Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 342

Search results for: sensory

342 Relation between Sensory Processing Patterns and Working Memory in Autistic Children

Authors: Abbas Nesayan


Background: In recent years, autism has been under consideration in public and research area. Autistic children have dysfunction in communication, socialization, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. In addition, they clinically suffer from difficulty in attention, challenge with familiar behaviors and sensory processing problems. Several variables are linked to sensory processing problems in autism, one of these variables is working memory. Working memory is part of the executive function which provides the necessary ability to completing multiple stages tasks. Method: This study has categorized in correlational research methods. After determining of entry criteria, according to purposive sampling method, 50 children were selected. Dunn’s sensory profile school companion was used for assessment of sensory processing patterns; behavioral rating inventory of executive functions was used (BRIEF) for assessment of working memory. Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression were used for data analyzing. Results: The results showed the significant relationship between sensory processing patterns (low registration, sensory seeking, sensory sensitivity and sensory avoiding) with working memory in autistic children. Conclusion: According to the findings, there is the significant relationship between the patterns of sensory processing and working memory. So, in order to improve the working memory could be used some interventions based on the sensory processing.

Keywords: sensory processing patterns, working memory, autism, autistic children

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341 A Pilot Study on the Sensory Processing Difficulty Pattern Association between the Hot and Cold Executive Function Deficits in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Deficit Child

Authors: Sheng-Fen Fan, Sung-Hui Tseng


Attention deficit hyperactivity deficit (ADHD) child display diverse sensory processing difficulty behaviors. There is less evidence to figure out how the association between executive function and sensory deficit. To determine whether sensory deficit influence the executive functions, we examined sensory processing by SPM and try to indicate hot/cold executive function (EF) by BRIEF2, respectively. We found that the hot executive function deficit might associate with auditory processing in a variety of settings, and vestibular input to maintain balance and upright posture; the cold EF deficit might opposite to the hot EF deficit, the vestibular sensory modulation difficulty association with emotion shifting and emotional regulation. These results suggest that sensory processing might be another consideration factor to influence the higher cognitive control or emotional regulation of EF. Overall, this study indicates the distinction between hot and cold EF impairments with different sensory modulation problem. Moreover, for clinician, it needs more cautious consideration to conduct intervention with ADHD.

Keywords: hot executive function, cold executive function, sensory processing, ADHD

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340 Ulnar Nerve Changes Associated with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Not Affecting Median versus Ulnar Comparative Studies

Authors: Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Sarah Sayed El-Tawab


The present study was conducted to assess the involvement of ulnar sensory and/or motor nerve fibers in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and whether this affects the accuracy of the median versus ulnar comparative tests. The present study included 145 CTS hands and 71 asymptomatic control hands. Clinical examination was done. The following tests were done: Sensory conduction studies: median, ulnar and dorsal ulnar cutaneous nerves; and median versus ulnar digit (D) four sensory comparative study; and motor conduction studies: median nerve, ulnar nerve and median versus ulnar motor comparative study. It was found that 17 CTS hands (11.7%) had ulnar sensory abnormalities in 17 different patients. The median versus ulnar sensory and motor comparative studies were abnormal among all these 17 CTS hands. There were significant negative correlations between median motor latency and both ulnar sensory amplitudes recording D5 and D4. In conclusion, there is ulnar sensory nerve abnormality among CTS patients. This abnormality affects the amplitude of ulnar sensory nerve action potential. This does not affect the median versus ulnar sensory and motor comparative tests accuracy for use in CTS.

Keywords: median nerve, motor comparative study, sensory comparative study, ulnar nerve

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339 Use of External Sensory Stimuli in the Treatment of Parkinson Disease: Literature Review

Authors: Hadi O. Tohme


This study is a review on the effectiveness of new physiotherapy techniques with external sensory stimulus compared to standard physiotherapy in the daily activities of patients with Parkinson's disease. Twenty studies from 1996 to 2015 were analyzed and discussed in this review, using the rehabilitation strategy with external sensory stimulus evaluating walking, freezing episodes, balance, transfers, and daily activities of parkinsonian patients. The study highlights the effectiveness of the variety of rehabilitation with cueing strategy used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Based on the literature review completed, there is a need for more specific trials with better treatment strategies to support the most appropriate choice of physiotherapy intervention using external sensory stimulus to the type and frequency of this stimulus. In addition, no trials examined the long-term benefits of the physiotherapy intervention with the external sensory stimulus. In order to determine if, or how long the improvements due to the external sensory stimulus physiotherapy intervention can last, long-term follow-up should be performed.

Keywords: cueing strategy, external sensory stimulus, parkinson disease, rehabilitation for parkinson, sensory attention focused exercises, sensory strategy reeducation

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
338 Association of Sensory Processing and Cognitive Deficits in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders – Pioneer Study in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rana Zeina


Objective: The association between Sensory problems and cognitive abilities has been studied in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). In this study, we used a neuropsychological test to evaluate memory and attention in ASDs children with sensory problems compared to the ASDs children without sensory problems. Methods: Four visual memory tests of Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) including Big/Little Circle (BLC), Simple Reaction Time (SRT), Intra/Extra Dimensional Set Shift (IED), Spatial Recognition Memory (SRM), were administered to 14 ASDs children with sensory problems compared to 13 ASDs without sensory problems aged 3 to 12 with IQ of above 70. Results: ASDs Individuals with sensory problems performed worse than the ASDs group without sensory problems on comprehension, learning, reversal and simple reaction time tasks, and no significant difference between the two groups was recorded in terms of the visual memory and visual comprehension tasks. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that ASDs children with sensory problems are facing deficits in learning, comprehension, reversal, and speed of response to stimuli.

Keywords: visual memory, attention, autism spectrum disorders, CANTAB eclipse

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337 Ulnar Nerve Changes Associated with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Effect on Median Ersus Ulnar Comparative Studies

Authors: Emmanuel K. Aziz Saba, Sarah S. El-Tawab


Objectives: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) was found to be associated with high pressure within the Guyon’s canal. The aim of this study was to assess the involvement of sensory and/or motor ulnar nerve fibers in patients with CTS and whether this affects the accuracy of the median versus ulnar sensory and motor comparative tests. Patients and methods: The present study included 145 CTS hands and 71 asymptomatic control hands. Clinical examination was done for all patients. The following tests were done for the patients and control: (1) Sensory conduction studies: median nerve, ulnar nerve, dorsal ulnar cutaneous nerve and median versus ulnar digit (D) four sensory comparative study; (2) Motor conduction studies: median nerve, ulnar nerve and median versus ulnar motor comparative study. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between patients and control group as regards parameters of ulnar motor study and dorsal ulnar cutaneous sensory conduction study. It was found that 17 CTS hands (11.7%) had ulnar sensory abnormalities in 17 different patients. The median versus ulnar sensory and motor comparative studies were abnormal among all these 17 CTS hands. There were statistically significant negative correlations between median motor latency and both ulnar sensory amplitudes recording D5 and D4. There were statistically significant positive correlations between median sensory conduction velocity and both ulnar sensory nerve action potential amplitude recording D5 and D4. Conclusions: There is ulnar sensory nerve abnormality among CTS patients. This abnormality affects the amplitude of ulnar sensory nerve action potential. The presence of abnormalities in ulnar nerve occurs in moderate and severe degrees of CTS. This does not affect the median versus ulnar sensory and motor comparative tests accuracy and validity for use in electrophysiological diagnosis of CTS.

Keywords: carpal tunnel syndrome, ulnar nerve, median nerve, median versus ulnar comparative study, dorsal ulnar cutaneous nerve

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336 A Systematic Review of Quality of Life in Older Adults with Sensory Impairments

Authors: Ya-Chuan Tseng, Hsin-Yi Liu, Meei-Fang Lou, Guey-Shiun Huang


Purpose: Sensory impairments are common in older adults. Hearing and visual impairments affect their physical and mental health and quality of life (QOL) adversely. However, systematic reviews of the relationship between hearing impairment, visual impairment, dual sensory impairment and quality of life are scarce. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the relationship between hearing impairment, visual impairment, dual sensory impairment and quality of life. Methods: Searches of EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and Airiti Library were conducted between January 2006 and December 2017 using the keywords ‘quality of life,’ ‘life satisfaction,’ ‘well-being,’ ‘hearing impairment’ and ‘visual impairment’ Two authors independently assessed methodologic quality using a modified Downs and Black tool. Data were extracted by the first author and then cross-checked by the second author. Results: Twenty-three studies consisting mostly of community-dwelling older adults were included in our review. Sensory impairment was found to be in significant association with quality of life, with an increase in hearing impairment or visual impairment severity resulting in a lower quality of life. Quality of life for dual sensory impairment was worse than for hearing impairment or visual impairment individually. Conclusions: A significant association was confirmed between hearing impairment, visual impairment, dual sensory impairment and quality of life. Our review can be used to enhance health care personnel’s understanding of sensory impairment in older adults and enable healthcare personnel to actively assess older adults’ sensory functions so that they can help alleviate the negative impact of sensory impairments on QOL in older adults.

Keywords: nursing, older adults, quality of life, systematic review, hearing impairment, visual impairment

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335 Status of Sensory Profile Score among Children with Autism in Selected Centers of Dhaka City

Authors: Sk. Moniruzzaman


Autism is a neurobiological disorder that affects physical, social, and language skills of a person. A child with autism feels difficulty for processing, integrating and responding to sensory stimuli. As Autism is a worldwide burning issue, it becomes highly prioritized and important service provision in Bangladesh. The sensory deficit does not only hamper the normal development of a child, it also hampers the learning process and functional independence. The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of sensory dysfunction among children with autism and recognize common pattern of the sensory dysfunction. A cross-sectional survey study design was chosen to carry out this research work. This study enrolled eighty children with autism and their parents by using systematic sampling method. In this study, data were collected through the Short Sensory Profile (SSP) assessment tool which consists of 38-items in the questionnaire and graduate Occupational Therapists were directly involved during interviewing with parents as well as observed child responses to sensory related activities of those children with autism from four selected autism centers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. All item analysis were conducted to identify items yielding or resulting in the highest reported sensory processing dysfunction among those children through using SSP and Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21.0 for data analysis. This study revealed that almost 78.25% of children with autism had significantly sensory processing dysfunction based on their sensory response with relevant activities. Under-responsive sensory seeking and auditory filtering was a least common problem among them. On the other hand, most of them 95% were represented that they had definite to probable difference in sensory processing including under-response or sensory seeking, auditory filtering and tactile sensitivity. Besides, the result also showed that the definite difference of sensory processing among 64 children within 100%; it means those children with autism suffered by the sensory difficulties and thus it drew a great impact on the children’s Daily Living Activities (ADLs) as well as social interaction with others. Almost 95% of children with autism have required intervention to overcome or normalize the problem. The result made insight regarding types of sensory processing dysfunction to consider during diagnosis and ascertaining the treatment. So, early sensory problem identification is very important and thus will help to provide appropriate sensory input to minimize the maladaptive behavior and enhance to reach the normal range of adaptive behavior.

Keywords: autism, occupational therapy, sensory processing difficulties, sensory profile

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334 Game Space Program: Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Khodijah Salimah


Game Space Program is the program design and development game for therapy the autistic child who had problems with sensory processing and integration. This program is the basic for game space to expand treatment therapy in many areas to help autistic's ability to think through visual perception. This problem can be treated with sensory experience and integration with visual experience to learn how to think and how to learn with visual perception. This perception can be accommodated through an understanding of visual thinking received from sensory exist in game space as virtual healthcare facilities are adjusted based on the sensory needs of children with autism. This paper aims to analyze the potential of virtual visual thinking for treatment autism with the game space program.

Keywords: autism, game space program, sensory, virtual healthcare facilities, visual perception

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333 Production and Evaluation of Jam Made from Pineapple (Ananas comosus) and Grape (Vitis vinifera)

Authors: Z. O. Apotiola, J. F. Fashakin


This project studied the production and evaluation of jam produced from pineapple and grape at different level of ratio (90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, and 100%). The proximate and sensory properties were determined using standard methods. The (GDZ) was the highest for protein, moisture, fat and ash, (KFJ) was the highest for carbohydrate. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in samples (PAB, GDZ, BEN) for moisture. Also, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in samples (PAB, BBL, GDZ, KFJ) for protein. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in samples (PAB, BBL, BEN) for carbohydrate. Also, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in samples (PAB, BBL, QCM, GDZ, BEN) for fat and there were significant differences (p<0.05) in samples (PAB, BBL, GDZ) for ash. (KFJ) was the highest for pH, (BBL and QCM) was the highest for Vitamin C; (GDZ) was the highest for titratable acidity. For sensory properties, for aroma, colour, flavour, and overall acceptability were tested using panellists; the result showed that (KFJ) had the highest for all samples. From the results of chemical and sensory characteristics sample BBL was the best combination.

Keywords: chemical, characteristic, combination, titratable, sensory, significant

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332 The Effect of Sensory Integration in Reduction of Stereotype Behaviour in Autistic Children

Authors: Mohammad Khamoushi, Reza Mirmahdi


The aim of this research was the effect of sensory integration in reduction of stereotype behaviors in autistic children. The statistical population included 55 children with the age range 2/8 – 14 in Esfahan Ordibehesht autistic center. Purposive sampling was used for selecting the sample group and 20 children with random assignment were designated in two group; experimental and control . Research project was quasi-experimental two-group with pretest and posttest. Data collection tools included repetitive behavior scale-revised with six sub-scales: stereotype behavior, self-injurious behavior, compulsive behavior, ritualistic behavior, sameness behavior, restricted behavior. Analysis of covariance was used for analyzing hypotheses. Result show that sensory integration procedure was effective in reduction of stereotype behavior, compulsive behavior and self-injurious behavior in autistic children. According to the findings, it is suggested that effect sensory integration procedure in stereotype behavior of autism children should be studied and used for treatment of other disabilities of this children.

Keywords: autism, sensory integration procedure, stereotype behavior, compulsive behavior

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331 Utilising Sociodrama as Classroom Intervention to Develop Sensory Integration in Adolescents who Present with Mild Impaired Learning

Authors: Talita Veldsman, Elzette Fritz


Many children attending special education present with sensory integration difficulties that hamper their learning and behaviour. These learners can benefit from therapeutic interventions as part of their classroom curriculum that can address sensory development and allow for holistic development to take place. A research study was conducted by utilizing socio-drama as a therapeutic intervention in the classroom in order to develop sensory integration skills. The use of socio-drama as therapeutic intervention proved to be a successful multi-disciplinary approach where education and psychology could build a bridge of growth and integration. The paper describes how socio-drama was used in the classroom and how these sessions were designed. The research followed a qualitative approach and involved six Afrikaans-speaking children attending special secondary school in the age group 12-14 years. Data collection included observations during the session, reflective art journals, semi-structured interviews with the teacher and informal interviews with the adolescents. The analysis found improved self-confidence, better social relationships, sensory awareness and self-regulation in the participants after a period of a year.

Keywords: education, sensory integration, sociodrama, classroom intervention, psychology

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330 Body, Experience, Sense, and Place: Past and Present Sensory Mappings of Istiklal Street in Istanbul

Authors: Asiye Nisa Kartal


An attempt to recognize the undiscovered bounds of Istiklal Street in Istanbul between its sensory experiences (intangible qualities) and physical setting (tangible qualities) could be taken as the first inspiration point for this study. ‘The dramatic physical changes’ and ‘their current impacts on sensory attributions’ of Istiklal Street have directed this study to consider the role of changing the physical layout on sensory dimensions which have a subtle but important role in the examination of urban places. The public places have always been subject to transformation, so in the last years, the changing socio-cultural structure, economic and political movements, law and city regulations, innovative transportation and communication activities have resulted in a controversial modification of Istanbul. And, as the culture, entertainment, tourism, and shopping focus of Istanbul, Istiklal Street has witnessed different changing stages within the last years. In this process, because of the projects being implemented, many buildings such as cinemas, theatres, and bookstores have restored, moved, converted, closed and demolished which have been significant elements in terms of the qualitative value of this area. And, the multi-layered socio-cultural, and architectural structure of Istiklal Street has been changing in a dramatical and controversial way. But importantly, while the physical setting of Istiklal Street has changed, the transformation has not been spatial, socio-cultural, economic; avoidably the sensory dimensions of Istiklal Street which have great importance in terms of intangible qualities of this area have begun to lose their distinctive features. This has created the challenge of this research. As the main hypothesis, this study claims that the physical transformations have led to change in the sensory characteristic of Istiklal Street, therefore the Sensescape of Istiklal Street deserve to be recorded, decoded and promoted as expeditiously as possible to observe the sensory reflections of physical transformations in this area. With the help of the method of ‘Sensewalking’ which is an efficient research tool to generate knowledge on sensory dimensions of an urban settlement, this study suggests way of ‘mapping’ to understand how do ‘changes of physical setting’ play role on ‘sensory qualities’ of Istiklal Street which have been changed or lost over time. Basically, this research focuses on the sensory mapping of Istiklal Street from the 1990s until today to picture, interpret, criticize the ‘sensory mapping of Istiklal Street in present’ and the ‘sensory mapping of Istiklal Street in past’. Through the sensory mapping of Istiklal Street, this study intends to increase the awareness about the distinctive sensory qualities of places. It is worthwhile for further studies that consider the sensory dimensions of places especially in the field of architecture.

Keywords: Istiklal street, sense, sensewalking, sensory mapping

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329 The Study of Sensory Breadth Experiences in an Online Try-On Environment

Authors: Tseng-Lung Huang


Sensory breadth experiences, such as visualization, a sense of self-location, and haptic experiences, are critical in an online try-on environment. This research adopts an emotional appeal perspective, including concrete and abstract effects, to clarify the relationship between sensory experience and consumer's behavior intention in an online try-on context. This study employed an augmented reality interactive technology (ARIT) in an online clothes-fitting context and applied snowball sampling using e-mail to invite online consumers, first to use ARIT for trying on online apparel and then to complete a questionnaire. One hundred sixty-eight valid questionnaires were collected, and partial least squares (PLS) path modeling was used to test our hypotheses. The results showed that sensory breadth, by arousing concrete effect, induces impulse buying intention and willingness to pay a price premium of online shopping. Parasocial presence, as an abstract effect, diminishes the effect of concrete effects on willingness to pay a price premium.

Keywords: sensory breadth, impulsive behavior, price premium, emotional appeal, online try-on context

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328 The Effects of Salts Concentration into Microbiological, Physio-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Tempoyak (Indonesian Fermented Durian Flesh)

Authors: Addion Nizori, Mursalin, Dharia Renathe, Lavlinesia, Fitry Tafzi


Tempoyak was made from fermented durian flesh, which very popular among Jambi people Indonesia. This study aims to isolate and identification of bacteria developed during fermentations, determine physical-chemical properties of Tempoyak as the effect of adding salts at various concentration and the sensory evaluations of Tempoyak produced is also evaluated. The predominant microorganisms present in Tempoyak were Lactobacillus bacteria. The results also showed that the level of salts concentration has a significant effect on pH, lactic acid content, however, not has a significant impact on sensory evaluations. The best results were 3% of adding salts with the product properties of pH 3.64, lactic acid content 3.11% and overall acceptance score is 3.41.

Keywords: Tempoyak, fermented foods, salts, sensory

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327 The Influence of the Types of Smoke Powder and Storage Duration on Sensory Quality of Balinese Beef and Buffalo Meatballs

Authors: E. Abustam, M. I. Said, M. Yusuf, H. M. Ali


This study aims to examine the sensory quality of meatballs made from Balinese beef and buffalo meat after the addition of smoke powder prior to storage at the temperatures of 2-5°C for 7 days. This study used meat from Longissimus dorsi muscle of male Balinese cattle aged 3 years and of male buffalo aged 5 years as the main raw materials, and smoke powder as a binder and preservative in making meatballs. The study was based on completely randomized design (CRD) of factorial pattern of 2 x 3 x 2 where factors 1, 2 and 3 included the types of meat (cattle and buffalo), types of smoke powder (oven dried, freeze dried and spray dried) with a level of 2% of the weight of the meat (b/b), and storage duration (0 and 7 days) with three replications respectively. The parameters measured were the meatball sensory quality (scores of tenderness, firmness, chewing residue, and intensity of flavor). The results of this study show that each type of meat has produced different sensory characteristics. The meatballs made from buffalo meat have higher tenderness and elasticity scores than the Balinese beef. Meanwhile, the buffalo meatballs have a lower residue mastication score than the Balinese beef. Each type of smoke powders has produced a relatively similar sensory quality of meatballs. It can be concluded that the smoke powder of 2% of the weight of the meat (w/w) could maintain the sensory quality of the meatballs for 7 days of storage.

Keywords: Balinese beef meatballs, buffalo meatballs, sensory quality, smoke powder

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326 Clinical Profile of Oral Sensory Abilities in Developmental Dysarthria

Authors: Swapna N., Deepthy Ann Joy


One of the major causes of communication disorders in pediatric population is Motor speech disorders. These disorders which affect the motor aspects of speech articulators can have an adverse effect on the communication abilities of children in their developmental period. The motor aspects are dependent on the sensory abilities of children with motor speech disorders. Hence, oral sensorimotor evaluation is an important component in the assessment of children with motor speech disorders. To our knowledge, the importance of oral motor examination has been well established, yet the sensory assessment of the oral structures has received less focus. One of the most common motor speech disorders seen in children is developmental dysarthria. The present study aimed to assess the orosensory aspects in children with developmental dysarthria (CDD). The control group consisted of 240 children in the age range of four and eight years which was divided into four subgroups (4-4.11, 5-5.11, 6-6.11 and 7-7.11 years). The experimental group consisted of 15 children who were diagnosed with developmental dysarthria secondary to cerebral palsy who belonged in the age range of four and eight years. The oro-sensory aspects such as response to touch, temperature, taste, texture, and orofacial sensitivity were evaluated and profiled. For this purpose, the authors used the ‘Oral Sensorimotor Evaluation Protocol- Children’ which was developed by the authors. The oro-sensory section of the protocol was administered and the clinical profile of oro-sensory abilities of typically developing children and CDD was obtained for each of the sensory abilities. The oro-sensory abilities of speech articulators such as lips, tongue, palate, jaw, and cheeks were assessed in detail and scored. The results indicated that experimental group had poorer scores on oro-sensory aspects such as light static touch, kinetic touch, deep pressure, vibration and double simultaneous touch. However, it was also found that the experimental group performed similar to control group on few aspects like temperature, taste, texture and orofacial sensitivity. Apart from the oro-motor abilities which has received utmost interest, the variation in the oro-sensory abilities of experimental and control group is highlighted and discussed in the present study. This emphasizes the need for assessing the oro-sensory abilities in children with developmental dysarthria in addition to oro-motor abilities.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, developmental dysarthria, orosensory assessment, touch

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325 Proximate, Functional and Sensory Evaluation of Some Brands of Instant Noodles in Nigeria

Authors: Olakunle Moses Makanjuola, Adebola Ajayi


Noodles are made from unleavened dough, rolled flat and cut into shapes. The instant noodle market is growing fast in Asian countries and is gaining popularity in the western market. This project reports on the proximate functional and sensory evaluation of different brands of instant noodles in Nigeria. The comparisons were based on proximate functional and sensory evaluation of the product. The result obtained from the proximate analysis showed that sample QHR has the highest moisture content, sample BMG has the highest protein content, sample CPO has the highest fat content, sample. The obtained result from the functional properties showed that sample BMG (Dangote noodles) had the highest volume increase after cooking due to its high swelling capacity, high water absorption capacity and high hydration capacity. Sample sensory analysis of the noodles showed that all the samples are of significant difference (at P < 0.05) in terms of colour, texture, and aroma but there is no significant difference in terms of taste and overall acceptability. Sample QHR (Indomie noodles) is the most preferred by the panelists.

Keywords: proximate, functional, sensory evaluation, noodles

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324 Psychometric Properties of the Sensory Processing Measure Preschool-Home among Children with Autism in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Shahad Alkhalifah, Jonh Wright


Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder associated, for 42% to 88% of people with ASD, with sensory processing disorders. Sensory processing disorders (SPD) impact daily functioning, and it is, therefore, essential to be able to diagnose them accurately. Currently, however, there is no assessment tool available for the Saudi Arabia (SA) population that would cover a wider enough age range. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the Sensory Processing Measure Preschool-Home Form (SPM-P) when used in English, with a population of English-speaking Saudi participants. This was chosen due to time limitations and the urgency in providing practitioners with appropriate tools. Using a convenience sampling approach group of caregivers of typically developing (TD) children and a group of caregivers for children with ASD were recruited (N = 40 and N = 16, respectively), and completed the SPM-P Home Form. Participants were also invited to complete it again after two weeks for test-retest reliability, and respectively, nine and five agreed. Reliability analyses suggested some issues with a few items when used in the Saudi culture, and, along with interscale correlations, it highlighted concerns with the factor structure. However, it was also found that the SPM-P Home has good criterion-based validity, and it is, therefore, suggested that it can be used until a tool is developed through translation and cultural adaptation. It is also suggested that the current factor structure of SPM-P Home is reassessed using a large sample.

Keywords: autism, sensory, assessment, reliability, sensory processing dysfunction, preschool, validity

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323 Effect of Sensory Manipulations on Human Joint Stiffness Strategy and Its Adaptation for Human Dynamic Stability

Authors: Aizreena Azaman, Mai Ishibashi, Masanori Ishizawa, Shin-Ichiroh Yamamoto


Sensory input plays an important role to human posture control system to initiate strategy in order to counterpart any unbalance condition and thus, prevent fall. In previous study, joint stiffness was observed able to describe certain issues regarding to movement performance. But, correlation between balance ability and joint stiffness is still remains unknown. In this study, joint stiffening strategy at ankle and hip were observed under different sensory manipulations and its correlation with conventional clinical test (Functional Reach Test) for balance ability was investigated. In order to create unstable condition, two different surface perturbations (tilt up-tilt (TT) down and forward-backward (FB)) at four different frequencies (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 Hz) were introduced. Furthermore, four different sensory manipulation conditions (include vision and vestibular system) were applied to the subject and they were asked to maintain their position as possible. The results suggested that joint stiffness were high during difficult balance situation. Less balance people generated high average joint stiffness compared to balance people. Besides, adaptation of posture control system under repetitive external perturbation also suggested less during sensory limited condition. Overall, analysis of joint stiffening response possible to predict unbalance situation faced by human.

Keywords: balance ability, joint stiffness, sensory, adaptation, dynamic

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
322 The Impact of Sensory Overload on Students on the Autism Spectrum in Italian Inclusive Classrooms: Teachers' Perspectives and Training Needs

Authors: Paola Molteni, Luigi d’Alonzo


Background: Sensory issues are now considered one of the key aspects in defining and diagnosing autism, changing the perspectives on behavioural analysis and intervention in mainstream educational services. However, Italian teachers’ training is yet not specific on the topic of autism and its sensory-related effects and this research investigates the teacher’s capability in understanding the student’s needs and his/her challenging behaviours considering sensory perceptions. Objectives: The research aims to analyse mainstream schools teachers’ awareness on students’ sensory perceptions and how this affects classroom inclusion and learning process. The research questions are: i) Are teachers able to identify student’s sensory issues?; ii) Are trained teachers more able to identify sensory problems then untrained ones?; iii) What is the impact of sensory issues on inclusion in mainstream classrooms?; iv) What should teachers know about autistic sensory dimensions? Methods: This research was designed as a pilot study that involves a multi-methods approach, including action and collaborative research methodology. The designed research allows the researcher to catch the complexity of a province school district (from kindergarten to high school) through a deep detailed analysis of selected aspects. The researcher explored the questions described above through 133 questionnaires and 6 focus groups. The qualitative and quantitative data collected during the research were analysed using the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Results: Mainstream schools teachers are not able to confidently recognise sensory issues of children included in the classroom. The research underlines: how professionals with no specific training on autism are not able to recognise sensory problems in students on the spectrum; how hearing and sight issues have higher impact on classroom inclusion and student’s learning process; how a lack of understanding is often followed by misinterpretations of the impact of sensory issues and challenging behaviours. Conclusions: As this research has shown, promoting and enhancing the importance of understanding sensory issues related to autism is fundamental to enable mainstream schools teachers to define educational and life-long plans able to properly answer the student’s needs and support his/her real inclusion in the classroom. This study is a good example of how the educational research can meet and help the daily practice in working with people on the autism spectrum and support the training design for mainstream school teachers: the emerging need of designed preparation on sensory issues is fundamental to be considered when planning school district in-service training programmes, specifically declined for inclusive services.

Keywords: autism spectrum condition, scholastic inclusion, sensory overload, teacher's training

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321 Effects of Boiling Temperature and Time on Colour, Texture and Sensory Properties of Volutharpa ampullacea perryi Meat

Authors: Xianbao Sun, Jinlong Zhao, Shudong He, Jing Li


Volutharpa ampullacea perryi is a high-protein marine shellfish. However, few data are available on the effects of boiling temperatures and time on quality of the meat. In this study, colour, texture and sensory characteristics of Volutharpa ampullacea perryi meat during the boiling cooking processes (75-100 °C, 5-60 min) were investigated by colors analysis, texture profile analysis (TPA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and sensory evaluation. The ratio of cooking loss gradually increased with the increase of temperature and time. The colour of meat became lighter and more yellower from 85 °C to 95 °C in a short time (5-20 min), but it became brown after a 30 min treatment. TPA results showed that the Volutharpa ampullacea perryi meat were more firm and less cohesive after a higher temperature (95-100 °C) treatment even in a short period (5-15 min). Based on the SEM analysis, it was easily found that the myofibrils structure was destroyed at a higher temperature (85-100 °C). Sensory data revealed that the meat cooked at 85-90 °C in 10-20 min showed higher scores in overall acceptance, as well as color, hardness and taste. Based on these results, it could be constructed that Volutharpa ampullacea perryi meat should be heated on a suitable condition (such as 85 °C 15 min or 90 °C 10 min) in the boiling cooking to be ensure a better acceptability.

Keywords: Volutharpa ampullacea perryi meat, boiling cooking, colour, sensory, texture

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320 Physical, Textural and Sensory Properties of Noodles Supplemented with Tilapia Bone Flour (Tilapia nilotica)

Authors: Supatchalee Sirichokworrakit


Fishbone of Nile tilapia (Tilapia nilotica), waste from the frozen Nile tilapia fillet factory, is one of calcium sources. In order to increase fish bone powder value, this study aimed to investigate the effect of tilapia bone flour (TBF) addition (5, 10, 15% by flour weight) on cooking quality, texture and sensory attributes of noodles. The results indicated that tensile strength, color value (a*) and water absorption of noodles significantly decreased (p≤0.05) as the levels of TBF increased from 0-15%. While cooking loss, cooking time and color values (L* and b*) of noodles significantly increased (p≤0.05). Sensory evaluation indicated that noodles with 5% TBF received the highest overall acceptability score.

Keywords: tilapia bone flour, noodles, cooking quality, calcium

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319 Effects of Sensory Integration Techniques in Science Education of Autistic Students

Authors: Joanna Estkowska


Sensory integration methods are very useful and improve daily functioning autistic and mentally disabled children. Autism is a neurobiological disorder that impairs one's ability to communicate with and relate to others as well as their sensory system. Children with autism, even highly functioning kids, can find it difficult to process language with surrounding noise or smells. They are hypersensitive to things we can ignore such as sight, sounds and touch. Adolescents with highly functioning autism or Asperger Syndrome can study Science and Math but the social aspect is difficult for them. Nature science is an area of study that attracts many of these kids. It is a systematic field in which the children can focus on a small aspect. If you follow these rules you can come up with an expected result. Sensory integration program and systematic classroom observation are quantitative methods of measuring classroom functioning and behaviors from direct observations. These methods specify both the events and behaviors that are to be observed and how they are to be recorded. Our students with and without autism attended the lessons in the classroom of nature science in the school and in the laboratory of University of Science and Technology in Bydgoszcz. The aim of this study is investigation the effects of sensory integration methods in teaching to students with autism. They were observed during experimental lessons in the classroom and in the laboratory. Their physical characteristics, sensory dysfunction, and behavior in class were taken into consideration by comparing their similarities and differences. In the chemistry classroom, every autistic student is paired with a mentor from their school. In the laboratory, the children are expected to wear goggles, gloves and a lab coat. The chemistry classes in the laboratory were held for four hours with a lunch break, and according to the assistants, the children were engaged the whole time. In classroom of nature science, the students are encouraged to use the interactive exhibition of chemical, physical and mathematical models constructed by the author of this paper. Our students with and without autism attended the lessons in those laboratories. The teacher's goals are: to assist the child in inhibiting and modulating sensory information and support the child in processing a response to sensory stimulation.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, science education, sensory integration techniques, student with special educational needs

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318 Effect of Provitamin a Biofortified Maize Inclusion Diet on Consumers' Acceptability of Ovambo Chicken Meat

Authors: Feyisayo Odunitan-Wayas, Unathi Kolanisi, Micheal Chimonyo, Muthulisi Siwela


Consumers’ surveys have indicated low acceptability of provitamin A biofortified maize (PABM), a high vitamin A (HVA) maize in Southern Africa to curb vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Indigenous chickens are reared and consumed by almost all rural households which are the major VAD prone areas in southern Africa. The objective of this study was to determine if HVA diet fed to the Ovambo indigenous chicken breed will influence consumers’ acceptability of the meat. The leg (thigh and drumstick) of the male birds (21 weeks old) were used for the sensory characteristics. 52 consumer panellists evaluated the sensory characteristics on based on a 5-point hedonic scale and preference test. There was no significant difference (P<0.05) in the preference test between the two diets. There were no significant differences (P<0.05) between the diets based on all sensory characteristics. Age and gender of the consumers and their interactions had no effect (P<0.05) on the acceptability and sensory characteristic ratings. It was concluded that indigenous chickens fed provitamin A biofortified maize can be a possible tool for curbing VAD in southern Africa regions where there is low acceptability of the human consumption of provitamin A biofortified maize. It was concluded that PABM diet fed to indigenous chickens will not influence the acceptability of the chicken meat by VAD vulnerable consumers.

Keywords: biofortified pro-vitamin a maize, ovambo, chicken meat, sensory characteristics, gender, age

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317 Characterization of Antioxidant-Antimicrobial Microcapsules Containing Carum Copticum Essential Oil and Their Effect on the Sensory Quality of Yoghurt

Authors: Maryam Rahimi, Maryam Moslehishad, Seyede Marzieh Hosseini


In this study, preparation of spray dried Carum copticum essential oil (CCEO)-loaded microcapsules by maltodextrin and its blending with two other natural biodegradable polymers, gum Arabic (GA) or modified starch (MS) were investigated. Addition of these polymers to maltodextrin resulted in the encasement of encapsulation efficiency (EE). The highest EE (78.22±0.34%) and total phenolic (TP) content (83.86±1.72 mg GAE/100g) was related to MD-MS microcapsules. CCEO-loaded microcapsules showed spherical surface, good antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. In addition, sensory tests confirmed the possible application of CCEO-loaded microcapsules as natural food additives.

Keywords: carum copticum, essential oil, encapsulation, spray drying, sensory evaluation, antioxidants

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316 The Effect of Addition of White Mulberry Fruit on the Sensory Quality of the New Developed Bioactive Bread

Authors: Kmiecik Dominik, Kobus-Cisowska Joanna, Gramza-Michalowska Anna, Marcinkowska Agata, Korczak Józef


The relationship between the choice of a proper diet, a diet, lifestyle man and his health has been known for a long time. Because of the increase in public awareness of food ingredients and their influence on health status, measures have been taken towards the production of food, which is designed to not only eat, but also to protect against the incidence of lifestyle diseases. For this purpose, the bio active products with healthy properties was developed. Mulberry have a very high nutritional value, rich in chemical composition and many properties used in the prevention of lifestyle diseases. In addition to basic chemical components, nutrients, mulberry fruit contain compounds having a physiological effect. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of white mulberry fruit on the sensory quality of bread to be healthy diet of people suffering from anemia, diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Sensory analysis was carried out by the profile method. Intra-operative differentiators color, aroma, taste, texture, and overall assessment. Sensory analysis showed that all test trials were characterized by a uniform and concise consistency, similar in color from dark to light beige. The taste and smell of herbal characteristic was designed in an attempt to prevention of diabetes, while the other samples were characterized by a typical taste and smell of bread grain. There were no foreign taste and odor in the test bread. It was found that the addition of white mulberry fruit does not affect the sensory quality of the newly developed bioactive bread.

Keywords: mulberry, bread, bioactive, sensory analysis

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315 The Application of Sensory Integration Techniques in Science Teaching Students with Autism

Authors: Joanna Estkowska


The Sensory Integration Method is aimed primarily at children with learning disabilities. It can also be used as a complementary method in treatment of children with cerebral palsy, autistic, mentally handicapped, blind and deaf. Autism is holistic development disorder that manifests itself in the specific functioning of a child. The most characteristic are: disorders in communication, difficulties in social relations, rigid patterns of behavior and impairment in sensory processing. In addition to these disorders may occur abnormal intellectual development, attention deficit disorders, perceptual disorders and others. This study was focused on the application sensory integration techniques in science education of autistic students. The lack of proper sensory integration causes problems with complicated processes such as motor coordination, movement planning, visual or auditory perception, speech, writing, reading or counting. Good functioning and cooperation of proprioceptive, tactile and vestibular sense affect the child’s mastery of skills that require coordination of both sides of the body and synchronization of the cerebral hemispheres. These include, for example, all sports activities, precise manual skills such writing, as well as, reading and counting skills. All this takes place in stages. Achieving skills from the first stage determines the development of fitness from the next level. Any deficit in the scope of the first three stages can affect the development of new skills. This ultimately reflects on the achievements at school and in further professional and personal life. After careful analysis symptoms from the emotional and social spheres appear to be secondary to deficits of sensory integration. During our research, the students gained knowledge and skills in the classroom of experience by learning biology, chemistry and physics with application sensory integration techniques. Sensory integration therapy aims to teach the child an adequate response to stimuli coming to him from both the outside world and the body. Thanks to properly selected exercises, a child can improve perception and interpretation skills, motor skills, coordination of movements, attention and concentration or self-awareness, as well as social and emotional functioning.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, science education, sensory integration, special educational needs

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314 Volatile Compounds and Sensory Characteristics of Herbal Teas and Bush Tea Blends with Selected Herbal Teas South Africa

Authors: Florence Malongane, Lyndy J. McGaw, Legesse K. Debusho, Fhatuwani N. Mudau


Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren), honeybush (Cyclopia Vent. species), bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides DC.) and special tea (Monsonia burkeana) are traditionally consumed herbal teas in South Africa. The volatile and sensory qualities of rooibos and honeybush tea have previously been described although there is a dearth of information regarding the sensory attributes and volatile compounds analysis of special tea and bush tea. The objective of this study was to describe the sensory properties, compare the differences in descriptive sensory analysis (DSA) and volatile compounds of bush tea, special, rooibos, honeybush and the blend of bush tea with special, honeybush and rooibos in a 1:1 ratio and subsequently to determine the influence of blending bush tea with other herbal teas. DSA was used to assess the sensory attributes of the teas while gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to quantitatively determine the volatile components of the teas. Rooibos tea and honeybush tea had an overall sweet-caramel, honey-sweet, perfume floral and woody aroma with slight astringency, consistent with the taste and aftertaste attributes. In contrast, bush tea and special tea depicted green-cut grass, dry green herbal, cooked spinach aroma as well as taste and aftertaste characteristics. GC-MS analyses revealed that the seven tea samples had similar major volatiles, including 2-furanmethanol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, acetic acid, D-limonene terpene and phytol. Cluster analysis revealed that the sweet and woody flavour of honeybush and rooibos were ascribed to the presence of á-myrcene, phenylethyl alcohol, phytol and vanillin. The bitter, medicinal flavour attributes of special tea were attributed to (-)-carvone. Blending of bush tea with rooibos and honeybush tea toned down its aversive flavour components, typically the bitter, green-cut grass and herbal properties, thus minimising the possibility of consumer aversion.

Keywords: bush tea, rooibos tea, honeybush tea, sensory, volatile compounds

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313 Effect of Different Oils on Quality of Deep-fried Dough Stick

Authors: Nuntaporn Aukkanit


The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oils on chemical, physical, and sensory properties of deep-fried dough stick. Five kinds of vegetable oil which were used for addition and frying consist of: palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, rice bran oil, and canola oil. The results of this study showed that using different kinds of oil made significant difference in the quality of deep-fried dough stick. Deep-fried dough stick fried with the rice bran oil had the lowest moisture loss and oil absorption (p≤0.05), but it had some unsatisfactory physical properties (color, specific volume, density, and texture) and sensory characteristics. Nonetheless, deep-fried dough stick fried with the sunflower oil had moisture loss and oil absorption slightly more than the rice bran oil, but it had almost higher physical and sensory properties. Deep-fried dough sticks together with the sunflower oil did not have different sensory score from the palm oil, commonly used for production of deep-fried dough stick. These results indicated that addition and frying with the sunflower oil are appropriate for the production of deep-fried dough stick.

Keywords: deep-fried dough stick, palm oil, sunflower oil, rice bran oil

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