Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: chickpea

37 Production Potential and Economic Returns of Bed Planted Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) As Influenced by Different Intercropping Systems

Authors: Priya M. V., Thakar Singh

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A field experiment was carried out during the rabi season of 2017 and 2018 to evaluate the productivity and economic viability of bed-planted chickpea-based intercropping systems. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design consisting of four replications with thirteen treatments. Results showed that sole chickpea recorded the highest seed yield, and it was statistically at par with seed yield obtained under chickpea + oats fodder (2:1), chickpea + oats fodder (4:1), and chickpea + linseed (4:1) intercropping systems. However, oilseed rape and barley as intercrops showed an adverse effect on yield and yield attributes of chickpea. Chickpea + oats fodder in 2:1 row ratio recorded the highest chickpea equivalent yield of 24.07 and 24.77 q/ha during 2017 and 2018, respectively. Higher net returns (Rs. 63098 and 70924/ha) and benefit-cost ratio (1.47 and 1.63) were also recorded in chickpea + oats fodder (2:1) intercropping system over sole chickpea (Rs. 44862 and 53769/ha and 1.21 and 1.41) during both the years. Chickpea + oats fodder (4:1), chickpea + linseed (2:1), and chickpea + linseed (4:1) also recorded significantly higher chickpea equivalent yield, net returns, and benefit-cost ratio as compared to sole chickpea.

Keywords: bed planted chickpea, chickpea equivalent yield, economic returns, intercropping system, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
36 Forage Quality of Chickpea - Barley as Affected by Mixed Cropping System in Water Stress Condition

Authors: Masoud Rafiee

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To study the quality response of forage to chickpea-barley mixed cropping under drought stress and vermicompost consumption, an experiment was carried out under well watered and %70 water requirement (stress condition) in RCBD as split plot with four replications in temperate condition of Khorramabad in 2013. Chickpea-barley mix cropping (%100 chickpea, %75:25 chickpea:barley, %50:50 chickpea:barley, %25:75 chickpea:barley, and %100 barley) was studied. Results showed that wet and dry forage yield were significantly affected by environment and decreased in stress condition. Also, crude protein content decreased from %26.2 in well watered to %17.3 in stress condition.

Keywords: crude protein, wet forage yield, dry forage yield, water stress condition, well watered

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
35 Nutritional Composition of Iranian Desi and Kabuli Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Cultivars in Autumn Sowing

Authors: Khosro Mohammadi

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The grain quality of chickpea in Iran is low and instable, which may be attributed to the evolution of cultivars with a narrow genetic base making them vulnerable to biotic stresses. Four chickpea varieties from diverse geographic origins were chosen and arranged in a randomized complete block design. Mesorhizobium Sp. cicer strain SW7 was added to all the chickpea seeds. Chickpea seeds were planted on October 9, 2013. Each genotype was sown 5 m in length, with 35 cm inter-row spacing, in 3 rows. Weeds were removed manually in all plots. Results showed that analysis of variance on the studied traits showed significant differences among genotypes for N, P, K and Fe contents of chickpea, but there is not a significant difference among Ca, Zn and Mg continents of chickpea. The experimental coefficient of variation (CV) varied from 7.3 to 15.8. In general, the CV value lower than 20% is considered to be good, indicating the accuracy of conducted experiments. The highest grain N was observed in Hashem and Jam cultivars. The highest grain P was observed in Jam cultivar. Phosphorus content (mg/100g) ranged from 142.3 to 302.3 with a mean value of 221.3. The negative correlation (-0.126) was observed between the N and P of chickpea cultivars. The highest K and Fe contents were observed in Jam cultivar.

Keywords: cultivar, genotype, nitrogen, nutrient, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
34 Land Equivalent Ration of Chickpea - Barley as Affected by Mixed Cropping System and Vermicompost in Water Stress Condition

Authors: Masoud Rafiee

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Study of the effect of vermin compost on yield, and Land equivalent ration (LER) of chickpea-barley mixed cropping under normal dry land condition can be useful in order to increase qualitative and quantitative performance. In this case, two factors include fertilizer (vermicompost biological fertilizer, ammonium phosphate chemical fertilizer, vermicompost + %75 chemical fertilizer) and chickpea + barley mixed cropping (sole chickpea, %75 chickpea: %25 barley, %50 chickpea: %50 barley, %25 chickpea: %75 barley, and sole barley) in RCBD in three replications in two experiments include normal and dry land conditions were studied. Result showed that total LER base on dry matter was affected by environment and mixed cropping interaction and was more than 1 in all mixed cropping treatments. In different mixed cropping rates, wet forage yield decreased by decreasing chickpea ratio as well as increasing barley ratio. Total LER mean in base on forage dry matter in mixed-, chemical-, and vermicompost fertilizer treatments were 1.12, 1.05 and 1.10 in normal condition and 1.15, 1.08 and 1.14 in dry land condition, respectively, represented the important of biological fertilizer in mixed cropping systems.

Keywords: land equivalent ration, biological fertilizer, mixed cropping systems, water stress

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33 Developing Drought and Heat Stress Tolerant Chickpea Genotypes

Authors: Derya Yucel, Nigar Angın, Dürdane Mart, Meltem Turkeri, Volkan Catalkaya, Celal Yucel

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Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) with high protein content is a vital food, especially in under-developed and developing countries for the people who do not consume enough meat due to low-income level. The objective of the proposed study is to evaluate growing, yield and yield components of chickpea genotypes under Mediterranean condition so determine tolerance of chickpea genotypes against drought and heat stress. For this purpose, a total of 34 chickpea genotypes were used as material. The experiment was conducted according to factorial randomized complete block design with 3 reps at the Eastern Mediterranean Research Institute, Adana, TURKEY for 2014-15 growing season under three different growing conditions (Winter sowing, irrigated-late sowing and non-irrigated- late sowing). According to results of this experiment, vegetative period, flowering time, poding time, maturity time, plant height, height of first pod, seed yield and 100 seed weight were ranged between 68.33 to 78.77 days, 94.22 to 85.00 days, 94.11 to 106.44 days, 198.56 to 214.44 days, 37.18 to 64.89 cm, 18.33 to 34.83 cm, 417.1 to 1746.4 kg/ha and 14.02 to 45.02 g, respectively. Among the chickpea genotypes, the Aksu, Arda, Çakır, F4 09 (X 05 TH 21-16189), FLIP 03-108 were least affected by drought and heat stress. Therefore, these genotypes can be used as sources of drought and heat tolerance in further breeding programme for evolving the drought and heat tolerant genotypes in chickpea.

Keywords: chickpea, drought stress, heat stress, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
32 Salinity Response of Some Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes in Germination and Seedling Growth of Periods

Authors: Onder Aldemir, Ercan Ceyhan

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The research was conducted to determine effects of salt concentrations on emergence and seedling development of chickpea genotypes. Trials were performed during the year of 2013 on the laboratory and greenhouse of Agricultural Faculty, Selcuk University. Emergency trial was set up according to ‘Randomized Plots Design’ by two factors and four replications; greenhouse trial was also set up according to ‘Randomized Plots Design’ by two factors with three replications. The chickpea genotypes; CA119, CA132, CA149, CA150, CA215, CA222, CA235, CA261, Bozkır and Gokce were used as material for both of the trials. Effects of the five doses of salt concentrations (control, 30 mM, 60 mM, 90 mM and 120 mM) on the ratio of emergency, speed of emergency, average time for emergency, index of sensibility, length of shoot and root, fresh weight of shoot and root, dry weight of shoot and root, index of salt tolerance were evaluated. Responses of the chickpea genotypes for salt concentrations were found different. Comparing to the control, all of the investigated characteristics on the chickpea genotypes showed significant reduction by depending on the increasing salt level. According to the effects of salt application, the chickpea genotypes Gokce, CA215 and CA222 were the most tolerant in respect to plant dry weights while the chickpea genotypes CA149 and CA150 were the most sensitive.

Keywords: chickpea, emergence, salt tolerant, seedling development

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
31 Evaluation on Heat and Drought Tolerance Capacity of Chickpea

Authors: Derya Yucel, Nigar Angın, Dürdane Mart, Meltem Turkeri, Volkan Catalkaya, Celal Yucel

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Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the important legumes widely grown for dietery proteins in semi-arid Mediteranean climatic conditions. To evaluate the genetic diversity with improved heat and drought tolerance capacity in chickpea, thirty-four selected chickpea genotypes were tested under different field-growing conditions (rainfed winter sowing, irrigated-late sowing and rainfed-late sowing) in 2015 growing season. A factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with 3 reps was conducted at the Eastern Mediterranean Research Institute Adana, Turkey. Based on grain yields under different growing conditions, several indices were calculated to identify economically higher-yielding chickpea genotypes with greater heat and drought tolerance capacity. Average across chickpea genotypes, the values of tolerance index, mean productivity, yield index, yield stability index, stress tolerance index, stress susceptibility index, and geometric mean productivity were ranged between 1.1 to 218, 38 to 202, 0.3 to 1.7, 0.2 to 1, 0.1 to 1.2, 0.02 to 1.4, and 36 to 170 for drought stress and 3 to 54, 23 to 118, 0.3 to 1.7, 0.4 to 0.9, 0.2 to 2, 0.2to 2.3, and 23 to 118 for heat stress, respectively. There were highly significant differences observed among the tested chickpea genotypes response to drought and heat stresses. Among the chickpea genotypes, the Aksu, Arda, Çakır, F4 09 (X 05 TH 21-16189), FLIP 03-108 were identified with a higher drought and heat tolerance capacity. Based on our field studies, it is suggested that the drought and heat tolerance indicators of plants can be used by breeders to select stress-resistant economically productive chickpea genotypes suitable to grow under Mediteranean climatic conditions.

Keywords: irrigation, rainfed, stress susceptibility, tolerance indice

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30 Strategies to Improve Heat Stress Tolerance in Chickpea and Dissecting the Cross Talk Mechanism

Authors: Renu Yadav, Sanjeev Kumar

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In northern India, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) come across with terminal high-temperature stress during reproductive stage which leads to reduced yield. Hence, stable production of chickpea will depend on the development of new methods like ‘priming’ which allow improved adaptation to the drought and heat stress. In the present experiment, 11-day chickpea seedling was primed with mild drought stress and put on recovery stage by irrigating and finally 30-day seedlings were exposed to heat stress 38°C (4 hours), 35°C (8 hours) and 32°C (12 hours). To study the effect of combinatorial stress, heat and drought stress was applied simultaneously. Analyses of various physiological parameters like membrane damage assay, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidative enzyme, total sugars were estimated at all stages. To study the effect of heat stress on the metabolites of the plants, GC-MS and HPLC were performed, while at transcriptional level Real-Time PCR of predicted heat stress-related genes was done. It was concluded that the heat stress significantly affected the chickpea plant at physiological and molecular level in all the five varieties. Results also show less damaging effect in primed plants by increasing the activity of antioxidative enzymes and increased expression of heat shock proteins and heat shock factors.

Keywords: chickpea, combinatorial stress, heat stress, oxidative stress, priming, RT-PCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
29 Effect of Different Weed Management Strategies in Chickpea Yield

Authors: Ijaz Ahmed Khan, Zaheen Ullah, Rahamdad, Gul Hassan

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A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station Ahmad Wala, Karak, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province during rabi season of 2010-011 to study the effect of different weed management practices on weed control in chickpea under field conditions. The results revealed that treatments showed significant influence on weed density, seed yield kg ha-1 and other growth parameters. Significantly lower weed density (98 m-2) was recorded with the application of Isoproturon 500 EW as compared to control plots having 368.3 weeds m-2. Moreover, significantly highest seed yield (1583.3 kg ha-1) was produced in the plots assigned with Isoproturon 500 EW followed by Eucalyptus extract that produce seed yield of 1416.7 kg ha-1. It was concluded from the study that Isoproturon 500 EW is the best option for controlling weeds and increase the seed yield kg ha-1 of chickpea.

Keywords: chickpea, herbicides, weed control, weeds extracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
28 Response of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes to Drought Stress at Different Growth Stages

Authors: Ali. Marjani, M. Farsi, M. Rahimizadeh

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Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the important grain legume crops in the world. However, drought stress is a serious threat to chickpea production, and development of drought-resistant varieties is a necessity. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of 8 chickpea genotypes (MCC* 696, 537, 80, 283, 392, 361, 252, 397) and drought stress (S1: non-stress, S2: stress at vegetative growth stage, S3: stress at early bloom, S4: stress at early pod visible) at different growth stages. Experiment was arranged in split plot design with four replications. Difference among the drought stress time was found to be significant for investigated traits except biological yield. Differences were observed for genotypes in flowering time, pod information time, physiological maturation time and yield. Plant height reduced due to drought stress in vegetative growth stage. Stem dry weight reduced due to drought stress in pod visibly. Flowering time, maturation time, pod number, number of seed per plant and yield cause of drought stress in flowering was also reduced. The correlation between yield and number of seed per plant and biological yield was positive. The MCC283 and MCC696 were the high-tolerance genotypes. These results demonstrated that drought stress delayed phonological growth in chickpea and that flowering stage is sensitive.

Keywords: chickpea, drought stress, growth stage, tolerance

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27 Role of Salicylic Acid in Alleviating Chromium Toxicity in Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.)

Authors: Ghulam Hassan Abbasi, Moazzam Jamil, Ghazala Akhtar, M.Anwar-ul-Haq

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Heavy metals are significant pollutants in environment and their toxicity is a problem for survival of living things while salicylic acid (SA) is signaling and ubiquitous bioactive molecule that regulates cellular mechanism in plants under stress condition. Therefore, exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) under chromium stress in two chickpea varieties were investigated in hydroponic experiment with five treatments comprising of control, 5 µM Cr + 5 mM SA, 5µM Cr + 10 mM SA, 10µM Cr + 5 mM SA, and 10µM Cr + 10 mM SA. Results revealed that treatments of plants with 10 mM SA application under both 5 µM Cr and 10 µM Cr stress resulted in maximum improvement in plant morphological attributes (root and shoot length, root and shoot fresh and dry weight, membrane stability index and relative water contents) relative to 5 mM SA application in both chickpea varieties. Results regarding Cr concentration showed that Cr was more retained in roots followed by shoots and maximum reduction in Cr uptake was observed at 10 mM SA application. Chickpea variety BRC-61 showed maximum growth and least concentration of Cr in root and shoot relative to BRC-390 variety.

Keywords: chromium, Chickpea, salicylic acid, growth

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26 Enhanced Iron Accumulation in Chickpea Though Expression of Iron-Regulated Transport and Ferritin Genes

Authors: T. M. L. Hoang, G. Tan, S. D. Bhowmik, B. Williams, A. Johnson, M. R. Karbaschi, Y. Cheng, H. Long, S. G. Mundree

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Iron deficiency is a worldwide problem affecting both developed and developing countries. Currently, two major approaches namely iron supplementation and food fortification have been used to combat this issue. These measures, however, are limited by the economic status of the targeted demographics. Iron biofortification through genetic modification to enhance the inherent iron content and bioavailability of crops has been employed recently. Several important crops such as rice, wheat, and banana were reported successfully improved iron content via this method, but there is no known study in legumes. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is an important leguminous crop that is widely consumed, particularly in India where iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent. Chickpea is also an ideal pulse in the formulation of complementary food between pulses and cereals to improve micronutrient contents. This project aims at generating enhanced ion accumulation and bioavailability chickpea through the exogenous expression of genes related to iron transport and iron homeostasis in chickpea plants. Iron-Regulated Transport (IRT) and Ferritin genes in combination were transformed into chickpea half-embryonic axis by agrobacterium–mediated transformation. Transgenic independent event was confirmed by Southern Blot analysis. T3 leaves and seeds of transgenic chickpea were assessed for iron contents using LA-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation – Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) and ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry). The correlation between transgene expression levels and iron content in T3 plants and seeds was assessed using qPCR. Results show that iron content in transgenic chickpea expressing the above genes significantly increased compared to that in non-transgenic controls.

Keywords: iron biofortification, chickpea, IRT, ferritin, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, LA-ICP-MS, ICP-OES

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
25 Effect of Four Medicinal Plant Extracts on Chickpea Leaf Miner Liriomyza cicerina (Rondani)

Authors: Sabraoui Abdelhadi, El Bouhssini Mustapha, Lhaloui Saadia, El Fakhouri Karim, Bouchelta Aziz

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The surveys carried out in 2014, 2015 in the regions of Abda- Doukala, Chaouia- Ouardigha, Zemour- Zair and Fes- Sais have confirmed that the leaf miner was the main insect pest attacking chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Morocco. The grain yield losses caused by this pest could be more than 20% for winter planting and more than 42% for spring-sown crop. To reduce the chickpea leaf miner infestations, four essential oils, as biopesticide alternatives, were tested for their insecticidal effect on L. ciccerina, adults and larvae under laboratory conditions. In addition, we assessed the efficacy of these essential oils with and without adjuvant against this pest in comparison to three insecticides under field conditions. Mentha pulegium, with a dose of 33 µl/l of air caused 100% mortality on adults and larvae, after three hours and six hours of exposure, respectively. Eucalyptus showed 100% mortality on adults and larvae, with doses of 33 and 83 µl/l, after six and three hours of exposure, respectively. In the field conditions M. pulegium and E. globulus with adjuvant showed promising results compared with Abamectin, Azadirachtin and Spinetoram respectively. Essential oils could be used as one of the IPM components for the control of chickpea leaf miner.

Keywords: Liriomyza cicerina, chickpea, essential oils, insecticidal activity, Morocco

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
24 Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Kefir, Kefir Yogurt and Chickpea Yogurt

Authors: Nuray Güzeler, Elif Ari, Gözde Konuray, Çağla Özbek

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The consumption of functional foods is very common. For this reason, many products which are probiotic, prebiotic, energy reduced and fat reduced are developed. In this research, physicochemical and microbiological properties of functional kefir, kefir yogurt and chickpea yogurt were examined. For this purpose, pH values, titration acidities, viscosity values, water holding capacities, serum separation values, acetaldehyde contents, tyrosine contents, the count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria count and mold-yeast counts were determined. As a result of performed analysis, the differences between titration acidities, serum separation values, water holding capacities, acetaldehyde and tyrosine contents of samples were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences on pH values, viscosities, and microbiological properties of samples (p > 0.05). Consequently industrial production of functional kefir yogurt and chickpea yogurt may be advised.

Keywords: chickpea yogurt, kefir, kefir yogurt, milk

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
23 Studies on Tolerance of Chickpea to Some Pre and Post Emergence Herbicides

Authors: Rahamdad Khan, Ijaz Ahmad Khan

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In modern agriculture the herbicides application are considered the most effective and fast in action against all types of weeds. But it’s a fact that the herbicide applicator cannot totally secure the crop plants from the possible herbicide injuries that further leads to several destructive changes in plant biochemistry. For the purpose pots studies were undertaken to test the tolerance order of chickpea against pre- emergence herbicides (Stomp 330 EC- Dual Gold 960 EC) and post- emergence herbicides (Topik 15 WP- Puma Super 75 EW- Isoproturon 500 EW) during 2012-13 and 2013-14. The experimental design was CRD with three replications. Plant height, number of branches plant-1, number of seeds plant-1, nodulation, seed protein contents and other growth related parameters in chickpea were examined during the investigations. The results indicate that all the enquire herbicides gave a significant variation to all recorded parameter of chick pea except nodule fresh and dray weight. Moreover the toxic effect of pre-emergence herbicide on chickpea was found higher as compared to post-emergence herbicides. Minimum chickpea plant height (50.50 cm), number of nodule plant-1 (17.83) and lowest seed protein (14.13 %) was recorded in Stomp 330 EC. Similarly the outmost seeds plant-1 (29.66) and number of nodule plant-1 (21) were found for Puma Super 75 EW. The results further showed that the highest seed protein content (21.75 and 21.15 %) was recorded for control/ untreated and Puma Super 75EW. Taking under concentration the possible negative impact of the herbicides the chemical application must be minimized up to certain extent at which the crop is mostly secure. However chemical weed control has many advantages so we should train our farmer regarding the proper use of agro chemical to minimize the loses in crops while using herbicides.

Keywords: chickpea, herbicides, protein, stomp 330 EC, weed

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22 Genome-Wide Expression Profiling of Cicer arietinum Heavy Metal Toxicity

Authors: B. S. Yadav, A. Mani, S. Srivastava

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Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an annual, self-pollinating, diploid (2n = 2x = 16) pulse crop that ranks second in world legume production after common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). ICC 4958 flowers approximately 39 days after sowing under peninsular Indian conditions and the crop matures in less than 90 days in rained environments. The estimated collective yield losses due to abiotic stresses (6.4 million t) have been significantly higher than for biotic stresses (4.8 million t). Most legumes are known to be salt sensitive, and therefore, it is becoming increasingly important to produce cultivars tolerant to high-salinity in addition to other abiotic and biotic stresses for sustainable chickpea production. Our aim was to identify the genes that are involved in the defence mechanism against heavy metal toxicity in chickpea and establish the biological network of heavy metal toxicity in chickpea. ICC4958 variety of chick pea was taken and grown in normal condition and 150µM concentration of different heavy metal salt like CdCl₂, K₂Cr2O₇, NaAsO₂. At 15th day leave samples were collected and stored in RNA Later solution microarray was performed for checking out differential gene expression pattern. Our studies revealed that 111 common genes that involved in defense mechanism were up regulated and 41 genes were commonly down regulated during treatment of 150µM concentration of CdCl₂, K₂Cr₂O₇, and NaAsO₂. Biological network study shows that the genes which are differentially expressed are highly connected and having high betweenness and centrality.

Keywords: abiotic stress, biological network, chickpea, microarray

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21 Arsenic Speciation in Cicer arietinum: A Terrestrial Legume That Contains Organoarsenic Species

Authors: Anjana Sagar

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Arsenic poisoned ground water is a major concern in South Asia. The arsenic enters the food chain not only through drinking but also by using arsenic polluted water for irrigation. Arsenic is highly toxic in its inorganic forms; however, organic forms of arsenic are comparatively less toxic. In terrestrial plants, inorganic form of arsenic is predominantly found; however, we found that significant proportion of organic arsenic was present in root and shoot of a staple legume, chickpea (Cicer arientinum L) plants. Chickpea plants were raised in pot culture on soils spiked with arsenic ranging from 0-70 mg arsenate per Kg soil. Total arsenic concentrations of chickpea shoots and roots were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) ranging from 0.76 to 20.26, and 2.09 to 16.43 µg g⁻¹ dry weight, respectively. Information on arsenic species was acquired by methanol/water extraction method, with arsenic species being analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with ICP-MS. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was the only organic arsenic species found in amount from 0.02 to 3.16 % of total arsenic shoot concentration and 0 to 6.93 % of total arsenic root concentration, respectively. To investigate the source of the organic arsenic in chickpea plants, arsenic species in the rhizosphere of soils of plants were also examined. The absence of organic arsenic in soils would suggest the possibility of formation of DMA in plants. The present investigation provides useful information for better understanding of distribution of arsenic species in terrestrial legume plants.

Keywords: arsenic, arsenic speciation, dimethylarsinic acid, organoarsenic

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20 Economic of Chickpea Cultivars as Influenced by Sowing Time and Seed Rate

Authors: Indu Bala Sethi, Meena Sewhag, Rakesh Kumar, Parveen Kumar

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Field experiment was conducted at Pulse Research Area of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during rabi 2012-13 to study the economics of chickpea cultivars as influenced by sowing time and seed rate on sandy loam soils under irrigated conditions. The factorial experiment consisting of 24 treatment combinations with two sowing time (1st fortnight of November and 1st fortnight of December.) and four cultivars (H09-23, H08-18, C-235 and HC-1) kept in main plots while three seed rates viz. 40 kg ha-1, 50 kg ha-1 and 60 kg ha-1 was laid out in split plot design with three replications. The crop was sown with common row spacing of 30 cm as per the dates of sowing. The fertilizer was applied in the form of di- ammonium phosphate. The soil of the experimental site was deep sandy loam having pH of 7.9, EC of 0.13 dS/m and low in organic carbon (0.34%), low in available N status (193.36 kg ha-1), medium in available P2O5 (32.18 kg ha-1) and high in available K2O (249.67 kg ha-1). The crop was irrigated as and when required so as to maintain adequate soil moisture in the root zone The crop was sprayed with monocrotophos (1.25 l/ha) at initiation of flowering and at pod filling stage to protect the crop from pod borer attack. The yield was measured at the time of harvest. The cost of field preparation, sowing of seeds, thinning, weeding, plant protection, harvesting and cleaning contributed to fixed cost. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with two sowing time (1st fortnight of November and 1st fortnight of December.) and four cultivars (H09-23, H08-18, C-235 and HC-1) kept in main plots while three seed rates viz. 40 kg ha-1, 50 kg ha-1 and 60 kg ha-1 were kept in subplots and replicated thrice. Results revealed that 1st fortnight of November sowing recorded significantly higher gross (Rs.1, 01,254 ha-1), net returns (Rs. 68,504 ha-1) and BC (3.09) ratio as compared to delayed crop of chickpea. Highest gross (Rs.91826 ha-1), net returns (Rs. 59076ha-1) and BC ratio (2.81) was recorded with H08-18. Higher value of cost of cultivation of chickpea was observed in higher seed rate than the lower ones. However no significant variation in net and gross returns was observed due to seed rates. Highest BC (2.72) ratio was recorded with 50 kg ha-1 which differs significantly from 60 kg ha-1 but was at par with 40 kg ha-1. This is because of higher grain yield obtained with 50 kg ha-1 seed rate. Net profit for farmers growing chickpea with seed rate of 50 kg ha-1 was higher than the farmers growing chickpea with seed rate of 40 and 60 kg ha.

Keywords: chickpea, cultivars, seed rate, sowing time

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19 Distribution, Seasonal Phenology and Infestation Dispersal of the Chickpea Leafminer Liriomyza cicerina (Diptera: Agromizidae) on Two Winter and Spring Chickpea Varieties

Authors: Abir Soltani, Moez Amri, Jouda Mediouni Ben Jemâa

Abstract:

In North Africa, the chickpea leafminer Liriomyza cicerina (Rondani) (Diptera: Agromizidae) is one of the major damaging pests affecting both spring and winter-planted chickpea. Damage is caused by the larvae which feed in the leaf mesophyll tissue, resulting in desiccation and premature leaf fall that can cause severe yield losses. In the present work, the distribution and the seasonal phenology of L. cicerina were studied on two chickpea varieties; a winter variety Beja 1 which is the most cultivated variety in Tunisia and a spring-sown variety Amdoun 1. The experiment was conducted during the cropping season 2015-2016. In the experimental research station Oued Beja, in the Beja region (36°44’N; 9°13’E). To determine the distribution and seasonal phenology of L. cicerina in both studied varieties Beja 1 and Amdoun 1, respectively 100 leave samples (50 from the top and 50 from the base) were collected from 10 chickpea plants randomly chosen from each field. The sampling was done during three development stages (i) 20-25 days before flowering (BFL), (ii) at flowering (FL) and (ii) at pod setting stage (PS). For each plant, leaves were checked from the base till the upper ones for the insect infestation progress into the plant in correlation with chickpea growth Stages. Fly adult populations were monitored using 8 yellow sticky traps together with weekly leaves sampling in each field. The traps were placed 70 cm above ground. Trap catches were collected once a week over the cropping season period. Results showed that L. cicerina distribution varied among both studied chickpea varieties and crop development stage all with seasonal phenology. For the winter chickpea variety Beja 1, infestation levels of 2%, 10.3% and 20.3% were recorded on the bases plant part for BFL, FL and PS stages respectively against 0%, 8.1% and 45.8% recorded for the upper plant part leaves for the same stages respectively. For the spring-sown variety Amdoun 1 the infestation level reached 71.5% during flowering stage. Population dynamic study revealed that for Beja 1 variety, L. cicerina accomplished three annual generations over the cropping season period with the third one being the most important with a capture level of 85 adult/trap by mid-May against a capture level of 139 adult/trap at the end May recorded for cv. Amdoun 1. Also, results showed that L. cicerina field infestation dispersal depends on the field part and on the crop growth stage. The border areas plants were more infested than the plants placed inside the plots. For cv. Beja 1, border areas infestations were 11%, 28% and 91.2% for BFL, FL and PS stages respectively, against 2%, 10.73% and 69.2% recorded on the on the inside plot plants during the for the same growth stages respectively. For the cv. Amdoun1 infestation level of 90% was observed on the border plants at FL and PS stages against an infestation level less than 65% recorded inside the plot.

Keywords: leaf miner, liriomyza cicerina, chickpea, distribution, seasonal phenology, Tunisia

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18 Productive Performance of Lactating Sows Feed with Cull Chickpea

Authors: J. M. Uriarte, H. R. Guemez, J. A. Romo, R. Barajas, J. M. Romo

Abstract:

This research was carried out with the objective of knowing the productive performance of sows in lactation when fed with diets containing cull chickpea instead of corn and soybean meal. Thirty-six (Landrace x Yorkshire) lactating sows were divided into three treatments with 12 sows per treatment. On day 107 of gestation, sows were moved into farrowing crates in an environmentally regulated (2.2 × 0.6 m) contained an area (2.2 × 0.5 m) for newborn pigs on each side, all diets were provided as a dry powder, and the sows received free access to water throughout the experimental period. After farrowing, daily feed allowance increased gradually, and sows had ad libitum access to feed by day four. They were fed diets containing 0 (CONT), cull chickpeas 15 % (CHP15), or cull chickpeas 30% (CHP30) for 28 days. The diets contained the same calculated levels of crude protein and metabolizable energy, and contained vitamins and minerals that exceeded the National Research Council (1998) recommendations; sows were fed three times daily. On day 28, piglets were weaned and performances of lactating sows and nursery piglets were recorded. All data in this experiment were analyzed in accordance with a completely randomized design. Results indicated that average daily feed intake (5.61, 5.59 and 5.46 kg for CONT, CHP15, and CHP30 respectively) of sows were not affected (P > 0.05) by different dietary. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in average body weight of piglets on the day of birth (1.35 vs. 1.30, and 1.32 kg) and day 28 (7.10, 6.80 and 6.92 kg) between treatments. The numbers of weaned piglets (10.65 on average) were not affected by treatments. It is concluded that the use of cull chickpea at 30% of the diet does not affect the productive performance of lactating sows.

Keywords: cull chickpea, lactating sow, performance, pigs

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17 Spectrophotometric Determination of L-Dopa in Germinated and Non-Germinated Broad Beans (Vicia faba L.) and Chickpea (Cicer aritinum L.)

Authors: Wissame Gouigah, Amina Medellel, Mahmoud Trachi, Djedjiga Benamara, Salem Benamara

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to investigate, by UV/VIS spectrophotometry, the distribution of L-dopa, known as precursor of dopamine which is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, in broad beans (Vicia faba) (Vf) and chickpea (Cicer aritinum L.) (CA). In the case of Vf, the different organs were analyzed separately: 1) First, in the fresh state: pod (GF), cotyledons (CF), green shell (EF) and placenta (PF) which is the organ through which the seed is attached to the pod, 2) in the dry state (S): peel of the dry seed (ES) and cotyledons (CS), and 3) in the germinated state: peel (EGe), cotyledons (CGe) and germ (GeVf). Results showed that the content of L-dopa is unevenly distributed between different parts of fresh Vf. But the most important result concerns the predominance of L-dopa in placenta with an L-dopa content (~ 60 mg/g of wet weight, ww) sometimes 7-fold higher (p≤0.05) than those of other considered parts of fresh Vf. In the case of CA, the L-dopa concentration in germinated gains was higher than those found in all analyzed Vf organs, excepted PF.

Keywords: broad bean (Vicia faba L.), chickpea (Cicer aritinum L.), L-dopa, Parkinson disease, placenta

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16 Effects of Some Legume Flours and Gums on Some Properties of Turkish Noodle

Authors: Kübra Aktaş, Nermin Bilgiçli, Tayyibe Erten, Perihan Kübra Çiçek

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In this research, different wheat-legume flour blends were used in Turkish noodle preparation with the aid of some gums (xanthan and guar). Chickpea, common bean and soy flours were used in noodle formulation at 20% level with and without gum (1%) addition. Some physical, chemical and sensory properties of noodles were determined. Water uptake, volume increase and cooking loss values of the noodles changed between 92.03-116.37%, 125.0-187.23% and 4.88-8.10%, respectively. Xanthan or guar gam addition decreased cooking loss values of legume fortified noodles. Both legume flour and gum addition significantly (p<0.05) affected the color values of the noodles. The lowest lightness (L*), redness (a*) and the highest yellowness (b*) values were obtained with soy flour usage in noodle formulation. Protein and ash values of noodles ranged between 15.14 and 21.82%; 1.62 and 2.50%, respectively, and the highest values were obtained with soy flour usage in noodle formulation. As a result of sensory evaluation, noodles containing chickpea flour and guar gum were rated with higher taste, odor, appearance and texture scores compared to other noodle samples.

Keywords: noodle, legume, soy, chickpea, common bean, gum

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15 Study of Some Epidemiological Factors Influencing the Disease Incidence in Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.)

Authors: Muhammad Asim Nazir

Abstract:

The investigations reported in this manuscript were carried on the screening of one hundred and seventy-eight chickpea germplasm lines/cultivars against wilt disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. The screening was conducted in vivo (field) conditions. The field screening was accompanied with the study of some epidemiological factors affecting the occurrence and severity of the disease. Among the epidemiological factors maximum temperature range (28-40°C), minimum temperature range (12-24°C), relative humidity (19-44%), soil temperature (26-41°C) and soil moisture range (19-34°C) was studied for affecting the disease incidence/severity. The results revealed that air temperature was positively correlated with diseases. Soil temperature data revealed that in all cultivars disease incidence was maximum as 39°C. Most of the plants show 40-50% disease incidence. Disease incidence decreased at 33.5°C. The result of correlation of relative humidity of air and wilt incidence revealed that all cultivars/lines were negatively correlated with relative humidity. With increasing relative humidity wilt incidence decreased and vice versa.

Keywords: chickpea, epidemiological, screening, disease

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14 Determination of Some Agricultural Characters of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes

Authors: Ercan Ceyhan, Ali Kahraman, Hasan Dalgıç

Abstract:

This research was made during the 2011 and 2012 growing periods according to “Randomized Blocks Design” with 3 replications. Research material was the following chickpea genotype: CA119, CA128, CA149, CA150, CA222, CA250, CA254 and other 2 commercial varieties named as Gökçe and Yaşa. Some agronomical characteristics such as plant height (cm), number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod, number of seed per plant, 1000 seed weight (g) and seed yield (kg ha-1) were determined. Statistically significant variations were found amongst the genotypes for all variables except seeds per pod. Means of the two years showed the range for plant height was from 52.83 cm (Gökçe) to 73.00 cm (CA150), number of pod per plant was from 14.00 (CA149) to 26.83 (CA261), number of seed per pod was from 1.10 (Gökçe) to 1.19 (CA149 ve CA250), number of seed per plant was from 16.28 (CA149) to 31.65 (CA261), 1000 seed weight was from 295.85 g (CA149) to 437.80 g (CA261) and seed yield was from 1342.73 kg ha-1 (CA261) to 2161.50 kg ha-1 (CA128). Results of the research implicated that the new developed lines were superior compared with the control (commercial) varieties by means of most of the characteristics.

Keywords: agricultural characters, chickpea, seed yield, genotype variations

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13 Influence of Salicylic Acid on Yield and Some Physiological Parameters in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

Authors: Farid Shekari

Abstract:

Salicylic Acid (SA) is a plant hormone that improves some physiological responses of plants under stress conditions. Seeds of two desi type chickpea cultivars, viz., Kaka and Pirooz, primed with 250, 500, 750, and 1000 μM of SA and a group of seeds without any treating (as control) were evaluated under rain fed conditions. Seed priming in both cultivars led to higher efficiency compare to non-primed treatments. In general, seed priming with 500 and 750 μM of SA had appropriate effects; however the cultivars responses were different in this regard. Kaka showed better performance both in primed and non-primed seed than Pirooz. Results of this study revealed that not only yield quantity but also yield quality, as seed protein amounts, could positively affect by SA treatments. It seems that SA by enhancing of soluble sugars and proline amounts enhanced total water potential (ψ) and RWC. The increment in RWC led to rose of chlorophyll content of plants chlorophyll stability. In general, SA increased water use efficiency, both in biologic and seed yield base, and drought tolerance of chickpea plants. HI was a little decreased in SA treatments and it shows that SA more effective in biomass production than seed yield.

Keywords: chlorophyll, harvest index, proline, seed protein, soluble sugar, water use efficiency, yield component

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12 Effect of Irrigation Regime and Plant Density on Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Yield in a Semi-Arid Environment

Authors: Atif Naim, Faisal E. Ahmed, Sershen

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A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive winter seasons at the Demonstration Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Sudan, to study effects of different levels of irrigation regime and plant density on yield of introduced small seeded (desi type) chickpea cultivar (ILC 482). The experiment was laid out in a 3X3 factorial split-plot design with 4 replications. The treatments consisted of three irrigation regimes (designated as follows: I1 = optimum irrigation, I2 = moderate stress and I3 = severe stress; this corresponded with irrigation after drainage of 50%, 75% and 100% of available water based on 70%, 60% and 50% of field capacity, respectively) assigned as main plots and three plant densities (D₁=20, D₂= 40 and D₃= 60 plants/m²) assigned as subplots. The results indicated that the yield components (number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight), seed yield per plant, harvest index and yield per unit area of chickpea were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by irrigation regime. Decreasing irrigation regime significantly (p < 0.05) decreased all measured parameters. Alternatively, increasing plant density significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the number of pods and seed yield per plant and increased seed yield per unit area. While number of seeds per pod and harvest index were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by plant density. Interaction between irrigation regime and plant density was also significantly (p < 0.05) affected all measured parameters of yield, except for harvest index. It could be concluded that the best irrigation regime was full irrigation (after drainage of 50% available water at 70% field capacity) and the optimal plant density was 20 plants/m² under conditions of semi-arid regions.

Keywords: irrigation regime, Cicer arietinum, chickpea, plant density

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11 Biological Regulation of Endogenous Enzymatic Activity of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) with Protease Inhibitors Chickpea in Model Systems

Authors: Delgado-Meza M., Minor-Pérez H.

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Protease is the generic name of enzymes that hydrolyze proteins. These are classified in the subgroup EC3.4.11-99X of the classification enzymes. In food technology the proteolysis is used to modify functional and nutritional properties of food, and in some cases this proteolysis may cause food spoilage. In general, seafood and rainbow trout have accelerated decomposition process once it has done its capture, due to various factors such as the endogenous enzymatic activity that can result in loss of structure, shape and firmness, besides the release of amino acid precursors of biogenic amines. Some studies suggest the use of protease inhibitors from legume as biological regulators of proteolytic activity. The enzyme inhibitors are any substance that reduces the rate of a reaction catalyzed by an enzyme. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reduction of the proteolytic activity of enzymes in extracts of rainbow trout with protease inhibitors obtained from chickpea flour. Different proportions of rainbow trout enzyme extract (75%, 50% and 25%) and extract chickpea enzyme inhibitors were evaluated. Chickpea inhibitors were obtained by mixing 5 g of flour in 30 mL of pH 7.0 phosphate buffer. The sample was centrifuged at 8000 rpm for 10 min. The supernatant was stored at -15°C. Likewise, 20 g of rainbow trout were ground in 20 mL of phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.0 and the mixture was centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 20 min. The supernatant was used for the study. In each treatment was determined the specific enzymatic activity with the technique of Kunitz, using hemoglobin as substrate for the enzymes acid fraction and casein for basic enzymes. Also biuret protein was quantified for each treatment. The results showed for fraction of basic enzymes in the treatments evaluated, that were inhibition of endogenous enzymatic activity. Inhibition values compared to control were 51.05%, 56.59% and 59.29% when the proportions of endogenous enzymes extract rainbow trout were 75%, 50% and 25% and the remaining volume used was extract with inhibitors. Treatments with acid enzymes showed no reduction in enzyme activity. In conclusion chickpea flour reduced the endogenous enzymatic activity of rainbow trout, which may favor its application to increase the half-life of this food. The authors acknowledge the funding provided by the CONACYT for the project 131998.

Keywords: rainbouw trout, enzyme inhibitors, proteolysis, enzyme activity

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10 Investigation of Ascochyta Blight Resistance in Registered Turkish Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Varieties by Using Molecular Techniques

Authors: Ibrahim Ilker Ozyigit, Fatih Tabanli, Sezin Adinir

Abstract:

In this study, Ascochyta blight resistance was investigated in 34 registered chickpea varieties, which are widely planting in different regions of Turkey. For this aim, molecular marker techniques, such as STMS, RAPD and ISSR were used. Ta2, Ta146 and Ts54 primers were used for STMS, while UBC733 and UBC681 primers for RAPD, and UBC836 and UBC858 primers for ISSR. Ta2, Ts54 and Ta146 (STMS), and UBC733 (RAPD) primers demonstrated the distinctive feature for Ascochyta blight resistance. Ta2, Ts54 and Ta146 primers yielded the quite effective results in detection of resistant and sensitive varieties. Besides, UBC 733 primer distinguished all kinds of standard did not give any reliable results for other varieties since it demonstrated all as resistant. In addition, monomorphic bands were obtained from UBC681 (RAPD), and UBC836 and UBC858 (ISSR) primers, not demonstrating reliable results in detection of resistance against Ascochyta blight disease. Obtained results informed us about both disease resistance and genetic diversity in registered Turkish chickpea varieties. This project was funded through the Scientific Research Projects of Marmara University under Grant Number FEN-C-YLP-070617-0365 and The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) under Grant Number 113O070.

Keywords: plant genetics, ISSR, RAPD, STMS

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9 Protein Isolates from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and Its Application in Cake

Authors: Mohamed Abdullah Ahmed

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In a study of chickpea protein isolate (CPI) preparation, the wet alkaline extraction was carried out. The objectives were to determine the optimal extracting conditions of CPI and apply CPI into a sponge cake recipe to replace egg and make acceptable product. The design used in extraction was a central composite design. The response surface methodology was preferred to graphically express the relationship between extraction time and pH with the output variables of percent yield and protein content of CPI. It was noted that optimal extracting conditions were 60 min and pH 10.5 resulting in 90.07% protein content and 89.15% yield of CPI. The protein isolate (CPI) could be incorporated in cake to 20% without adversely affecting the cake physical properties such as cake hardness and sensory attributes. The higher protein content in cake was corresponding to the amount of CPI added. Therefore, adding CPI can significantly (p<0.05) increase protein content in cake. However, sensory evaluation showed that adding more than 20% of CPI decreased the overall acceptability. The results of this investigation could be used as a basic knowledge of CPI utilization in other food products.

Keywords: chick bean protein isolate, sponge cake, utilization, sponge

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8 Rheological Study of Wheat-Chickpea Flour Blend Bread for People with Type-2 Diabetes

Authors: Tasleem Zafar, Jiwan Sidhu

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Introduction: Chickpea flour is known to offer many benefits to diabetic persons, especially in maintaining their blood sugar levels in the acceptable range. Under this project we have studied the chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of white flour (WF), whole wheat flour (WWF) and chickpea flour (BF), in addition to the effect of replacement of WF and WWF with BF on the rheological characteristics of these flour blends, with the ultimate objective of producing acceptable quality flat as well as pan-bread for the diabetic consumers. Methods: WF and WWF were replaced with BF ranging from 0 to 40%, to investigate its effect on the rheological properties and functionality of blended flour dough using farinograph, viscoamylograph, mixograph and falling number apparatus as per the AACC standard methods. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) was carried on the WF, WWF, and their blends with BF using Stable Micro System Texture Analyzer. Effect of certain additives, such as freeze-dried amla fruit powder (Phyllanthus emblica L.), guar gum, and xanthan gum on the dough rheological properties were also studied. Results: Freeze-dried amla fruit powder was found to be very rich in ascorbic acid and other phenolics having higher antioxidant activity. A decreased farinograph water absorption, increased dough development time, higher mixing tolerance index (i.e., weakening of dough), decreased resistance to extension, lower ratio numbers were obtained when the replacement with BF was increased from 0 to 40%. The BF gave lower peak viscosity, lower paste breakdown, and lower setback values when compared with WF. The falling number values were significantly lower in WWF (meaning higher α-amylase activity) than both the WF and BF. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) carried on the WF, WWF, and their blends with BF showed significant variations in hardness and compressibility values, dough becoming less hard and less compressible when the replacement of WF and WWF with BF was increased from 0 to 40%. Conclusions: To overcome the deleterious effects of adding BF to WF and WWF on the rheological properties will be an interesting challenge when good quality pan bread and Arabic flatbread have to be commercially produced in a bakery. Use of freeze-dried amla fruit powder, guar gum, and xanthan gum did show some promise to improve the mixing characteristics of WF, WWF, and their blends with BF, and these additives are expected to be useful in producing an acceptable quality flat as well as pan-bread on a commercial scale.

Keywords: wheat flour, chickpea flour, amla fruit, rheology

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