Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5999

Search results for: surface morphology

5999 Effect of Strontium on Surface Roughness and Chip Morphology When Turning Al-Si Cast Alloy Using Carbide Tool Insert

Authors: Mohsen Marani Barzani, Ahmed A. D. Sarhan, Saeed Farahany, Ramesh Singh

Abstract:

Surface roughness and chip morphology are important output in manufacturing product. In this paper, an experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of various cutting speeds and feed rates on surface roughness and chip morphology in turning the Al-Si cast alloy and Sr-containing. Experimental trials carried out using coated carbide inserts. Experiments accomplished under oblique dry cutting when various cutting speeds 70, 130 and 250 m/min and feed rates of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 mm/rev were used, whereas depth of cut kept constant at 0.05 mm. The results showed that Sr-containing Al-Si alloy have poor surface roughness in comparison to Al-Si alloy (base alloy). The surface roughness values reduce with cutting speed increment from 70 to 250 m/min. the size of chip changed with changing silicon shape in Al matrix. Also, the surface finish deteriorated with increase in feed rate from 0.5 mm/rev to 0.15 mm/rev.

Keywords: strontium, surface roughness, chip, morphology, turning

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5998 Enhancement and Characterization of Titanium Surfaces with Sandblasting and Acid Etching for Dental Implants

Authors: Busra Balli, Tuncay Dikici, Mustafa Toparli

Abstract:

Titanium and its alloys have been used extensively over the past 25 years as biomedical materials in orthopedic and dental applications because of their good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. It is known that the surface properties of titanium implants can enhance the cellular response and play an important role in Osseo integration. The rate and quality of Osseo integration in titanium implants are related to their surface properties. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of sandblasting and acid etching on surface morphology, roughness, the wettability of titanium. The surface properties will be characterized by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle and roughness measurements. The results show that surface morphology, roughness, and wettability were changed and enhanced by these treatments.

Keywords: dental implant, etching, surface modifications, surface morphology, surface roughness

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5997 The Effect of Tool Type on Surface Morphology of FSJ Joint

Authors: Yongfang Deng, Dunwen Zuo

Abstract:

An attempt is made here to join 2024 aluminum alloy plate by friction stir joining (FSJ) using different types of tools. Joint surface morphology was observed, and both arc line spacing and flash were measured. Study is carried out on the effect of pin, shoulder and eccentricity of the tool on the surface topography of the joint and the formation of the joint surface topography is analyzed. It is found that, eccentric squeezing action of the tool is the mainly motive power to form arc lines contour and flash structure. Little flash appears in the advancing side but with severe deformation, while the flash in the retreating side is heavy but with soft deformation. The pin of tool has a deep impact on the flash on the advancing side of the joints. Shoulder can widen the arc lines, refine arcs structure, reduce flash in the retreat side, but will increase the flash in the advancing side. Increasing the amount of eccentricity, it has litter effect on the arc line spacing but will destroy the arc lines morphology in the joint surface and promote the formation of filamentous flash structure in the joint.

Keywords: FSJ, surface morphology, tool, joint

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5996 A Calibration Method for Temperature Distribution Measurement of Thermochromic Liquid Crystal Based on Mathematical Morphology of Hue Image

Authors: Risti Suryantari, Flaviana

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to design calibration method of Thermochromic Liquid Crystal for temperature distribution measurement based on mathematical morphology of hue image A glass of water is placed on the surface of sample TLC R25C5W at certain temperature. We use scanner for image acquisition. The true images in RGB format is converted to HSV (hue, saturation, value) by taking of hue without saturation and value. Then the hue images is processed based on mathematical morphology using Matlab2013a software to get better images. There are differences on the final images after processing at each temperature variation based on visualization observation and the statistic value. The value of maximum and mean increase with rising temperature. It could be parameter to identify the temperature of the human body surface like hand or foot surface.

Keywords: thermochromic liquid crystal, TLC, mathematical morphology, hue image

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5995 Morphology of the Acetabular Cartilage Surface in Elderly Cadavers Analyzing the Contact between the Acetabulum and Femoral Head

Authors: Keisuke Akiyama, Takashi Sakai, Junichiro Koyanagi, Hideki Yoshikawa, Kazuomi Sugamoto

Abstract:

The geometry of acetabular cartilage surface plays an important role in hip joint biomechanics. The aim of this study was to analyze the morphology of acetabular articular cartilage surface in elderly subjects using a 3D-digitizer. Twenty hemipelves from 12 subjects (mean ages 85 years) were scanned with 3D-digitizer. Each acetabular surface model was divided into four regions: anterosuperior (AS), anteroinferior (AI), posterosuperior (PS), and posteroinferior (PI). In the global acetabulum and each region, the acetabular sphere radius and the standard deviation (SD) of the distance from the acetabular sphere center to the acetabular cartilage surface were calculated. In the global acetabulum, the distance between the acetabular surface model and the maximum sphere which did not penetrate over the acetabular surface model was calculated as the inferred femoral head, and then the distribution was mapped at intervals of 0.5 mm. The SD in AS was significantly larger than that in AI (p = 0.006) and PI (p = 0.001). The SD in PS was significantly larger than that in PI (p = 0.005). The closest region (0-0.5 mm) tended to be distributed at anterior or posterosuperior acetabular edge. The contact between the femoral head and acetabulum might start at the periphery of the lunate surface, especially in the anterior or posterosuperior region. From viewpoint of acetabular morphology, the acetabular articular cartilage in the anterior or posterosuperior edge could be more vulnerable due to direct contact mechanism.

Keywords: acetabulum, cartilage, morphology, 3D-digitizer

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5994 Crystallization Fouling from Potable Water in Heat Exchangers and Evaporators

Authors: Amthal Al-Gailani, Olujide Sanni, Thibaut Charpentier, Anne Neville

Abstract:

Formation of inorganic scale on heat transfer surfaces is a serious problem encountered in industrial, commercial, and domestic heat exchangers and systems. Several industries use potable/groundwater sources such as rivers, lakes, and oceans to use water as a working fluid in heat exchangers and steamers. As potable/surface water contains diverse salt ionic species, the scaling kinetics and deposit morphology are expected to be different from those found in artificially hardened solutions. In this work, scale formation on the heat transfer surfaces from potable water has been studied using a once-through open flow cell under atmospheric pressure. The surface scaling mechanism and deposit morphology are investigated at high surface temperature. Thus the water evaporation process has to be considered. The effect of surface temperature, flow rate, and inhibitor deployment on the thermal resistance and morphology of the scale have been investigated. The study findings show how an increase in surface temperature enhances the crystallization reaction kinetics on the surface. There is an increase in the amount of scale and the resistance to heat transfer. The fluid flow rate also increases the fouling resistance and the thickness of the scale layer.

Keywords: fouling, heat exchanger, thermal resistance, crystallization, potable water

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5993 Effects of Milling Process Parameters on Cutting Forces and Surface Roughness When Finishing Ti6al4v Produced by Electron Beam Melting

Authors: Abdulmajeed Dabwan, Saqib Anwar, Ali Al-Samhan

Abstract:

Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is a metal powder bed-based Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology, which uses computer-controlled electron beams to create fully dense three-dimensional near-net-shaped parts from metal powder. It gives the ability to produce any complex parts directly from a computer-aided design (CAD) model without tools and dies, and with a variety of materials. However, the quality of the surface finish in EBM process has limitations to meeting the performance requirements of additively manufactured components. The aim of this study is to investigate the cutting forces induced during milling Ti6Al4V produced by EBM as well as the surface quality of the milled surfaces. The effects of cutting speed and radial depth of cut on the cutting forces, surface roughness, and surface morphology were investigated. The results indicated that the cutting speed was found to be proportional to the resultant cutting force at any cutting conditions while the surface roughness improved significantly with the increase in cutting speed and radial depth of cut.

Keywords: electron beam melting, additive manufacturing, Ti6Al4V, surface morphology

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5992 Morphology Study of Inverted Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells in Sequential Deposition

Authors: Asmat Nawaz, Ali Koray Erdinc, Burak Gultekin, Muhammad Tayyib, Ceylan Zafer, Kaiying Wang, M. Nadeem Akram

Abstract:

In this study, a sequential deposition process is used for the fabrication of PEDOT: PSS based inverted planar perovskite solar cell. A small amount of additive deionized water (DI-H2O) was added into PbI2 + Dimethyl formamide (DMF) precursor solution in order to increase the solubility of PbI2 in DMF, and finally to manipulate the surface morphology of the perovskite films. A morphology transition from needle like structure to hexagonal plates, and then needle-like again has been observed as the DI-H2O was added continuously (0.0 wt% to 3.0wt%). The latter one leads to full surface coverage of the perovskite, which is essential for high performance solar cell.

Keywords: charge carrier diffusion lengths, Methylamonium lead iodide, precursor composition, perovskite solar cell, sequential deposition

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5991 The Impact of Electrospinning Parameters on Surface Morphology and Chemistry of PHBV Fibers

Authors: Lukasz Kaniuk, Mateusz M. Marzec, Andrzej Bernasik, Urszula Stachewicz

Abstract:

Electrospinning is one of the commonly used methods to produce micro- or nano-fibers. The properties of electrospun fibers allow them to be used to produce tissue scaffolds, biodegradable bandages, or purification membranes. The morphology of the obtained fibers depends on the composition of the polymer solution as well as the processing parameters. Interesting properties such as high fiber porosity can be achieved by changing humidity during electrospinning. Moreover, by changing voltage polarity in electrospinning, we are able to alternate functional groups at the surface of fibers. In this study, electrospun fibers were made of natural, thermoplastic polyester – PHBV (poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydrovaleric acid). The fibrous mats were obtained using both positive and negative voltage polarities, and their surface was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Ulvac-Phi, Chigasaki, Japan). Furthermore, the effect of the humidity on surface morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Merlin Gemini II, Zeiss, Germany). Electrospun PHBV fibers produced with positive and negative voltage polarity had similar morphology and the average fiber diameter, 2.47 ± 0.21 µm and 2.44 ± 0.15 µm, respectively. The change of the voltage polarity had a significant impact on the reorientation of the carbonyl groups what consequently changed the surface potential of the electrospun PHBV fibers. The increase of humidity during electrospinning causes porosity in the surface structure of the fibers. In conclusion, we showed within our studies that the process parameters such as humidity and voltage polarity have a great influence on fiber morphology and chemistry, changing their functionality. Surface properties of polymer fiber have a significant impact on cell integration and attachment, which is very important in tissue engineering. The possibility of changing surface porosity allows the use of fibers in various tissue engineering and drug delivery systems. Acknowledgment: This study was conducted within 'Nanofiber-based sponges for atopic skin treatment' project., carried out within the First TEAM programme of the Foundation for Polish Science co-financed by the European Union under the European Regional Development Fund, project no POIR.04.04.00-00- 4571/18-00.

Keywords: cells integration, electrospun fiber, PHBV, surface characterization

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5990 In Situ Production of Nano-Cu on a Cotton Fabric Surface by Ink-Jet Printing

Authors: N. Zoghi, Laleh Maleknia , M. E. Olya

Abstract:

The nano-Cu particles were produced on cotton fabric substrate by ink-jet printing technology with water-soluble ink, which was based on copper. The surface tension and viscosity of the prepared inks were evaluated. The ink-jet printing process was repeated 1, 3, and 5 times in order to evaluate variations in the optical properties by changing thickness of printed film. Following initial drying of the printed film, the samples were annealed at different temperatures (150 °C, 200 °C and 250 °C) to determine the optimum temperature for the parameters set out in this experiment. The prepared nano-Cu particles were characterized by XRD and UV spectroscopy. The appearance of printed image and the nano-Cu particles morphology were observed by SEM. The results demonstrated that the ink-jet printing technology can be used to produce nano-particles on the cotton fabrics surface.

Keywords: ink-jet printing, nano-cu, fabric ink, in situ production, cotton fabric, water-soluble ink, morphology

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5989 Granule Morphology of Zirconia Powder with Solid Content on Two-Fluid Spray Drying

Authors: Hyeongdo Jeong, Jong Kook Lee

Abstract:

Granule morphology and microstructure were affected by slurry viscosity, chemical composition, particle size and spray drying process. In this study, we investigated granule morphology of zirconia powder with solid content on two-fluid spray drying. Zirconia granules after spray drying show sphere-like shapes with a diameter of 40-70 μm at low solid contents (30 or 40 wt%) and specific surface area of 5.1-5.6 m²/g. But a donut-like shape with a few cracks were observed on zirconia granules prepared from the slurry of high solid content (50 wt %), green compacts after cold isostatic pressing under the pressure of 200 MPa have the density of 2.1-2.2 g/cm³ and homogeneous fracture surface by complete destruction of granules. After the sintering at 1500 °C for 2 h, all specimens have relative density of 96.2-98.3 %. With increasing a solid content from 30 to 50 wt%, grain size increased from 0.3 to 0.6 μm, but relative density was inversely decreased from 98.3 to 96.2 %.

Keywords: zirconia, solid content, granulation, spray drying

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5988 A Failure Investigations of High-Temperature Hydrogen Attack at Plat Forming Unit Furnace Elbow

Authors: Altoumi Alndalusi

Abstract:

High-temperature hydrogen attack (HTHA) failure is the common phenomena at elevated temperature in hydrogen environment in oil and gas field. The failure occurred once after four years at the internal surface of Platforming elbow. Both visual and microscopic examinations revealed that the failure was initiated due to blistering forming followed by large cracking at the inner surface. Crack morphology showed that the crack depth was about 50% of material wall thickness and its behavior generally was intergranular. This study concluded that the main reason led to failure due to incorrect material selection comparing to the platforming conditions.

Keywords: decarburization, failure, heat affected zone, morphology, partial pressure, plate form

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5987 Effect of Surface Treatment on Physico-Mechanical Properties of Sisal Fiber-Unsaturated Polyester Composites

Authors: A. H. Birniwa, A. A. Salisu, M. Y. Yakasai, A. Sabo, K. Aujara, A. Isma’il

Abstract:

Sisal fibre was extracted from Sisal leaves by enzymatic retting method. A portion of the fibre was subjected to treatment with alkali, benzoyl chloride and silane compounds. Sisal fibre composites were fabricated using unsaturated polyester resin, by hand lay-up technique using both the treated and untreated fibre. Tensile, flexural and water absorption tests were conducted and evaluated on the composites. The results obtained were found to increase in the treated fibre compared to untreated fibre. Surface morphology of the fibre was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the result obtained showed variation in the morphology of the treated and untreated fibre. FT-IR results showed inclusion of benzoyl and silane groups on the fibre surface. The fibre chemical modification improves its adhesion to the matrix, mechanical properties of the composites were also found to improve.

Keywords: composite, flexural strength, matrix, sisal fibre

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5986 Cooking Attributes of Rice Stored under Varying Temperature and Moisture Regimes

Authors: Lakshmi E. Jayachandran, Manepally Rajkumar, Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

The objective of this research was to study the changes in eating quality of rice during storage under varying temperature and moisture regimes. Paddy (IR-36) with high amylose content (27%) was stored at a temperature range between 10 to 40°C and moisture content from 9 to 18% (d.b.) for 6 months. Drastic changes in color and parameters representing cooking qualities, cooked rice texture, and surface morphology occurred after 4 months of storage, especially at elevated temperature conditions. Head rice yield was stable throughout the storage except at extreme conditions of temperature and moisture content. Yellowing of rice was prominent at combinations of high temperature and moisture content, both of which had a synergistic effect on the b* values of rice. The cooking time, length expansion ratio and volume expansion ratio of all the rice samples increased with prolonged storage. The texture parameter, primarily, the hardness, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness of cooked rice samples were higher following storage at elevated temperature. Surface morphology was also significantly affected in stored rice as compared to fresh rice. Storage of rice at 10°C with a grain moisture content of 10% for 2 months gave cooked rice samples with good palatability and minimal cooking time. The temperature was found to be the most prominent storage parameter for rough rice, followed by moisture content and storage duration, influencing the quality of rice.

Keywords: rice, cooking quality, storage, surface morphology

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5985 Hot Air Flow Annealing of MAPbI₃ Perovskite: Structural and Optical Properties

Authors: Mouad Ouafi, Lahoucine Atourki, Larbi Laanab, Erika Vega, Miguel Mollar, Bernabe Marib, Boujemaa Jaber

Abstract:

Despite the astonishing emergence of the methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite as a promising light harvester for solar cells, their physical properties in solution-processed MAPbI₃ are still crucial and need to be improved. The objective of this work is to investigate the hot airflow effect during the growth of MAPbI₃ films using the spin-coating process on their structural, optical and morphological proprieties. The experimental results show that many physical proprieties of the perovskite strongly depend on the air flow temperature and the optimization which has a beneficial effect on the perovskite quality. In fact, a clear improvement of the crystallinity and the crystallite size of MAPbI₃ perovskite is demonstrated by the XRD analyses, when the airflow temperature is increased up to 100°C. Alternatively, as far as the surface morphology is concerned, SEM micrographs show that significant homogenous nucleation, uniform surface distribution and pin holes free with highest surface coverture of 98% are achieved when the airflow temperature reaches 100°C. At this temperature, the improvement is also observed when considering the optical properties of the films. By contrast, a remarkable degradation of the MAPbI₃ perovskites associated to the PbI₂ phase formation is noticed, when the hot airflow temperature is higher than 100°C, especially 300°C.

Keywords: hot air flow, crystallinity, surface coverage, perovskite morphology

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5984 Fabrication of Durable and Renegerable Superhydrophobic Coatings on Metallic Surfaces for Potential Industrial Applications

Authors: Priya Varshney, Soumya S. Mohapatra

Abstract:

Fabrication of anti-corrosion and self-cleaning superhydrophobic coatings for metallic surfaces which are regenerable and durable in the aggressive conditions has shown tremendous interest in materials science. In this work, the superhydrophobic coatings on metallic surfaces (aluminum, steel, copper) were prepared by two-step and one-step chemical etching process. In two-step process, roughness on surface was created by chemical etching and then passivation of roughened surface with low surface energy materials whereas, in one-step process, roughness on surface by chemical etching and passivation of surface with low surface energy materials were done in a single step. Beside this, the effect of etchant concentration and etching time on wettability and morphology was also studied. Thermal, mechanical, ultra-violet stability of these coatings were also tested. Along with this, regeneration of coatings and self-cleaning, corrosion resistance and water repelling characteristics were also studied. The surface morphology shows the presence of a rough microstuctures on the treated surfaces and the contact angle measurements confirms the superhydrophobic nature. It is experimentally observed that the surface roughness and contact angle increases with increase in etching time as well as with concentration of etchant. Superhydrophobic surfaces show the excellent self-cleaning behaviour. Coatings are found to be stable and maintain their superhydrophobicity in acidic and alkaline solutions. Water jet impact, floatation on water surface, and low temperature condensation tests prove the water-repellent nature of the coatings. These coatings are found to be thermal, mechanical and ultra-violet stable. These durable superhydrophobic metallic surfaces have potential industrial applications.

Keywords: superhydrophobic, water-repellent, anti-corrosion, self-cleaning

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5983 Morphology Evolution in Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes Arrays Prepared by Electrochemical Anodization

Authors: J. Tirano, H. Zea, C. Luhrs

Abstract:

Photocatalysis has established as viable option in the development of processes for the treatment of pollutants and clean energy production. This option is based on the ability of semiconductors to generate an electron flow by means of the interaction with solar radiation. Owing to its electronic structure, TiO₂ is the most frequently used semiconductors in photocatalysis, although it has a high recombination of photogenerated charges and low solar energy absorption. An alternative to reduce these limitations is the use of nanostructured morphologies which can be produced during the synthesis of TiO₂ nanotubes (TNTs). Therefore, if possible to produce vertically oriented nanostructures it will be possible to generate a greater contact area with electrolyte and better charge transfer. At present, however, the development of these innovative structures still presents an important challenge for the development of competitive photoelectrochemical devices. This research focuses on established correlations between synthesis variables and 1D nanostructure morphology which has a direct effect on the photocatalytic performance. TNTs with controlled morphology were synthesized by two-step potentiostatic anodization of titanium foil. The anodization was carried out at room temperature in an electrolyte composed of ammonium fluoride, deionized water and ethylene glycol. Consequent thermal annealing of as-prepared TNTs was conducted in the air between 450 °C-550 °C. Morphology and crystalline phase of the TNTs were carried out by SEM, EDS and XRD analysis. As results, the synthesis conditions were established to produce nanostructures with specific morphological characteristics. Anatase was the predominant phase of TNTs after thermal treatment. Nanotubes with 10 μm in length, 40 nm in pore diameter and a surface-volume ratio of 50 are important in photoelectrochemical applications based on TiO₂ due to their 1D characteristics, high surface-volume ratio, reduced radial dimensions and high oxide/electrolyte interface. Finally, this knowledge can be used to improve the photocatalytic activity of TNTs by making additional surface modifications with dopants that improve their efficiency.

Keywords: electrochemical anodization, morphology, self-organized nanotubes, TiO₂ nanotubes

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5982 Influence of Hydrolytic Degradation on Properties of Moisture Membranes Used in Fire-Protective Clothing

Authors: Rachid El Aidani, Phuong Nguyen-Tri, Toan Vu-Khanh

Abstract:

This study intends to show the influence of the hydrolytic degradation on the properties of the e-PTFE/NOMEX® membranes used in fire-protective clothing. The modification of water vapour permeability, morphology and chemical structure was examined by MOCON Permatran, electron microscopy scanning (SEM), and ATR-FTIR, respectively. A decrease in permeability to water vapour of the aged samples was observed following closure of transpiration pores. Analysis of fiber morphology indicates the appearance of defects at the fibers surface with the presence of micro cavities as well as the of fibrils. ATR-FTIR analysis reveals the presence of a new absorption band attributed to carboxylic acid terminal groups generated during the amide bond hydrolysis.

Keywords: hydrolytic ageing, moisture membrane, water vapor permeability, morphology

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5981 Development of an Inexpensive Electrocatalytic Energy Material: Cu-Ni-CeO2 for High Performance Alcoholic Fuel Cell

Authors: Sujit Kumar Guchhait, Subir Paul

Abstract:

One of the major research areas is to find an alternative source of energy to fulfill the energy crisis and environmental problems. The Fuel cell is such kind of energy producing unit. Use of fuel cell to produce renewable energy for commercial purpose is limited by the high cost of Pt based electrode material. Development of high energetic, as well as inexpensive fuel cell electrode materials, is needs of hour to produce clean energy using derive bio-fuel. In this present investigation, inexpensive Cu-Ni-CeO2 electrode material has been synthesized by using pulse current. The surface morphology of the electrode materials is controlled by several deposition parameters to increase the rate of electrochemical oxidation of alcoholic fuel, ethanol. The electrochemical characterization of the developed material was done by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Chronoamperometry (CA) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy test. It is interesting to find that both these materials have shown high electrocatalytic properties in terms of high exchange current density (I0), low polarization resistance (Rp) and low impedance. It is seen that the addition of CeO2 to Ni-Cu has outperformed Pt as far as high electrocatalytic properties are concerned. The exchange current density on the Cu-Ni-CeO2 electrode surface for ethanol oxidation is about eight times higher than the same on the Pt surface with much lower polarization resistance than the later. The surface morphology of the electrode materials has been revealed by Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). It is seen that grains are narrow and subspherical with 3D surface containing pores in between two elongated grains. XRD study exhibits the presence of Ni and CeO2 on the Cu surface.

Keywords: electro-catalyst, alcoholic fuel, cyclic voltammetry, potentiodynamic polarization, EIS, XRD, SEM

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5980 Morphology Optimization and Photophysics Study in Air-Processed Perovskite Solar Cells

Authors: Soumitra Satapathi, Anubhav Raghav

Abstract:

Perovskite solar cell technology has passed through a phase of unprecedented growth in the efficiency scale from 3.8% to above 22% within a half decade. This technology has drawn tremendous research interest. It has been observed that performances of perovskite based solar cells are extremely dependent on the morphology and crystallinity of the perovskite layer. It has also been observed that device lifetime depends on the perovskite morphology; devices with larger perovskite grains degrade slowly than those of the smaller ones. Various methods of perovskite growth have been applied to achieve the most appropriate morphology necessary for high efficient solar cells. The recent progress in morphology optimization by various methods emphasizing on grain sizes, stoichiometry, and ambient compatibility as well as photophysics study in air-processed perovskite solar cells will be discussed.

Keywords: perovskite solar cells, morphology optimization, photophysics study, air-processed solar cells

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5979 Submicron Laser-Induced Dot, Ripple and Wrinkle Structures and Their Applications

Authors: P. Slepicka, N. Slepickova Kasalkova, I. Michaljanicova, O. Nedela, Z. Kolska, V. Svorcik

Abstract:

Polymers exposed to laser or plasma treatment or modified with different wet methods which enable the introduction of nanoparticles or biologically active species, such as amino-acids, may find many applications both as biocompatible or anti-bacterial materials or on the contrary, can be applied for a decrease in the number of cells on the treated surface which opens application in single cell units. For the experiments, two types of materials were chosen, a representative of non-biodegradable polymers, polyethersulphone (PES) and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as biodegradable material. Exposure of solid substrate to laser well below the ablation threshold can lead to formation of various surface structures. The ripples have a period roughly comparable to the wavelength of the incident laser radiation, and their dimensions depend on many factors, such as chemical composition of the polymer substrate, laser wavelength and the angle of incidence. On the contrary, biopolymers may significantly change their surface roughness and thus influence cell compatibility. The focus was on the surface treatment of PES and PHB by pulse excimer KrF laser with wavelength of 248 nm. The changes of physicochemical properties, surface morphology, surface chemistry and ablation of exposed polymers were studied both for PES and PHB. Several analytical methods involving atomic force microscopy, gravimetry, scanning electron microscopy and others were used for the analysis of the treated surface. It was found that the combination of certain input parameters leads not only to the formation of optimal narrow pattern, but to the combination of a ripple and a wrinkle-like structure, which could be an optimal candidate for cell attachment. The interaction of different types of cells and their interactions with the laser exposed surface were studied. It was found that laser treatment contributes as a major factor for wettability/contact angle change. The combination of optimal laser energy and pulse number was used for the construction of a surface with an anti-cellular response. Due to the simple laser treatment, we were able to prepare a biopolymer surface with higher roughness and thus significantly influence the area of growth of different types of cells (U-2 OS cells).

Keywords: cell response, excimer laser, polymer treatment, periodic pattern, surface morphology

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5978 Starch Incorporated Hydroxyapatite/Chitin Nanocomposite as a Novel Bone Construct

Authors: Reshma Jolly, Mohammad Shakir, Mohammad Shoeb Khan, Noor E. Iram

Abstract:

A nanocomposite system integrating hydroxyapatite, chitin and starch (n-HA/CT/ST) has been synthesized via co-precipitation approach at room temperature, addressing the issues of biocompatibility, mechanical strength and cytotoxicity required for Bone tissue engineering. The interactions, crystallite size and surface morphology against n-HA/CT (nano-hydroxyapatite/chitin) nanocomposite have been obtained by correlating and comparing the results of FTIR, SEM, TEM and XRD. The comparative study of the bioactivity of n-HA/CT and n-HA/CT/ST nanocomposites revealed that the incorporation of starch as templating agent improved these properties in n-HA/CT/ST nanocomposite. The rise in thermal stability in n-HA/CT/ST nanocomposite as compared to n-HA/CT has been observed by comparing the TGA results. The comparison of SEM images of both the scaffolds indicated that the addition of ST influenced the surface morphology of n-HA/CT scaffold which appeared to be rougher and porous. The MTT assay on murine fibroblast L929 cells and in-vitro bioactivity of n-HA/CT/ST matrix referred superior non-toxic property of n-HA/CT/ST nanocomposite and higher possibility of osteo-integration in-vivo, respectively.

Keywords: bioactive, chitin, hyroxyapatite, nanocomposite

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5977 Enhancement of Hydrophobicity of Thermally Evaporated Bi Thin Films by Oblique Angle Deposition

Authors: Ravish K. Jain, Jatinder Kaur, Shaira Arora, Arun Kumar, Amit K. Chawla, Atul Khanna

Abstract:

Surface-dependent properties such as hydrophobicity can be modified significantly by oblique angle deposition technique. Bi thin films were studied for their hydrophobic nature. The effects of oblique angle deposition on structural, surface morphology, electrical and wettability properties of Bi thin films have been studied and a comparison of these physical properties of normally deposited and obliquely deposited Bi films has been carried out in this study. X-ray diffraction studies found that films have highly oriented hexagonal crystal structure and crystallite size is smaller for obliquely deposited (70 nm) film as compared to that of the normally deposited film (111 nm). Raman spectra of the films consist of peaks corresponding to E_g and A_1g first-order Raman modes of bismuth. The atomic force and scanning electron microscopy studies show that the surface roughness of obliquely deposited film is higher as compared to that of normally deposited film. Contact angle measurements revealed that both films are strongly hydrophobic in nature with the contact angles of 105ᵒ and 119ᵒ for normally and obliquely deposited films respectively. Oblique angle deposition enhances the hydrophobicity of the film. The electrical conductivity of the film is significantly reduced by oblique angle deposition. The activation energies for electrical conduction were determined by four-probe measurements and are 0.016 eV and 0.018 eV for normally and obliquely deposited films respectively.

Keywords: bi thin films, hydrophobicity, oblique angle deposition, surface morphology

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5976 Vascular Foramina of the Capitate Bone of the Hand – an Anatomical Study

Authors: Latha V. Prabhu, B.V. Murlimanju, P.J. Jiji, Mangala M. Pai

Abstract:

Background: The capitate is the largest among the carpal bones. There exists no literature about the vascular foramina of the capitate bone. The objective of the present study was to investigate the morphology and number of the nutrient foramina in the cadaveric dried capitate bones of the Indian population. Methods: The present study included 59 capitate bones (25 right sided and 34 left sided) which were obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory of our institution. The bones were macroscopically observed for the nutrient foramina and the data was collected with respect to their number. The tabulation of the data and analysis were done. Results: All of our specimens (100%) exhibited the nutrient foramina over the non-articular and articular surfaces. The foramina were observed at the medial, lateral, palmar and dorsal surfaces of the capitate bones. The foramina were ranged from 6 to 23 in each capitate bone. In the medial surface, the foramina ranged from 1 to 6, lateral surface from 0 to 7, the foramina ranged between 0 and 5 in the palmar surface. However most of the foramina were located at the dorsal surface which ranged from 3 to 11. Conclusion: We believe that the present study has provided additional data about the nutrient foramina of the capitate bones. The data is enlightening to the orthopedic surgeon and would help in the hand surgeries. The knowledge about the foramina is also important to the radiologists to prevent the misinterpretation of the findings in the x ray and computed tomogram scan films. The foramina may mimick like erosions and ossicles. The morphological knowledge of the vasculature, their foramina of entry and number is required to understand the concepts in the avascular necrosis of the capitate.

Keywords: avascular necrosis, capitate, morphology, nutrient foramen

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5975 Preparation and Application of Biocompatible Nanobioactive Glass as Therapeutic Agents for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: P. Shrivastava, S. Vijayalakshmi, A. K. Singh, S. Dalai, R. Teotia, P. Sharma, J. Bellare

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the synthesis and application of nanobioactive glass for bone regeneration studies. Nanobioactive glass has been synthesized by sol gel method having a combination of silicon, calcium and phosphorous in the molar ratio of 75:21:4. The prepared particles were analyzed for surface morphology by FEG SEM and FEG TEM. Physiochemical properties were investigated using ICP AES, FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. To ascertain their use for therapeutic use, biocompatibility evaluation of the particles was done by performing soaking studies in SBF and in vitro cell culture studies on MG63 cell lines. Cell morphology was observed by FE SEM and phase contrast microscopy. Nanobioactive glasses (NBG) thus prepared were of 30-200 nm in size, which makes them suitable for nano-biomedical applications. The spherical shape of the particles imparts high surface to volume ratio, promoting fast growth of hydroxyapatite (HA), which is the mineral component of bone. As evaluated by in vitro cell culture studies the NBG was found to enhance the surface activation which enhances osteoblast adhesion. This is an essential parameter to improve bone tissue integration, thereby making nanobioactive glass therapeutically suitable for correcting bone defects.

Keywords: biocompatibility, bone tissue engineering, hydroxyapatite, nanobioactive glass

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5974 Effect of Nitrogen Gaseous Plasma on Cotton Fabric Dyed with Reactive Yellow105

Authors: Mohammad Mirjalili, Hamid Akbarpour

Abstract:

In this work, a bleached well cotton sample was dyed with reactive yellow105 dye and subsequently, the dyed sample was exposed to the plasma condition containing Nitrogen gas at 1 and 5 minutes of plasma exposure time, respectively. The effect of plasma on surface morphology fabric was studied by Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM). CIELab, K/S, and %R of samples (treated and untreated samples) were measured by a reflective spectrophotometer, and consequently, the experiments show that the sample dyed with Reactive yellow 105 after being washed, with the increase in the operation time of plasma, its dye fastness decreases. In addition, the increase in plasma operation time at constant pressure would increase the destructing effect on the surface morphology of samples dyed with reactive yellow105.

Keywords: cotton fabric, nitrogen cold plasma, reflective spectrophotometer, scanning electronic microscope (SEM), reactive yellow105 dye

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5973 Preparation of Silicon-Based Oxide Hollow Nanofibers Using Single-Nozzle Electrospinning

Authors: Juiwen Liang, Choliang Chung

Abstract:

In this study, the silicon-base oxide nanofibers with hollow structure were prepared using single-nozzle electrospinning and heat treatment. Firstly, precursor solution was prepared: the Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) dissolved in ethanol and to make sure the concentration of solution in appropriate using single-nozzle electrospinning to produce the nanofibers. Secondly, control morphology of the electrostatic spinning nanofibers was conducted, and design the temperature profile to created hollow nanofibers, exploring the morphology and properties of nanofibers. The characterized of nanofibers, following instruments were used: Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The AFM was used to scan the nanofibers, and 3D Graphics were applied to explore the surface morphology of fibers. FE-SEM and TEM were used to explore the morphology and diameter of nanofibers and hollow nanofiber. The excitation and emission spectra explored by PL. Finally, XRD was used for identified crystallization of ceramic nanofibers. Using electrospinning technique followed by subsequent heat treatment, we have successfully prepared silicon-base oxide nanofibers with hollow structure. Thus, the microstructure and morphology of electrostatic spinning silicon-base oxide hollow nanofibers were explored. Major characteristics of the nanofiber in terms of crystalline, optical properties and crystal structure were identified.

Keywords: electrospinning, single-nozzle, hollow, nanofibers

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5972 The Catalytic Activity of CU2O Microparticles

Authors: Kanda Wongwailikhit

Abstract:

Copper (I) oxide microparticles with the morphology of cubic and hollow sphere were synthesized with the assistance of a surfactant as the shape controller. Both particles were then subjected to a study of the catalytic activity and the results of shape effects of catalysts on rate of catalytic reaction was observed. The decolorizing reaction of crystal violet and sodium hydroxide was chosen and the decrease of reactant with respect to time was measured using a spectrophotometer. The result revealed that morphology of the crystal had no effect on the catalytic activity for the crystal violet reaction but contributed to total surface area predominantly.

Keywords: copper (I) oxide, catalytic activity, crystal violet

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5971 The Effect of Calcining Temperature on Photocatalytic Activity of Porous ZnO Architecture

Authors: M. Masar, P. Janota, J. Sedlak, M. Machovsky, I. Kuritka

Abstract:

Zinc oxide (ZnO) nano crystals assembled porous architecture was prepared by thermal decomposition of zinc oxalate precursor at various temperatures ranging from 400-900°C. The effect of calcining temperature on structure and morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetry, and BET adsorption analysis. The porous nano crystalline ZnO morphology was developed due to the release of volatile precursor products, while the overall shape of ZnO micro crystals was retained as a legacy of the precursor. The average crystallite size increased with increasing temperature of calcination from approximately 21 nm to 79 nm, while the specific surface area decreased from 30 to 1.7 m2g-1. The photo catalytic performance of prepared ZnO powders was evaluated by degradation of methyl violet 2B, a model compound. The significantly highest photo catalytic activity was achieved with powder calcined at 500°C. This may be attributed to the sufficiently well-developed crystalline arrangement, while the specific surface area is still high enough.

Keywords: ZnO, porous structure, photodegradation, methyl violet

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5970 The Study of Wetting Properties of Silica-Poly (Acrylic Acid) Thin Film Coatings

Authors: Sevil Kaynar Turkoglu, Jinde Zhang, Jo Ann Ratto, Hanna Dodiuk, Samuel Kenig, Joey Mead

Abstract:

Superhydrophilic, crack-free thin film coatings based on silica nanoparticles were fabricated by dip-coating method. Both thermodynamic and dynamic effects on the wetting properties of the thin films were investigated by modifying the coating formulation via changing the particle-to-binder ratio and weight % of silica in solution. The formulated coatings were characterized by a number of analyses. Water contact angle (WCA) measurements were conducted for all coatings to characterize the surface wetting properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken to examine the morphology of the coating surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis was done to study surface topography. The presence of hydrophilic functional groups and nano-scale roughness were found to be responsible for the superhydrophilic behavior of the films. In addition, surface chemistry, compared to surface roughness, was found to be a primary factor affecting the wetting properties of the thin film coatings.

Keywords: poly (acrylic acid), silica nanoparticles, superhydrophilic coatings, surface wetting

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