Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2554

Search results for: contrast sensitivity

2554 Investigation of the Functional Impact of Amblyopia on Visual Skills in Children

Authors: Chinmay V. Deshpande


Purpose: To assess the efficiency of visual functions and visual skills in strabismic & anisometropic amblyopes and to assess visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in anisometropic amblyopes with spectacles & contact lenses. Method: In a prospective clinical study, 32 children ageing from 5 to 15 years presenting with amblyopia in a pediatric department of Shri Ganapati Netralaya Jalna, India, were assessed for a period of three & half months. Visual acuity was measured with Snellen’s and Bailey-Lovie log MAR charts whereas contrast sensitivity was measured with Pelli-Robson chart with spectacles and contact lenses. Saccadic movements were assessed with SCCO scoring criteria and accommodative facility was checked with ±1.50 DS flippers. Stereopsis was assessed with TNO test. Results: By using Wilcoxon sign rank test p-value < 0.05 (< 0.001), the mean linear visual acuity was 0.29 (≈ 6/21) and mean single optotype visual acuity found to be 0.36 (≈ 6/18). Mean visual acuity of 0.27(≈ 6/21) with spectacles improved to 0.33 (≈ 6/18) with contact lenses in amblyopic eyes. The mean Log MAR visual acuity with spectacles and contact lens were found to be 0.602( ≈6/24) and 0.531(≈ 6/21) respectively. The contrast threshold out of 20 amblyopic eyes shows that mean contrast threshold changed in 9 patients from spectacles 0.27 to contact lens 0.19 respectively. The mean accommodative facility assessed was 5.31(± 2.37). 24 subjects (75%) revealed marked saccadic defects on the test applied. 78% subjects didn’t show even gross stereoscopic ability on TNO test. Conclusion: This study supports the facts about amblyopia and associated deficits in visual skills which are claimed in previous studies. In addition, anisometropic amblyopia can be managed better with contact lenses.

Keywords: strabismus, anisometropia, amblyopia, contrast sensitivity, saccades, stereopsis

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2553 Comparison of the Classification of Cystic Renal Lesions Using the Bosniak Classification System with Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Computed Tomography: A Prospective Study

Authors: Dechen Tshering Vogel, Johannes T. Heverhagen, Bernard Kiss, Spyridon Arampatzis


In addition to computed tomography (CT), contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are being increasingly used for imaging of renal lesions. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the classification of complex cystic renal lesions using the Bosniak classification with CEUS and MRI to CT. Forty-eight patients with 65 cystic renal lesions were included in this study. All participants signed written informed consent. The agreement between the Bosniak classifications of complex renal lesions ( ≥ BII-F) on CEUS and MRI were compared to that of CT and were tested using Cohen’s Kappa. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV/NPV) and the accuracy of CEUS and MRI compared to CT in the detection of complex renal lesions were calculated. Twenty-nine (45%) out of 65 cystic renal lesions were classified as complex using CT. The agreement between CEUS and CT in the classification of complex cysts was fair (agreement 50.8%, Kappa 0.31), and was excellent between MRI and CT (agreement 93.9%, Kappa 0.88). Compared to CT, MRI had a sensitivity of 96.6%, specificity of 91.7%, a PPV of 54.7%, and an NPV of 54.7% with an accuracy of 63.1%. The corresponding values for CEUS were sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 33.3%, PPV 90.3%, and NPV 97.1% with an accuracy 93.8%. The classification of complex renal cysts based on MRI and CT scans correlated well, and MRI can be used instead of CT for this purpose. CEUS can exclude complex lesions, but due to higher sensitivity, cystic lesions tend to be upgraded. However, it is useful for initial imaging, for follow up of lesions and in those patients with contraindications to CT and MRI.

Keywords: Bosniak classification, computed tomography, contrast enhanced ultrasound, cystic renal lesions, magnetic resonance imaging

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2552 Validation of Nutritional Assessment Scores in Prediction of Mortality and Duration of Admission in Elderly, Hospitalized Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Christos Lampropoulos, Maria Konsta, Vicky Dradaki, Irini Dri, Konstantina Panouria, Tamta Sirbilatze, Ifigenia Apostolou, Vaggelis Lambas, Christina Kordali, Georgios Mavras


Objectives: Malnutrition in hospitalized patients is related to increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of our study was to compare various nutritional scores in order to detect the most suitable one for assessing the nutritional status of elderly, hospitalized patients and correlate them with mortality and extension of admission duration, due to patients’ critical condition. Methods: Sample population included 150 patients (78 men, 72 women, mean age 80±8.2). Nutritional status was assessed by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA full, short-form), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and short Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (sNAQ). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and ROC curves were assessed after adjustment for the cause of current admission, a known prognostic factor according to previously applied multivariate models. Primary endpoints were mortality (from admission until 6 months afterwards) and duration of hospitalization, compared to national guidelines for closed consolidated medical expenses. Results: Concerning mortality, MNA (short-form and full) and SNAQ had similar, low sensitivity (25.8%, 25.8% and 35.5% respectively) while MUST had higher sensitivity (48.4%). In contrast, all the questionnaires had high specificity (94%-97.5%). Short-form MNA and sNAQ had the best positive predictive value (72.7% and 78.6% respectively) whereas all the questionnaires had similar negative predictive value (83.2%-87.5%). MUST had the highest ROC curve (0.83) in contrast to the rest questionnaires (0.73-0.77). With regard to extension of admission duration, all four scores had relatively low sensitivity (48.7%-56.7%), specificity (68.4%-77.6%), positive predictive value (63.1%-69.6%), negative predictive value (61%-63%) and ROC curve (0.67-0.69). Conclusion: MUST questionnaire is more advantageous in predicting mortality due to its higher sensitivity and ROC curve. None of the nutritional scores is suitable for prediction of extended hospitalization.

Keywords: duration of admission, malnutrition, nutritional assessment scores, prognostic factors for mortality

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2551 Relevance to Transformation Desire at Venetian Masks

Authors: Yoko Katsumata, Takashi Horikoshi, Noriaki Fukuzumi, Shoji Yamaguchi


This study examined some positive sensations that caused human to experience an intense feeling or sensitivity from Venetian Masks. We surveyed 102 Japanese university students (male; 85, female; 17) about their sensitivity impressions toward Venetian Masks using sensitivity questionnaire. We used questionnaires to examine the relevance to transformation desire at Venetian masks by means of correlation analysis. The positive correlation coefficient was observed between sensitivity impressions and transformation desire.

Keywords: Venetian Masks, sensitivity impression, transformation desire, Japan

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2550 Analysis of the Relations between Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms and Anxiety Sensitivity in Adolescents: Structural Equation Modeling

Authors: Ismail Seçer


The purpose of this study is to analyze the predictive effect of anxiety sensitivity on obsessive compulsive symptoms. The sample of the study consists of 542 students selected with appropriate sampling method from the secondary and high schools in Erzurum city center. Obsessive Compulsive Inventory and Anxiety Sensitivity Index were used in the study to collect data. The data obtained through the study was analyzed with structural equation modeling. As a result of the study, it was determined that there is a significant relationship between obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and anxiety sensitivity. Anxiety sensitivity has direct and indirect meaningful effects on the latent variable of OCD in the sub-dimensions of doubting-checking, obsessing, hoarding, washing, ordering, and mental neutralizing, and also anxiety sensitivity is a significant predictor of obsessive compulsive symptoms.

Keywords: obsession, compulsion, structural equation, anxiety sensitivity

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2549 Prediction of Changes in Optical Quality by Tissue Redness after Pterygium Surgery

Authors: Mohd Radzi Hilmi, Mohd Zulfaezal Che Azemin, Khairidzan Mohd Kamal, Azrin Esmady Ariffin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd Tamrin, Norfazrina Abdul Gaffur, Tengku Mohd Tengku Sembok


Purpose: The purpose of this study is to predict optical quality changes after pterygium surgery using tissue redness grading. Methods: Sixty-eight primary pterygium participants were selected from patients who visited an ophthalmology clinic. We developed a semi-automated computer program to measure the pterygium fibrovascular redness from digital pterygium images. The outcome of this software is a continuous scale grading of 1 (minimum redness) to 3 (maximum redness). The region of interest (ROI) was selected manually using the software. Reliability was determined by repeat grading of all 68 images and its association with contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and visual acuity (VA) was examined. Results: The mean and standard deviation of redness of the pterygium fibrovascular images was 1.88 ± 0.55. Intra- and inter-grader reliability estimates were high with intraclass correlation ranging from 0.97 to 0.98. The new grading was positively associated with CSF (p<0.01) and VA (p<0.01). The redness grading was able to predict 25% and 23% of the variance in the CSF and the VA respectively. Conclusions: The new grading of pterygium fibrovascular redness can be reliably measured from digital images and show a good correlation with CSF and VA. The redness grading can be used in addition to the existing pterygium grading.

Keywords: contrast sensitivity, pterygium, redness, visual acuity

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2548 Contrast Enhancement of Color Images with Color Morphing Approach

Authors: Javed Khan, Aamir Saeed Malik, Nidal Kamel, Sarat Chandra Dass, Azura Mohd Affandi


Low contrast images can result from the wrong setting of image acquisition or poor illumination conditions. Such images may not be visually appealing and can be difficult for feature extraction. Contrast enhancement of color images can be useful in medical area for visual inspection. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to improve the contrast of color images. The RGB (red, green, blue) color image is transformed into normalized RGB color space. Adaptive histogram equalization technique is applied to each of the three channels of normalized RGB color space. The corresponding channels in the original image (low contrast) and that of contrast enhanced image with adaptive histogram equalization (AHE) are morphed together in proper proportions. The proposed technique is tested on seventy color images of acne patients. The results of the proposed technique are analyzed using cumulative variance and contrast improvement factor measures. The results are also compared with decorrelation stretch. Both subjective and quantitative analysis demonstrates that the proposed techniques outperform the other techniques.

Keywords: contrast enhacement, normalized RGB, adaptive histogram equalization, cumulative variance.

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2547 Speckle-Based Phase Contrast Micro-Computed Tomography with Neural Network Reconstruction

Authors: Y. Zheng, M. Busi, A. F. Pedersen, M. A. Beltran, C. Gundlach


X-ray phase contrast imaging has shown to yield a better contrast compared to conventional attenuation X-ray imaging, especially for soft tissues in the medical imaging energy range. This can potentially lead to better diagnosis for patients. However, phase contrast imaging has mainly been performed using highly brilliant Synchrotron radiation, as it requires high coherence X-rays. Many research teams have demonstrated that it is also feasible using a laboratory source, bringing it one step closer to clinical use. Nevertheless, the requirement of fine gratings and high precision stepping motors when using a laboratory source prevents it from being widely used. Recently, a random phase object has been proposed as an analyzer. This method requires a much less robust experimental setup. However, previous studies were done using a particular X-ray source (liquid-metal jet micro-focus source) or high precision motors for stepping. We have been working on a much simpler setup with just small modification of a commercial bench-top micro-CT (computed tomography) scanner, by introducing a piece of sandpaper as the phase analyzer in front of the X-ray source. However, it needs a suitable algorithm for speckle tracking and 3D reconstructions. The precision and sensitivity of speckle tracking algorithm determine the resolution of the system, while the 3D reconstruction algorithm will affect the minimum number of projections required, thus limiting the temporal resolution. As phase contrast imaging methods usually require much longer exposure time than traditional absorption based X-ray imaging technologies, a dynamic phase contrast micro-CT with a high temporal resolution is particularly challenging. Different reconstruction methods, including neural network based techniques, will be evaluated in this project to increase the temporal resolution of the phase contrast micro-CT. A Monte Carlo ray tracing simulation (McXtrace) was used to generate a large dataset to train the neural network, in order to address the issue that neural networks require large amount of training data to get high-quality reconstructions.

Keywords: micro-ct, neural networks, reconstruction, speckle-based x-ray phase contrast

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2546 Comparative Study of Different Enhancement Techniques for Computed Tomography Images

Authors: C. G. Jinimole, A. Harsha


One of the key problems facing in the analysis of Computed Tomography (CT) images is the poor contrast of the images. Image enhancement can be used to improve the visual clarity and quality of the images or to provide a better transformation representation for further processing. Contrast enhancement of images is one of the acceptable methods used for image enhancement in various applications in the medical field. This will be helpful to visualize and extract details of brain infarctions, tumors, and cancers from the CT image. This paper presents a comparison study of five contrast enhancement techniques suitable for the contrast enhancement of CT images. The types of techniques include Power Law Transformation, Logarithmic Transformation, Histogram Equalization, Contrast Stretching, and Laplacian Transformation. All these techniques are compared with each other to find out which enhancement provides better contrast of CT image. For the comparison of the techniques, the parameters Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Mean Square Error (MSE) are used. Logarithmic Transformation provided the clearer and best quality image compared to all other techniques studied and has got the highest value of PSNR. Comparison concludes with better approach for its future research especially for mapping abnormalities from CT images resulting from Brain Injuries.

Keywords: computed tomography, enhancement techniques, increasing contrast, PSNR and MSE

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2545 New Method to Increase Contrast of Electromicrograph of Rat Tissues Sections

Authors: Lise Paule Labéjof, Raíza Sales Pereira Bizerra, Galileu Barbosa Costa, Thaísa Barros dos Santos


Since the beginning of the microscopy, improving the image quality has always been a concern of its users. Especially for transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the problem is even more important due to the complexity of the sample preparation technique and the many variables that can affect the conservation of structures, proper operation of the equipment used and then the quality of the images obtained. Animal tissues being transparent it is necessary to apply a contrast agent in order to identify the elements of their ultrastructural morphology. Several methods of contrastation of tissues for TEM imaging have already been developed. The most used are the “in block” contrastation and “in situ” contrastation. This report presents an alternative technique of application of contrast agent in vivo, i.e. before sampling. By this new method the electromicrographies of the tissue sections have better contrast compared to that in situ and present no artefact of precipitation of contrast agent. Another advantage is that a small amount of contrast is needed to get a good result given that most of them are expensive and extremely toxic.

Keywords: image quality, microscopy research, staining technique, ultra thin section

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2544 The Impact of Religiosity and Ethical Senstivity on Accounting Students’ Ethical Judgement Decision

Authors: Ahmed Mohamed Alteer


The purpose of this paper is come up with theoretical model through understanding the causes and motives behind the auditors' sensitive to ethical dilemma through Auditing Students. This study considers the possibility of auditing students’ ethical judgement being affected by two individual factors, namely ethical sensitivity and religiosity. The finding of this study that there are several ethical theories a models provide a significant understanding of ethical issues and supported that ethical sensitivity and religiosity may affect ethical judgement decision among accounting students. The suggestion model proposes that student ethical judgement is influenced by their ethical sensitivity and their religiosity. Nonetheless, the influence of religiosity on ethical judgement is expected to be via ethical sensitivity.

Keywords: asccounting students, ethical sensitivity, religiosity, ethical judgement

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2543 Approximation of a Wanted Flow via Topological Sensitivity Analysis

Authors: Mohamed Abdelwahed


We propose an optimization algorithm for the geometric control of fluid flow. The used approach is based on the topological sensitivity analysis method. It consists in studying the variation of a cost function with respect to the insertion of a small obstacle in the domain. Some theoretical and numerical results are presented in 2D and 3D.

Keywords: sensitivity analysis, topological gradient, shape optimization, stokes equations

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2542 Application of MRI in Radioembolization Imaging and Dosimetry

Authors: Salehi Zahabi Saleh, Rajabi Hosaien, Rasaneh Samira


Yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolisation(RE) is increasingly used for the treatment of patients with unresectable primary or metastatic liver tumours. Image-based approaches to assess microsphere distribution after RE have gained interest but are mostly hampered by the limited imaging possibilities of the Isotope 90Y. Quantitative 90Y-SPECT imaging has limited spatial resolution because it is based on 90Y Bremsstrahlung whereas 90Y-PET has better spatial resolution but low sensitivity. As a consequence, new alternative methods of visualizing the microspheres have been investigated, such as MR imaging of iron-labelled microspheres. It was also shown that MRI combines high sensitivity with high spatial and temporal resolution and with superior soft tissue contrast and thus can be used to cover a broad range of clinically interesting imaging parameters.The aim of the study in this article was to investigate the capability of MRI to measure the intrahepatic microsphere distribution in order to quantify the absorbed radiation dose in RE.

Keywords: radioembolisation, MRI, imaging, dosimetry

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2541 Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Breast MRI Examinations: Clinical Use and Technical Challenges

Authors: Janet Wing-Chong Wai, Alex Chiu-Wing Lee, Hailey Hoi-Ching Tsang, Jeffrey Chiu, Kwok-Wing Tang


Background: Mammography has limited sensitivity and specificity though it is the primary imaging technique for detection of early breast cancer. Ultrasound imaging and contrast-enhanced MRI are useful adjunct tools to mammography. The advantage of breast MRI is high sensitivity for invasive breast cancer. Therefore, indications for and use of breast magnetic resonance imaging have increased over the past decade. Objectives: 1. Cases demonstration on different indications for breast MR imaging. 2. To review of the common artifacts and pitfalls in breast MR imaging. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study including all patients underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI examination in our centre, performed from Jan 2011 to Dec 2017. The clinical data and radiological images were retrieved from the EPR (electronic patient record), RIS (Radiology Information System) and PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System). Results and Discussion: Cases including (1) Screening of the contralateral breast in patient with a new breast malignancy (2) Breast augmentation with free injection of unknown foreign materials (3) Finding of axillary adenopathy with an unknown site of primary malignancy (4) Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy: before, during, and after chemotherapy to evaluate treatment response and extent of residual disease prior to operation. Relevant images will be included and illustrated in the presentation. As with other types of MR imaging, there are different artifacts and pitfalls that can potentially limit interpretation of the images. Because of the coils and software specific to breast MR imaging, there are some other technical considerations that are unique to MR imaging of breast regions. Case demonstration images will be available in presentation. Conclusion: Breast MR imaging is a highly sensitive and reasonably specific method for the detection of breast cancer. Adherent to appropriate clinical indications and technical optimization are crucial for achieving satisfactory images for interpretation.

Keywords: MRI, breast, clinical, cancer

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2540 Edge Detection in Low Contrast Images

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh K. Pandey


The edges of low contrast images are not clearly distinguishable to the human eye. It is difficult to find the edges and boundaries in it. The present work encompasses a new approach for low contrast images. The Chebyshev polynomial based fractional order filter has been used for filtering operation on an image. The preprocessing has been performed by this filter on the input image. Laplacian of Gaussian method has been applied on preprocessed image for edge detection. The algorithm has been tested on two test images.

Keywords: low contrast image, fractional order differentiator, Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) method, chebyshev polynomial

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2539 New Variational Approach for Contrast Enhancement of Color Image

Authors: Wanhyun Cho, Seongchae Seo, Soonja Kang


In this work, we propose a variational technique for image contrast enhancement which utilizes global and local information around each pixel. The energy functional is defined by a weighted linear combination of three terms which are called on a local, a global contrast term and dispersion term. The first one is a local contrast term that can lead to improve the contrast of an input image by increasing the grey-level differences between each pixel and its neighboring to utilize contextual information around each pixel. The second one is global contrast term, which can lead to enhance a contrast of image by minimizing the difference between its empirical distribution function and a cumulative distribution function to make the probability distribution of pixel values becoming a symmetric distribution about median. The third one is a dispersion term that controls the departure between new pixel value and pixel value of original image while preserving original image characteristics as well as possible. Second, we derive the Euler-Lagrange equation for true image that can achieve the minimum of a proposed functional by using the fundamental lemma for the calculus of variations. And, we considered the procedure that this equation can be solved by using a gradient decent method, which is one of the dynamic approximation techniques. Finally, by conducting various experiments, we can demonstrate that the proposed method can enhance the contrast of colour images better than existing techniques.

Keywords: color image, contrast enhancement technique, variational approach, Euler-Lagrang equation, dynamic approximation method, EME measure

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2538 Gas Sensor Based on Carbon Nanotubes: A Review

Authors: Brian Yuliarto, Ni Luh Wulan Septiani


Carbon nanotubes are one of the carbon nanomaterial that very popular in the field of gas sensors. It has unique properties, large surface area and has hollow structure that makes its potentially used as a gas sensor. Several attempts have been made to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of CNTs by modifying CNTs with a noble metals, metal oxides and polymers. From these studies, there are evidents that modification of CNTs with these materials can improve the sensitivity and selectivity of CNTs against some harmful gases. Decorating carbon nano tubes with metal oxides improve CNTs with the highest sensitivity and increased sensitivity of polymer/CNTs is higher than the metal/CNTs. The used of metal in CNTs aims to accelerate the reaction surface and as channel for electrons path from or to the CNTs. The used of metal oxides on CNTs built a p-n junction that can increase sensitivity. While the addition of polymer can increase the charge carriers density in CNTs.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, gas sensors, modification of CNT, sensitivity

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2537 X-Ray Fluorescence Molecular Imaging with Improved Sensitivity for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Guohua Cao, Xu Dong


X-ray Fluorescence Molecular Imaging (XFMI) holds great promise as a low-cost molecular imaging modality for biomedical applications with high chemical sensitivity. However, for in vivo biomedical applications, a key technical bottleneck is the relatively low chemical sensitivity of XFMI, especially at a reasonably low radiation dose. In laboratory x-ray source based XFMI, one of the main factors that limits the chemical sensitivity of XFMI is the scattered x-rays. We will present our latest findings on improving the chemical sensitivity of XFMI using excitation beam spectrum optimization. XFMI imaging experiments on two mouse-sized phantoms were conducted at three different excitation beam spectra. Our results show that the minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of iodine can be readily increased by five times via excitation spectrum optimization. Findings from this investigation could find use for in vivo pre-clinical small-animal XFMI in the future.

Keywords: molecular imaging, X-ray fluorescence, chemical sensitivity, X-ray scattering

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2536 Comparison Of Virtual Non-Contrast To True Non-Contrast Images Using Dual Layer Spectral Computed Tomography

Authors: O’Day Luke


Purpose: To validate virtual non-contrast reconstructions generated from dual-layer spectral computed tomography (DL-CT) data as an alternative for the acquisition of a dedicated true non-contrast dataset during multiphase contrast studies. Material and methods: Thirty-three patients underwent a routine multiphase clinical CT examination, using Dual-Layer Spectral CT, from March to August 2021. True non-contrast (TNC) and virtual non-contrast (VNC) datasets, generated from both portal venous and arterial phase imaging were evaluated. For every patient in both true and virtual non-contrast datasets, a region-of-interest (ROI) was defined in aorta, liver, fluid (i.e. gallbladder, urinary bladder), kidney, muscle, fat and spongious bone, resulting in 693 ROIs. Differences in attenuation for VNC and TNV images were compared, both separately and combined. Consistency between VNC reconstructions obtained from the arterial and portal venous phase was evaluated. Results: Comparison of CT density (HU) on the VNC and TNC images showed a high correlation. The mean difference between TNC and VNC images (excluding bone results) was 5.5 ± 9.1 HU and > 90% of all comparisons showed a difference of less than 15 HU. For all tissues but spongious bone, the mean absolute difference between TNC and VNC images was below 10 HU. VNC images derived from the arterial and the portal venous phase showed a good correlation in most tissue types. The aortic attenuation was somewhat dependent however on which dataset was used for reconstruction. Bone evaluation with VNC datasets continues to be a problem, as spectral CT algorithms are currently poor in differentiating bone and iodine. Conclusion: Given the increasing availability of DL-CT and proven accuracy of virtual non-contrast processing, VNC is a promising tool for generating additional data during routine contrast-enhanced studies. This study shows the utility of virtual non-contrast scans as an alternative for true non-contrast studies during multiphase CT, with potential for dose reduction, without loss of diagnostic information.

Keywords: dual-layer spectral computed tomography, virtual non-contrast, true non-contrast, clinical comparison

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2535 Contrast Enhancement of Masses in Mammograms Using Multiscale Morphology

Authors: Amit Kamra, V. K. Jain, Pragya


Mammography is widely used technique for breast cancer screening. There are various other techniques for breast cancer screening but mammography is the most reliable and effective technique. The images obtained through mammography are of low contrast which causes problem for the radiologists to interpret. Hence, a high quality image is mandatory for the processing of the image for extracting any kind of information from it. Many contrast enhancement algorithms have been developed over the years. In the present work, an efficient morphology based technique is proposed for contrast enhancement of masses in mammographic images. The proposed method is based on Multiscale Morphology and it takes into consideration the scale of the structuring element. The proposed method is compared with other state-of-the-art techniques. The experimental results show that the proposed method is better both qualitatively and quantitatively than the other standard contrast enhancement techniques.

Keywords: enhancement, mammography, multi-scale, mathematical morphology

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2534 Pitch Processing in Autistic Mandarin-Speaking Children with Hypersensitivityand Hypo-Sensitivity: An Event-Related Potential Study

Authors: Kaiying Lai, Suiping Wang, Luodi Yu, Yang Zhang, Pengmin Qin


Abnormalities in auditory processing are one of the most commonly reported sensory processing impairments in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Tonal language speaker with autism has enhanced neural sensitivity to pitch changes in pure tone. However, not all children with ASD exhibit the same performance in pitch processing due to different auditory sensitivity. The current study aimed to examine auditory change detection in ASD with different auditory sensitivity. K-means clustering method was adopted to classify ASD participants into two groups according to the auditory processing scores of the Sensory Profile, 11 autism with hypersensitivity (mean age = 11.36 ; SD = 1.46) and 18 with hypo-sensitivity (mean age = 10.64; SD = 1.89) participated in a passive auditory oddball paradigm designed for eliciting mismatch negativity (MMN) under the pure tone condition. Results revealed that compared to hypersensitive autism, the children with hypo-sensitivity showed smaller MMN responses to pure tone stimuli. These results suggest that ASD with auditory hypersensitivity and hypo-sensitivity performed differently in processing pure tone, so neural responses to pure tone hold promise for predicting the auditory sensitivity of ASD and targeted treatment in children with ASD.

Keywords: ASD, sensory profile, pitch processing, mismatch negativity, MMN

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2533 The Moderating Effect of Pathological Narcissism in the Relationship between Victim Justice Sensitivity and Anger Rumination

Authors: Isil Coklar-Okutkan, Miray Akyunus


Victim sensitivity is a form of justice sensitivity that reflects the tendency to perceive injustice to one’s disadvantage. Victim sensitivity is considered as a dysfunctional trait that predicts anger, aggression, uncooperative behavior, depression and anxiety. Indeed, exploring the mechanism of association between victim sensitivity and anger is clinically important since it can lead to externalizing and internalizing problems. This study aims to investigate the moderating role of pathological narcissism in the relationship between victim sensitivity and anger rumination. Through testing different models where subtypes of narcissism and anger rumination components are included independently, the specific mechanism of different ruminative processes in anger is investigated. The sample consisted of 311 undergraduate students from Turkey, 107 of whom were males, and 204 were females. Participants completed Justice Sensitivity Inventory-Victim Subscale, Pathological Narcissism Inventory and Anger Rumination Scale. In the proposed double moderation model, vulnerable and grandiose narcissism was the moderators in the relationship between victim justice sensitivity and anger rumination. Four separate models were tested where one of the four components of anger rumination (angry afterthoughts, thoughts of revenge, angry memories, understanding of causes) were the dependent variable in each model. Results revealed that two of the moderation models are significant. Firstly, grandiose narcissism is the only moderator in the relationship between victim sensitivity and thoughts of revenge. Secondly, vulnerable narcissism is the only moderator in the relationship between victim sensitivity and understanding causes. Accordingly, grandiose narcissism is positively associated with the thoughts of revenge, and vulnerable narcissism is positively associated with understanding causes, only when the level of victim sensitivity is high. To summarize, increased victim sensitivity leads to ruminative thoughts of revenge in individuals with grandiose narcissism, whereas it leads to rumination on causes of the incident in individuals with vulnerable narcissism. The clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

Keywords: anger rumination, victim sensitivity, grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism

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2532 Evaluation of Shock Sensitivity of Nano-Scaled 1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazacyclohexane Using Small Scale Gap Test

Authors: Kang-In Lee, Woo-Jin Lee, Keun-Deuk Lee, Ju-Seung Chae


In this study, small scale gap test (SSGT) was performed to measure shock sensitivity of nano-scaled 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) samples. The shock sensitivity of energetic materials is usually evaluated by the method of large-scale gap test (LSGT) that has a higher reliability than other methods. But LSGT has the disadvantage that it takes a high cost and time by using a large amount of explosive. In this experiment, nano-scaled RDX samples were prepared by spray crystallization in two different drying methods. In addition, 30μm RDX sample produced by precipitation crystallization and 5μm RDX sample produced by fluid energy mill process were tested to compare shock sensitivity. The study of shock sensitivity measured by small-scale gap test shows that small sized RDX particles have greater insensitivity. As a result, we infer SSGT method has higher reliability compared to the literature as measurement of shock sensitivity of energetic materials.

Keywords: nano-scaled RDX, SSGT(small scale gap test), shock sensitivity, RDX

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2531 Determination of Strain Rate Sensitivity (SRS) for Grain Size Variants on Nanocrystalline Materials Produced by ARB and ECAP

Authors: P. B. Sob, T. B. Tengen, A. A. Alugongo


Mechanical behavior of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures. The strain rate sensitivity is investigated at different temperatures on the grain size variants. The sensitivity of the measured grain size variants on 3-D grain is discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the strain rate sensitivities vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results, it is shown that the variation of strain rate sensitivity with temperature suggests that the strain rate sensitivity at the low and the high temperature ends of the 6082T6 aluminum range is different. The obtained results revealed transition at different temperature from negative strain rate sensitivity as temperature increased on the grain size variants.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, grain size variants, temperature, yield stress, strain rate sensitivity

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2530 Sensitivity Analysis during the Optimization Process Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: M. A. Rubio, A. Urquia


Genetic algorithms (GA) are applied to the solution of high-dimensional optimization problems. Additionally, sensitivity analysis (SA) is usually carried out to determine the effect on optimal solutions of changes in parameter values of the objective function. These two analyses (i.e., optimization and sensitivity analysis) are computationally intensive when applied to high-dimensional functions. The approach presented in this paper consists in performing the SA during the GA execution, by statistically analyzing the data obtained of running the GA. The advantage is that in this case SA does not involve making additional evaluations of the objective function and, consequently, this proposed approach requires less computational effort than conducting optimization and SA in two consecutive steps.

Keywords: optimization, sensitivity, genetic algorithms, model calibration

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2529 Relationship Salt Sensitivity and с825т Polymorphism of gnb3 Gene in Patients with Essential Hypertension

Authors: Aleksandr Nagay, Gulnoz Khamidullayeva


It is known that an unbalanced intake of salt (NaCI), lifestyle and genetic predisposition to pathology is a key component of the risk and the development of essential hypertension (EH). Purpose: To study the relationship between salt-sensitivity and blood pressure (BP) on systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, depending on the C825T polymorphism of GNB3 in individuals of Uzbek nationality with EH. Method: studied 148 healthy and 148 patients with EH with I-II degree (WHO/ISH, 2003) with disease duration 6,5±1,3 years. Investigation of the gene GNB3 was produced by PCR-RFLP method. Determination of salt-sensitivity was performed by the method of R. Henkin. Results: For a comparative analysis of BP, the groups with carriage of CТ and TT genotypes were combined. The analysis showed that carriers of CC genotype and low salt-sensitivity were determined by higher levels of SBP compared with carriers of CT and TT genotypes, and low salt-sensitivity of SBP: 166,2±4,3 against 158,2±9,1 mm Hg (p=0,000). A similar analysis on the values of DBP also showed significantly higher values of blood pressure in carriers of CC genotype DBP: 105,8±10,6 vs. 100,5±7,2 mm Hg, respectively (p=0,001). The average values of SBP and DBP in groups with carriers of CC genotype at medium or high salt-sensitivity in comparison with carriers of CT or TT genotype did not differ statistically SBP: 165,0±0,1 vs. 160,0±8,6 mm Hg (p=0,275) and DBP: 100,1±0,1 vs. 101,6±7,6 mm Hg (p=0,687), respectively. Conclusion: It is revealed that in patients with EH CC genotype of the gene GNB3 given salt-sensitivity has a negative effect on blood pressure profile. Since patients with EH with the CC genotype of GNB3 gene with low-salt taste sensitivity is determined by a higher level of blood pressure, both on SBP and DBP.

Keywords: salt sensitivity, essential hypertension EH, blood pressure BP, genetic predisposition

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2528 Sensitivity Analysis of Movable Bed Roughness Formula in Sandy Rivers

Authors: Mehdi Fuladipanah


Sensitivity analysis as a technique is applied to determine influential input factors on model output. Variance-based sensitivity analysis method has more application compared to other methods because of including linear and non-linear models. In this paper, van Rijn’s movable bed roughness formula was selected to evaluate because of its reasonable results in sandy rivers. This equation contains four variables as: flow depth, sediment size,bBed form height and bed form length. These variable’s importance was determined using the first order of Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test. Sensitivity index was applied to evaluate importance of factors. The first order FAST based sensitivity indices test, explain 90% of the total variance that is indicating acceptance criteria of FAST application. More value of this index is indicating more important variable. Results show that bed form height, bed form length, sediment size and flow depth are more influential factors with sensitivity index: 32%, 24%, 19% and 15% respectively.

Keywords: sdensitivity analysis, variance, movable bed roughness formula, Sandy River

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
2527 Effect of Phonological Complexity in Children with Specific Language Impairment

Authors: Irfana M., Priyandi Kabasi


Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty acquiring and using language despite having all the requirements of cognitive skills to support language acquisition. These children have normal non-verbal intelligence, hearing, and oral-motor skills, with no history of social/emotional problems or significant neurological impairment. Nevertheless, their language acquisition lags behind their peers. Phonological complexity can be considered to be the major factor that causes the inaccurate production of speech in this population. However, the implementation of various ranges of complex phonological stimuli in the treatment session of SLI should be followed for a better prognosis of speech accuracy. Hence there is a need to study the levels of phonological complexity. The present study consisted of 7 individuals who were diagnosed with SLI and 10 developmentally normal children. All of them were Hindi speakers with both genders and their age ranged from 4 to 5 years. There were 4 sets of stimuli; among them were minimal contrast vs maximal contrast nonwords, minimal coarticulation vs maximal coarticulation nonwords, minimal contrast vs maximal contrast words and minimal coarticulation vs maximal coarticulation words. Each set contained 10 stimuli and participants were asked to repeat each stimulus. Results showed that production of maximal contrast was significantly accurate, followed by minimal coarticulation, minimal contrast and maximal coarticulation. A similar trend was shown for both word and non-word categories of stimuli. The phonological complexity effect was evident in the study for each participant group. Moreover, present study findings can be implemented for the management of SLI, specifically for the selection of stimuli.

Keywords: coarticulation, minimal contrast, phonological complexity, specific language impairment

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2526 Privacy Preserving Data Publishing Based on Sensitivity in Context of Big Data Using Hive

Authors: P. Srinivasa Rao, K. Venkatesh Sharma, G. Sadhya Devi, V. Nagesh


Privacy Preserving Data Publication is the main concern in present days because the data being published through the internet has been increasing day by day. This huge amount of data was named as Big Data by its size. This project deals the privacy preservation in the context of Big Data using a data warehousing solution called hive. We implemented Nearest Similarity Based Clustering (NSB) with Bottom-up generalization to achieve (v,l)-anonymity. (v,l)-Anonymity deals with the sensitivity vulnerabilities and ensures the individual privacy. We also calculate the sensitivity levels by simple comparison method using the index values, by classifying the different levels of sensitivity. The experiments were carried out on the hive environment to verify the efficiency of algorithms with Big Data. This framework also supports the execution of existing algorithms without any changes. The model in the paper outperforms than existing models.

Keywords: sensitivity, sensitive level, clustering, Privacy Preserving Data Publication (PPDP), bottom-up generalization, Big Data

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2525 The Effect of Tip Parameters on Vibration Modes of Atomic Force Microscope Cantilever

Authors: Mehdi Shekarzadeh, Pejman Taghipour Birgani


In this paper, the effect of mass and height of tip on the flexural vibration modes of an atomic force microscope (AFM) rectangular cantilever is analyzed. A closed-form expression for the sensitivity of vibration modes is derived using the relationship between the resonant frequency and contact stiffness of cantilever and sample. Each mode has a different sensitivity to variations in surface stiffness. This sensitivity directly controls the image resolution. It is obtained an AFM cantilever is more sensitive when the mass of tip is lower and the first mode is the most sensitive mode. Also, the effect of changes of tip height on the flexural sensitivity is negligible.

Keywords: atomic force microscope, AFM, vibration analysis, flexural vibration, cantilever

Procedia PDF Downloads 307