Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 341

Search results for: lens

341 Using Divergent Nozzle with Aerodynamic Lens to Focus Nanoparticles

Authors: Hasan Jumaah Mrayeh, Fue-Sang Lien


ANSYS Fluent will be used to simulate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for an efficient lens and nozzle design which will be explained in this paper. We have designed and characterized an aerodynamic lens and a divergent nozzle for focusing flow that transmits sub 25 nm particles through the aerodynamic lens. The design of the lens and nozzle has been improved using CFD for particle trajectories. We obtained a case for calculating nanoparticles (25 nm) flowing through the aerodynamic lens and divergent nozzle. Nanoparticles are transported by air, which is pumped into the aerodynamic lens through the nozzle at 1 atmospheric pressure. We have also developed a computational methodology that can determine the exact focus characteristics of aerodynamic lens systems. Particle trajectories were traced using the Lagrange approach. The simulation shows the ability of the aerodynamic lens to focus on 25 nm particles after using a divergent nozzle.

Keywords: aerodynamic lens, divergent nozzle, ANSYS Fluent, Lagrange approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
340 Parameters Influencing the Output Precision of a Lens-Lens Beam Generator Solar Concentrator

Authors: M. Tawfik, X. Tonnellier, C. Sansom


The Lens-Lens Beam Generator (LLBG) is a Fresnel-based optical concentrating technique which provides flexibility in selecting the solar receiver location compared to conventional techniques through generating a powerful concentrated collimated solar beam. In order to achieve that, two successive lenses are used and followed by a flat mirror. Hence the generated beam emerging from the LLBG has a high power flux which impinges on the target receiver, it is important to determine the precision of the system output. In this present work, mathematical investigation of different parameters affecting the precision of the output beam is carried out. These parameters include: Deflection in sun-facing lens and its holding arm, delay in updating the solar tracking system, and the flat mirror surface flatness. Moreover, relationships that describe the power lost due to the effect of each parameter are derived in this study.

Keywords: Fresnel lens, LLBG, solar concentrator, solar tracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
339 Human Lens Metabolome: A Combined LC-MS and NMR Study

Authors: Vadim V. Yanshole, Lyudmila V. Yanshole, Alexey S. Kiryutin, Timofey D. Verkhovod, Yuri P. Tsentalovich


Cataract, or clouding of the eye lens, is the leading cause of vision impairment in the world. The lens tissue have very specific structure: It does not have vascular system, the lens proteins – crystallins – do not turnover throughout lifespan. The protection of lens proteins is provided by the metabolites which diffuse inside the lens from the aqueous humor or synthesized in the lens epithelial layer. Therefore, the study of changes in the metabolite composition of a cataractous lens as compared to a normal lens may elucidate the possible mechanisms of the cataract formation. Quantitative metabolomic profiles of normal and cataractous human lenses were obtained with the combined use of high-frequency nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and ion-pairing high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass-spectrometric detection (LC-MS) methods. The quantitative content of more than fifty metabolites has been determined in this work for normal aged and cataractous human lenses. The most abundant metabolites in the normal lens are myo-inositol, lactate, creatine, glutathione, glutamate, and glucose. For the majority of metabolites, their levels in the lens cortex and nucleus are similar, with the few exceptions including antioxidants and UV filters: The concentrations of glutathione, ascorbate and NAD in the lens nucleus decrease as compared to the cortex, while the levels of the secondary UV filters formed from primary UV filters in redox processes increase. That confirms that the lens core is metabolically inert, and the metabolic activity in the lens nucleus is mostly restricted by protection from the oxidative stress caused by UV irradiation, UV filter spontaneous decomposition, or other factors. It was found that the metabolomic composition of normal and age-matched cataractous human lenses differ significantly. The content of the most important metabolites – antioxidants, UV filters, and osmolytes – in the cataractous nucleus is at least ten fold lower than in the normal nucleus. One may suppose that the majority of these metabolites are synthesized in the lens epithelial layer, and that age-related cataractogenesis might originate from the dysfunction of the lens epithelial cells. Comprehensive quantitative metabolic profiles of the human eye lens have been acquired for the first time. The obtained data can be used for the analysis of changes in the lens chemical composition occurring with age and with the cataract development.

Keywords: cataract, lens, NMR, LC-MS, metabolome

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
338 A Mathematical Model for 3-DOF Rotary Accuracy Measurement Method Based on a Ball Lens

Authors: Hau-Wei Lee, Yu-Chi Liu, Chien-Hung Liu


A mathematical model is presented for a system that measures rotational errors in a shaft using a ball lens. The geometric optical characteristics of the ball lens mounted on the shaft allows the measurement of rotation axis errors in both the radial and axial directions. The equipment used includes two quadrant detectors (QD), two laser diodes and a ball lens that is mounted on the rotating shaft to be evaluated. Rotational errors in the shaft cause changes in the optical geometry of the ball lens. The resulting deflection of the laser beams is detected by the QDs and their output signals are used to determine rotational errors. The radial and the axial rotational errors can be calculated as explained by the mathematical model. Results from system calibration show that the measurement error is within ±1 m and resolution is about 20 nm. Using a direct drive motor (DD motor) as an example, experimental results show a rotational error of less than 20 m. The most important features of this system are that it does not require the use of expensive optical components, it is small, very easy to set up, and measurements are highly accurate.

Keywords: ball lens, quadrant detector, axial error, radial error

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
337 Graphene-Based Reconfigurable Lens Antenna for 5G/6G and Satellite Networks

Authors: André Lages, Victor Dmitriev, Juliano Bazzo, Gianni Portela


This work evaluates the feasibility of the graphene application to perform as a wideband reconfigurable material for lens antennas in 5G/6G and satellite applications. Based on transformation optics principles, the electromagnetic waves can be efficiently guided by modifying the effective refractive index. Graphene behavior can range between a lossy dielectric and a good conductor due to the variation of its chemical potential bias, thus arising as a promising solution for electromagnetic devices. The graphene properties and a lens antenna comprising multiples layers and periodic arrangements of graphene patches were analyzed using full-wave simulations. A dipole directivity was improved from 7 to 18.5 dBi at 29 GHz. In addition, the realized gain was enhanced 7 dB across a 14 GHz bandwidth within the Ka/5G band.

Keywords: 5G/6G, graphene, lens, reconfigurable, satellite

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
336 Cavitas Sensors into Human Cavities: Soft-Contact Lens and Mouthguard Sensors

Authors: Kohji Mitsubayashi, Takahiro Arakawa, Kohji Mitsubayashi


‘Cavitas sensors’ attached to human body cavities such as a contact lens type and a mouthguard (‘no implantable', ‘no wearable’) attracted attention as self-detachable devices for daily medicine. In this contribution, the soft contact lens glucose sensor for tear sugar monitoring will be introduced. And the mouthguard sensor with dental materials integrated with Bluetooth low energy (BLE) wireless module for real-time monitoring of saliva glucose would also be demonstrated. In the near future, those self-detachable cavitas sensors are expected to improve quality of life in view of the aging of society.

Keywords: cavitas sensor, biosensor, contact lens, mouthguard

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
335 Quantitative Phase Imaging System Based on a Three-Lens Common-Path Interferometer

Authors: Alexander Machikhin, Olga Polschikova, Vitold Pozhar, Alina Ramazanova


White-light quantitative phase imaging is an effective technique for achieving sub-nanometer phase sensitivity. Highly stable interferometers based on common-path geometry have been developed in recent years to solve this task. Some of these methods also apply multispectral approach. The purpose of this research is to suggest a simple and effective interferometer for such systems. We developed a three-lens common-path interferometer, which can be used for quantitative phase imaging with or without multispectral modality. The lens system consists of two components, the first one of which is a compound lens, consisting of two lenses. A pinhole is placed between the components. The lens-in-lens approach enables effective light transmission and high stability of the interferometer. The multispectrality is easily implemented by placing a tunable filter in front of the interferometer. In our work, we used an acousto-optical tunable filter. Some design considerations are discussed and multispectral quantitative phase retrieval is demonstrated.

Keywords: acousto-optical tunable filter, common-path interferometry, digital holography, multispectral quantitative phase imaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
334 Laser Light Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, Fatih V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin


This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, bending, lens, light, nonlinear optics

Procedia PDF Downloads 602
333 Laser Beam Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, Fatih. V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin


This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, bending, lens, light, nonlinear optics

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
332 Freshwater Lens Observation: Case Study of Laura Island, Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

Authors: Kazuhisa Koda, Tsutomu Kobayashi, Rebecca Lorennji, Alington Robert, Halston DeBrum, Julious Lucky, Paul Paul


Atolls are low-lying small islands with highly permeable ground that does not allow rivers and lakes to develop. As the water resources on these atolls basically rely on precipitation, groundwater becomes a very important water resource during droughts. Freshwater lenses develop as groundwater on relatively large atoll islands and play a key role in the stable water supply. Atoll islands in the Pacific Ocean sometimes suffer from drought due to El Nino. The global warming effects are noticeable, particularly on atoll islands. The Republic of the Marshall Islands in Oceania is burdened with the problems common to atoll islands. About half of its population lives in the capital, Majuro, and securing water resources for these people is a crucial issue. There is a freshwater lens on the largest, Laura Island, which serves as a water source for the downtown area. A serious drought that occurred in 1998 resulted in excessive water intake from the freshwater lens on Laura Island causing up-coning. Up-coning mixes saltwater into groundwater pumped from water-intake wells. Because up-coning makes the freshwater lens unusable, there was a need to investigate the freshwater lens on Laura Island. In this study, we observed the electrical conductivities of the groundwater at different depths in existing monitoring wells to determine the total storage volume of the freshwater lens on Laura Island from 2010 to 2013. Our results indicated that most of the groundwater that seeped into the freshwater lens had flowed out into the sea.

Keywords: Atoll islands, drought, El-Nino, freshwater lens, groundwater observation

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331 3D Simulation of the Twin-Aperture IRON Superconducting Quadrupole for Charm-Tau Factory

Authors: K. K. Riabchenko, T. V Rybitskaya, A. A. Starostenko


Sper Charm-Tau Factory is a double ring e+e- collider to be operated in the center-of-mass energy range from 2 to 6 GeV, with a peak luminosity of about 1035 cm-2s-1 (Crab Waist collision) and with longitudinally polarized electrons at the IP (interaction point). One of the important elements of the cτ-factory is the superconducting two-aperture quadrupole of the final focus. It was decided to make a full-scale prototype quadrupole. The main objectives of our study included: 1) 3D modeling of the quadrupole in the Opera program, 2) Optimization of the geometry of the quadrupole lens, 3) Study of the influence of magnetic properties and geometry of a quadrupole on integral harmonics. In addition to this, the ways of producing unwanted harmonics have been studied. In the course of this work, a 3D model of a two-aperture iron superconducting quadrupole lens was created. A three-dimensional simulation of the magnetic field was performed, and the geometrical parameters of the lens were selected. Calculations helped to find sources of possible errors and methods for correcting unwanted harmonics. In addition to this, calculations show that there are no obstacles to the production of a prototype lens.

Keywords: super cτ-factory, final focus, twin aperture quadrupole lens, integral harmonics

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330 Sustainable Use of Laura Lens during Drought

Authors: Kazuhisa Koda, Tsutomu Kobayashi


Laura Island, which is located about 50 km away from downtown, is a source of water supply in Majuro atoll, which is the capital of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Low and flat Majuro atoll has neither river nor lake. It is very important for Majuro atoll to ensure the conservation of its water resources. However, up-coning, which is the process of partial rising of the freshwater-saltwater boundary near the water-supply well, was caused by the excess pumping from it during the severe drought in 1998. Up-coning will make the water usage of the freshwater lens difficult. Thus, appropriate water usage is required to prevent up-coning in the freshwater lens because there is no other water source during drought. Numerical simulation of water usage applying SEAWAT model was conducted at the central part of Laura Island, including the water-supply well, which was affected by up-coning. The freshwater lens was created as a result of infiltration of consistent average rainfall. The lens shape was almost the same as the one in 1985. 0 of monthly rainfall and variable daily pump discharge were used to calculate the sustainable pump discharge from the water-supply well. Consequently, the total amount of pump discharge was increased as the daily pump discharge was increased, indicating that it needs more time to recover from up-coning. Thus, a pump standard to reduce the pump intensity is being proposed, which is based on numerical simulation concerning the occurrence of the up-coning phenomenon in Laura Island during the drought.

Keywords: freshwater lens, islands, numerical simulation, sustainable water use

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
329 Simulation and Fabrication of Plasmonic Lens for Bacteria Detection

Authors: Sangwoo Oh, Jaewoo Kim, Dongmin Seo, Jaewon Park, Yongha Hwang, Sungkyu Seo


Plasmonics has been regarded one of the most powerful bio-sensing modalities to evaluate bio-molecular interactions in real-time. However, most of the plasmonic sensing methods are based on labeling metallic nanoparticles, e.g. gold or silver, as optical modulation markers, which are non-recyclable and expensive. This plasmonic modulation can be usually achieved through various nano structures, e.g., nano-hole arrays. Among those structures, plasmonic lens has been regarded as a unique plasmonic structure due to its light focusing characteristics. In this study, we introduce a custom designed plasmonic lens array for bio-sensing, which was simulated by finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) approach and fabricated by top-down approach. In our work, we performed the FDTD simulations of various plasmonic lens designs for bacteria sensor, i.e., Samonella and Hominis. We optimized the design parameters, i.e., radius, shape, and material, of the plasmonic lens. The simulation results showed the change in the peak intensity value with the introduction of each bacteria and antigen i.e., peak intensity 1.8711 a.u. with the introduction of antibody layer of thickness of 15nm. For Salmonella, the peak intensity changed from 1.8711 a.u. to 2.3654 a.u. and for Hominis, the peak intensity changed from 1.8711 a.u. to 3.2355 a.u. This significant shift in the intensity due to the interaction between bacteria and antigen showed a promising sensing capability of the plasmonic lens. With the batch processing and bulk production of this nano scale design, the cost of biological sensing can be significantly reduced, holding great promise in the fields of clinical diagnostics and bio-defense.

Keywords: plasmonic lens, FDTD, fabrication, bacteria sensor, salmonella, hominis

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328 Fracture Control of the Soda-Lime Glass in Laser Thermal Cleavage

Authors: Jehnming Lin


The effects of the contact ball-lens on the soda lime glass in laser thermal cleavage with a cw Nd-YAG laser were investigated in this study. A contact ball-lens was adopted to generate a bending force on the crack formation of the soda-lime glass in the laser cutting process. The Nd-YAG laser beam (wavelength of 1064 nm) was focused through the ball-lens and transmitted to the soda-lime glass, which was coated with a carbon film on the surface with a bending force from a ball-lens to generate a tensile stress state on the surface cracking. The fracture was controlled by the contact ball-lens and a straight cutting was tested to demonstrate the feasibility. Experimental observations on the crack propagation from the leading edge, main section and trailing edge of the glass sheet were compared with various mechanical and thermal loadings. Further analyses on the stress under various laser powers and contact ball loadings were made to characterize the innovative technology. The results show that the distributions of the side crack at the leading and trailing edges are mainly dependent on the boundary condition, contact force, cutting speed and laser power. With the increase of the mechanical and thermal loadings, the region of the side cracks might be dramatically reduced with proper selection of the geometrical constraints. Therefore, the application of the contact ball-lens is a possible way to control the fracture in laser cleavage with improved cutting qualities.

Keywords: laser cleavage, stress analysis, crack visualization, laser

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
327 Experimental Study of Tunable Layout Printed Fresnel Lens Structure Based on Dye Doped Liquid Crystal

Authors: M. Javadzadeh, H. Khoshsima


In this article, we present a layout printing way for producing Fresnel zone on 1294-1b doped liquid crystal with Methyl-Red azo dye. We made a Fresnel zone mask with 25 zones and radius of 5 mm using lithography technique. With layout printing way, we recorded mask’s pattern on cell with λ=532 nm solid-state diode pump laser. By recording Fresnel zone pattern on cell and making Fresnel pattern on the surface of cell, odd and even zones, will form. The printed pattern, because of Azo dye’s photoisomerization, was permanent. Experimentally, we saw focal length tunability from 32 cm to 43 cm.

Keywords: liquid crystal, lens, Fresnel zone, diffraction, Fresnel lens

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
326 Sustainable Use of Fresh Groundwater Lens of Pleistocene Aquifer in Nam Dinh, Vietnam

Authors: Tran Thanh Le, Pham Trong Duc


The fresh groundwater lens of the Pleistocene aquifer in Nam Dinh was formed since 12,900 years ago. Currently, the Pleistocene aquifer has been continuously exploited on average of 154,163m3/day, distributed mainly in the districts of Nghia Hung, Hai Hau, a part of Truc Ninh, Y Yen, Nam Truc and Giao Thuy. The groundwater level is still on a declining trend, saltwater intrusion in this freshwater lens can occur if the growth rate in exploitation is maintained. This study focused on groundwater sustainable use by means of 4 groups of criteria including: Groundwater quality and pollution; Aquifers’ productivity and capacity; Environment impacts due to exploitation (groundwater level decline, land subsidence due to water exploitation); Social and economic impacts. Using a combination of methods including field surveys, geophysics, hydrogeochemistry, isotope and numerical models to determine safe groundwater exploitation thresholds for the whole study area has been determined to be 544,314m3/day and the actual exploitation amount is currently about 30% compared to the safe exploitation threshold. However, it should also be noted that the current groundwater exploitation threshold and level of its exploitation compared to the safe exploitation threshold of each locality are not the same. From this result, the groundwater exploitation threshold map of the study area was established to serve the management, licensing and orientation of groundwater exploitation.

Keywords: criteria, groundwater, fresh groundwater lens, pleistocene, Nam Dinh

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325 Noncritical Phase-Matched Fourth Harmonic Generation of Converging Beam by Deuterated Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate Crystal

Authors: Xiangxu Chai, Bin Feng, Ping Li, Deyan Zhu, Liquan Wang, Guanzhong Wang, Yukun Jing


In high power large-aperture laser systems, such as the inertial confinement fusion project, the Nd: glass laser (1053nm) is usually needed to be converted to ultraviolet (UV) light and the fourth harmonic generation (FHG) is one of the most favorite candidates to achieve UV light. Deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystal is an optimal choice for converting the Nd: glass radiation to the fourth harmonic laser by noncritical phase matching (NCPM). To reduce the damage probability of focusing lens, the DKDP crystal is suggested to be set before the focusing lens. And a converging beam enters the FHG crystal consequently. In this paper, we simulate the process of FHG in the scheme and the dependence of FHG efficiency on the lens’ F is derived. Besides, DKDP crystal with gradient deuterium is proposed to realize the NCPM FHG of the converging beam. At every position, the phase matching is achieved by adjusting the deuterium level, and the FHG efficiency increases as a result. The relation of the lens’ F with the deuterium gradient is investigated as well.

Keywords: fourth harmonic generation, laser induced damage, converging beam, DKDP crystal

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324 Intensity-Enhanced Super-Resolution Amplitude Apodization Effect on the Non-Spherical Near-Field Particle-Lenses

Authors: Liyang Yue, Bing Yan, James N. Monks, Rakesh Dhama, Zengbo Wang, Oleg V. Minin, Igor V. Minin


A particle can function as a refractive lens to focus a plane wave, generating a narrow, high intensive, weak-diverging beam within a sub-wavelength volume, known as the ‘photonic jet’. Refractive index contrast (particle to background media) and scaling effect of the dielectric particle (relative-to-wavelength size) play key roles in photonic jet formation, rather than the shape of particle-lens. Waist (full width of half maximum, FWHM) of a photonic jet could be beyond the diffraction limit and smaller than the Airy disk, which defines the minimum distance between two objects to be imaged as two instead of one. Many important applications for imaging and sensing have been afforded based upon the super-resolution characteristic of the photonic jet. It is known that apodization method, in the form of an amplitude pupil-mask centrally situated on a particle-lens, can further reduce the waist of a photonic nanojet, however, usually lower its intensity at the focus due to blocking of the incident light. In this paper, the anomalously intensity-enhanced apodization effect was discovered in the near-field via numerical simulation. It was also experimentally verified by a scale model using a copper-masked Teflon cuboid solid immersion lens (SIL) with 22 mm side length under radiation of a plane wave with 8 mm wavelength. Peak intensity enhancement and the lateral resolution of the produced photonic jet increased by about 36.0 % and 36.4 % in this approach, respectively. This phenomenon may possess the scale effect and would be valid in multiple frequency bands.

Keywords: apodization, particle-lens, scattering, near-field optics

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323 Outcomes Following Overcorrecting Minus Lens Therapy for Intermittent Distance Exotropia

Authors: Alasdair Warwick, Luna Dhir


Aim: To ascertain the efficacy of overcorrecting minus lens therapy in intermittent distance exotropia. Methods: Retrospective audit of all intermittent distance exotropia patients seen in the Chelsea and Westminster Hospital pediatric eye clinic between 1st January 2014 and 1st March 2016. Change in LogMAR visual acuity, stereopsis, near and distance angles of deviation, as well as the proportions of patients converting to exophoria or undergoing strabismus surgery, were recorded. Results: 22 patients were identified, 45% male, mean age 5 years (range 0.6 to 18.5 years). The median overminus prescription was -1.0 dioptres (range -0.5 to -1.75 dioptres) and mean follow-up was 15 months (range 3 to 54 months). Visual acuity, near and distance angles of deviation improved but were not statistically significant: -0.15 LogMAR, -0.2 prism dioptres and -1.2 prism dioptres respectively (p>0.05). However, a significant change in stereopsis was observed: -74'' (p<0.01). 27% underwent strabismus surgery and 36% converted to exophoria whilst wearing their overminus prescription. Conclusions: Overcorrecting minus lens therapy is an effective therapy for intermittent distance exotropia. There was no deterioration in visual acuity and a significant improvement in stereopsis was seen in our cohort, with many patients converting to an exophoria. The proportion of patients requiring strabismus surgery was comparable to other studies. Further, follow-up is needed to ascertain long-term outcomes.

Keywords: exotropia, overcorrecting minus lens, refraction, strabismus

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322 Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy with Plasmonic Lens Focused Longitudinal Electric Field Excitation

Authors: Mingqian Zhang


Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) is a scanning probe technique for individual objects and structured surfaces investigation that provides a wealth of enhanced spectral information with nanoscale spatial resolution and high detection sensitivity. It has become a powerful and promising chemical and physical information detection method in the nanometer scale. The TERS technique uses a sharp metallic tip regulated in the near-field of a sample surface, which is illuminated with a certain incident beam meeting the excitation conditions of the wave-vector matching. The local electric field, and, consequently, the Raman scattering, from the sample in the vicinity of the tip apex are both greatly tip-enhanced owning to the excitation of localized surface plasmons and the lightning-rod effect. Typically, a TERS setup is composed of a scanning probe microscope, excitation and collection optical configurations, and a Raman spectroscope. In the illumination configuration, an objective lens or a parabolic mirror is always used as the most important component, in order to focus the incident beam on the tip apex for excitation. In this research, a novel TERS setup was built up by introducing a plasmonic lens to the excitation optics as a focusing device. A plasmonic lens with symmetry breaking semi-annular slits corrugated on gold film was designed for the purpose of generating concentrated sub-wavelength light spots with strong longitudinal electric field. Compared to conventional far-field optical components, the designed plasmonic lens not only focuses an incident beam to a sub-wavelength light spot, but also realizes a strong z-component that dominants the electric field illumination, which is ideal for the excitation of tip-enhancement. Therefore, using a PL in the illumination configuration of TERS contributes to improve the detection sensitivity by both reducing the far-field background and effectively exciting the localized electric field enhancement. The FDTD method was employed to investigate the optical near-field distribution resulting from the light-nanostructure interaction. And the optical field distribution was characterized using an scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope to demonstrate the focusing performance of the lens. The experimental result is in agreement with the theoretically calculated one. It verifies the focusing performance of the plasmonic lens. The optical field distribution shows a bright elliptic spot in the lens center and several arc-like side-lobes on both sides. After the focusing performance was experimentally verified, the designed plasmonic lens was used as a focusing component in the excitation configuration of TERS setup to concentrate incident energy and generate a longitudinal optical field. A collimated linearly polarized laser beam, with along x-axis polarization, was incident from the bottom glass side on the plasmonic lens. The incident light focused by the plasmonic lens interacted with the silver-coated tip apex and enhanced the Raman signal of the sample locally. The scattered Raman signal was gathered by a parabolic mirror and detected with a Raman spectroscopy. Then, the plasmonic lens based setup was employed to investigate carbon nanotubes and TERS experiment was performed. Experimental results indicate that the Raman signal is considerably enhanced which proves that the novel TERS configuration is feasible and promising.

Keywords: longitudinal electric field, plasmonics, raman spectroscopy, tip-enhancement

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321 Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting by Using a Rectenna with a Metamaterial Lens

Authors: Ursula D. C. Resende, Fabiano S. Bicalho, Sandro T. M. Gonçalves


The growing demand for cheap and clean energy sources have been motivated by the study and development of distinct technologies and devices able to provide different amounts of energy. In order to supply energy for small loads, the energy from the electromagnetic spectrum can be harvested. This possibility is particularly interesting because this kind of energy is constantly available in the environment and the number of radiofrequency sources is permanently increasing, due to advances in telecommunications services. A rectenna, which is a combination of an antenna and a rectifier circuit, is an equipment that can efficiently perform the electromagnetic energy harvesting. However, since the amount of electromagnetic energy available in the environment is very small, limited values of power can be harvested by the rectenna. Therefore, several technical strategies have been investigated in order to increase this amount of power. In this work, a metamaterial electromagnetic lens is used to improve the electromagnetic energy harvesting. The rectenna investigated was designed and optimized to charge a Li-Ion battery using the electromagnetic energy from an internet Wi-Fi commercial router model TL-WR841HP operating in 2.45 GHz with maximal output power equal to 18 dBm. The rectenna consists of a high directive antenna, a double voltage rectifier circuit and a metamaterial lens. The printed antenna, constituted of two rectangular radiator elements, was projected and optimized by using the Computer Simulation Software (CST) in order to obtain high directivities and values of S11 parameter below -10 dB in 2.45 GHz. The antenna was printed over a double-sided copper fiberglass substrate, FR4, with characterized relative electric permittivity εr = 4.3 and tangent of losses δ = 0.01. The rectifier circuit, which incorporates a circuit for impedance matching and uses the Schottky diode HSMS-2852, was projected and optimized by using Advanced Design Software (ADS) and built over the same FR4 substrate. The metamaterial cell is composed of two Square Split Ring Resonator (S-SRR) and a thin wire in order to operate with negative values of εr and relative magnetic permeability in 2.45 GHz. In order to evaluate the performance of the purposed rectenna two experimental charging tests were performed, one without and other with the metamaterial lens. The result obtained demonstrate that the electromagnetic lens was able to significantly increase the levels of electric current delivered to the battery, approximately 44%.

Keywords: electromagnetic energy harvesting, electromagnetic lens, metamaterial, rectenna

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320 Evaluation of TRIS-DMA-NVP Hydrogels for Making Silicone-Based Contact Lenses

Authors: N. P. D. Tran, H. Q. D. Nguyen, M. C. Yang


In this study, contact lenses were prepared through the polymerization of tris-(trimethyl-silyl-propyl-methacrylate) (TRIS), N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA), N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP), and cross-linked with ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EGDMA). The equilibrium water content (EWC), oxygen permeability (Dk), light transmittance, and in vitro cytotoxicity of TRIS-DMA-NVP with various ratios were measured. The results showed that the EWC increased while the Dk decreased with the increase of NVP content. For the sample with 25 wt% NVP, the EWC attained 53% whereas the Dk decreased to 46 barrers. All these lenses exhibited light transmittance over than 95%. In addition, all these lenses exhibited no inhibition to the growth of L292 fibroblasts. Thus, this study showed that TRIS-DMA-NVP can be applicable for making contact lens.

Keywords: DMA, TRIS, NVP, silicone hydrogel, contact lens

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
319 The Research of Reliability of MEMS Device under Thermal Shock Test in Space Mission

Authors: Liu Ziyu, Gao Yongfeng, Li Muhua, Zhao Jiahao, Meng Song


The effect of thermal shock on the operation of micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) were examined. All MEMS device were tested before and after three different conditions of thermal shock (from -55℃ to 85℃, from -65℃ to 125℃, from -65℃ to 200℃). The micro lens showed no changes after thermal shock, which shows that the design of the micro lens can be well adapted to the application environment in the space. The design of the micro mirror can be well adapted to the space application environment. The micro-magnetometer, RF MEMS switch and the micro accelerometer exhibited degradation and parameter drift after thermal shock, potential mechanical was proposed.

Keywords: MEMS, thermal shock test, reliability, space environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 477
318 Architects Lens on Afrocentric Cultural Approach to Housing

Authors: Aisha Abdulkarim Aliyu, Alice Sabrina Ismail, Fadhlina Binti Ahmad


The study's main goal is to improve Afrocentric cultural approaches in Nigerian residential environments (Kano) in terms of physical, aesthetical, and socio-cultural factors. Kano's fast-changing residential settings and city image have been subjected to a significant neoliberal restructuring process in recent decades. Architects have evolved in lockstep with the society they serve, first as an art form, then as a science, and finally as a business that designs structures. Design values have always emphasized a certain building style throughout history. Architects and architectural critics have a different perspective on them than the general public. In fact, a popular style among the general public was taken into consideration. When it comes to the current design, this study examines the values and viewpoints of architects on the usage of an Afrocentric cultural approach to housing. The qualitative data analysis of surveys conducted with Kano housing and planning professionals is used to determine the criteria for using an Afrocentric cultural approach in housing development in order to preserve and restore our cultural heritage, as well as to rank these criteria according to their importance. The professional lens on this subject differs insignificantly across Nigeria, although they do vary to some amount based on the sector of the housing industry, according to the study.

Keywords: architects lens, Afrocentric culture, housing, northern Nigeria

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317 Research on Reflectors for Detecting Fishing Nets with Synthetic Aperture Radar Satellites

Authors: Toshiyuki Miyazaki, Fumihiro Takahashi, Takashi Hosokawa


Fishing nets and floating buoys used in fishing can be washed away by typhoons and storms. The spilled fishing nets become marine debris and hinder the navigation of ships. In this study, we report a method of attaching a retroreflective structure to afloat in order to discover fishing nets using SAR satellites. We prototyped an omnidirectional (all-around) corner reflector as a retroreflective structure that can be mounted on a float and analyzed its reflection characteristics. As a result, it was clarified that the reflection could be sufficiently larger than the backscattering of the sea surface. In order to further improve the performance, we worked on the design and trial production of the Luneberg lens.

Keywords: retroreflective structure, spherical corner reflector, Luneberg lens, SAR satellite, maritime floating buoy

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316 Clinical Outcomes of Toric Implantable Collamer Lens (T-ICL) and Toric Implantable Phakic Contact Lens (IPCL) for Correction of High Myopia with Astigmatism: Comparative Study

Authors: Mohamed Salah El-Din Mahmoud, Heba Radi Atta Allah


Background: Our study assesses the safety profile and efficacy of toric Implantable Collamer Lens (T-ICL) and toric implantable phakic contact lens (IPCL) for the correction of high myopia with astigmatism. Methods: A prospective interventional randomized comparative study included 60 myopic eyes divided into 2 groups, group A including 30 eyes that were implanted with T-ICL, and group B including 30 eyes that were implanted with toric IPCL. The refractive results, visual acuity, corneal endothelial cell count, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were evaluated at baseline and at 1, 6, and 9 months post-surgery. Any complications either during or after surgery were assessed. Results: A significant reduction in both spherical and cylindrical refractive errors with good predictability was reported in both groups compared with preoperative values. Regarding the predictability, In T-ICL group (A), the median spherical and cylindrical errors were significantly improved from (-10 D & -4.5 D) pre-operatively to (-0.25 D & - 0.3 D) at the end of 9 months follow up period. Similarly, in the toric IPCL group (B), the median spherical and cylindrical errors were significantly improved from (-11 D & -4.5 D) pre-operatively to (-0.25 D & - 0.3 D) at the end of 9 months follow up period. A statistically significant improvement of UCDVA at 9 months postoperatively was found in both groups, as median preoperative Log Mar UCDVA was 1.1 and 1.3 in groups A and B respectively, which was significantly improved to 0.2 in both groups at the end of follow-up period. Regarding IOP, no significant difference was found between both groups, either pre-operatively or during the postoperative period. Regarding the endothelial count, no significant differences were found during the pre-operative and postoperative follow-up periods between the two groups. Fortunately, no intra or postoperative complications as cataract, keratitis or lens decentration had occurred. Conclusions: Toric IPCL is a suitable alternative to T-ICL for the management of high myopia with astigmatism, especially in developing countries, as it is cheaper and easier for implantation than T-ICL. However, data over longer follow-up periods are needed to confirm its safety and stability.

Keywords: T-ICL, Toric IPCL, IOP, corneal endothelium

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315 Evaluation of Occupational Doses in Interventional Radiology

Authors: Fernando Antonio Bacchim Neto, Allan Felipe Fattori Alves, Maria Eugênia Dela Rosa, Regina Moura, Diana Rodrigues De Pina


Interventional Radiology is the radiology modality that provides the highest dose values to medical staff. Recent researches show that personal dosimeters may underestimate dose values in interventional physicians, especially in extremities (hands and feet) and eye lens. The aim of this work was to study radiation exposure levels of medical staff in different interventional radiology procedures and estimate the annual maximum numbers of procedures (AMN) that each physician could perform without exceed the annual limits of dose established by normative. For this purpose LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) dosimeters were positioned in different body regions of the interventional physician (eye lens, thyroid, chest, gonads, hand and foot) above the radiological protection vests as lead apron and thyroid shield. Attenuation values for lead protection vests were based on international guidelines. Based on these data were chosen as 90% attenuation of the lead vests and 60% attenuation of the protective glasses. 25 procedures were evaluated: 10 diagnostics, 10 angioplasty, and 5-aneurysm treatment. The AMN of diagnostic procedures was 641 for the primary interventional radiologist and 930 for the assisting interventional radiologist. For the angioplasty procedures, the AMN for primary interventional radiologist was 445 and for assisting interventional radiologist was 1202. As for the procedures of aneurism treatment, the AMN for the primary interventional radiologist was 113 and for the assisting interventional radiologist were 215. All AMN were limited by the eye lens doses already considering the use of protective glasses. In all categories evaluated, the higher dose values are found in gonads and in the lower regions of professionals, both for the primary interventionist and for the assisting, but the eyes lens dose limits are smaller than these regions. Additional protections as mobile barriers, which can be positioned between the interventionist and the patient, can decrease the exposures in the eye lens, providing a greater protection for the medical staff. The alternation of professionals to perform each type of procedure can reduce the dose values received by them over a period. The analysis of dose profiles proposed in this work showed that personal dosimeters positioned in chest might underestimate dose values in other body parts of the interventional physician, especially in extremities and eye lens. As each body region of the interventionist is subject to different levels of exposure, dose distribution in each region provides a better approach to what actions are necessary to ensure the radiological protection of medical staff.

Keywords: interventional radiology, radiation protection, occupationally exposed individual, hemodynamic

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314 Theoretical Lens Driven Strategies for Emotional Wellbeing of Parents and Children in COVID-19 Era

Authors: Anamika Devi


Based on Vygotsky’s cultural, historical theory and Hedegaard’s concept of transition, this study aims to investigate to propose strategies to maintain digital wellbeing of children and parents during and post COVID pandemic. Due COVID 19 pandemic, children and families have been facing new challenges and sudden changes in their everyday life. While children are juggling to adjust themselves in new circumstance of onsite and online learning settings, parents are juggling with their work-life balance. A number of papers have identified that the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the lives of many families around the world in many ways, for example, the stress level of many parents increased, families faced financial difficulties, uncertainty impacted on long term effects on their emotional and social wellbeing. After searching and doing an intensive literature review from 2020 and 2021, this study has found some scholarly articles provided solution or strategies of reducing stress levels of parents and children in this unprecedented time. However, most of them are not underpinned by proper theoretical lens to ensure they validity and success. Therefore, this study has proposed strategies that are underpinned by theoretical lens to ensure their impact on children’s and parents' emotional wellbeing during and post COVID-19 era. The strategies will highlight on activities for positive coping strategies to the best use of family values and digital technologies.

Keywords: onsite and online learning, strategies, emotional wellbeing, tips, and strategies, COVID19

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313 Gradient Index Metalens for WLAN Applications

Authors: Akram Boubakri, Fethi Choubeni, Tan Hoa Vuong, Jacques David


The control of electromagnetic waves is a key aim of several researches over the past decade. In this regard, Metamaterials have shown a strong ability to manipulate the electromagnetic waves on a subwavelength scales thanks to its unconventional properties that are not available in natural materials such as negative refraction index, super imaging and invisibility cloaking. Metalenses were used to avoid some drawbacks presented by conventional lenses since focusing with conventional lenses suffered from the limited resolution because they were only able to focus the propagating wave component. Nevertheless, Metalenses were able to go beyond the diffraction limit and enhance the resolution not only by collecting the propagating waves but also by restoring the amplitude of evanescent waves that decay rapidly when going far from the source and that contains the finest details of the image. Metasurfaces have many mechanical advantages over three-dimensional metamaterial structures especially the ease of fabrication and a smaller required volume. Those structures have been widely used for antenna performance improvement and to build flat metalenses. In this work, we showed that a well-designed metasurface lens operating at the frequency of 5.9GHz, has efficiently enhanced the radiation characteristics of a patch antenna and can be used for WLAN applications (IEEE 802.11 a). The proposed metasurface lens is built with a geometrically modified unit cells which lead to a change in the response of the lens at different position and allow the control of the wavefront beam of the incident wave thanks to the gradient refractive index.

Keywords: focusing, gradient index, metasurface, metalens, WLAN Applications

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312 An Interpretive Study of Entrepreneurial Experience towards Achieving Business Growth Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour as a Lens

Authors: Akunna Agunwah, Kevin Gallimore, Kathryn Kinmond


Entrepreneurship is widely associated and seen as a vehicle for economic growth; however, different scholars have studied entrepreneurship from various perspectives, resulting in multiple definitions. It is surprising to know most entrepreneurship definition does not incorporate growth as part of their definition of entrepreneurship. Economic growth is engineered by the activities of the entrepreneurs. The purpose of the present theoretical study is to explore the working practices of the successful entrepreneurs towards achieving business growth by understanding the experiences of the entrepreneur using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) as a lens. Ten successful entrepreneurs in the North West of England in various business sectors were interviewed using semi-structured interview method. The recorded audio interviews transcribed and subsequently evaluated using the thematic deductive technique (qualitative approach). The themes were examined using Theory of Planned Behaviour to ascertain the presence of the three intentional antecedents (attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control). The findings categorised in two folds, firstly, it was observed that the three intentional antecedents, which make up Theory of Planned Behaviour were evident in the transcript. Secondly, the entrepreneurs are most concerned with achieving a state of freedom and realising their visions and ambitions. Nevertheless, the entrepreneur employed these intentional antecedents to enhance business growth. In conclusion, the work presented here showed a novel way of understanding the working practices and experiences of the entrepreneur using the theory of planned behaviour in qualitative approach towards enhancing business growth. There exist few qualitative studies in entrepreneurship research. In addition, this work applies a novel approach to studying the experience of the entrepreneurs by examining the working practices of the successful entrepreneurs in the North-West England through the lens of the theory of planned behaviour. Given the findings regarding TPB as a lens in the study, the entrepreneur does not differentiate between the categories of the antecedents reasonably sees them as processes that can be utilised to enhance business growth.

Keywords: business growth, experience, interpretive, theory of planned behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 130