of corrosive substance poisoning who admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Department. Method: 636 corrosive substance poisoning cases applied to the Osmangazi University PED between 1 January 2015 - 31 December 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: 438 (69%) cases were male.The poisoning rate of groups 0-4 was significantly higher and occurred by accident. A total of 616 cases (96.9%) were poisoned by the oral route, and 20 cases were poisoned by inhalation.462 Patients were admitted to the hospital within an hour (72.8%). Of the 134 patients who had only erosion and redness around the mouth, 24 patients had salivation and dysphagia symptoms besides these. Of the 28 cases of 158 patients with symptoms, eusaphegeal stenosis was detected. on third day examination. Although there was no statistically significant correlation between esophageal stenosis and erosion and redness around the mouth, there was a statistically significant correlation between dysphagia and salivation between esophageal stenosis Conclusion: The increased salivation and the dysphagia are important signs of risk of devoloping esophageal stenosis at first examination corrosive poisoning in children.

Keywords: caustic, corrosive, poisoning, children

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32 The Effect of Motivation of Chinese Tourists to Visit North Korea on Their Revisit Intention: Focused on the Tourists with the Experience of Visiting North Korea

Authors: Kim Jin-OK, Lee Jin-Eui, Han Seung-Hoon, Kim Nam-Jo

Abstract:

This study aimed to analyze the effect of the motivation of Chinese tourists to visit North Korea on their decision making process. Chinese tourists account for a considerable portion of foreign tourists in the world, while North Korea is the favorite tourist attraction of Chinese tourists. The motivation to visit North Korea was divided into three factors: the redness, which is the modern cultural heritage of Communism based on the red tourism accounting for the significant portion of domestic tourism, the novelty of the special environment of North Korean society, and the convenience of tour to North Korea in terms of geographical distance and policy of China. Red tourism refers to visiting the places of revolutionary events, monuments, artifacts and the residences of previous communist leaders, and other places related to the past Chinese Communist Party. As a revolutionary tourism, red tourism has recently been taking place in the old communist countries to recall their memories on the revolutionary places in China, as well as in North Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Russia, Bulgaria, Cuba, etc. In order to examine the effect of the segmented motivations on the revisit intention of Chinese tourists who have experienced a tour to North Korea, this study employed the model of goal-directed behavior, a model developed by adding a variable of emotion to the theory of planned behavior, which has a strong explanatory power on the decision making process of people in social science. For achieving the aim of the study, the data was collected through the survey in Dandong, China against Chinese tourists who have visited North Korea. The results of this study found that not only the novelty of North Korea, but also the redness, which accounts for the largest proportion in the domestic tourism, are significantly affecting overseas tour of Chinese tourists at this time point where overseas tour of Chinese tourists continue to increase. The results, therefore, suggest that the old communist countries, including those in Asia, need an emotional promotion strategy that stimulates nostalgia by focusing on the redness of the modern cultural heritage of Communism to attract Chinese tourists.

Keywords: model of goal-directed behavior, modern cultural heritage, North Korea, red tourism

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31 Effects of Methods of Confinement during Transportation of Market Pigs on Meat Quality

Authors: Pongchan Na-Lampang

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to compare the results of transport of slaughter pigs to slaughterhouse by 2 methods, i.e. individual confined and group confined on the truck on meat quality. The pigs were transported for 1 h on a distance of 70 km. The stocking densities were 0.35 m2/pig and 0.48 m2 for group and individual crate treatment, respectively. It was found that meat quality of pigs transported by 2 different methods as measured in terms of pH level (at 45 min and 48 hr post mortem), color (brightness, redness and yellowness) and water holding capacity was not significantly different.

Keywords: market pig, transportation, meat quality, confinement

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30 An Audit to Look at the Management of Paediatric Peri Orbital Cellulitis in a District General Hospital, Emergency Department

Authors: Ruth Green, Samantha Milton, Rinal Desai

Abstract:

Background/Aims: Eye pain/swelling/redness is a common presentation to Barnet General Hospital (a district general hospital), pediatric emergency department, and is managed by both the pediatric and emergency teams. The management of each child differs dramatically depending on the healthcare professional who reviews them. There also appears to be confusion in diagnosis between periorbital cellulitis, pre-septal cellulitis, and orbital cellulitis. Pre septal cellulitis refers to an inflammation of the eyelids and soft tissue anterior to the orbital septum. In contrast, orbital cellulitis is a serious, rapidly progressive infection of soft tissues located posterior to the orbital septum. Pre-septal cellulitis is more prevalent and less serious than orbital cellulitis, although it may be part of a continuous spectrum if untreated. Pre-septal cellulitis should there be diagnosed and treated urgently to prevent spread to the septum. For the purpose of the audit, the term periorbital cellulitis has been used as an umbrella term for all spectrums of this infection. The audit aimed to look at, how as a whole, the department is diagnosing and managing orbital and pre-septal cellulitis. Gold Standard: Patients of the same age and diagnosis should be treated with the same medication, advice, and follow-up. Method: Data was collected retrospectively from pediatric patients ( < 18years) who attended the emergency department from June 2019 to February 2020 who had been coded as pre-septal cellulitis, periorbital cellulitis, orbital cellulitis, or eye pain/swelling/redness. Demographics, signs and symptoms, management, and follow-up were recorded for all patients with any of the diagnoses of pre-septal, periorbital, or orbital cellulitis. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet was used to record the anonymised data. Results: There were vast discrepancies in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of patients with periorbital cellulitis. Conclusion/Discussion: The audit concluded there is no uniform approach to managing periorbital cellulitis in Barnet General Hospital Paediatric Emergency Department. Healthcare professionals misdiagnosed conjunctivitis as periorbital cellulitis, and adequate steps did not appear to be documented on excluding red flag signs and symptoms of patients presenting. There was no consistency in follow-up, with some patients having timely phone reviews or clinical reviews for mild symptoms. Advice given by the staff was appropriate, and patients did return when symptoms got worse and were treated accordingly. Plan: Given the inconsistency, a gold standard care pathway or local easily accessible clinical guideline can be developed to help with the diagnosis and management of periorbital cellulitis. Along with this, a teaching session can be carried out for the staff of the pediatric team and emergency department to disseminate the teaching. Following the introduction of a guideline and teaching sessions, patients notes can be re-reviewed to check improvement in patient care.

Keywords: periorbital cellulitis, preseptal cellulitis, orbital cellulitis, erythematous eyelid

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29 Utilization of Soymilk Residue for Wheat Flour Substitution in Gyoza skin

Authors: Naruemon Prapasuwannakul

Abstract:

Soy milk residue is obtained as a byproduct from soy milk and tofu production with little economic value. It contains high protein and fiber as well as various minerals and phyto-chemical compounds. The objective of this research was to substitute soy milk residue for wheat flour in gyoza skin in order to enhance value of soy milk residue and increase protein and fiber content of gyoza skin. Wheat flour was replaced with soy milk residue from 0 to 40%. The soy milk residue prepared in this research contains 26.92% protein, 3.58% fiber, 2.88% lipid, 6.29% ash and 60.33% carbohydrate. The results showed that increasing soy milk residue decreased lightness (L*value), tensile strength and sensory attributes but increased redness (a*), yellowness (b*), protein and fiber contents of product. The result also showed that the gyoza skin substituted with 30% soy milk residue was the most acceptable (p≤0.05) and its protein and fiber content increased up to 45 % and 867 % respectively.

Keywords: Gyoza skin, sensory, soymilk residue, wheat flour

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28 Use of Green Coconut Pulp as Cream, Milk, Stabilizer and Emulsifier Replacer in Germinated Brown Rice Ice Cream

Authors: Naruemon Prapasuwannakul, Supitcha Boonchai, Nawapat Pengpengpit

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine physicochemical and sensory properties of germinated brown rice ice cream as affected by replacement of cream, milk, stabilizer, and emulsifier with green coconut pulp. Five different formulations of ice cream were performed. Regular formulation of ice cream consisted of GBR juice, milk cream, milk powder, stabilizer, emulsifier, sucrose and salt. Replacing of cream, milk, stabilizer, and emulsifier with coconut pulp resulted in an increase in viscosity and overrun, but a decrease in hardness, melting rate, lightness (l*) and redness (a*). However, there was no significant difference among all formulations on any sensory attributes. The results also showed that the ice cream with replacement of coconut pulp contained less fat and protein than those of the regular ice cream. The findings suggested that green coconut pulp can be used as alternative ingredient to replace fat, milk stabilizer and emulsifier even in a high carbohydrate ice cream formulation.

Keywords: ice cream, germinated brown rice, coconut pulp, milk, cream

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
27 Physical Characteristics of Cookies Enriched with Microencapsulated Cherry Pomace Extract

Authors: Jovana Petrović, Ivana Lončarević, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Biljana Pajin, Danica Zarić

Abstract:

Pomace, a by-product from fruit processing industry is the potential source of valuable bioactive. Cookies are popular, ready to eat and low price foods; therefore, enrichment of these products is of great importance. In this work, bioactive compounds extracted from cherry pomace, encapsulated in soy and whey proteins, have been incorporated in cookies, replacing 10 (SP10 and WP10) and 15% of wheat flour (SP15 and WP15). Cookie geometry (diameter (D), thickness (T) and spread ratio (D/T)), cookie weight, cookie hardness and cookie surface colour were measured. Sensory characteristics are also examined. The results show that encapsulated cherry pomace bioactives have positively influenced the cookie mass. Diameter, redness (a* value) and cookie hardness increased. Sensory evaluation of cookies, revealed that up to 15% substitution of wheat flour with WP encapsulate produced acceptable cookies similar to the control (100% wheat flour) cookies.

Keywords: cherry pomace, polyphenols, microencapsulation, cookies, physical characteristics

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26 Potential Role of IL-1β in Synovial Fluid in Modulating Multiple Joint Tissue Pathologies Leading to Inflammation and Accelerating Cartilage Degeneration

Authors: Priya Kulkarni, Soumya Koppikar, Datta Shinde, Shantanu Deshpande, Narendrakumar Wagh, Abhay Harsulkar

Abstract:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with multiple and overlapping aetiologies. IL-1β is produced by stressed tissue and known to aggravate disease pathologies. We selected 10 patients with elevated IL-1β in their synovial fluids (SF). We hypothesized IL-1β as nodal-point connecting different pathologies. IL-1β was higher in all meniscal tear (MT) patients perhaps as the earliest response to injury. Since MT above age of 30 leads to OA in less than 5 years, it is attributed that IL-1β modulates OA pathology. Among all bilateral OA patients, an interesting case operated for Total-Knee-Replacement revealed differential cartilage degeneration demonstrating strong association with higher IL-1β. Symptoms like acute-pain, effusion and redness were correlated with higher IL-1β and NO (Nitric-oxide). However, higher IL-1β was also found without typical-inflammation characterized by infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages. Cultured synoviocytes responded to IL-1β by releasing NO. In conclusion, IL-1β in SF acquires central position influencing different OA pathologies and aetiologies.

Keywords: IL-1β, meniscal tear, osteoarthritis, synovial fluid

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25 Functional, Pasting and Colour Characteristics of OGI (A Fermented Maize Meal) as Affected by Stage of Moringa Seed Inclusion

Authors: Olajide Emmanuel Adedeji, Olufunke O. Ezekiel

Abstract:

Moringa seed (20%) was incorporated into ogi (80%) at different stages in the flow line of ogi flour. Functional, pasting and L*a*b* colour characteristics of the samples were determined using standard methods. Loose and packed bulk densities ranged from 0.32 to 0.39 g/cm3 and 0.57 to 0.70 g/cm3 respectively. 100% ogi flour had the lowest values in both parameters. Water absorption and swelling capacities of the samples ranged from 0.89 to 1.80 ml/g and from 5.81 to 6.99 respectively. Pasting viscosity ranged from 870.33 RVU to 4660.67 RVU with the sample produced through the incorporation of full fat moringa seed flour during souring stage and 100% ogi flour having the least and highest values respectively. Stage of moringa seed inclusion also had effect on the trough, breakdown and final viscosity of the samples. The range of values obtained for these pasting parameters were 599.33-2940.00 RVU, 271.00-1720.67 RVU and 840.00-5451.67 RVU respectively. There was no significant difference (p≥ 0.05) in L*(a measure of whiteness) among the co fermented, blend of ogi and full fat moringa flours, blend of ogi and defatted moringa flour and 100% ogi flour samples. Low values were recorded for these samples in a* (measure of redness), b* (measure of yellowness) and colour intensity.

Keywords: stage of inclusion, functional property, ogi, moringa seed

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24 Qualitative Characteristics of Meat from Lambs Fed Hydrolyzed Sugarcane

Authors: V. Endo, A. G. Silva Sobrinho, F. A. Almeida, N. L. L. Lima, G. M. Manzi, L. G. A. Cirne, N. M. B. L. Zeola

Abstract:

We used 24 Ile de France lambs, weighing between 15 and 32 kg (BW). Treatments were supplemented with concentrate: “in nature” sugarcane (IN), sugarcane hydrolyzed using 0.6% calcium oxide (CaO) under aerobic condition (AER), and sugarcane hydrolyzed using 0.6% CaO under anaerobic condition (ANA), constituting a completely randomized design with eight repetitions per treatment. Lambs were housed in individual stalls and fed into the through, allowing 10% of leftovers. Lambs were slaughtered when body weight reached 32 kg. The following parameters were determined on Longissimus lumborum muscle of hot and cold carcasses: pH and color, 45 minutes and 24 hours after slaughtering. Qualitative analysis of the meat were performed in the loins, water-holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss (CL), and shear force (SF). We used a completely randomized design with three treatments and eight repetitions. Means were compared by Tukey test at 5% significance. A higher value for redness (a*) 45 minutes after slaughter (10.48) was found for lambs fed sugarcane hydrolyzed under anaerobic conditions. The other qualitative characteristics of meat were not affected by treatments (P >0.05). The comparison of meat quality resulting from the treatments shows that it is possible to feed in nature sugarcane to lambs, thus waiving hydrolyses process and the spending with alkalizing agent.

Keywords: oxide, hydrolysis, meat quality, pH

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23 Effects of Some Legume Flours and Gums on Some Properties of Turkish Noodle

Authors: Kübra Aktaş, Nermin Bilgiçli, Tayyibe Erten, Perihan Kübra Çiçek

Abstract:

In this research, different wheat-legume flour blends were used in Turkish noodle preparation with the aid of some gums (xanthan and guar). Chickpea, common bean and soy flours were used in noodle formulation at 20% level with and without gum (1%) addition. Some physical, chemical and sensory properties of noodles were determined. Water uptake, volume increase and cooking loss values of the noodles changed between 92.03-116.37%, 125.0-187.23% and 4.88-8.10%, respectively. Xanthan or guar gam addition decreased cooking loss values of legume fortified noodles. Both legume flour and gum addition significantly (p<0.05) affected the color values of the noodles. The lowest lightness (L*), redness (a*) and the highest yellowness (b*) values were obtained with soy flour usage in noodle formulation. Protein and ash values of noodles ranged between 15.14 and 21.82%; 1.62 and 2.50%, respectively, and the highest values were obtained with soy flour usage in noodle formulation. As a result of sensory evaluation, noodles containing chickpea flour and guar gum were rated with higher taste, odor, appearance and texture scores compared to other noodle samples.

Keywords: noodle, legume, soy, chickpea, common bean, gum

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22 Telomere Length Genetics: Biomarker of Early Age Metabolic Activities and Oxidative Impact in Broiler Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)

Authors: Kazeem Ajasa Badmus, Zulkifli Idrus, Goh Yong Meng, Kamalludin Mamat-Hamidi

Abstract:

This study was aimed at evaluating the roles played by early age in performance, organs weights, meat quality traits, and telomere length integrity. One hundred male Cobb 500® broiler chickens were grouped into ten replicates of ten chickens each. Growth performance, measurement of telomere length, weights of organs, and meat quality traits were determined on days 14, 28, and 42 of the experiment. There were significant (p < 0.05) differences obtained in the chicken growth performance across ages. Telomere length of blood, muscle, liver, and heart on day 14 were significantly (p < 0.05) shorter than telomere length obtained on days 28 and 42 of the age. Weights of organs on day 14 were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those obtained on days 28 and 42. In this study, birds slaughtered on day 14 presented the highest (p < 0.05) pH, drip loss, redness, and yellowness. They, however, showed lower (p < 0.05) cooking loss, shear force, and lightness. There was a significant association between age, telomere length, and meat quality traits. It is therefore concluded that telomere length attrition is associated with early age metabolic activities and could be used to measure chicks' welfare.

Keywords: age, telomere length, organ weights, meat quality

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21 Use of High Hydrostatic Pressure as an Alternative Preservation Method for Fresh Dates, Rutab

Authors: Salah Mohammed Al-Eid, Siddig Hussein Hamad, Fahad Mohammed Aljassas

Abstract:

The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments on microbial contamination, chemical and physical properties of fresh dates (Rutab stage) were studied. Khalas, Barhi and Hilali cultivars were treated at 200, 250, 300 and 350 MPa using HHP research apparatus. The objective of such treatments was to preserve fresh dates without adversely affecting its properties. Treating fresh dates at 300 MPa for 5 minutes at 40°C reduced microbial contamination in about 2.5 log cycles. Applying 250 MPa was enough to control Rutab contamination with molds, yeasts, and coliforms. Both treatments were enough to reduce Rutab microbial contamination to acceptable levels. HHP caused no significant effect on Rutab chemical properties (moisture, sugars, protein, pectin and acidity). However, a slight decrease in moisture contents due to HHP was observed. Rutab lightness (L*) significantly decreased due to the application of HHP. Only Rutab treated at 300 MPs gave lower redness (a*) values compared with an untreated sample. The effect of 300 MPa on increasing yellowness (b*) was observed for Barhi and Hilali but decreasing for Khalas. The hardness of all Rutab cultivars significantly decreased as a result of HHP application. In fact, the pressure applied at 300 MPa had an adverse effect on texture, which may limit its suitability for use in Rutab preservation.

Keywords: high hydrostatic pressure, fresh dates (Rutab), microbial contamination, color, texture

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20 Physical Properties and Resistant Starch Content of Rice Flour Residues Hydrolyzed by α-Amylase

Authors: Waranya Pongpaiboon, Warangkana Srichamnong, Supat Chaiyakul

Abstract:

Enzymatic modification of rice flour can produce highly functional derivatives use in food industries. This study aimed to evaluate the physical properties and resistant starch content of rice flour residues hydrolyzed by α-amylase. Rice flour hydrolyzed by α-amylase (60 and 300 u/g) for 1, 24 and 48 hours were investigated. Increasing enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time resulted in decreased rice flour residue’s lightness (L*) but increased redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) of rice flour residues. The resistant starch content and peak viscosity increased when hydrolysis time increased. Pasting temperature, trough viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, setback and peak time of the hydrolyzed flours were not significantly different (p>0.05). The morphology of native flour was smooth without observable pores and polygonal with sharp angles and edges. However, after hydrolysis, granules with a slightly rough and porous surface were observed and a rough and porous surface was increased with increasing hydrolyzed time. The X-ray diffraction patterns of native flour showed A-type configuration, which hydrolyzed flour showed almost 0% crystallinity indicated that both amorphous and crystalline structures of starch were simultaneously hydrolyzed by α-amylase.

Keywords: α-Amylase, enzymatic hydrolysis, pasting properties, resistant starch

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19 Effect of Pretreatment on Quality Parameters of Natural Convection Mixed-Mode Solar Dried Potato

Authors: Kshanaprava Dhalsamant, Punyadarshini P. Tripathy, Shanker L. Shrivastava

Abstract:

With present high global population, the need for rising food usage by minimizing food wastage and investment is highly necessary to achieve food security. The purpose of this study is to enlighten the effect of pre-drying treatment on rehydration, color, texture, nanohardness, microstructure and surface morphology of solar dried potato samples dried in the mixed-mode solar dryer. Locally bought potatoes were cleaned and cut into cylindrical pieces and pretreated with sodium metabisulfite (0.5%) for 10 min before placing them in natural convection solar dryer designed and developed in Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India. Advanced quality characteristics were studied using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and nanoindentation method, along with color, texture and water activity. The rehydration indices of solar dried potatoes were significantly biased by pretreatment followed by rehydration temperature. A lower redness index (a*) with a higher value of yellowness index (b*), chroma (C*) and hue angle (h*) were obtained for pretreated samples. Also, the average nanohardness (H) of untreated samples exhibited substantial lower value (18.46%) compared to pretreated samples. Additionally, a creep displacement of 43.27 nm during 20 s dwell time under constant load of 200

Keywords: pretreatment, nanohardness, microstructure, surface morphology

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18 Carcass Characteristics and Qualities of Philippine White Mallard (Anas boschas L.) and Pekin (Anas platyrhynchos L.) Duck

Authors: Jerico M. Consolacion, Maria Cynthia R. Oliveros

Abstract:

The Philippine White Mallard duck was compared with Pekin duck for potential meat production. A total of 50 ducklings were randomly assigned to five (5) pens per treatment after one month of brooding. Each pen containing five (5) ducks was considered as a replicate. The ducks were raised until 12 weeks of age and slaughtered at the end of the growing period. Meat from both breeds was analyzed. The data were subjected to the Independent-Sample T-test at 5% level of confidence. Results showed that post-mortem pH (0, 20 minutes, 50 minutes, 1 hour and 20 minutes, 1 hour and 50 minutes, and 24 hours ) did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between breeds. However, Pekin ducks (89.84±0.71) had a significantly higher water-holding capacity than Philippine White Mallard ducks (87.93±0.63) (P<0.05). Also, meat color (CIE L, a, b) revealed that no significant differences among the lightness, redness, and yellowness of the skin (breast) in both breeds (P>0.05) except for the yellowness of the lean muscles of the Pekin duck breast. Pekin duck meat (1.15±0.04) had significantly higher crude fat content than Philippine White Mallard (0.47±0.58). The study clearly showed that breed is a factor and provided some pronounced effects among the parameters. However, these results are considered as preliminary information on the meat quality of Philippine White Mallard duck. Hence, further studies are needed to understand and fully utilize it for meat production and develop different meat products from this breed.

Keywords: crude fat, meat color, meat pH, water-holding capacity

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17 Effects of the Tomato Pomace Oil Extract on Physical and Antioxidant Properties of Gelatin Films

Authors: N. Jirukkakul, J. Sodtipinta

Abstract:

Tomatoes are widely consumed as fresh and processed products through the manufacturing industry. Therefore, tomato pomace is generated as a by-product accounting for about 5-13% of the whole tomato. Antioxidants still remain in tomato pomace and extraction of tomato oil may useful in edible film production. The edible film solution was prepared by mixing gelatin (2, 4 and 6%) with the distilled water and heating at 40oC for 30 min. Effect of tomato pomace oil was evaluated at 0, 0.5 and 1%. Film solution was poured in plate and dried overnight at 40oC before determining the physical properties, which are tensile strength, moisture content, color, solubility, and swelling power. The results showed that an increase gelatin concentration caused increasing of tensile strength, moisture content, solubility and swelling power. The edible film with tomato pomace oil extract appeared as the rough film with oil droplet dispersion. The addition of tomato pomace oil extract caused an increase in lightness, redness and yellowness, while tensile strength, moisture content, and solubility were decreased. Film with tomato pomace oil extract at 0.5 and 1% exhibited antioxidant properties but those properties were not significantly different (p<0.05) between film incorporated with tomato pomace oil extract 0.5 and 1%. The suitable condition for film production in this study, 4% of gelatin and 0.5% of tomato pomace oil extract, was selected for protecting oxidation of palm oil. At 15 days of the storage period, the palm oil which covered by gelatin film with tomato pomace oil extract had 22.45 milliequivalents/kg of peroxide value (PV), while, the palm oil which covered by polypropylene film and control had 24.79 and 26.67 milliequivalents/kg, respectively. Therefore, incorporation of tomato pomace oil extract in gelatin film was able to protect the oxidation of food products with high fat content.

Keywords: antioxidant, gelatin films, physical properties, tomato oil extract

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16 Effect of Dietary Graded Levels of L-Theanine on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Meat Quality, and Immune Response of Broilers

Authors: Muhammad Saeed, Sun Chao

Abstract:

L-theanine is water soluble non-proteinous amino acid found in green tea leaves. Despite the availability of abundant literature on green tea, studies on the use of L-theanine as an additive in animals especially broilers are scanty. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different dietary levels of L-theanine on growth performance, meat quality, growth, immune response and blood chemistry in broilers. A total of 400 day-old chicks were randomly divided into four treatment groups (A, B, C, and D) using a complete randomized design. Treatments were as follows: A; control (basal diet), B; basal diet+100 mg L-theanine / kg diet, C; basal diet+ 200 mg L-theanine / kg diet, and D; basal diet+ 300 mg L-theanine / kg diet. Results revealed that intermediate level of L-theanine (200 mg/ kg diet, group C) showed better results in terms of BWG, FC, and FCR compared with control and other L-theanine levels. The live weight eviscerated weight and gizzard weight was higher in all L-theanine levels as compared to that of the control group. The heaviest (P > 0.05) spleen and bursa were found in group C (200 mg L-theanine / kg diet). Analysis of meat colors according to yellowness (b*), redness (a*), and lightness (L*) showed significantly higher values of a* and b* in L-theanine groups. Supplementing broiler diet with L-theanine minimized (P=0.02) total cholesterol contents in serum. Further analysis revealed , lower mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in thymus and IFN- γ and IL-2 in spleen was observed in L-theanine group It is concluded that supplementation of L-theanine at 200mg/kg diet showed better results in terms of performance and it could be utilized as a natural feed additive alternative to antibiotics to improve overall performance of broilers. Increasing the levels up to 300 mg L-theanine /kg diet may has deleterious effects on performance and other health aspects.

Keywords: blood chemistry, broilers growth, L-theanine, meat quality

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15 Preliminary Assessment for Protective Effect of Rhodiola rosea in Chemically Induced Ulcerative Colitis

Authors: Santram Lodhi, Alok Pal Jain, Awesh K. Yadav, Gopal Rai

Abstract:

Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) is commonly known as golden root or rose root. It is a perennial herbaceous plant and most investigated species of the genus Rhodiola. Rhodiola rosea contains flavonoids, terpenoids, phenylpropanoid glycosides and phenylethanol derivatives in the roots of the plant. The objective of present study was to investigate the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract from Rhodiola rosea roots in DSS induced colitis in mice. The ulcerative colitis was induced by DSS (3%, w/v) in mice and estimated weight loss and stool consistency. Various parameters including Colon length, spleen weights and ulcer index were also measured. The histological observations were observed by H&E staining. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract on various antioxidant parameter of rat colon such as tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO), reduced GSH, SOD concentrations and lipid peroxidation were determined. Pro-inflammatory mediators, such as tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined by ELISA. In DSS induced group, mice body weight decreased gradually as compared to the control group. Redness and edema were observed in the colons intensely and scores representing inflammation in this group. The extract treated showed with tissue levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and MPO activity were significantly (p<0.05) increased. The mice treated with higher doses of hydroalcoholic extract (300 mg/kg) significantly reduced the activity compared with standard drug sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg. B.wt). Conclusion: Results of this study were suggested that the efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract, especially at the higher dose, was similar to that of standard drug, which concerned its potential application as a natural medicine for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

Keywords: phenylpropanoid, Rhodiola rosea, sulfasalazin, ulcerative colitis

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
14 Effect of Smoking on Tear Break-Up Time and Basal Tear Secretion

Authors: Kalsoom Rani

Abstract:

Tobacco contains nicotine, which causes addiction to many toxic chemicals. In the world, people consume it in the form of smoke, chew, and sniffing, smoke of it is composed of almost 7000 active chemicals, which are very harmful to human health as well as for eye health, inhalation of tobacco smoke and fumes can accelerate and cause many blinding eye diseases. Dry eye and smoking have not been covered extensively in researches; more studies are required to unveil the relationship between smoking and dry eye. This study was conducted to determine the quantity and quality of tears in smokers. 60 subjects participated in the study, which was divided into two groups on the basis of consumption of cigarettes per day with age matched non smokers of 15-50 years. All participants have gone through a study based questioner, eye examination, and diagnostic 'Dry Eye Tests' for evaporative tears evaluation and measurement of basal tear secretion. Subjects were included in the criteria of 10 cigarettes per day with a minimum duration of 1 year; passive smokers for control groups were excluded. The study was carried out in a Medina Teaching Hospital, Faisalabad, Pakistan, ophthalmology department for the duration of 8 months. Mean values for tear break up time (TBUT), was reported 10sec with SD of +3.74 in controlled group, 5sec with SD + 2.32 in smokers and 4sec SD +3.77 heavy smokers in right eye (RE) and left eye (LE) 10.35sec with SD of +3.88 in controlled 5sec with SD + 2.3 in smokers and much reduced TBUT in heavy smokers was 3.85sec SD+2.20. Smoking has a very strong association with TRUT with a significance of P=.00 both eyes. Mean Schirmer-I value of the subjects was reported 12.6mm with SD + 8.37 in RE and 12.59mm with SD + 8.96 LE. The mean Schirmer-II test value was reported in the right, and left eye with a mean value for control was 20.23mm with SD + 8.93, 20.75mm with SD + 8.84 respectively, and in Smokers 9.90mm with SD + 5.74, and 10.07mm with SD + 6.98, and in heavy smokers 7.7mm, SD + 3.22 and 6.9, SD + 3.50 mm, association with smoking showed p=.001 in RE and .003 in LE. Smoking has deteriorated effect on both evaporative tear and aqueous tear secretion and causing symptoms of dry eye burning, itching, redness, and watering with epithelial cell damage.

Keywords: tear break-up time, basal tear secretion, smokers, dry eye

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
13 The Influence of Apple Pomace on Colour and Chemical Composition of Extruded Corn Snack Product

Authors: Jovana Petrovic, Biljana Pajin, Ivana Loncarevic, Aleksandar Fistes, Antun Jozinivic, Durdica Ackar, Drago Subaric

Abstract:

Recovery of food wastes and their conversion to economically viable products will play a vital role for the management strategies in the years to come. Apple pomace may be considered as wastes, but they contain considerable amounts of high value reusable materials. Apple pomace, the by-product of apple juice and cider production, is a good source of fibre, particularly insoluble one. The remaining apple pulp contains 12% dry residue, which is half dietary fibre. Another remarkable aspect is its richness in polyphenols, components with antioxidant activity. Apple pomace could be an interesting alternative source for fibre and polyphenols in extruded corn meals. The extruded corn meals with the addition of finely ground apple pomace were prepared (the ratio of corn meal: apple pomace was 85:15 and 70:30). Characterization of the extrudates in terms of determining the chemical composition and colour was performed. The color of samples was measured by MINOLTA Chroma Meter CR-400 (Minolta Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) using D 65 lighting, a 2º standard observer angle and an 8-mm aperture in the measuring head. The following CIELab color coordinates were determined: L* – lightness, a* – redness to greenness and b* – yellowness to blueness. Protein content decreased significantly from 7.91% to 5.19% with increase in pomace from 0% to 30%, while total fibre content increase from 3.39% to 16.62%. The apple pomace addition produced extrudates with a significantly lower L* value and significantly higher a* value. This study has been fully supported by the Provincial Secretariat for High Education and Scientific Research of the Government of Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia, project 142-451-2483/2017 and the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Project no. 31014).

Keywords: apple pomace, chemical composition, colour, extruded corn snack products, food waste recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
12 On-Farm Evaluation of Fast and Slow Growing Genotypes for Organic and Pasture Poultry Production Systems

Authors: Komala Arsi, Terrel Spencer, Casey M. Owens, Dan J. Donoghue, Ann M. Donoghue

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Organic poultry production is becoming increasingly popular in the United States with approximately 17% increase in the sales of organic meat and poultry in 2016. As per the National Organic Program (NOP), organic poultry production system should operate according to specific standards, including access to outdoors. In the United States, organic poultry farmers are raising both fast growing and slow growing genotypes for alternative productive systems. Even though heritage breed birds grow much slower compared to commercial breeds, many free range producers believe that they are better suited for outdoor production systems. We conducted an on-farm trial on a working pasture poultry farm to compare the performance and meat quality characteristics of a slow-growing heritage breed (Freedom Rangers, FR), and two commonly used fast growing types of chickens (Cornish cross, CC and Naked Neck, NN), raised on pasture, in side by side pens segregated by breed (n=70/breed). CC and NN group birds were reared for eight weeks whereas FR group birds were reared for 10 weeks and all the birds were commercially processed. By the end of the rearing period, the final body weight of FR group birds was significantly lower than both the fast growing genotypes (CC and NN). Both CC and NN birds showed significantly higher live weight, carcass weight as well as fillet, tender and leg yield (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the wing and rack yield among the different groups. Color of the meat was measured using CEILAB method and expressed as lightness (L), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*). The breast meat from FR birds was much redder (higher a* values) and less yellow (lesser b* values) compared to both the fast growing type of chickens (P < 0.05). Overall, fast growing genotypes produced higher carcass weight and meat yield compared to slow growing genotypes and appear to be an economical option for alternative production systems.

Keywords: fast growing chickens, meat quality, pasture, slow growing chickens

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
11 Effect of Texturised Soy Protein and Yeast on the Instrumental and Sensory Quality of Hybrid Beef Meatballs

Authors: Simona Grasso, Gabrielle Smith, Sophie Bowers, Oluseyi Moses Ajayi, Mark Swainson

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Hybrid meat analogues are meat products whereby a proportion of meat has been partially replaced by more sustainable protein sources. These products could bridge the gap between meat and meat-free products, providing convenience, and allowing consumers to continue using meat products as they conventionally would, while lowering their overall meat intake. The study aimed to investigate the effect of introducing texturized soy protein (TSP) at different levels (15% and 30%) with and without nutritional yeast as flavour enhancer on the sensory and instrumental quality of beef meatballs, compared to a soy and yeast-free control. Proximate analysis, yield, colour, instrumental texture, and sensory quality were investigated. The addition of soy and yeast did not have significant effects on the overall protein content, but the total fat and moisture content went down with increasing soy substitution. Samples with 30% TSP had significantly higher yield than the other recipes. In terms of colour, a* redness values tended to go down and b* yellowness values tended to go up with increasing soy addition. The addition of increasing levels of soy and yeast modified the structure of meatballs resulting in a progressive decrease in hardness and chewiness compared to control. Sixty participants assessed the samples using Check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions and hedonic scales. The texture of all TSP-containing samples received significantly higher acceptability scores than control, while 15% TSP with yeast received significantly higher flavour and overall acceptability scores than control. Control samples were significantly more often associated than the other recipes to the term 'hard' and the least associated to 'soft' and 'crumbly and easy to cut'. All recipes were similarly associated to the terms 'weak meaty', 'strong meaty', 'characteristic' and 'unusual'. Correspondence analysis separated the meatballs in three distinct groups: 1) control; 2) 30%TSP with yeast; and 3) 15%TSP, 15%TSP with yeast and 30%TSP located together on the sensory map, showing similarity. Adding 15-30% TSP with or without yeast inclusion could be beneficial for the development of future meat hybrids with acceptable sensory quality. These results can provide encouragement for the use of the hybrid concept by the meat industry to promote the partial substitution of meat in flexitarians’ diets.

Keywords: CATA, hybrid meat products, texturised soy protein, yeast

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10 Valorization of Seafood and Poultry By-Products as Gelatin Source and Quality Assessment

Authors: Elif Tugce Aksun Tumerkan, Umran Cansu, Gokhan Boran, Fatih Ozogul

Abstract:

Gelatin is a mixture of peptides obtained from collagen by partial thermal hydrolysis. It is an important and useful biopolymer that is used in the food, pharmacy, and photography products. Generally, gelatins are sourced from pig skin and bones, beef bone and hide, but within the last decade, using alternative gelatin resources has attracted some interest. In this study, functional properties of gelatin extracted from seafood and poultry by-products were evaluated. For this purpose, skins of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) and frog (Rana esculata) were used as seafood by-products and chicken skin as poultry by-product as raw material for gelatin extraction. Following the extraction of gelatin, all samples were lyophilized and stored in plastic bags at room temperature. For comparing gelatins obtained; chemical composition, common quality parameters including bloom value, gel strength, and viscosity in addition to some others like melting and gelling temperatures, hydroxyproline content, and colorimetric parameters were determined. The results showed that the highest protein content obtained in frog gelatin with 90.1% and the highest hydroxyproline content was in chicken gelatin with 7.6% value. Frog gelatin showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) melting point (42.7°C) compared to that of fish (29.7°C) and chicken (29.7°C) gelatins. The bloom value of gelatin from frog skin was found higher (363 g) than chicken and fish gelatins (352 and 336 g, respectively) (P < 0.05). While fish gelatin had higher lightness (L*) value (92.64) compared to chicken and frog gelatins, redness/greenness (a*) value was significantly higher in frog skin gelatin. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that skins of different animals with high commercial value may be utilized as alternative sources to produce gelatin with high yield and desirable functional properties. Functional and quality analysis of gelatin from frog, chicken, and tuna skin showed by-product of poultry and seafood can be used as an alternative gelatine source to mammalian gelatine. The functional properties, including bloom strength, melting points, and viscosity of gelatin from frog skin were more admirable than that of the chicken and tuna skin. Among gelatin groups, significant characteristic differences such as gel strength and physicochemical properties were observed based on not only raw material but also the extraction method.

Keywords: chicken skin, fish skin, food industry, frog skin, gel strength

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9 The Toxicity of Doxorubicin Connected with Nanotransporters

Authors: Iva Blazkova, Amitava Moulick, Vedran Milosavljevic, Pavel Kopel, Marketa Vaculovicova, Vojtech Adam, Rene Kizek

Abstract:

Doxorubicin is one of the most commonly used and the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs. This antracycline drug isolated from the bacteria Streptomyces peuceticus var. caesius is sold under the trade name Adriamycin (hydroxydaunomycin, hydroxydaunorubicin). Doxorubicin is used in single therapy to treat hematological malignancies (blood cancers, leukaemia, lymphoma), many types of carcinoma (solid tumors) and soft tissue sarcomas. It has many serious side effects like nausea and vomiting, hair lost, myelosupression, oral mucositis, skin reactions and redness, but the most serious one is the cardiotoxicity. Because of the risk of heart attack and congestive heart failure, the total dose administered to patients has to be accurately monitored. With the aim to lower the side effects and to targeted delivery of doxorubicin into the tumor tissue, the different nanoparticles are studied. The drug can be bound on a surface of nanoparticle, encapsulated in the inner cavity, or incorporated into the structure of nanoparticle. Among others, carbon nanoparticles (graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes) are highly studied. Besides the number of inorganic nanoparticles, a great potential exhibit also organic ones mainly lipid-based and polymeric nanoparticle. The aim of this work was to perform a toxicity study of free doxorubicin compared to doxorubicin conjugated with various nanotransporters. The effect of liposomes, fullerenes, graphene, and carbon nanotubes on the toxicity was analyzed. As a first step, the binding efficacy of between doxorubicin and the nanotransporter was determined. The highest efficacy was detected in case of liposomes (85% of applied drug was encapsulated) followed by graphene, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. For the toxicological studies, the chicken embryos incubated under controlled conditions (37.5 °C, 45% rH, rotation every 2 hours) were used. In 7th developmental day of chicken embryos doxorubicin or doxorubicin-nanotransporter complex was applied on the chorioallantoic membrane of the eggs and the viability was analyzed every day till the 17th developmental day. Then the embryos were extracted from the shell and the distribution of doxorubicin in the body was analyzed by measurement of organs extracts using laser induce fluorescence detection. The chicken embryo mortality caused by free doxorubicin (30%) was significantly lowered by using the conjugation with nanomaterials. The highest accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicin nanotransporter complexes was observed in the liver tissue

Keywords: doxorubicin, chicken embryos, nanotransporters, toxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
8 Effect of Farsi gum (Amygdalus Scoparia Spach) in Combination with Sodium Caseinate on Textural, Stability, Sensory Characteristics and Rheological Properties of Whipped Cream

Authors: Samaneh Mashayekhi

Abstract:

Cream (whipped cream) is one of the dairy products that can be used in desserts, pastries, cakes, and ice creams. In this product, some parameters such as taste and flavor, quality stability, whipping ability, and stability of foam after whipping are very important. The objective of this study is applicable of Farsi gum and sodium caseinate in 3 biopolymer ratios (1:1, 1:2, and 2:1) and 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 %wt. concentrations in whipped cream formulation. Sample without hydrocolloids was considered as a control. Before whipping, viscosity of all creams was increased continuously with increasing shear rate. In addition, the viscosity was increased with the increasing hydrocolloids addition (in constant shear rate). Microscopic observations showed that polydispersity of systems before whipping. Overrun of F, FC11, and FC21 samples were increased (with increasing total hydrocollid concentration 0.15 to 0.30 % wt.); then decreased this parameter with increasing to 0.45 % wt. concentration. However, mean comparison of FC12 samples overrun showed that this value was increased with increasing total hydrocolloids concentration. 0.45FC21 sample had significantly (P<0.05) highest overrun (118.44±9.11). Synersis of whipped cream samples are reduced with hydrocolloid addition. B sample had significantly (P<0.05) highest serum separation (16.66±0.80%), and 0.45FC12 had a low one (5.94±0.19%) in compered with others synersis. Mean comparison of hardness and adhesiveness of whipped cream revealed that Farsi gum addition alone and in combination with sodium caseinate increased the previous textural characteristics. Results exhibited that 0.4FG12 had significantly (P<0.05) highest hardness (267.00±18.38 g).Mean comparison of droplet size of cream sample before whipping displaced that hydrocolloid addition had no significant effect (P>0.05), and mean droplet size of the samples ranged between 1.93-2.16 µm. Generally, the mean droplet size of whipped cream increased after whipping with increasing hydrocolloid concentration (0.15-0.45 % wt.). Color parameter analysis showed that Farsi gum addition alone and in combination with sodium caseinate had no significant effect (P>0.05) on these parameters (Lightness, Redness, and Yellowness). Based on sensory evaluation results, appearance, color, flavor, and taste of whipped creams not influenced by hydrocolloids addition; but 0.45FC12 sample had higher value. Based on the above results, Farsi gum had suggested to potential application in a whipped cream formulation; however, further research need to foundingof their functionality.

Keywords: whipped cream, farsi gum, sodium caseinate, overrun, droplet size, texture analysis, sensory evaluation

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7 Chemical, Physical and Microbiological Characteristics of a Texture-Modified Beef- Based 3D Printed Functional Product

Authors: Elvan G. Bulut, Betul Goksun, Tugba G. Gun, Ozge Sakiyan Demirkol, Kamuran Ayhan, Kezban Candogan

Abstract:

Dysphagia, difficulty in swallowing solid foods and thin liquids, is one of the common health threats among the elderly who require foods with modified texture in their diet. Although there are some commercial food formulations or hydrocolloids to thicken the liquid foods for dysphagic individuals, there is still a need for developing and offering new food products with enriched nutritional, textural and sensory characteristics to safely nourish these patients. 3D food printing is an appealing alternative in creating personalized foods for this purpose with attractive shape, soft and homogenous texture. In order to modify texture and prevent phase separation, hydrocolloids are generally used. In our laboratory, an optimized 3D printed beef-based formulation specifically for people with swallowing difficulties was developed based on the research project supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK Project # 218O017). The optimized formulation obtained from response surface methodology was 60% beef powder, 5.88% gelatin, and 0.74% kappa-carrageenan (all in a dry basis). This product was enriched with powders of freeze-dried beet, celery, and red capia pepper, butter, and whole milk. Proximate composition (moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents), pH value, CIE lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*), and color difference (ΔE*) values were determined. Counts of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mold and yeast, total coliforms were conducted, and detection of coagulase positive S. aureus, E. coli, and Salmonella spp. were performed. The 3D printed products had 60.11% moisture, 16.51% fat, 13.68% protein, and 1.65% ash, and the pH value was 6.19, whereas the ΔE* value was 3.04. Counts of TMAB, LAB, mold and yeast and total coliforms before and after 3D printing were 5.23-5.41 log cfu/g, < 1 log cfu/g, < 1 log cfu/g, 2.39-2.15 log EMS/g, respectively. Coagulase positive S. aureus, E. coli, and Salmonella spp. were not detected in the products. The data obtained from this study based on determining some important product characteristics of functional beef-based formulation provides an encouraging basis for future research on the subject and should be useful in designing mass production of 3D printed products of similar composition.

Keywords: beef, dysphagia, product characteristics, texture-modified foods, 3D food printing

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
6 The Effect of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Berries on Some Quality Characteristics of Cooked Pork Sausages

Authors: Anna M. Salejda, Urszula Tril, Grażyna Krasnowska

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The aim of this study was to analyze selected quality characteristics of cooked pork sausages manufactured with the addition of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berries preparations. Stuffings of model sausages consisted of pork, backfat, water and additives such a curing salt and sodium isoascorbate. Functional additives used in production process were two preparations obtained from dried Sea buckthorn berries in form of powder and brew. Powder of dried berries was added in amount of 1 and 3 g, while water infusion as a replacement of 50 and 100% ice water included in meat products formula. Control samples were produced without functional additives. Experimental stuffings were heat treated in water bath and stored for 4 weeks under cooled conditions (4±1ºC). Physical parameters of colour, texture profile and technological parameters as acidity, weight losses and water activity were estimated. The effect of Sea buckthorn berries preparations on lipid oxidation during storage of final products was determine by TBARS method. Studies have shown that addition of Sea buckthorn preparations to meat-fatty batters significant (P≤0.05) reduced the pH values of sausages samples after thermal treatment. Moreover, the addition of berries powder caused significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in weight losses after cooking process. Analysis of results of texture profile analysis indicated, that utilization of infusion prepared from Sea buckthorn dried berries caused increase of springiness, gumminess and chewiness of final meat products. At the same time, the highest amount of Sea buckthorn berries powder in recipe caused the decrease of all measured texture parameters. Utilization of experimental preparations significantly decreased (P≤0.05) lightness (L* parameter of color) of meat products. Simultaneously, introduction of 1 and 3 grams of Sea buckthorn berries powder to meat-fatty batter increased redness (a* parameter) of samples under investigation. Higher content of substances reacting with thiobarbituric acid was observed in meat products produced without functional additives. It was observed that powder of Sea buckthorn berries added to meat-fatty batters caused higher protection against lipid oxidation in cooked sausages.

Keywords: sea buckthorn, meat products, texture, color parameters, lipid oxidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 233