Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 170

Search results for: polyphenols

170 Polyphenols Content and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Peganum harmala Seeds

Authors: Rachid Kacem, Sara Talbi, Yasmina Hemissi, Sofia Bouguattoucha

Abstract:

The aim of the present work is the evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the Peganum harmala (P. harmala) seeds extracts. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by applying two methods, the method of ß-carotene bleaching and DPPH (2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picryl-Hydrazyl). Using Folin-Ciocalteu assay, these results revealed that the concentration of polyphenols in EthOH E. (122.28 ± 2.24 µg GAE/mg extract) is the highest. The antiradical activity of the P. harmala seeds extracts on DPPH was found to be dose dependent with polyphenols concentration. The E. EthOH extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (IC = 252.10 ± 11.18 μg /ml). The test of β-carotene bleaching indicates that the E. EthOH of P. harmala showed the highest percentage of the antioxidant activity (49.88 %).

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Peganum harmala, polyphenols, flavonoids

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169 Green Delivery Systems for Fruit Polyphenols

Authors: Boris M. Popović, Tatjana Jurić, Bojana Blagojević, Denis Uka, Ružica Ždero Pavlović

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Green solvents are environmentally friendly and greatly improve the sustainability of chemical processes. There is a growing interest in the green extraction of polyphenols from fruits. In this study, we consider three Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES) systems based on choline chloride as a hydrogen bond acceptor and malic acid, urea, and fructose as hydrogen bond donors. NADES systems were prepared by heating and stirring, ultrasound, and microwave (MW) methods. Sour cherry pomace was used as a natural source of polyphenols. Polyphenol extraction from cherry pomace was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction and compared with conventional heat and stirring method extraction. It was found that MW-assisted preparation of NADES was the fastest, requiring less than 30 s. Also, MW extraction of polyphenols was the most rapid, with less than 5 min necessary for the extract preparation. All three NADES systems were highly efficient for anthocyanin extraction, but the most efficient was the system with malic acid as a hydrogen bond donor (yield of anthocyanin content was enhanced by 62.33% after MW extraction with NADES compared with the conventional solvent).

Keywords: anthocyanins, green extraction, NADES, polyphenols

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168 Inhibition and Breaking of Advanced Glycation End Products with Nuts and Polyphenols

Authors: Moon Ho Do, Sin-Hee Park, Jae Hyuk Lee, Kyo Hee Cho, Jae Kyung Chae, Sun Yeou Kim

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Long-term hyperglycemic conditions associated with diabetes lead to the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Highly reactive glucose metabolites, methylglyoxal (MGO) and glyoxal (GO), induced carbonyl stress and it may induce cellular damage, cross-linking of proteins, and glycation, playing an important role in the impairment of kidney function. Small molecules that have the ability to inhibit AGE formation, and even break preformed AGEs have a beneficial impact on metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cancer. We quantified contents of polyphenols in nuts and investigated the protective effect of nuts and polyphenols on MGO-induced cytotoxicity in porcine kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK1). Moreover, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of AGEs formation in the presence of MGO or GO and possess the ability to break preformed AGEs. In this study, we confirmed twenty polyphenols in diverse nuts using LC-MS/MS system. Nuts and polyphenols play a protective role in LLC-PK1 cells by reducing MGO-induced cytotoxicity. They could also prevent the formation of MGO or GO-mediated AGEs and Break AGEs crosslink. It can be surmised that increased consumption of nuts would be an effective means of preventing diabetic diseases.

Keywords: advanced glycation end products, LLC-PK1, methylglyoxal, nut, polyphenol

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167 Correlation between Total Polyphenol Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Opuntia ficus indica Extracts against Periodontopathogenic Bacteria

Authors: N. Chikhi-Chorfi, L. Arbia, S. Zenia, H.Lounici

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Opuntia ficus-indica belongs to the Cactaceae family. The cactus is mainly cultivated for its fruit (prickly pear) that, eaten after pealing, is sweet and juicy, and rich in nutritional compounds, such as ascorbic acid and polyphenols. Different parts of O. ficus-indica are used in the traditional medicine of several countries: the cladodes are utilized to reduce serum cholesterol level and blood pressure, for treatment of ulcers, rheumatic pain, wounds, fatigue, capillary fragility, and liver conditions. This original study, investigate the effect of polyphenols of O. ficus indica (cactus) cladodes against periodontal bacteria collected from patients with periodontitis. The quantitative analysis of total polyphenols (TPP) was determined with Follin-Ciocalteu method. Different concentrations of extracts of O. ficus indica were tested by the disk method on two bacterial strains: Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia responsible for periodontal disease. The results showed a good correlation between the concentration of total polyphenols and the antibacterial activity of the extracts of Opuntia ficus indica against P. gingivalis and P. intermedia with R² = 0.94 and R² = 0.90 respectively. This observation suggests that these extracts could be used in the treatment and prevention of periodontitis.

Keywords: periodontal disease, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, polyphenols, Opuntia ficus indica

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166 Antiproliferative Effect of Polyphenols from Crocus sativus L. Leaves on Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells (Caco-2)

Authors: Gonzalo Ortiz de Elguea-Culebras, Raúl Sánchez-Vioquea, Adela Mena-Morales, Manuel Alaiz, Enrique Melero-Bravo, Esteban García-Romero, Javier Vioque, Lourdes Marchante-Cuevas, Julio Girón-Calle

Abstract:

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is a highly valued crop for the manufacture of spice that consists of the dried stigma of the flowers. This is in contrast to other underutilized parts of the saffron plant as leaves, which represent abundant biomass whose use might help to enhance the sustainability of the saffron crop. Saffron leaves contain significant amounts of phenolic compounds, 7.8 equivalent grams of gallic acid per 100g of extract, and are very promising compounds in terms of exploring novel uses of saffron leaves. Given that phenolic compounds have numerous effects on cancer-related biological pathways, we have investigated the in vitro antiproliferative effect of saffron leaf polyphenols against human colon adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2). Polyphenols were extracted from leaves with 70% ethanol, defatted with hexane, and purified by solid phase extraction using C18 silica gel and then silica gel 60. Analysis of polyphenols was performed by HPLC-ESI-MS. Di-, tri-, and tetrahexosides of quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin, as well as C-hexosides like isoorientin and vitexin, were tentatively identified. Polyphenols strongly inhibited the proliferation of Caco-2 cells, which is consistent with model studies in which several of the polyphenols identified in saffron leaves have demonstrated their potential as chemopreventive agents in cancer. Due to the low profitability that saffron leaf currently represents, we consider these results very encouraging and that this by-product deserves further investigation as a potential source of active molecules against colorectal cancer.

Keywords: saffron leaves, agricultural by-products, polyphenols, antiproliferative effect, human colon adenocarcinoma cells

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165 Different Biological and Chemical Parameters that Influence the Polyphenols from Some Medicinal Plants in Western Algeria

Authors: Mustapha Mahmoud, Fouzia Toumi Benali, Mohamed Benyahia, Sofiane Bouazza

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This work focuses on the influences of biological and chemical parameters on the phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and tannins in different medicinal plants in western Algeria (Papaver rhoeas, Daphnegnidium, Lavandula multifida, Lavandula dentata, Lavandula stoicha, ...). Thus we look the difference between species of the same genus, difference between the different organs of the same species, the influence of environment all temperature influences, time, percentage of solvent on the extraction. Quantification of the phenolic compounds was performed by spectrophotometric method then treated with statistics tools such as variance analysis, multivariant analyzes, response surface methodology). The results show that the polyphenols are influenced by the parameters mentioned.

Keywords: polyphenols, influences, medicinal plants, west Algeria

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164 Polyphenols from Winery Wastes as Potential Source of Antioxidants

Authors: Lucia Gharwalova, Irena Kolouchova, Jan Masak

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A large amount of waste products is generated throughout the whole winemaking process as well as during work in the vineyard. This waste is as a source of phenolic compounds, such as resveratrol and polydatin, which possess a strong antioxidant capacity. Changes in the amounts of phenols were compared depending on the growing conditions and wine variety. Wastes (grape stems, marc and shoots) from two wineries in the Czech Republic were analyzed. Phenols from these samples were extracted by 40% ethanol. The amount of polyphenols in these extracts was determined by HPLC and their antioxidant capacity by DPPH. We compared changes in the amounts of phenols depending on the type of waste and the wine variety. The most significant source of stilbenoids was waste from pruning (shoots). These results show that winery waste could be further reused thanks to their antioxidant content.

Keywords: antioxidants, polyphenols, resveratrol, winery waste

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163 Functional Relevance of Flavanones and Other Plant Products in the Remedy of Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Himanshi Allahabadi

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Plants have found a widespread use in medicine traditionally, including the treatment of cognitive disorders, especially, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In terms of indigenous medicine, it has been found that many potential drugs can be isolated from plant products, including those for dementia. Plant product is widely distributed in plant kingdom and forms a major antioxidant source in the human diet, is Polyphenols. There are four important groups of polyphenols: phenolic acids, flavonoids, stilbenes, and lignans. Due to their high antioxidant capacity, interest in their study has greatly increased. There are several methods for discovering and characterizing active compounds isolated from plant sources, now available. The results obtained so far seem fulfilling, but additionally, mechanism of functioning of polyphenols at the molecular level, as well as their application in human health need to be researched upon. Also, even though the neuroprotective effects of flavonoids have been much talked about, much of the data in support of this statement has come from animal studies rather than human studies. This review is based on a multi-faceted study of medicinal plants, i.e. phytochemicals, with special focus on flavanones and their relevance in remedy of Parkinson's disease.

Keywords: dementia, parkinson's disease, flavanones, polyphenols, substantia nigra

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162 Comparison of Different Extraction Methods for the Determination of Polyphenols

Authors: Senem Suna

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Extraction of bioactive compounds from several food/food products comes as an important topic and new trend related with health promoting effects. As a result of the increasing interest in natural foods, different methods are used for the acquisition of these components especially polyphenols. However, special attention has to be paid to the selection of proper techniques or several processing technologies (supercritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, powdered extracts production) for each kind of food to get maximum benefit as well as the obtainment of phenolic compounds. In order to meet consumer’s demand for healthy food and the management of quality and safety requirements, advanced research and development are needed. In this review, advantages, and disadvantages of different extraction methods, their opportunities to be used in food industry and the effects of polyphenols are mentioned in details. Consequently, with the evaluation of the results of several studies, the selection of the most suitable food specific method was aimed.

Keywords: bioactives, extraction, powdered extracts, supercritical fluid extraction

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161 Mathematical Modeling of Carotenoids and Polyphenols Content of Faba Beans (Vicia faba L.) during Microwave Treatments

Authors: Ridha Fethi Mechlouch, Ahlem Ayadi, Ammar Ben Brahim

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Given the importance of the preservation of polyphenols and carotenoids during thermal processing, we attempted in this study to investigate the variation of these two parameters in faba beans during microwave treatment using different power densities (1; 2; and 3W/g), then to perform a mathematical modeling by using non-linear regression analysis to evaluate the models constants. The variation of the carotenoids and polyphenols ratio of faba beans and the models are tested to validate the experimental results. Exponential models were found to be suitable to describe the variation of caratenoid ratio (R²= 0.945, 0.927 and 0.946) for power densities (1; 2; and 3W/g) respectively, and polyphenol ratio (R²= 0.931, 0.989 and 0.982) for power densities (1; 2; and 3W/g) respectively. The effect of microwave power density Pd(W/g) on the coefficient k of models were also investigated. The coefficient is highly correlated (R² = 1) and can be expressed as a polynomial function.

Keywords: microwave treatment, power density, carotenoid, polyphenol, modeling

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160 Study of the Antimicrobial Activity of the Extract of the Eucalyptus camaldulensis stemming from the Algerian Northeast

Authors: Meksem Nabila, Bordjiba Ouahiba, Meraghni Messaouda, Meksem Amara Leila, Djebar Mohhamed Reda

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The problems of protection of the cultures are being more and more important that they interest great number of farmers and scientists because of the excessive use of the organic phytosanitary products of synthesis that causes fatal damages on the environment. To reduce the inconveniences produced by these pesticides, the use of "biopesticides" originated from plants could be an alternative. The aim of this work is the valuation of a botanical species: Eucalyptus camaldulensis from Northeastern Algeria which extracts are supposed to have an antimicrobial activity, similar to pesticides. The extraction of secondary metabolites from the leaves of E. camaldulensis was realized using methanol and water, and measurements of total polyphenols were made by spectrometric method. Determination of the antimicrobial activity of the extracts at issue was realized in vitro on phyto-pathogenic fungal and bacterial stumps. Tests of comparison were included in the essays by using the chemical pesticidal products of synthesis. The obtained results show that the plant contains polyphenols with an efficiency mattering of the order of 22 %. These polyphenols have a strong fungicidal and bactericidal pesticidal activity against various microbial stumps and the values of the zones of inhibition are more important compared with that obtained in the presence of the chemicals of synthesis (fungicide).

Keywords: eucalyptus camaldulensis, biopesticide, polyphenols, antimicrobial activity

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159 Biodegradable Polymer Film Incorporated with Polyphenols for Active Packaging

Authors: Shubham Sharma, Swarna Jaiswal, Brendan Duffy, Amit Jaiswal

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The key features of any active packaging film are its biodegradability and antimicrobial properties. Biological macromolecules such as polyphenols (ferulic acid (FA) and tannic acids (TA)) are naturally found in plants such as grapes, berries, and tea. In this study, antimicrobial activity screening of several polyphenols was carried out by using minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against two strains of gram-negative bacteria - Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and two-gram positive strains - Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. FA and TA had shown strong antibacterial activity at the low concentration against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The selected polyphenols FA and TA were incorporated at various concentrations (1%, 5%, and 10% w/w) in the poly(lactide) – poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PLA-PBAT) composite film by using the solvent casting method. The effect of TA and FA incorporation in the packaging was characterized based on morphological, optical, color, mechanical, thermal, and antimicrobial properties. The thickness of the FA composite film was increased by 1.5 – 7.2%, while for TA composite film, it increased by 0.018 – 1.6%. FA and TA (10 wt%) composite film had shown approximately 65% - 66% increase in the UV barrier property. As the FA and TA concentration increases from 1% - 10% (w/w), the TS value increases by 1.98 and 1.80 times, respectively. The water contact angle of the film was observed to decrease significantly with the increase in the FA and TA content in the composite film. FA has shown more significant increase in antimicrobial activity than TA in the composite film against Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli. The FA and TA composite film has the potential for its application as an active food packaging.

Keywords: active packaging, biodegradable film, polyphenols, UV barrier, tensile strength

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158 Sorghum Polyphenols Encapsulated by Spray Drying, Using Modified Starches as Wall Materials

Authors: Adriana Garcia G., Alberto A. Escobar P., Amira D. Calvo L., Gabriel Lizama U., Alejandro Zepeda P., Fernando Martínez B., Susana Rincón A.

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Different studies have recently been focused on the use of antioxidants such as polyphenols because of to its anticarcinogenic capacity. However, these compounds are highly sensible to environmental factors such as light and heat, so lose its long-term stability, besides possess an astringent and bitter taste. Nevertheless, the polyphenols can be protected by microcapsule formulation. In this sense, a rich source of polyphenols is sorghum, besides presenting a high starch content. Due to the above, the aim of this work was to obtain modified starches from sorghum by extrusion to encapsulate polyphenols the sorghum by spray drying. Polyphenols were extracted by ethanol solution from sorghum (Pajarero/red) and determined by the method of Folin-Ciocalteu, obtaining GAE at 30 mg/g. Moreover, was extracted starch of sorghum (Sinaloense/white) through wet milling (yield 32 %). The hydrolyzed starch was modified with three treatments: acetic anhydride (2.5g/100g), sodium tripolyphosphate (4g/100g), and sodium tripolyphosphate/ acetic anhydride (2g/1.25g by each 100 g) by extrusion. Processing conditions of extrusion were as follows: barrel temperatures were of 60, 130 and 170 °C at the feeding, transition, and high-pressure extrusion zones, respectively. Analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), showed bands exhibited of acetyl groups (1735 cm-1) and phosphates (1170 cm-1, 910 cm-1 and 525 cm-1), indicating the respective modification of starch. Besides, all modified starches not developed viscosity, which is a characteristic required for use in the encapsulation of polyphenols using the spray drying technique. As result of the modification starch, was obtained a water solubility index (WSI) from 33.8 to 44.8 %, and crystallinity from 8 to 11 %, indicating the destruction of the starch granule. Afterwards, microencapsulation of polyphenols was developed by spray drying, with a blend of 10 g of modified starch, 60 ml polyphenol extract and 30 ml of distilled water. Drying conditions were as follows: inlet air temperature 150 °C ± 1, outlet air temperature 80°C ± 5. As result of the microencapsulation: were obtained yields of 56.8 to 77.4 % and an efficiency of encapsulation from 84.6 to 91.4 %. The FTIR analysis showed evidence of microcapsules loaded with polyphenols in bands 1042 cm-1, 1038 cm-1 and 1148 cm-1. Analysis Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed transition temperatures from 144.1 to 173.9 °C. For the order hand, analysis of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), were observed rounded surfaces with concavities, typical feature of microcapsules produced by spray drying, how result of rapid evaporation of water. Finally, the modified starches were obtained by extrusion with good characteristics for use as cover materials by spray drying, where the phosphorylated starch was the best treatment in this work, according to the encapsulation yield, efficiency, and transition temperature.

Keywords: encapsulation, extrusion, modified starch, polyphenols, spray drying

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157 Experimental Study for Examination of Nature of Diffusion Process during Wine Microoxygenation

Authors: Ilirjan Malollari, Redi Buzo, Lorina Lici

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This study was done for the characterization of polyphenols changes of anthocyanins, flavonoids, the color intensity and total polyphenols index, maturity and oxidation index during the process of micro-oxygenation of wine that comes from a specific geographic area in the southeastern region of the country. Also, through mathematical modeling of the oxygen distribution within solution of wort for wine fermentation, was shown the strong impact of carbon dioxide present in the liquor. Analytical results show periodic increases of color intensity and tonality, reduction level of free anthocyanins and flavonoids free because of polycondensation reactions between tannins and anthocyanins, increased total polyphenols index and decrease the ratio between the flavonoids and anthocyanins offering a red stabilize wine proved by sensory degustation tasting for color intensity, tonality, body, tannic perception, taste and remained back taste which comes by specific area associated with environmental indications. Micro-oxygenation of wine is a wine-making technique, which consists in the addition of small and controlled amounts of oxygen in the different stages of wine production but more efficiently after end of alcoholic fermentation. The objectives of the process include improved mouth feel (body and texture), color enhanced stability, increased oxidative stability, and decreased vegetative aroma during polyphenols changes process. A very important factor is polyphenolics organic grape composition strongly associated with the environment geographical specifics area in which it is grown the grape.

Keywords: micro oxygenation, polyphenols, environment, wine stability, diffusion modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
156 Extraction and Identification of Natural Antioxidants from Liquorices (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and Carob (Ceratonia siliqua) and Its Application in El-Mewled El-Nabawy Sweets (Sesames and Folia)

Authors: Mervet A. El-sherif, Ginat M El-sherif, Kadry H Tolba

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The objective of this study was to determine, identify and investigate the effects of natural antioxidants of licorice and carob. Besides, their effects as powder and antioxidant extracts addition on refined sunflower oil stability as natural antioxidants were evaluated. Total polyphenol contents as total phenols, total carotenoids and total tannins were 353.93mg/100g (gallic acid), 10.62mg/100g (carotenoids) and 83.33mg/100g (tannic acid), respectively in licorice, while in carob, it was 186.07, 18.66 and 106.67, respectively. Polyphenol compounds of the studied licorice and carob extracts were determined and identified by HPLC. The stability of refined sunflower oil (which determined by peroxide value and Rancimat) was increased with increasing the level of polyphenols extracts addition. Also, our study shows the effect of addition of these polyphenols extracts to El-mewled El-nabawy sweets fortified by full cream milk powder (sesames and folia). We found that, licorice and carob as powder and polyphenols extracts were delayed the rancidity of sesame and peanut significantly. That encourages using licorice and carob as powder and polyphenols extracts as a good natural antioxidants source instead of synthetic antioxidants.

Keywords: licorice, carob, natural antioxidants, antioxidant activity, applications

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155 Polyphenol Stability and Antioxidant Properties of Freeze-Dried Sour Cherry Encapsulates

Authors: Gordana Ćetković, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Sonja Đilas, Slađana Stajčić, Jelena Vulić, Mirjana Jakišić

Abstract:

Despite the recommended amount of daily intake of fruits, the consumption in modern age remains very low. Therefore there is a need for delivering valuable phytochemicals into the human body through different foods by developing functional food products fortified with natural bioactive compounds from plant sources. Recently, a growing interest rises in exploiting the fruit and vegetable by-products as sources of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins etc. Cherry contain high amounts of polyphenols, which are known to display a wide range of biological activities like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial or anti-carcinogenic activities, improvement of vision, induction of apoptosis and neuroprotective effects. Also, cherry pomace, a by-product in juice processing, can also be promising source of phenolic compounds. However, the application of polyphenols as food additives is limited because after extraction these compounds are susceptible to degradation. Microencapsulation is one of the alternative approaches to protect bioactive compounds from degradation during processing and storage. Freeze-drying is one of the most used microencapsulation methods for the protection of thermosensitive and unstable molecules. In this study sour cherry pomace was extracted with food-grade solvent (50% ethanol) to be suitable for application in products for human use. Extracted polyphenols have been concentrated and stabilized on whey (WP) and soy (SP) proteins. Encapsulation efficiency in SP was higher (94.90%), however not significantly (p<0.05) from the one in WP (90.10%). Storage properties of WP and SP encapsulate in terms of total polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity was tested for 6 weeks. It was found that the retention of polyphenols after 6 weeks in WP and SP (67.33 and 69.30%, respectively) was similar. The content of anthocyanins has increased in WP (for 47.97%), while their content in SP has very slightly decreased (for 1.45%) after 6-week storage period. In accordance with anthocyanins the decrease in antioxidant activity in WP (87.78%) was higher than in SP (43.02%). According to the results obtained in this study, the technique reported herewith can be used for obtaining quality encapsulates for their further use as functional food additives, and, on the other hand, for fruit waste valorization.

Keywords: cherry pomace, microencapsulation, polyphenols, storage

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154 Stability of Total Phenolic Concentration and Antioxidant Capacity of Extracts from Pomegranate Co-Products Subjected to In vitro Digestion

Authors: Olaniyi Fawole, Umezuruike Opara

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Co-products obtained from pomegranate juice processing contain high levels of polyphenols with potential high added values. From value-addition viewpoint, the aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of polyphenolic concentrations in pomegranate fruit co-products in different solvent extracts and assess the effect on the total antioxidant capacity using the FRAP, DPPH˙ and ABTS˙+ assays during simulated in vitro digestion. Pomegranate juice, marc and peel were extracted in water, 50% ethanol (50%EtOH) and absolute ethanol (100%EtOH) and analysed for total phenolic concentration (TPC), total flavonoids concentration (TFC) and total antioxidant capacity in DPPH˙, ABST˙+ and FRAP assays before and after in vitro digestion. Total phenolic concentration (TPC) and total flavonoid concentration (TFC) were in the order of peel > marc > juice throughout the in vitro digestion irrespective of the extraction solvents used. However, 50% ethanol extracted 1.1 to 12-fold more polyphenols than water and ethanol solvents depending on co-products. TPC and TFC increased significantly in gastric digests. In contrast, after the duodenal, polyphenolic concentrations decreased significantly (p < 0.05) compared to those obtained in gastric digests. Undigested samples and gastric digests showed strong and positive relationships between polyphenols and the antioxidant activities measured in DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, with correlation coefficients (r2) ranging between 0.930 – 0.990 whereas, the correlation between polyphenols (TPC and TFC) and radical cation scavenging activity (in ABTS) were moderately positive in duodenal digests. Findings from this study also showed that the concentration of pomegranate polyphenols and antioxidant thereof during in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion may not reflect the pre-digested phenolic concentration. Thus, this study highlights the need to provide biologically relevant information on antioxidants by providing data reflecting their stability and activity after in vitro digestion.

Keywords: by-product, DPPH, polyphenols, value addition

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153 Simple Modified Method for DNA Isolation from Lyophilised Cassava Storage Roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz.)

Authors: P. K. Telengech, K. Monjero, J. Maling’a, A. Nyende, S. Gichuki

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There is need to identify an efficient protocol for use in extraction of high quality DNA for purposes of molecular work. Cassava roots are known for their high starch content, polyphenols and other secondary metabolites which interfere with the quality of the DNA. These factors have negative interference on the various methodologies for DNA extraction. There is need to develop a simple, fast and inexpensive protocol that yields high quality DNA. In this improved Dellaporta method, the storage roots are lyophilized to reduce the water content; the extraction buffer is modified to eliminate the high polyphenols, starch and wax. This simple protocol was compared to other protocols intended for plants with similar secondary metabolites. The method gave high yield (300-950ng) and pure DNA for use in PCR analysis. This improved Dellaporta protocol allows isolation of pure DNA from starchy cassava storage roots.

Keywords: cassava storage roots, dellaporta, DNA extraction, lyophilisation, polyphenols secondary metabolites

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152 Distribution of Antioxidants between Sour Cherry Juice and Pomace

Authors: Sonja Djilas, Gordana Ćetković, Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Slađana Stajčić, Jelena Vulić, Milica Vinčić

Abstract:

In recent years, interest in food rich in bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, increased the advantages of the functional food products. Bioactive components help to maintain health and prevention of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and many other degenerative diseases. Recent research has shown that the fruit pomace, a byproduct generated from the production of juice, can be a potential source of valuable bioactive compounds. The use of fruit industrial waste in the processing of functional foods represents an important new step for the food industry. Sour cherries have considerable nutritional, medicinal, dietetic and technological value. According to the production volume of cherries, Serbia ranks seventh in the world, with a share of 7% of the total production. The use of sour cherry pomace has so far been limited to animal feed, even though it can be potentially a good source of polyphenols. For this study, local variety of sour cherry cv. ‘Feketićka’ was chosen for its more intensive taste and deeper red color, indicating high anthocyanin content. The contents of total polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins, as well as radical scavenging activity on DPPH radicals and reducing power of sour cherry juice and pomace were compared using spectrophotometrical assays. According to the results obtained, 66.91% of total polyphenols, 46.77% of flavonoids, 46.77% of total anthocyanins and 47.88% of anthocyanin monomers from sour cherry fruits have been transferred to juice. On the other hand, 29.85% of total polyphenols, 33.09% of flavonoids, 53.23% of total anthocyanins and 52.12% of anthocyanin monomers remained in pomace. Regarding radical scavenging activity, 65.51% of Trolox equivalents from sour cherries were exported to juice, while 34.49% was left in pomace. However, reducing power of sour cherry juice was much stronger than pomace (91.28% and 8.72% of Trolox equivalents from sour cherry fruits, respectively). Based on our results it can be concluded that sour cherry pomace is still a rich source of natural antioxidants, especially anthocyanins with coloring capacity, therefore it can be used for dietary supplements development and food fortification.

Keywords: antioxidants, polyphenols, pomace, sour cherry

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151 Ultrasonic Extraction of Phenolics from Leaves of Shallots and Peels of Potatoes for Biofortification of Cheese

Authors: Lila Boulekbache-Makhlouf, Fatiha Brahmi

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This study was carried out with the aim of enriching fresh cheese with the food by-products, which are the leaves of shallots and the peels of potatoes. Firstly, the conditions for extracting the total polyphenols using ultrasound are optimized. Then, the contents of total polyphenols PPT , flavonoids and antioxidant activity were evaluated for the extracts obtained by adopting the optimal parameter. On the other hand, we have carried out some physicochemical, microbiological and sensory analyzes of the cheese produced. The maximum total polyphenols value of 70.44 mg GAE gallic acid equivalent / g of dry matter DM of shallot leaves was reached with 40% (v/v) ethanol, an extraction time of 90 min and a temperature of 10 °C. While, the maximum TPP total polyphenols content of potato peels of 45.03 ± 4.16 mg gallic acid equivalent / g of dry matter DM was obtained using an ethanol /water mixture (40%, v/v), a time of 30 min and a temperature of 60 °C and the flavonoid contents were 13.99 and 7.52 QE quercetin equivalent/g dry matter DM, respectively. From the antioxidant tests, we deduced that the potato peels present a higher antioxidant power with the concentration of extracts causing a 50% inhibition IC50s of 125.42 ± 2.78 μg/mL for 2,2-diphényl 1-picrylhydrazyle DPPH, of 87.21 ± 7.72 μg/mL for phosphomolybdate and 200.77 ± 13.38 μg/mL for iron chelation, compared with the results obtained for shallot leaves which were 204.29 ± 0.09, 45.85 ± 3,46 and 1004.10 ± 145.73 μg/mL, respectively. The results of the physicochemical analyzes have shown that the formulated cheese was compliant with standards. Microbiological analyzes show that the hygienic quality of the cheese produced was satisfactory. According to the sensory analysis, the experts liked the cheese enriched with the powder and pieces of the leaves of the shallots.

Keywords: shallots leaves, potato peels, ultrasound extraction, phenolics, cheese

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150 Impact of Zinc on Heavy Metals Content, Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity of Faba Bean in Milk Ripeness

Authors: M. Timoracká, A. Vollmannová., D.S. Ismael, J. Musilová

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We investigated the effect of targeted contaminated soil by Zn model conditions. The soil used in the pot trial was uncontaminated. Faba beans (cvs Saturn, Zobor) were harvested in milk ripeness. With increased doses applied into the soil the strong statistical relationship between soil Zn content and Zn amount in seeds of both of faba bean cultivars was confirmed. Despite the high Zn doses applied into the soil in model conditions, in all variants the determined Zn amount in faba bean cv. Saturn was just below the maximal allowed content in foodstuffs given by the legislative. In cv. Zobor the determined Zn content was higher than maximal allowed amount (by 2% and 12%, respectively). Faba bean cvs. Saturn and Zobor accumulated (in all variants higher than hygienic limits) high amounts of Pb and Cd. The contents of all other heavy metals were lower than hygienic limits. With increased Zn doses applied into the soil the total polyphenols contents as well as the total antioxidant capacity determined in seeds of both cultivars Saturn and Zobor were increased. The strong statistical relationship between soil Zn content and the total polyphenols contents as well as the total antioxidant capacity in seeds of faba bean cultivars was confirmed.

Keywords: antioxidant capacity, faba bean, polyphenols, zinc

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149 Exploitation of Date By-Products (Phoenix Dactylifera) as Functional Food Ingredients for Fortification of Natural Yoghurt

Authors: Lila Boulekbache-Makhlouf, Kahina Djaoud

Abstract:

This study was carried out with the aim of enriching a fresh cheese with the food by-products, which are the leaves of shallots and the peels of potatoes. Firstly, the conditions for extracting the total polyphenols using ultrasound are optimized. Then, the contents of total polyphenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated for the extracts obtained by adopting the optimal parameter. On the other hand, we have carried out some physico-chemical, microbiological, and sensory analyzes of the cheese produced. The maximum total polyphenols value of 70.44 mg gallic acid equivalent / g of dry matter of shallot leaves was reached with 40% (v/v) ethanol, an extraction time of 90 min, and a temperature of 10 °C. While, the maximum total polyphenols content of potato peels of 45.03 ± 4.16 mg gallic acid equivalent / g of dry matter was obtained using an ethanol /water mixture (40%, v/v), a time of 30 min and a temperature of 60 °C and the flavonoid contents were 13.99 and 7.52 quercetin equivalent/g dry matter, respectively. From the antioxidant tests, we deduced that the potatopeels present a higher antioxidant power with the concentration of extracts causing a 50% inhibition IC50s of 125.42 ± 2.78 μg/mL for 2,2-diphényl 1-picrylhydrazyle of 87.21 ± 7.72 μg/mL for phosphomolybdate and 200.77 ± 13.38 μg/mL for iron chelation, compared with the results obtained for shallot leaves which were 204.29 ± 0.09, 45.85 ± 3,46 and 1004.10 ± 145.73 μg/mL, respectively. The results of the physico-chemical analyzes have shown that the formulated cheese was compliant to standards. Microbiological analyzes show that the hygienic quality of the cheeseproduced was satisfactory. According to the sensory analyzes, the experts liked the cheese enriched with the powder and pieces of the leaves of the shallots.

Keywords: exploitation, degla-beida, date powder, date syrup, date residu, yogurt

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148 Polyphenol and Antimicrobial Activity in Olive Oil from Algeria

Authors: Kamel Zemour, Kada Mohamed Amine Chouhim, Mohamed Mairif, Tadj Eddine Adda Ardjan

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Many recent studies show the positive effect of phenolic compounds in olive oil on health. They are known for their biological properties, where they have shown potential activity as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. However, this characteristic is rarely studied in olive oil from different regions of Algeria. Different samples collected from the western region of Algeria were evaluated for their polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial effect. The obtained results demonstrated that this oil is rich in polyphenols and revealed high antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Finally, this study has highlighted the nutritional and pharmaceutical importance of olive oil grown in Algeria.

Keywords: olive oil, polyphenols, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity

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147 Exploring the Feasibility of Introducing Particular Polyphenols into Cow Milk Naturally through Animal Feeding

Authors: Steve H. Y. Lee, Jeremy P. E. Spencer

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The aim of the present study was to explore the feasibility of enriching polyphenols in cow milk via addition of flavanone-rich citrus pulp to existing animal feed. 8 Holstein lactating cows were enrolled onto the 4 week feeding study. 4 cows were fed the standard farm diet (control group), with another 4 (treatment group) which are fed a standard farm diet mixed with citrus pulp diet. Milk was collected twice a day, 3 times a week. The resulting milk yield and its macronutrient composition as well as lactose content were measured. The milk phenolic compounds were analysed using electrochemical detection (ECD).

Keywords: milk, polyphenol, animal feeding, lactating cows

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146 The Effects of Various Storage Scenarios on the Viability of Rooibos Tea Characteristically Used for Research

Authors: Daniella L. Pereira, Emeliana G. Imperial, Ingrid Webster, Ian Wiid, Hans Strijdom, Nireshni Chellan, Sanet H. Kotzé

Abstract:

Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) is a shrub-like bush native to the Western Cape of South Africa and commonly consumed as a herbal tea. Interest on the anti-oxidant capabilities of the tea have risen based on anecdotal evidence. Rooibos contains polyphenols that contribute to the overall antioxidant capacity of the tea. These polyphenols have been reported to attenuate the effects of oxidative stress in biological systems. The bioavailability of these compounds is compromised when exposed to light, pH fluctuations, and oxidation. It is crucial to evaluate whether the polyphenols in a typical rooibos solution remain constant over time when administered to rats in a research environment. This study aimed to determine the effects of various storage scenarios on the phenolic composition of rooibos tea commonly administered to rodents in experimental studies. A standardised aqueous solution of rooibos tea was filtered and divided into three samples namely fresh, refrigerated, and frozen. Samples were stored in air tight, light excluding bottles. Refrigerated samples were stored at 4°C for seven days. Frozen samples were stored for fourteen days at -20°C. Each sample consisted of two subgroups labeled day 1 and day 7. Teas marked day 7 of each group were kept in air tight, light protected bottles at room temperature for an additional week. All samples (n=6) were freeze-dried and underwent polyphenol characterization using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The phenolic composition remained constant throughout all groups. This indicates that rooibos tea can be safely stored at the above conditions without compromising the phenolic viability of the tea typically used for research purposes.

Keywords: Aspalathus linearis, experimental studies, polyphenols, storage

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145 Pro-Ecological Antioxidants for Polymeric Composites

Authors: Masek A., Zaborski M.

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In our studies, we propose the use of natural, pro-ecological substances such as polyphenols to protect polymers against ageing. In our studies, we plan to focus on the following compounds: polyphenols, gallic acid esters, flavonoides, carotenoids, curcumin and its derivatives, vitamin A, tocochromanoles, betalain. Phyto-compounds will be selected on the basis of available literature and our preliminary studies. So, we will select compounds with various contents of hydroxyl groups and colored substances capable of participating in color oxidation processes. The natural antioxidants which were added to ethylene-octene elastomer (polyolefin elastomer-Engage) and ethylene-nonbornene (TOPAS). Composites were then subjected to numerous ageing: weathering (climat of Floryda), UV (0,7 W/m2), thermo-oxidation ageing (1000C/10days) and thermal-shock (-600C/+1000C) as a function of the aging time. The efficiency of used anti-ageing agents was checked on the base of the changes after the degradation in deformation energy (tensile strength and elongation at the break), cross-link density, color (parameters L,a,b) and values of carbonyl index (based on the spectrum of infra red spectroscopy), OIT (induction oxygen time as performed in using differential scanning calorimeter -DSC) of the vulcanizates. Therefore polyphenols are considered to be the best stabilisers for polymeric composites against to oxidation processes.

Keywords: polymers, flavonoids, stabilization, ageing, oxidation

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144 Effects of Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) Polyphenols on Oxymyoglobin and Myofibrillar Proteins Stability in Meat

Authors: Valentin Nicorescu, Nicoleta C. Predescu, Camelia Papuc, Iuliana Gajaila, Carmen D. Petcu

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The oxidation of the fresh muscle oxymyoglobin (bright red colour) to metmyoglobin (brown colour) leads to discoloration of red meats. After slaughter, enzymatic systems involved in metmyoglobin reduction are continually depleted as time post-mortem progresses, thus the meat colour is affected. Phenolic compounds are able to scavenge reactive species involved in oxymyoglobin oxidation and to reduce metmyoglobin to oxymyoglobin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of polyphenols extracted from hawthorn fruits on the stability of oxymyoglobin and myofibrillar proteins in ground pork subject to refrigeration for 6 days. Hawthorn polyphenols (HP) were added in ground pork in 100, 200 and 300 ppm concentrations. Oxymyoglobin and metmyoglobin were evaluated spectrophotometrically at every 2 days and electrophoretic pattern of myofibrillar proteins was investigated at days 0 and 6 by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). For all meat samples, oxymyoglobin concentration significantly decreased during the first 4 days of refrigeration. After 6 days, the significant decrease of oxymyoglobin concentration continued only in the negative control samples. In samples treated with HP and butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA - positive control), oxymyoglobin concentration increased after 6 days of refrigeration, the highest levels complying with the following order: 100 ppm HP > 200 ppm HP > 300 ppm HP > 100 ppm BHA. The increase in metmyoglobin was coincidental with the decrease in oxymyoglobin; metmyoglobin concentration progressively increased during the first 4 days of refrigeration in all meat samples. After 6 days, in meat samples treated with HP and BHA, lower metmyoglobin concentrations were found (compared to day 4), respecting the following order: 100 ppm HP < 200 ppm HP < 300 ppm HP < 100 ppm BHA. These results showed that hawthorn polyphenols and BHA reduced metmyoglobin (MbFe3+) to oxymyoglobin (MbFe2+), and the strongest reducing character was recorded for 100 ppm HP. After 6 days of refrigeration, electrophoretic pattern of myofibrillar proteins showed minor changes compared to day 0, indicating that HP prevent protein degradation as well as synthetic antioxidant BHA. Also, HP did not induce cross-links in the myofibrillar proteins, to form protein aggregates, and no risk of reducing their ability to retain water was identified. The pattern of oxymyoglobin and metmyoglobin concentrations determined in this study showed that hawthorn polyphenols are able to reduce metmyoglobin to oxymyoglobin and to delay oxymyoglobin oxidation, especially when they are added to ground meat in concentration of 100 ppm. This work was carried out through Partnerships in priority areas Program – PN II, implemented with the support of MEN – UEFISCDI (Romania), project nr. 149/2014.

Keywords: Hawthorn polyphenols, metmyoglobin, oxymyoglobin, proteins stability

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143 Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Ceratonia siliqua L. Growing in Boumerdes, Algeria

Authors: N. Meziou-Chebouti, A. Merabet, Y. Chebouti N. Behidj

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This work is a contribution to the knowledge of physicochemical characteristics of mature carob followed by evaluation of the activity, antimicrobial phenolics leaves and green pods of Ceratonia siliqua L. physicochemical study shows that mature carob it has a considerable content of sugar (50.90%), but poor in proteins (7%), fat (8%) and also has a high mineral content. The results obtained from phenolic extracts of leaves and green pods of Ceratonia siliqua L. show a wealth leaf phenolic extract especially flavonoids (0,545 mg EqQ/g) relative to the extract of green pods (0,226 mgEqQ/g). Polyphenols leaves have a slightly inhibitory effect on the growth of strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoiae, Streptococcus sp and Sanmonella enteritidis, a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of Pseudomonas strain aerogenosa. Moreover, polyphenols pod have a slightly inhibitory effect on the growth of Streptococcus sp strains, Pseudomonas and aerogenosa Sanmonella enteritidis, a slightly inhibitory effect on the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, bacteria, clove, Ceratonia siliqua, polyphenols

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142 Chemical and Sensory Properties of Chardonnay Wines Produced in Different Oak Barrels

Authors: Valentina Obradović, Josip Mesić, Maja Ergović Ravančić, Kamila Mijowska, Brankica Svitlica

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French oak and American oak barrels are most famous all over the world, but barrels of different origin can also be used for obtaining high quality wines. The aim of this research was to compare the influence of different Slavonian (Croatian) and French oak barrels on the quality of Chardonnay wine. Grapes were grown in Croatian wine growing region of Kutjevo in 2015. Chardonnay wines were tested for basic oenological parameters (alcohol, extract, reducing sugar, SO2, acidity), total polyphenols content (Folin-Ciocalteu method), antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH method) and color density. Sensory evaluation was performed by students of viticulture/oenology. Samples produced by classical fermentation and ageing in French oak barrels, had better results for polyphenols and sensory evaluation (especially low toasting level) than samples in Slavonian barrels. All tested samples were scored as a “quality” or “premium quality” wines. Sur lie method of fermentation and ageing in Slavonian oak barrel had very good extraction of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity with the usage of authentic yeasts, while commercial yeast strain resulted in worse chemical and sensory parameters.

Keywords: chardonnay, French oak, Slavonian oak, sur lie

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141 A New Method of Extracting Polyphenols from Honey Using a Biosorbent Compared to the Commercial Resin Amberlite XAD2

Authors: Farid Benkaci-Alia, Abdelhamid Neggada, Sophie Laurentb

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A new extraction method of polyphenols from honey using a biodegradable resin was developed and compared with the common commercial resin amberlite XAD2. For this purpose, three honey samples of Algerian origin were selected for the different physico-chemical and biochemical parameters study. After extraction of the target compounds by both resins, the polyphenol content was determined, the antioxidant activity was tested, and LC-MS analyses were performed for identification and quantification. The results showed that physico-chemical and biochemical parameters meet the norms of the International Honey commission, and the H1 sample seemed to be of high quality. The optimal conditions of extraction by biodegradable resin were a pH of 3, an adsorption dose of 40 g/L, a contact time of 50 min, an extraction temperature of 60°C and no stirring. The regeneration and reuse number of both resins was three cycles. The polyphenol contents demonstrated a higher extraction efficiency of biosorbent than of XAD2, especially in H1. LC-MS analyses allowed for the identification and quantification of fifteen compounds in the different honey samples extracted using both resins and the most abundant compound was 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid. In addition, the biosorbent extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than the XAD2 extracts.

Keywords: extraction, polyphénols, biosorbent, resin amberlite, HPLC-MS

Procedia PDF Downloads 44