Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1422

Search results for: visual acuity

1422 Visual Improvement with Low Vision Aids in Children with Stargardt’s Disease

Authors: Anum Akhter, Sumaira Altaf

Abstract:

Purpose: To study the effect of low vision devices i.e. telescope and magnifying glasses on distance visual acuity and near visual acuity of children with Stargardt’s disease. Setting: Low vision department, Alshifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods: 52 children having Stargardt’s disease were included in the study. All children were diagnosed by pediatrics ophthalmologists. Comprehensive low vision assessment was done by me in Low vision clinic. Visual acuity was measured using ETDRS chart. Refraction and other supplementary tests were performed. Children with Stargardt’s disease were provided with different telescopes and magnifying glasses for improving far vision and near vision. Results: Out of 52 children, 17 children were males and 35 children were females. Distance visual acuity and near visual acuity improved significantly with low vision aid trial. All children showed visual acuity better than 6/19 with a telescope of higher magnification. Improvement in near visual acuity was also significant with magnifying glasses trial. Conclusions: Low vision aids are useful for improvement in visual acuity in children. Children with Stargardt’s disease who are having a problem in education and daily life activities can get help from low vision aids.

Keywords: Stargardt, s disease, low vision aids, telescope, magnifiers

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1421 Investigation of the Functional Impact of Amblyopia on Visual Skills in Children

Authors: Chinmay V. Deshpande

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Purpose: To assess the efficiency of visual functions and visual skills in strabismic & anisometropic amblyopes and to assess visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in anisometropic amblyopes with spectacles & contact lenses. Method: In a prospective clinical study, 32 children ageing from 5 to 15 years presenting with amblyopia in a pediatric department of Shri Ganapati Netralaya Jalna, India, were assessed for a period of three & half months. Visual acuity was measured with Snellen’s and Bailey-Lovie log MAR charts whereas contrast sensitivity was measured with Pelli-Robson chart with spectacles and contact lenses. Saccadic movements were assessed with SCCO scoring criteria and accommodative facility was checked with ±1.50 DS flippers. Stereopsis was assessed with TNO test. Results: By using Wilcoxon sign rank test p-value < 0.05 (< 0.001), the mean linear visual acuity was 0.29 (≈ 6/21) and mean single optotype visual acuity found to be 0.36 (≈ 6/18). Mean visual acuity of 0.27(≈ 6/21) with spectacles improved to 0.33 (≈ 6/18) with contact lenses in amblyopic eyes. The mean Log MAR visual acuity with spectacles and contact lens were found to be 0.602( ≈6/24) and 0.531(≈ 6/21) respectively. The contrast threshold out of 20 amblyopic eyes shows that mean contrast threshold changed in 9 patients from spectacles 0.27 to contact lens 0.19 respectively. The mean accommodative facility assessed was 5.31(± 2.37). 24 subjects (75%) revealed marked saccadic defects on the test applied. 78% subjects didn’t show even gross stereoscopic ability on TNO test. Conclusion: This study supports the facts about amblyopia and associated deficits in visual skills which are claimed in previous studies. In addition, anisometropic amblyopia can be managed better with contact lenses.

Keywords: strabismus, anisometropia, amblyopia, contrast sensitivity, saccades, stereopsis

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1420 Amblyopia and Eccentric Fixation

Authors: Kristine Kalnica-Dorosenko, Aiga Svede

Abstract:

Amblyopia or 'lazy eye' is impaired or dim vision without obvious defect or change in the eye. It is often associated with abnormal visual experience, most commonly strabismus, anisometropia or both, and form deprivation. The main task of amblyopia treatment is to ameliorate etiological factors to create a clear retinal image and, to ensure the participation of the amblyopic eye in the visual process. The treatment of amblyopia and eccentric fixation is usually associated with problems in the therapy. Eccentric fixation is present in around 44% of all patients with amblyopia and in 30% of patients with strabismic amblyopia. In Latvia, amblyopia is carefully treated in various clinics, but eccentricity diagnosis is relatively rare. Conflict which has developed relating to the relationship between the visual disorder and the degree of eccentric fixation in amblyopia should to be rethoughted, because it has an important bearing on the cause and treatment of amblyopia, and the role of the eccentric fixation in this case. Visuoscopy is the most frequently used method for determination of eccentric fixation. With traditional visuoscopy, a fixation target is projected onto the patient retina, and the examiner asks to look straight directly at the center of the target. An optometrist then observes the point on the macula used for fixation. This objective test provides clinicians with direct observation of the fixation point of the eye. It requires patients to voluntarily fixate the target and assumes the foveal reflex accurately demarcates the center of the foveal pit. In the end, by having a very simple method to evaluate fixation, it is possible to indirectly evaluate treatment improvement, as eccentric fixation is always associated with reduced visual acuity. So, one may expect that if eccentric fixation in amlyopic eye is found with visuoscopy, then visual acuity should be less than 1.0 (in decimal units). With occlusion or another amblyopia therapy, one would expect both visual acuity and fixation to improve simultaneously, that is fixation would become more central. Consequently, improvement in fixation pattern by treatment is an indirect measurement of improvement of visual acuity. Evaluation of eccentric fixation in the child may be helpful in identifying amblyopia in children prior to measurement of visual acuity. This is very important because the earlier amblyopia is diagnosed – the better the chance of improving visual acuity.

Keywords: amblyopia, eccentric fixation, visual acuity, visuoscopy

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1419 Comparison of Visual Acuity Outcome and Complication after Phacoemulsification between Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients at Burapha University Hospital, Chonburi, Thailand

Authors: Luksanaporn Krungkraipetch

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One hundred cataract patients with phacoemulsification were enrolled in the study to compare of visual acuity outcome and complication after phacoemulsification between diabetic and non-diabetic patients at Burapha University Hospital, Chonburi, Thailand. Fifty patients were diabetic (type II) group and 50 patients were non-diabetic group. All cases were operated by one doctor with the same pre-operative care, operation (phacoemulsification), and post-operative care. Visual acuity and complication after surgery were assessed after the operation for two years. There were no significant differences in demographic data between the two groups. The visual outcome values ≥ 2 lines and ≥ 20/40 had no significant differences between two groups after two years of surgery. The complication rate in diabetic group had cystoid macular edema 16%, rupture posterior capsule 8%, posterior capsule opacity 2%, uveitis 2 %, and 2% endophthalmitis. The non-diabetic group had cystoid macular edema 12%, rupture posterior capsule 8%, uveitis 2%, posterior capsule opacity 2%, and 2% wound leak. Comparison of visual acuity outcome and complication after phacoemulsification between diabetic and non-diabetic patients had no statistical significant differences between these two groups. It was found that cystoid macular edema was the most common complication in both groups and 10% of retinopathy progression was seen.

Keywords: cataract, visual acuity, cataract extraction, phacoemulsification, diabetic retinopathy

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1418 Functional Vision of Older People with Cognitive Impairment Living in Galician Nursing Homes

Authors: C. Vázquez, L. M. Gigirey, C. P. del Oro, S. Seoane

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Poor vision is common among older people, and several studies show connections between visual impairment and cognitive function. 15 older adult live in Galician Government nursing homes, and cognitive decline is one of the main reasons of admission. Objectives: (1) To evaluate functional far and near vision of older people with cognitive impairment. (2) To determine connections between visual and cognitive state of “our” residents. Methodology: A total of 364 older adults (aged 65 years or more) underwent a visual and cognitive screening. We tested presenting visual acuity (binocular visual acuity with habitual correction if warn) for distance and near vision (E-Snellen, usual working distance for near vision). Binocular presenting visual acuity less than 0.3 was used as cut point for diagnosis of visual impairment. Exclusion criteria included immobilized residents unable to reach the USC Dual Sensory Loss Unit for visual screening. To screen cognition we employed the mini-mental examination test (Spanish version). Analysis of categorical variables was performed using chi-square tests. We utilized Pearson and Spearman correlation tests and the variance analysis to determine differences between groups of interest (SPSS 19.0 version). Results: the percentage of residents with cognitive decline reaches 32.2% Prevalence of visual impairment for distance and near vision increases among those subjects with cognitive impairment respect those with normal cognition. Shift correlation exists between distance visual acuity and mini-mental test (age and sex controlled), and moderate association was found in case of near vision (p<0.01). Conclusion: First results shows that people with cognitive impairment have poor functional distance and near vision than those with normal cognition. Next step will be to analyse the individual contribution of distance and near vision loss on cognition.

Keywords: visual impairment, cognition, aging, nursing homes

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1417 Cross-Sectional Study Investigating the Prevalence of Uncorrected Refractive Error and Visual Acuity through Mobile Vision Screening in the Homeless in Wales

Authors: Pakinee Pooprasert, Wanxin Wang, Tina Parmar, Dana Ahnood, Tafadzwa Young-Zvandasara, James Morgan

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Homelessness has been shown to be correlated to poor health outcomes, including increased visual health morbidity. Despite this, there are relatively few studies regarding visual health in the homeless population, especially in the UK. This research aims to investigate visual disability and access barriers prevalent in the homeless population in Cardiff, South Wales. Data was collected from 100 homeless participants in three different shelters. Visual outcomes included near and distance visual acuity as well as non-cycloplegic refraction. Qualitative data was collected via a questionnaire and included socio-demographic profile, ocular history, subjective visual acuity and level of access to healthcare facilities. Based on the participants’ presenting visual acuity, the total prevalence of myopia and hyperopia was 17.0% and 19.0% respectively based on spherical equivalent from the eye with the greatest absolute value. The prevalence of astigmatism was 8.0%. The mean absolute spherical equivalent was 0.841D and 0.853D for right and left eye respectively. The number of participants with sight loss (as defined by VA= 6/12-6/60 in the better-seeing eye) was 27.0% in comparison to 0.89% and 1.1% in the general Cardiff and Wales population respectively (p-value is < 0.05). Additionally, 1.0% of the homeless subjects were registered blind (VA less than 3/60), in comparison to 0.17% for the national consensus after age standardization. Most participants had good knowledge regarding access to prescription glasses and eye examination services. Despite this, 85.0% never had their eyes examined by a doctor and 73.0% had their last optometrist appointment in more than 5 years. These findings suggested that there was a significant disparity in ocular health, including visual acuity and refractive error amongst the homeless in comparison to the general population. Further, the homeless were less likely to receive the same level of support and continued care in the community due to access barriers. These included a number of socio-economic factors such as travel expenses and regional availability of services, as well as administrative shortcomings. In conclusion, this research demonstrated unmet visual health needs within the homeless, and that inclusive policy changes may need to be implemented for better healthcare outcomes within this marginalized community.

Keywords: homelessness, refractive error, visual disability, Wales

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1416 Functional Vision of Older People in Galician Nursing Homes

Authors: C. Vázquez, L. M. Gigirey, C. P. del Oro, S. Seoane

Abstract:

Early detection of visual problems plays a key role in the aging process. However, although vision problems are common among older people, the percentage of aging people who perform regular optometric exams is low. In fact, uncorrected refractive errors are one of the main causes of visual impairment in this group of the population. Purpose: To evaluate functional vision of older residents in order to show the urgent need of visual screening programs in Galician nursing homes. Methodology: We examined 364 older adults aged 65 years and over. To measure vision of the daily living, we tested distance and near presenting visual acuity (binocular visual acuity with habitual correction if warn, directional E-Snellen) Presenting near vision was tested at the usual working distance. We defined visual impairment (distance and near) as a presenting visual acuity less than 0.3. Exclusion criteria included immobilized residents unable to reach the USC Dual Sensory Loss Unit for visual screening. Association between categorical variables was performed using chi-square tests. We used Pearson and Spearman correlation tests and the variance analysis to determine differences between groups of interest. Results: 23,1% of participants have visual impairment for distance vision and 16,4% for near vision. The percentage of residents with far and near visual impairment reaches 8,2%. As expected, prevalence of visual impairment increases with age. No differences exist with regard to the level of functional vision between gender. Differences exist between age group respect to distance vision, but not in case of near vision. Conclusion: prevalence of visual impairment is high among the older people tested in this pilot study. This means a high percentage of older people with limitations in their daily life activities. It is necessary to develop an effective vision screening program for early detection of vision problems in Galician nursing homes.

Keywords: functional vision, elders, aging, nursing homes

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1415 Clinical Profile, Evaluation, Management and Visual Outcome of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension in a Neuro-Ophthalmology Clinic in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rahaf Mandura

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Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) more than 250 mm H₂O, without evidence of meningeal inflammation, space-occupying lesion, or venous thrombosis. The aim of this research is to study the clinical profile, evaluation, management, and visual outcome in a hospital-based population of IIH cases in Jeddah. Methodology: This is a retrospective observational study that included the medical records of all patients referred to neuro-ophthalmology service for evaluation of papilledema. The medical records have been reviewed from October 2018 to February 2020 at Jeddah Eye Hospital (JEH), Saudi Arabia. A total of fifty-one patients presented with papilledema in the studied period. Forty-seven patients met our inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Results: Most of the patients were females (43, 91.5%) with a mean age of presentation of 30.83±11.40 years. The most common presenting symptom was headache (40 patients, 85.1%), followed by transient visual obscuration (20 patients, 42.6%), and reduced visual acuity (15 patients, 31.9%). All 47 patients were started on medical treatment with oral acetazolamide with four patients (8.5%) shifted to topiramate because of the lack of response or intolerance to acetazolamide while four patients (8.5%) underwent lumbar-peritoneal shunt because of inadequate control of the disease despite the treatment with medical therapy. For both eyes, the change in visual acuity across all assessment points was statistically significant. Nevertheless, there were no significant changes in the visual field findings among all of the compared assessment points. Conclusion: The present study has shown that IIH-related papilledema is common in young female patients with headaches, transient visual obscurations and reduced visual acuity. Those are the commonest symptoms in our IIH population. Medical treatment of IIH is significantly efficacious and should be considered in order to enhance the prognosis of IIH-related complications. Therefore, the visual status should be frequently monitored for these patients.

Keywords: idiopathic intracranial hypertension, intracranial hypertension, papilledema, headache

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1414 Pattern of Anisometropia, Management and Outcome of Anisometropic Amblyopia

Authors: Husain Rajib, T. H. Sheikh, D. G. Jewel

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Background: Amblyopia is a frequent cause of monocular blindness in children. It can be unilateral or bilateral reduction of best corrected visual acuity associated with decrement in visual processing, accomodation, motility, spatial perception or spatial projection. Anisometropia is an important risk factor for amblyopia that develops when unequal refractive error causes the image to be blurred in the critical developmental period and central inhibition of the visual signal originating from the affected eye associated with significant visual problems including anisokonia, strabismus, and reduced stereopsis. Methods: It is a prospective hospital based study of newly diagnosed of amblyopia seen at the pediatric clinic of Chittagong Eye Infirmary & Training Complex. There were 50 anisometropic amblyopia subjects were examined & questionnaire was piloted. Included were all patients diagnosed with refractive amblyopia between 3 to 13 years, without previous amblyopia treatment, and whose parents were interested to participate in the study. Patients diagnosed with strabismic amblyopia were excluded. Patients were first corrected with the best correction for a month. When the VA in the amblyopic eye did not improve over month, then occlusion treatment was started. Occlusion was done daily for 6-8 hours (full time) together with vision therapy. The occlusion was carried out for 3 months. Results: In this study about 8% subjects had anisometropia from myopia, 18% from hyperopia, 74% from astigmatism. The initial mean visual acuity was 0.74 ± 0.39 Log MAR and after intervention of amblyopia therapy with active vision therapy mean visual acuity was 0.34 ± 0.26 Log MAR. About 94% of subjects were improving at least two lines. The depth of amblyopia associated with type of anisometropic refractive error and magnitude of Anisometropia (p<0.005). By doing this study 10% mild amblyopia, 64% moderate and 26% severe amblyopia were found. Binocular function also decreases with magnitude of Anisometropia. Conclusion: Anisometropic amblyopia is a most important factor in pediatric age group because it can lead to visual impairment. Occlusion therapy with at least one instructed hour of active visual activity practiced out of school hours was effective in anisometropic amblyopes who were diagnosed at the age of 8 years and older, and the patients complied well with the treatment.

Keywords: refractive error, anisometropia, amblyopia, strabismic amblyopia

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1413 Health Status among Government and Private Primary School Children in the Central of Thailand

Authors: Petcharat Kerdonfag, Supunnee Thrakul

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School health services through regular screening of school students’ health status have been the main responsibility for community or school health nurses. The purposes of these retrospective study were to assess and compare health problems between government and private primary school students in the central region of Thailand. The data were collected from the school health records in October at the end of the first semester in the academic year 2018. Two thousand and fifty primary school health records from government and private primary schools were gathered to assess health problems regarding anthropometric measurements, physical examination/personal hygiene, and clinical findings for this study. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square were used to be analyzed. The results revealed that health problems of all the school students remained high magnitude. The five top ranks for prevalence rate of health problems were dental caries (36.6%), visual acuity problem (27.7%), over-nutrition (16.8%), head lice (12.8%), and under-nutrition (6.8%), respectively. However, when compared between government and private schools among five health problems; dental caries (55.0% vs 19.9%), visual acuity problem (23.1% vs 31.9%), over-nutrition (20.2% vs 13.8%), head lice (26.5% vs 0.3%), and under-nutrition (10.6% vs 3.4%) with Chi-square analysis, there were significantly different (p < .001). The problem of visual acuity seems to be more serious in private schools while other health problems tend to be more critical in government schools. The findings have suggested that parents who have children in the private primary schools should pay more attention to visual health defects whereas parents with children in the government school should pay more vigilance regards to hygiene and health behavior problems.

Keywords: community health nursing, school health service, health status, primary school children

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1412 To Estimate the Association between Visual Stress and Visual Perceptual Skills

Authors: Vijay Reena Durai, Krithica Srinivasan

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Introduction: The two fundamental skills involved in the growth and wellbeing of any child can be categorized into visual motor and perceptual skills. Visual stress is a disorder which is characterized by visual discomfort, blurred vision, misspelling words, skipping lines, letters bunching together. There is a need to understand the deficits in perceptual skills among children with visual stress. Aim: To estimate the association between visual stress and visual perceptual skills Objective: To compare visual perceptual skills of children with and without visual stress Methodology: Children between 8 to 15 years of age participated in this cross-sectional study. All children with monocular visual acuity better than or equal to 6/6 were included. Visual perceptual skills were measured using test for visual perceptual skills (TVPS) tool. Reading speed was measured with the chosen colored overlay using Wilkins reading chart and pattern glare score was estimated using a 3cpd gratings. Visual stress was defined as change in reading speed of greater than or equal to 10% and a pattern glare score of greater than or equal to 4. Results: 252 children participated in this study and the male: female ratio of 3:2. Majority of the children preferred Magenta (28%) and Yellow (25%) colored overlay for reading. There was a significant difference between the two groups (MD=1.24±0.6) (p<0.04, 95% CI 0.01-2.43) only in the sequential memory skills. The prevalence of visual stress in this group was found to be 31% (n=78). Binary logistic regression showed that odds ratio of having poor visual perceptual skills was OR: 2.85 (95% CI 1.08-7.49) among children with visual stress. Conclusion: Children with visual stress are found to have three times poorer visual perceptual skills than children without visual stress.

Keywords: visual stress, visual perceptual skills, colored overlay, pattern glare

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1411 Investigation of the Effect of Eye Exercises and Convergence Exercise on Visual Acuity in School-Age Children with Hypermetropia

Authors: Gulay Aras, Isil Kutluturk Karagoz, Z. Candan Algun

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Background: Hypermetropia in school-age is a pathology that responds to treatment. In the literature, there has been no study of exercise practice in hypermetropia treatment. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of eye exercises and convergence exercise on visual acuity in school-age children with hypermetropia. Methods: Forty volunteer school-age children with hypermetropia (30 girls, 30 boys, between 7-17 years of age) were included in the study. Sociodemographic information and clinical characteristics were evaluated. 40 participants were randomly divided into two groups: eye exercises and convergence exercises. Home exercise protocols were given to all groups for six weeks, and regular phone calls were made once a week. Individuals performed eye exercises 10 times, convergence exercises 5 min. for two sessions per day for six weeks. The right and left eyes of all the subjects participating in the study were assessed separately by the eye doctor with a Snellen chart. The participants' quality of life was assessed using Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Version 4.0. Physical health total score (PHTS) and scale total score (STS), which were obtained by evaluating Psychosocial health total score (PSHTS) school, emotional and social functioning, were calculated separately in the scores. At the end of the exercise program, the assessment tests applied at the beginning of the study were reapplied to all individuals. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-Snellen chart measurements and quality of life in the eye exercises group (p > 0,05). There was a statistically significant difference in visual acuity of right and left eyes (p=0,004, p=0,014) and quality of life in PHTS, PSHTS and STS in the convergence exercise group (p=0,001, p=0,017, p=0,001). Conclusions: In school-age children, convergence exercises were found to be effective on visual acuity and health-related quality of life. Convergence exercises are recommended for the treatment of school-aged children with hypermetropia.

Keywords: convergence exercise, eye exercises, hypermetropia, school-age children

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1410 Outcomes Following Overcorrecting Minus Lens Therapy for Intermittent Distance Exotropia

Authors: Alasdair Warwick, Luna Dhir

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Aim: To ascertain the efficacy of overcorrecting minus lens therapy in intermittent distance exotropia. Methods: Retrospective audit of all intermittent distance exotropia patients seen in the Chelsea and Westminster Hospital pediatric eye clinic between 1st January 2014 and 1st March 2016. Change in LogMAR visual acuity, stereopsis, near and distance angles of deviation, as well as the proportions of patients converting to exophoria or undergoing strabismus surgery, were recorded. Results: 22 patients were identified, 45% male, mean age 5 years (range 0.6 to 18.5 years). The median overminus prescription was -1.0 dioptres (range -0.5 to -1.75 dioptres) and mean follow-up was 15 months (range 3 to 54 months). Visual acuity, near and distance angles of deviation improved but were not statistically significant: -0.15 LogMAR, -0.2 prism dioptres and -1.2 prism dioptres respectively (p>0.05). However, a significant change in stereopsis was observed: -74'' (p<0.01). 27% underwent strabismus surgery and 36% converted to exophoria whilst wearing their overminus prescription. Conclusions: Overcorrecting minus lens therapy is an effective therapy for intermittent distance exotropia. There was no deterioration in visual acuity and a significant improvement in stereopsis was seen in our cohort, with many patients converting to an exophoria. The proportion of patients requiring strabismus surgery was comparable to other studies. Further, follow-up is needed to ascertain long-term outcomes.

Keywords: exotropia, overcorrecting minus lens, refraction, strabismus

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1409 Ologen Collagen Matrix Implant in Uveitis Induced Glaucoma with Temporal Trabeculectomy

Authors: Ritesh Verma, Manisha Rathi, Chand Singh Dhull, Sumit Sachdeva, Jitender Phogat

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Temporal trabeculectomy with the Ologen implant was done in a 66-year-old lady with uveitic glaucoma. Serial IOP measurement was done to assess the efficacy of ologen implant in uveitic glaucoma. The patient had an IOP of 4mmhg day 1 postoperatively and Ologen implant was in place with a well-formed bleb. On follow up patient had an IOP of 14mmhg and unaided visual acuity of 6/12 on day 10 postoperatively. After 12 weeks of Trabeculectomy with Ologen implant, the IOP of the patient was 14 mmHg, the vision was 6/6 with -1.25 DS and -1.25 DC at 90 degrees. Trabeculectomy performed in patients with uveitic glaucoma has a higher chance of failure due to increased inflammation and fibrosis. Trabeculectomy with ologen implant done in a patient of uveitic glaucoma provides excellent postoperative results and the patient has a well-controlled IOP even after 56 weeks of surgery and a best corrected visual acuity of 6/6. Trabeculectomy with the ologen implant is superior to other surgeries in cases of secondary glaucoma with increased inflammation.

Keywords: glaucoma surgery, ologen implant, temporal trabeculectomy, uveitic glaucoma

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1408 How Validated Nursing Workload and Patient Acuity Data Can Promote Sustained Change and Improvements within District Health Boards. the New Zealand Experience

Authors: Rebecca Oakes

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In the New Zealand public health system, work has been taking place to use electronic systems to convey data from the ‘floor to the board’ that makes patient needs, and therefore nursing work, visible. For nurses, these developments in health information technology puts us in a very new and exciting position of being able to articulate the work of nursing through a language understood at all levels of an organisation, the language of acuity. Nurses increasingly have a considerable stake-hold in patient acuity data. Patient acuity systems, when used well, can assist greatly in demonstrating how much work is required, the type of work, and when it will be required. The New Zealand Safe Staffing Unit is supporting New Zealand nurses to create a culture of shared governance, where nursing data is informing policies, staffing methodologies and forecasting within their organisations. Assisting organisations to understand their acuity data, strengthening user confidence in using electronic patient acuity systems, and ensuring nursing and midwifery workload is accurately reflected is critical to the success of the safe staffing programme. Nurses and midwives have the capacity via an acuity tool to become key informers of organisational planning. Quality patient care, best use of health resources and a quality work environment are essential components of a safe, resilient and well resourced organisation. Nurses are the key informers of this information. In New Zealand a national level approach is paving the way for significant changes to the understanding and use of patient acuity and nursing workload information.

Keywords: nursing workload, patient acuity, safe staffing, New Zealand

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1407 Copy Effect Myopic Anisometropia in a Pair of Monozygotic Twins

Authors: Fatma Sümer

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Introductıon: This case report aims to report myopic anisometropia with copy-image in monozygotic twins. Methods: In February 2021, a 6-year-old identical twin was seen, who was referred to us with the diagnosis of amblyopia in their left eyes from an external center. Both twins had a full ophthalmic examination, which included visual acuity testing, ocular motility testing, cycloplegic refraction, and fundus examination. Results: On examination, “copy image” myopic anisometropia was discovered. Twin 1 had anisometropia with myopic astigmatism in the left eye. His cycloplegic refraction was +1.00 (-0.75x 75) in the right eye and -8.0 (-1.50x175) in the left eye. Similarly, twin 2 had anisometropia with myopic astigmatism in the left eye. His cycloplegic refraction was -7.75 (-1.50x180) in the left eye and +1.25 (-0.75x90 ) in the right eye. The best-corrected visual acuity was 20/60 in the amblyopic eyes and 20/20 in the unaffected eyes. There was no ocular deviation. In either patient, a slit-lamp microscopic examination revealed no abnormalities in the anterior parts of either eye. Fundoscopic examination revealed no abnormalities. No abnormal ocular movements were demonstrated. Conclusion: As far as we have reviewed in the literature, previous studies with twins were mostly concerned with mirror effect myopic anisometropia and myopic anisometropia, whereas ipsilateral amblyopia and anisometropia were not reported in monozygotic twins. This case underscores the possible genetic basis of myopic anisometropia.

Keywords: amblyopia, anisometropia, myopia, twins

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1406 Prediction of Changes in Optical Quality by Tissue Redness after Pterygium Surgery

Authors: Mohd Radzi Hilmi, Mohd Zulfaezal Che Azemin, Khairidzan Mohd Kamal, Azrin Esmady Ariffin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd Tamrin, Norfazrina Abdul Gaffur, Tengku Mohd Tengku Sembok

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to predict optical quality changes after pterygium surgery using tissue redness grading. Methods: Sixty-eight primary pterygium participants were selected from patients who visited an ophthalmology clinic. We developed a semi-automated computer program to measure the pterygium fibrovascular redness from digital pterygium images. The outcome of this software is a continuous scale grading of 1 (minimum redness) to 3 (maximum redness). The region of interest (ROI) was selected manually using the software. Reliability was determined by repeat grading of all 68 images and its association with contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and visual acuity (VA) was examined. Results: The mean and standard deviation of redness of the pterygium fibrovascular images was 1.88 ± 0.55. Intra- and inter-grader reliability estimates were high with intraclass correlation ranging from 0.97 to 0.98. The new grading was positively associated with CSF (p<0.01) and VA (p<0.01). The redness grading was able to predict 25% and 23% of the variance in the CSF and the VA respectively. Conclusions: The new grading of pterygium fibrovascular redness can be reliably measured from digital images and show a good correlation with CSF and VA. The redness grading can be used in addition to the existing pterygium grading.

Keywords: contrast sensitivity, pterygium, redness, visual acuity

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1405 Improvement of Visual Acuity in Patient Undergoing Occlusion Therapy

Authors: Rajib Husain, Mezbah Uddin, Mohammad Shamsal Islam, Rabeya Siddiquee

Abstract:

Purpose: To determine the improvement of visual acuity in patients undergoing occlusion therapy. Methods: This was a prospective hospital-based study of newly diagnosed of amblyopia seen at the pediatric clinic of Chittagong Eye Infirmary & Training Complex. There were 32 refractive amblyopia subjects were examined & questionnaire was piloted. Included were all patients diagnosed with refractive amblyopia between 5 to 8 years, without previous amblyopia treatment, and whose parents were interested to participate in the study. Patients diagnosed with strabismic amblyopia were excluded. Patients were first corrected with the best correction for a month. When the VA in the amblyopic eye did not improve over a month, then occlusion treatment was started. Occlusion was done daily for 6-8 h together with vision therapy. The occlusion was carried out for three months. Results: Out of study 32 children, 31 of them have a good compliance of amblyopic treatment whereas one child has poor compliance. About 6% Children have amblyopia from Myopia, 7% Hyperopia, 32% from myopic astigmatism, 42% from hyperopic astigmatism and 13% have mixed astigmatism. The mean and Standard deviation of present average VA was 0.452±0.275 Log MAR and after an intervention of amblyopia therapy with vision therapy mean and Standard deviation VA was 0.155±0.157 Log MAR. Out of total respondent 21.85% have BCVA in range from (0-.2) log MAR, 37.5% have BCVA in range from (0.22-0.5) log MAR, 35.95% have in range from (0.52-0.8) log MAR, 4.7% have in range from (0.82-1) log MAR and after intervention of occlusion therapy with vision therapy 76.6% have VA in range from (0-.2) log MAR, 21.85% have VA in range from (0.22-0.5) log MAR, 1.5% have in range from (0.52-0.8) log MAR. Conclusion: Amblyopia is a most important factor in pediatric age group because it can lead to visual impairment. Thus, this study concludes that occlusion therapy with vision therapy is probably one of the best treatment methods for amblyopic patients (age 5-8 years), and compliance and age were the most critical factor predicting a successful outcome.

Keywords: amblyopia, occlusion therapy, vision therapy, eccentric fixation, visuoscopy

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1404 Role of Vision Centers in Eliminating Avoidable Blindness Caused Due to Uncorrected Refractive Error in Rural South India

Authors: Ranitha Guna Selvi D, Ramakrishnan R, Mohideen Abdul Kader

Abstract:

Purpose: To study the role of Vision centers in managing preventable blindness through refractive error correction in Rural South India. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients attending 15 Vision centers in Rural South India from a period of January 2021 to December 2021 was done. Medical records of 10,85,81 patients both new and reviewed, 79,562 newly registered patients and 29,019 review patient’s from15 Vision centers were included for data analysis. All the patients registered at the vision center underwent basic eye examination, including visual acuity, IOP measurement, Slit-lamp examination, retinoscopy, Fundus examination etc. Results: A total of 1,08,581 patients were included in the study. Of the total 1,08,581 patients, 79,562 were newly registered patients at Vision center and 29,019 were review patients. Males were 52,201(48.1%) and Females were 56,308(51.9) among them. The mean age of all examined patients was 41.03 ± 20.9 years (Standard deviation) and ranged from 01 – 113 years. Presenting mean visual acuity was 0.31 ± 0.5 in the right eye and 0.31 ± 0.4 in the left eye. Of the 1,08,581 patients 22,770 patients had refractive error in right eye and 22,721 patients had uncorrected refractive error in left eye. Glass prescription was given to 17,178 (15.8%) patients. 8,109 (7.5%) patients were referred to the base hospital for specialty clinic expert opinion or for cataract surgery. Conclusion: Vision center utilizing teleconsultation for comprehensive eye screening unit is a very effective tool in reducing the avoidable visual impairment caused due to uncorrected refractive error. Vision Centre model is believed to be efficient as it facilitates early detection and management of uncorrected refractive errors.

Keywords: refractive error, uncorrected refractive error, vision center, vision technician, teleconsultation

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1403 The Contemporary Visual Spectacle: Critical Visual Literacy

Authors: Lai-Fen Yang

Abstract:

In this increasingly visual world, how can we best decipher and understand the many ways that our everyday lives are organized around looking practices and the many images we encounter each day? Indeed, how we interact with and interpret visual images is a basic component of human life. Today, however, we are living in one of the most artificial visual and image-saturated cultures in human history, which makes understanding the complex construction and multiple social functions of visual imagery more important than ever before. Themes regarding our experience of a visually pervasive mediated culture, here, termed visual spectacle.

Keywords: visual culture, contemporary, images, literacy

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1402 To Compare the Visual Outcome, Safety and Efficacy of Phacoemulsification and Small-Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS) at CEITC, Bangladesh

Authors: Rajib Husain, Munirujzaman Osmani, Mohammad Shamsal Islam

Abstract:

Purpose: To compare the safety, efficacy and visual outcome of phacoemulsification vs. manual small-incision cataract surgery (SICS) for the treatment of cataract in Bangladesh. Objectives: 1. To assess the Visual outcome after cataract surgery 2. To understand the post-operative complications and early rehabilitation 3. To identified which surgical procedure more attractive to the patients 4. To identify which surgical procedure is occurred fewer complications. 5. To find out the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of study patients Setting: Chittagong Eye Infirmary and Training Complex, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Design: Retrospective, randomised comparison of 300 patients with visually significant cataracts. Method: The present study was designed as a retrospective hospital-based research. The sample size was 300 and study period was from July, 2012 to July, 2013 and assigned randomly to receive either phacoemulsification or manual small-incision cataract surgery (SICS). Preoperative and post-operative data were collected through a well designed collection format. Three follow-up were done; i) during discharge ii) 1-3 weeks & iii) 4-11 weeks post operatively. All preoperative and surgical complications, uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and astigmatism were taken into consideration for comparison of outcome Result: Nearly 95% patients were more than 40 years of age. About 52% patients were female, and 48% were male. 52% (N=157) patients came to operate their first eye where 48% (N=143) patients were visited again to operate their second eye. Postoperatively, five eyes (3.33%) developed corneal oedema with >10 Descemets folds, and six eyes (4%) had corneal oedema with <10 Descemets folds for Phacoemulsification surgeries. For SICS surgeries, seven eyes (4.66%) developed corneal oedema with >10 Descemets folds and eight eyes (5.33%) had corneal oedema with < 10 descemets folds. However, both the uncorrected and corrected (4-11 weeks) visual acuities were better in the eyes that had phacoemulsification (p=0.02 and p=0.03), and there was less astigmatism (p=0.001) at 4-11 weeks in the eye that had phacoemulsification. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of final follow-up 95% (N=253) had a good outcome, borderline 3.10% (N=40) and poor outcome was 1.6% (N=7). The individual surgeon outcome were closer, 95% (BCVA) in SICS and 96% (BCVA) in Phacoemulsification at 4-11 weeks follow-up respectively. Conclusion: outcome of cataract surgery both Phacoemulsification and SICS in CEITC was more satisfactory according to who norms. Both Phacoemulsification and manual small-incision cataract surgery (SICS) shows excellent visual outcomes with low complication rates and good rehabilitation. Phacoemulsification is significantly faster, and modern technology based surgical procedure for cataract treatment.

Keywords: phacoemulsification, SICS, cataract, Bangladesh, visual outcome of SICS

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1401 Laser Corneoplastique™: A Refractive Surgery for Corneal Scars

Authors: Arun C. Gulani, Aaishwariya A. Gulani, Amanda Southall

Abstract:

Background: Laser Corneoplastique™ as a least interventional, visually promising technique for patients with vision disability from corneal scars of varied causes has been retrospectively reviewed and proves to cause a paradigm shift in mindset and approach towards corneal scars as a Refractive surgery aiming for emmetropic, unaided vision of 20;/20 in most cases. Three decades of work on this technique has been compiled in this 15-year study. Subject and Methods: The objective of this study was to determine the success of Laser Corneoplastique™ surgery as a treatment of corneal scar cases. A survey of corneal scar cases caused by various medical histories that had undergone Laser Corneoplastique™ surgery over the past twenty years by a single surgeon Arun C. Gulani, M.D. were retrospectively reviewed. The details of each of the cases were retrieved from their medical records and analyzed. Each patient had been examined thoroughly at their preoperative appointments for stability of refraction and vision, depth of scar, pachymetry, topography, pattern of the scar and uncorrected and best corrected vision potential, which were all taken into account in the patients' treatment plans. Results: 64 eyes of 53 patients were investigated for scar etiology, keratometry, visual acuity, and complications. There were 25 different etiologies seen, with the most common being a Herpetic scar. The average visual acuity post-op was, on average, 20/23.55 (±7.05). Laser parameters used were depth and pulses. Overall, the mean Laser ablation depth was 30.67 (±19.05), ranging from 2 to 73 µm. Number of Laser pulses averaged 191.85 (±112.02). Conclusion: Refractive Laser Corneoplastique™ surgery, when practiced as an art, can address all levels of ametropia while reversing complex corneas and scars from refractive surgery complications back to 20/20 vision.

Keywords: corneal scar, refractive surgery, corneal transplant, laser corneoplastique

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1400 Applications of Visual Ethnography in Public Anthropology

Authors: Subramaniam Panneerselvam, Gunanithi Perumal, KP Subin

Abstract:

The Visual Ethnography is used to document the culture of a community through a visual means. It could be either photography or audio-visual documentation. The visual ethnographic techniques are widely used in visual anthropology. The visual anthropologists use the camera to capture the cultural image of the studied community. There is a scope for subjectivity while the culture is documented by an external person. But the upcoming of the public anthropology provides an opportunity for the participants to document their own culture. There is a need to equip the participants with the skill of doing visual ethnography. The mobile phone technology provides visual documentation facility to everyone to capture the moments instantly. The visual ethnography facilitates the multiple-interpretation for the audiences. This study explores the effectiveness of visual ethnography among the tribal youth through public anthropology perspective. The case study was conducted to equip the tribal youth of Nilgiris in visual ethnography and the outcome of the experiment shared in this paper.

Keywords: visual ethnography, visual anthropology, public anthropology, multiple-interpretation, case study

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1399 Rathke’s Cleft Cyst Presenting as Unilateral Visual Field Defect

Authors: Ritesh Verma, Manisha Rathi, Chand Singh Dhull, Sumit Sachdeva, Jitender Phogat

Abstract:

A Rathke's cleft cyst is a benign growth found on the pituitary gland in the brain, specifically a fluid-filled cyst in the posterior portion of the anterior pituitary gland. It occurs when the Rathke's pouch does not develop properly and ranges in size from 2 to 40mm in diameter. A 38-year-old male presented to the outpatient department with loss of vision in the inferior quadrant of the left eye since 15 days. Visual acuity was 6/6 in the right eye and 6/9 in the left eye. Visual field analysis by HFA-24-2 revealed an inferior field defect extending to the supero-temporal quadrant in the left eye. MRI brain and orbit was advised to the patient and it revealed a well defined cystic pituitary adenoma indenting left optic nerve near optic chiasm consistent with the diagnosis of Rathke’s cleft cyst (RCC). The patient was referred to neurosurgery department for further management. Symptoms vary greatly between individuals having RCCs. RCCs can be non-functioning, functioning, or both. Besides headaches, neurocognitive deficits are almost always present but have a high rate of immediate reversal if the cyst is properly treated or drained.

Keywords: pituitary tumors, rathke’s cleft cyst, visual field defects, vision loss

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1398 Analyzing the Causes of Amblyopia among Patients in Tertiary Care Center: Retrospective Study in King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center

Authors: Hebah M. Musalem, Jeylan El-Mansoury, Lin M. Tuleimat, Selwa Alhazza, Abdul-Aziz A. Al Zoba

Abstract:

Background: Amblyopia is a condition that affects the visual system triggering a decrease in visual acuity without a known underlying pathology. It is due to abnormal vision development in childhood or infancy. Most importantly, vision loss is preventable or reversible with the right kind of intervention in most of the cases. Strabismus, sensory defects, and anisometropia are all well-known causes of amblyopia. However, ocular misalignment in Strabismus is considered the most common form of amblyopia worldwide. The risk of developing amblyopia increases in premature children, developmentally delayed or children who had brain lesions affecting the visual pathway. The prevalence of amblyopia varies between 2 to 5 % in the world according to the literature. Objective: To determine the different causes of Amblyopia in pediatric patients seen in ophthalmology clinic of a tertiary care center, i.e. King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH&RC). Methods: This is a hospital based, random retrospective, based on reviewing patient’s files in the Ophthalmology Department of KFSH&RC in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Inclusion criteria: amblyopic pediatric patients who attended the clinic from 2015 to 2016, who are between 6 months and 18 years old. Exclusion Criteria: patients above 18 years of age and any patient who is uncooperative to obtain an accurate vision or a proper refraction. Detailed ocular and medical history are recorded. The examination protocol includes a full ocular exam, full cycloplegic refraction, visual acuity measurement, ocular motility and strabismus evaluation. All data were organized in tables and graphs and analyzed by statistician. Results: Our preliminary results will be discussed on spot by our corresponding author. Conclusions: We focused on this study on utilizing various examination techniques which enhanced our results and highlighted a distinguished correlation between amblyopia and its’ causes. This paper recommendation emphasizes on critical testing protocols to be followed among amblyopic patient, especially in tertiary care centers.

Keywords: amblyopia, amblyopia causes, amblyopia diagnostic criterion, amblyopia prevalence, Saudi Arabia

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1397 A Five–Year Review Study of Epidemiology of Ocular and Adnexal Injuries Requiring Surgical Intervention in a Middle Eastern Area: Al Ain, UAE

Authors: Tahra AlMahmoud, Sameeha Mohamed Al Hadhrami, Mohamed Elhanan, Hanan Naser Alshamsi, Fikri Abu-Zidan

Abstract:

Background: To the best of the author(s)’ knowledge there are no epidemiological studies for traumatic eye injuries in UAE, neither data on groups at risk or mechanisms for ocular trauma. Purpose: To report the epidemiology of eye injuries that required hospital admission and surgery at a referral center at the eastern part of Abu Dhabi. Method: Retrospective charts review of all patients who had suffered an eye injury that required surgical intervention between 2012 and 2017 at Al Ain Hospital. Demographic data, place of occurrence, the cause of injury, visual acuity (VA) before and after treatment, number of admission days and follow up were extracted. Data were tabulated and presented as number (%), mean (SD), or median (range) as appropriate. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for VA outcome. Results: One hundred forty-one patients were identified, 96 eyes with open-globe and 48 other types of injuries. The mean age of the patients was 26±15.5 years, and 89% were male. Majority of injuries occurred at the workplace (50.4%) followed by home (31.2%). Trauma with a sharp object (24.1%), blunt object (16.3%), nail (11.3%), and hammer on metal (7.8%) were the most common etiologies of injury. Corneas injuries (48.2%) was the most frequent cause for visual acuity limitation followed by lens/cataract (23.4%). Among the traumatized eyes, 30 eyes (21.3%) retained intraocular foreign body, Mean admission days was 3.16± 2.81days (1-16) and a number of follow up visit was 3.17± 4.11times (0-26). Conclusion: Ocular trauma requiring surgical intervention is an area of concern in particular for occupations involving work with metals. This work may give insight into the value and necessity of implementing preventive measures.

Keywords: epidemiology, Middle Eastern area, occupational injury, ocular traumas

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1396 Validation of an Acuity Measurement Tool for Maternity Services

Authors: Cherrie Lowe

Abstract:

The TrendCare Patient Dependency System is currently utilized by a large number of Maternity Services across Australia, New Zealand and Singapore. In 2012, 2013, and 2014 validation studies were initiated in all three countries to validate the acuity tools used for Women in Labour, and Postnatal Mothers and Babies. This paper will present the findings of the validation study. Aim: The aim of this study was to; Identify if the care hours provided by the TrendCare Acuity System was an accurate reflection of the care required by Women and Babies. Obtain evidence of changes required to acuity indicators and/or category timings to ensure the TrendCare acuity system remains reliable and valid across a range of Maternity care models in three countries. Method: A non-experimental action research methodology was used across four District Health Boards in New Zealand, two large public Australian Maternity services and a large tertiary Maternity service in Singapore. Standardized data collection forms and timing devices were used to collect Midwife contact times with Women and Babies included in the study. Rejection processes excluded samples where care was not completed/rationed. The variances between actual timed Midwife/Mother/Baby contact and actual Trend Care acuity times were identified and investigated. Results: 87.5% (18) of TrendCare acuity category timings matched the actual timings recorded for Midwifery care. 12.5% (3) of TrendCare night duty categories provided less minutes of care than the actual timings. 100% of Labour Ward TrendCare categories matched actual timings for Midwifery care. The actual times given for assistance to New Zealand independent Midwives in Labour Ward showed a significant deviation to previous studies demonstrating the need for additional time allocations in Trend Care. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the importance of regularly validating the Trend Care category timings with the care hours required, as variances to models of care and length of stay in Maternity units have increased Midwifery workloads on the night shift. The level of assistance provided by the core labour ward staff to the Independent Midwife has increased substantially. Outcomes: As a consequence of this study changes were made to the night duty TrendCare Maternity categories, additional acuity indicators developed and times for assisting independent Midwives increased. The updated TrendCare version was delivered to Maternity services in 2014.

Keywords: maternity, acuity, research, nursing workloads

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1395 The Effectiveness of Laser In situ Keratomileusis for Correction Various Types of Refractive Anomalies

Authors: Yuliya Markava

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The laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is widely common surgical procedure, which has become an alternative for patients who are not satisfied with the performance of other correction methods. A high level of patient satisfaction functional outcomes after refractive surgery confirms the high reliability and safety of LASIK and provides a significant improvement in the quality of life and social adaptation. Purpose: To perform clinical analysis of the results of correction made to the excimer laser system SCHWIND AMARIS 500E in patients with different types of refractive anomalies. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 1581 operations (812 patients): 413 males (50.86%) and 399 females (49.14%) at the age from 18 to 47 years with different types of ametropia. All operations were performed on excimer laser SCHWIND AMARIS 500E in the LASIK procedure. Formation of the corneal flap was made by mechanical microkeratome SCHWIND. Results: Analyzing the structure of refractive anomalies: The largest number of interventions accounted for myopia: 1505 eyes (95.2%), of which about a low myopia: 706 eyes (44.7%), moderate myopia: 562 eyes (35.5 %), high myopia: eyes 217 (13.7%) and supermyopia: 20 eyes (1.3%). Hyperopia was 0.7% (11 eyes), mixed astigmatism: 4.1% (65 eyes). The efficiency was 80% (in patients with supermyopia) to 91.6% and 95.4% (in groups with myopia low and moderate, respectively). Uncorrected visual acuity average values before and after laser operation was in groups: a low myopia 0.18 (up 0.05 to 0.31) and 0.80 (up 0.60 to 1.0); moderate myopia 0.08 (up 0.03 to 0.13) and 0.87 ( up 0.74 to 1.0); high myopia 0.05 (up 0.02 to 0.08) and 0.83 (up 0.66 to 1.0); supermyopia 0.03 (up 0.02 to 0.04) and 0.59 ( up 0.34 to 0.84); hyperopia 0.27 (up 0.16 to 0.38) and 0.57 (up 0.27 to 0.87); mixed astigmatism of 0.35 (up 0.19 to 0.51) and 0.69 (up 0.44 to 0.94). In all cases, after LASIK indicators uncorrected visual acuity significantly increased. Reoperation was 4.43%. Significance: Clinical results of refractive surgery at the excimer laser system SCHWIND AMARIS 500E in different ametropia correction is characterized by high efficiency.

Keywords: effectiveness of laser correction, LASIK, refractive anomalies, surgical treatment

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1394 Visual Identity Components of Tourist Destination

Authors: Petra Barisic, Zrinka Blazevic

Abstract:

In the world of modern communications, visual identity has predominant influence on the overall success of tourist destinations, but despite of these, the problem of designing thriving tourist destination visual identity and their components are hardly addressed. This study highlights the importance of building and managing the visual identity of tourist destination, and based on the empirical study of well-known Mediterranean destination of Croatia analyses three main components of tourist destination visual identity; name, slogan, and logo. Moreover, the paper shows how respondents perceive each component of Croatia’s visual identity. According to study, logo is the most important, followed by the name and slogan. Research also reveals that Croatian economy lags behind developed countries in understanding the importance of visual identity, and its influence on marketing goal achievements.

Keywords: components of visual identity, Croatia, tourist destination, visual identity

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1393 Mycophenolate Versus Methotrexate in Non-Infectious Ocular Inflammatory Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Mohammad Karam, Abdulmalik Alsaif, Abdulrahman Al-Naseem, Amrit Hayre, Abdurrahman Al Jabbouri, Ahmad Aldubaikhi, Narvair Kahlar, Salem Al-Mutairi

Abstract:

Purpose: To compare the outcomes of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) versus methotrexate (MTX) in non-infectious ocular inflammatory disease (NIOID). Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) Guidelines and an electronic search was conducted to identify all comparative studies of MMF versus MTX in NIOID. Treatment results and side effects were primary outcome measures. Secondary outcome measures included visual acuity and resolution of macular oedema. Fixed and random-effects models were used for the analysis. Results: Four studies enrolling 905 patients were identified. There was no significant difference between MMF and MTX groups in overall treatment success (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.97, P = 0.96) and failure (OR = 0.86, P = 0.85) of NIOID. Although treatment success of uveitis showed no significant difference for anterior and intermediate uveitis cases (OR = 2.33, P = 0.14), MTX showed a significantly improved effect in cases involving posterior uveitis and panuveitis (OR = 0.41, P = 0.003). However, the median dose required for treatment success was lower for MTX whereas MMF was associated with a faster median time to treatment success. Further to this, MMF showed a reduced rate of side effects when compared to MTX, but MTX failed to reach statistical significance, most notably for liver enzyme elevation (OR = 0.65, P = 0.16), fatigue (OR = 0.84, P = 0.49) and headache (OR = 0.81, P = 0.37). For secondary outcomes, no significant difference was noted in visual acuity and resolution of macular edema. Conclusions: MMF is comparable to MTX in the treatment of NIOID as there was no significant difference in the outcome of treatment success and side effect profiles.

Keywords: Mycophenolate mofetil, methotrexate, non-infectious ocular inflammation, uveitis, scleritis

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