Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 55

Search results for: legume

55 Legume and Nuts Consumption in Relation to Depression and Anxiety in Iranian Adults

Authors: Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Javad Anjom-Shoae, Omid Sadeghi,

Abstract:

Background: Although considerable research has been devoted to the link between consumption of legume and nuts and metabolic abnormalities, few studies have examined legume and nuts consumption in relation to psychological disorders. Objective: The current study aimed to examine the association of legume and nuts consumption with depression, anxiety and psychological distress in Iranian adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 3172 adult participants aged 18-55 years. Assessment of legume and nuts consumption was conducted using a validated dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The Iranian validated version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to examine psychological health. Scores of 8 or more on either subscale in the questionnaire were considered to indicate the presence of depression or anxiety. Data on psychological distress were collected through the use of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), in which the score of 4 or more was considered as having psychological distress. Results: Mean age of participants was 36.5±7.9 years. Compared with the lowest quintile, men in the highest quintile of legume and nuts consumption had lower odds of anxiety; such that after adjusting for potential confounding variables, men in the top quintile of legume and nuts consumption were 66% less likely to be anxious than those in the bottom quintile (OR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.14-0.82). Such relationship was not observed among women. We failed to find any significant association between legume plus nuts consumption and depression or psychological distress after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusion: We found that consumption of legume and nuts was associated with lower odds of anxiety in men, but not in women. No significant association was seen between consumption of legume and nuts and odds of depression or psychological disorder. Further prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.

Keywords: anxiety, depression, legumes, nuts, psychological distress

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54 Effects of Some Legume Flours and Gums on Some Properties of Turkish Noodle

Authors: Kübra Aktaş, Nermin Bilgiçli, Tayyibe Erten, Perihan Kübra Çiçek

Abstract:

In this research, different wheat-legume flour blends were used in Turkish noodle preparation with the aid of some gums (xanthan and guar). Chickpea, common bean and soy flours were used in noodle formulation at 20% level with and without gum (1%) addition. Some physical, chemical and sensory properties of noodles were determined. Water uptake, volume increase and cooking loss values of the noodles changed between 92.03-116.37%, 125.0-187.23% and 4.88-8.10%, respectively. Xanthan or guar gam addition decreased cooking loss values of legume fortified noodles. Both legume flour and gum addition significantly (p<0.05) affected the color values of the noodles. The lowest lightness (L*), redness (a*) and the highest yellowness (b*) values were obtained with soy flour usage in noodle formulation. Protein and ash values of noodles ranged between 15.14 and 21.82%; 1.62 and 2.50%, respectively, and the highest values were obtained with soy flour usage in noodle formulation. As a result of sensory evaluation, noodles containing chickpea flour and guar gum were rated with higher taste, odor, appearance and texture scores compared to other noodle samples.

Keywords: noodle, legume, soy, chickpea, common bean, gum

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
53 Which Mechanisms are Involved by Legume-Rhizobia Symbiosis to Increase Its Phosphorus Use Efficiency under Low Phosphorus Level?

Authors: B. Makoudi, R. Ghanimi, A. Bargaz, M. Mouradi, M. Farissi, A. Kabbaj, J. J. Drevon, C. Ghoulam

Abstract:

Legume species are able to establish a nitrogen fixing symbiosis with soil rhizobia that allows them, when it operates normally, to ensure their necessary nitrogen nutrition. This biological process needs high phosphorus (P) supply and consequently it is limited under low phosphorus availability. To overcome this constraint, legume-rhizobia symbiosis develops many mechanisms to increase P availability in the rhizosphere and also the efficiency of P fertilizers. The objectives of our research works are to understand the physiological and biochemical mechanisms implemented by legume-rhizobia symbiosis to increase its P use efficiency (PUE) in order to select legume genotypes-rhizobia strains combination more performing for BNF under P deficiency. Our studies were carried out on two grain legume species, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and faba bean (Vicia faba) tested in farmers’ fields and in experimental station fewer than two soil phosphorus levels. Under field conditions, the P deficiency caused a significant decrease of Plant and nodule biomasses in all of the tested varieties with a difference between them. This P limitation increased the contents of available P in the rhizospheric soils that was positively correlated with the increase of phosphatases activities in the nodules and the rhizospheric soil. Some legume genotypes showed a significant increase of their P use efficiency under P deficiency. The P solubilization test showed that some rhizobia strains isolated from Haouz region presented an important capacity to grow on solid and liquid media with tricalcium phosphate as the only P source and their P solubilizing activity was confirmed by the assay of the released P in the liquid medium. Also, this P solubilizing activity was correlated with medium acidification and the excretion of acid phosphatases and phytases in the medium. Thus, we concluded that medium acidification and excretion of phosphatases in the rhizosphere are the prominent reactions for legume-rhizobia symbiosis to improve its P nutrition.

Keywords: legume, phosphorus deficiency, rhizobia, rhizospheric soil

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52 Leaf Photosynthesis and Water-Use Efficiency of Diverse Legume Species Nodulated by Native Rhizobial Isolates in the Glasshouse

Authors: Lebogang Jane Msiza, Felix Dapare Dakora

Abstract:

Photosynthesis is a process by which plants convert light energy to chemical energy for metabolic processes. Plants are known for converting inorganic CO₂ in the atmosphere to organic C by photosynthesis. A decrease in stomatal conductance causes a decrease in the transpiration rate of leaves, thus increasing the water-use efficiency of plants. Water-use efficiency in plants is conditioned by soil moisture availability and is enhanced under conditions of water deficit. This study evaluated leaf photosynthesis and water-use efficiency in 12 legume species inoculated with 26 rhizobial isolates from soybean, 15 from common bean, 10 from cowpea, 15 from Bambara groundnut, 7 from lessertia and 10 from Kersting bean. Gas-exchange studies were used to measure photosynthesis and water-use efficiency. The results revealed a much higher photosynthetic rate (20.95µmol CO₂ m-2s-1) induced by isolated tutpres to a lower rate (7.06 µmol CO₂ m-2s-1) by isolate mgsa 88. Stomatal conductance ranged from to 0.01 mmol m-2.s-1 by mgsa 88 to 0.12 mmol m-2.s-1 by isolate da-pua 128. Transpiration rate also ranged from 0.09 mmol m-2.s-1 induced by da-pua B2 to 3.28 mmol m-2.s-1 by da-pua 3, while water-use efficiency ranged from 91.32 µmol CO₂ m-1 H₂O elicited by mgsa 106 to 4655.50 µmol CO₂ m-1 H₂O by isolate tutswz 13. The results revealed the highest photosynthetic rate in soybean and the lowest in common bean, and also with higher stomatal conductance and transpiration rates in jack bean and Bambara groundnut. Pigeonpea exhibited much higher water-use efficiency than all the tested legumes. The findings showed significant differences between and among the test legume/rhizobia combinations. Leaf photosynthetic rates are reported to be higher in legumes with high stomatal conductance, which suggests that legume productivity can be improved by manipulating leaf stomatal conductance.

Keywords: legumes, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, water-use efficiency

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51 Arsenic Speciation in Cicer arietinum: A Terrestrial Legume That Contains Organoarsenic Species

Authors: Anjana Sagar

Abstract:

Arsenic poisoned ground water is a major concern in South Asia. The arsenic enters the food chain not only through drinking but also by using arsenic polluted water for irrigation. Arsenic is highly toxic in its inorganic forms; however, organic forms of arsenic are comparatively less toxic. In terrestrial plants, inorganic form of arsenic is predominantly found; however, we found that significant proportion of organic arsenic was present in root and shoot of a staple legume, chickpea (Cicer arientinum L) plants. Chickpea plants were raised in pot culture on soils spiked with arsenic ranging from 0-70 mg arsenate per Kg soil. Total arsenic concentrations of chickpea shoots and roots were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) ranging from 0.76 to 20.26, and 2.09 to 16.43 µg g⁻¹ dry weight, respectively. Information on arsenic species was acquired by methanol/water extraction method, with arsenic species being analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with ICP-MS. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was the only organic arsenic species found in amount from 0.02 to 3.16 % of total arsenic shoot concentration and 0 to 6.93 % of total arsenic root concentration, respectively. To investigate the source of the organic arsenic in chickpea plants, arsenic species in the rhizosphere of soils of plants were also examined. The absence of organic arsenic in soils would suggest the possibility of formation of DMA in plants. The present investigation provides useful information for better understanding of distribution of arsenic species in terrestrial legume plants.

Keywords: arsenic, arsenic speciation, dimethylarsinic acid, organoarsenic

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
50 Biosensors as Analytical Tools in Legume Processing

Authors: S. V. Ncube, A. I. O. Jideani, E. T. Gwata

Abstract:

The plight of food insecurity in developing countries has led to renewed interest in underutilized legumes. Their nutritional versatility, desirable functionality, pharmaceutical value and inherent bioactive compounds have drawn the attention of researchers. This has provoked the development of value added products with the aim of commercially exploiting their full potential. However processing of these legumes leads to changes in nutritional composition as affected by processing variables like pH, temperature and pressure. There is therefore a need for process control and quality assurance during production of the value added products. However, conventional methods for microbiological and biochemical identification are labour intensive and time-consuming. Biosensors offer rapid and affordable methods to assure the quality of the products. They may be used to quantify nutrients and anti-nutrients in the products while manipulating and monitoring variables such as pH, temperature, pressure and oxygen that affect the quality of the final product. This review gives an overview of the types of biosensors used in the food industry, their advantages and disadvantages and their possible application in processing of legumes.

Keywords: legume processing, biosensors, quality control, nutritional versatility

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49 Changes in Physicochemical Characteristics of a Serpentine Soil and in Root Architecture of a Hyperaccumulating Plant Cropped with a Legume

Authors: Ramez F. Saad, Ahmad Kobaissi, Bernard Amiaud, Julien Ruelle, Emile Benizri

Abstract:

Agromining is a new technology that establishes agricultural systems on ultramafic soils in order to produce valuable metal compounds such as nickel (Ni), with the final aim of restoring a soil's agricultural functions. But ultramafic soils are characterized by low fertility levels and this can limit yields of hyperaccumulators and metal phytoextraction. The objectives of the present work were to test if the association of a hyperaccumulating plant (Alyssum murale) and a Fabaceae (Vicia sativa var. Prontivesa) could induce changes in physicochemical characteristics of a serpentine soil and in root architecture of a hyperaccumulating plant then lead to efficient agromining practices through soil quality improvement. Based on standard agricultural systems, consisting in the association of legumes and another crop such as wheat or rape, a three-month rhizobox experiment was carried out to study the effect of the co-cropping (Co) or rotation (Ro) of a hyperaccumulating plant (Alyssum murale) with a legume (Vicia sativa) and incorporating legume biomass to soil, in comparison with mineral fertilization (FMo), on the structure and physicochemical properties of an ultramafic soil and on root architecture. All parameters measured (biomass, C and N contents, and taken-up Ni) on Alyssum murale conducted in co-cropping system showed the highest values followed by the mineral fertilization and rotation (Co > FMo > Ro), except for root nickel yield for which rotation was better than the mineral fertilization (Ro > FMo). The rhizosphere soil of Alyssum murale in co-cropping had larger soil particles size and better aggregates stability than other treatments. Using geostatistics, co-cropped Alyssum murale showed a greater root surface area spatial distribution. Moreover, co-cropping and rotation-induced lower soil DTPA-extractable nickel concentrations than other treatments, but higher pH values. Alyssum murale co-cropped with a legume showed a higher biomass production, improved soil physical characteristics and enhanced nickel phytoextraction. This study showed that the introduction of a legume into Ni agromining systems could improve yields of dry biomass of the hyperaccumulating plant used and consequently, the yields of Ni. Our strategy can decrease the need to apply fertilizers and thus minimizes the risk of nitrogen leaching and underground water pollution. Co-cropping of Alyssum murale with the legume showed a clear tendency to increase nickel phytoextraction and plant biomass in comparison to rotation treatment and fertilized mono-culture. In addition, co-cropping improved soil physical characteristics and soil structure through larger and more stabilized aggregates. It is, therefore, reasonable to conclude that the use of legumes in Ni-agromining systems could be a good strategy to reduce chemical inputs and to restore soil agricultural functions. Improving the agromining system by the replacement of inorganic fertilizers could simultaneously be a safe way of rehabilitating degraded soils and a method to restore soil quality and functions leading to the recovery of ecosystem services.

Keywords: plant association, legumes, hyperaccumulating plants, ultramafic soil physicochemical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
48 Haematology and Serum Biochemical Profile of Laying Chickens Reared on Deep Litter System with or without Access to Grass or Legume Pasture under Humid Tropical Climate

Authors: E. Oke, A. O. Ladokun, J. O. Daramola, O. M. Onagbesan

Abstract:

There has been a growing interest on the effects of access to pasture on poultry health status. However, there is a paucity of data on the relative benefits of grass and legume pastures. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of rearing systems {deep litter system (DL), deep litter with access to legumes (LP) or grass (GP) pastures} haematology and serum chemistry of ISA Brown layers. The study involved the use of two hundred and forty 12 weeks old pullets. The birds were reared until 60 weeks of age. Eighty birds were assigned to each treatment; each treatment had four replicates of 20 birds each. Blood samples (2.5 ml) were collected from the wing vein of two birds per replicate and serum chemistry and haematological parameters were determined. The results showed that there were no significant differences between treatments in all the parameters considered at 18 weeks of age. At 24 weeks old, the percentage of heterophyl (HET) in DL and LP were similar but higher than that of GP. The ratio of H:L was higher (P<0.05) in DL than those of LP and GP while LP and GP were comparable. At week 38 of age, the percentage of PCV in the birds in LP and GP were similar but the birds in DL had significantly lower level than that of GP. In the early production phase, serum total protein of the birds in LP was similar to that of GP but higher (P<0.05) than that of DL. At the peak production phase (week 38), the total protein in GP and DL were similar but significantly lower than that of LP. The albumin level in LP was greater (P<0.05) than GP but similar to that of DL. In the late production phase, the total protein in LP was significantly higher than that of DL but similar to that of GP. It was concluded that rearing chickens in either grass or legume pasture did not have deleterious effects on the health of laying chickens but improved some parameters including blood protein and HET/lymphocyte.

Keywords: rearing systems, stylosanthes, cynodon serum chemistry, haematology, hen

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
47 Plant Growth, Symbiotic Performance and Grain Yield of 63 Common Bean Genotypes Grown Under Field Conditions at Malkerns Eswatini

Authors: Rotondwa P. Gunununu, Mustapha Mohammed, Felix D. Dakora

Abstract:

Common bean is the most importantly high protein grain legume grown in Southern Africa for human consumption and income generation. Although common bean can associate with rhizobia to fix N₂ for bacterial use and plant growth, it is reported to be a poor nitrogen fixer when compared to other legumes. N₂ fixation can vary with legume species, genotype and rhizobial strain. Therefore, screening legume germplasm can reveal rhizobia/genotype combinations with high N₂-fixing efficiency for use by farmers. This study assessed symbiotic performance and N₂ fixation in 63 common bean genotypes under field conditions at Malkerns Station in Eswatini, using the ¹⁵N natural abundance technique. The shoots of common bean genotypes were sampled at a pod-filling stage, oven-dried (65oC for 72h), weighed, ground into a fine powder (0.50 mm sieve), and subjected to ¹⁵N/¹⁴N isotopic analysis using mass spectrometry. At maturity, plants from the inner rows were harvested for the determination of grain yield. The results revealed significantly higher modulation (p≤0.05) in genotypes MCA98 and CIM-RM01-97-8 relative to the other genotypes. Shoot N concentration was highest in genotype MCA 98, followed by KAB 10 F2.8-84, with most genotypes showing shoot N concentrations below 2%. Percent N derived from atmospheric N₂ fixation (%Ndfa) differed markedly among genotypes, with CIM-RM01-92-3 and DAB 174, respectively, recording the highest values of 66.65% and 66.22 % N derived from fixation. There were also significant differences in grain yield, with CIM-RM02-79-1 producing the highest yield (3618.75 kg/ha). These results represent an important contribution in the profiling of symbiotic functioning of common bean germplasm for improved N₂ fixation.

Keywords: nitrogen fixation, %Ndfa, ¹⁵N natural abundance, grain yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
46 Electrochemical Biosensor for the Detection of Botrytis spp. in Temperate Legume Crops

Authors: Marzia Bilkiss, Muhammad J. A. Shiddiky, Mostafa K. Masud, Prabhakaran Sambasivam, Ido Bar, Jeremy Brownlie, Rebecca Ford

Abstract:

A greater achievement in the Integrated Disease Management (IDM) to prevent the loss would result from early diagnosis and quantitation of the causal pathogen species for accurate and timely disease control. This could significantly reduce costs to the growers and reduce any flow on impacts to the environment from excessive chemical spraying. Necrotrophic fungal disease botrytis grey mould, caused by Botrytis cinerea and Botrytis fabae, significantly reduce temperate legume yield and grain quality during favourable environmental condition in Australia and worldwide. Several immunogenic and molecular probe-type protocols have been developed for their diagnosis, but these have varying levels of species-specificity, sensitivity, and consequent usefulness within the paddock. To substantially improve speed, accuracy, and sensitivity, advanced nanoparticle-based biosensor approaches have been developed. For this, two sets of primers were designed for both Botrytis cinerea and Botrytis fabae which have shown the species specificity with initial sensitivity of two genomic copies/µl in pure fungal backgrounds using multiplexed quantitative PCR. During further validation, quantitative PCR detected 100 spores on artificially infected legume leaves. Simultaneously an electro-catalytic assay was developed for both target fungal DNA using functionalised magnetic nanoparticles. This was extremely sensitive, able to detect a single spore within a raw total plant nucleic acid extract background. We believe that the translation of this technology to the field will enable quantitative assessment of pathogen load for future accurate decision support of informed botrytis grey mould management.

Keywords: biosensor, botrytis grey mould, sensitive, species specific

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45 Effects of Excess-Iron Stress on Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Efficiency of Yardlong-Bean Plants

Authors: Hong Li, Tingxian Li, Xudong Wang, Qinghuo Lin

Abstract:

Excess-iron (Fe) stresses involved in legume symbiotic nitrogen fixation are not understood. Our objectives were to investigate the tolerance of yardlong-bean plants to soil excess-Fe stress and antagonistic effects of organic amendments and rhizobial inoculants on plant root nodulation and stem ureide formation. The study was conducted in the tropical Hainan Island during 2012-2013. The soil was strongly acidic (pH 5.3±0.4) and highly variable in Fe concentrations(596±79 mg/kg). The treatments were arranged in a split-plot design with three blocks. The treatment effects were significant on root nodulation, stem ureide, amino acids, plant N/Fe accumulation and bean yields (P<0.05). The yardlong-bean stem allantoin, amino acids and nitrate concentrations and relative ureide % declined with high soil Fe concentrations (>300 mg/kg). It was concluded that the co-variance of excess Fe stress could inhibit legume symbiotic N fixation efficiency. Organic amendments and rhizobial inoculants could help improve crop tolerance to excess Fe stress.

Keywords: atmospheric N fixation, root nodulation, soil Fe co-variance, stem ureide, yardlong-bean plants

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
44 The Mapping of Pastoral Area as a Basis of Ecological for Beef Cattle in Pinrang Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Authors: Jasmal A. Syamsu, Muhammad Yusuf, Hikmah M. Ali, Mawardi A. Asja, Zulkharnaim

Abstract:

This study was conducted and aimed in identifying and mapping the pasture as an ecological base of beef cattle. A survey was carried out during a period of April to June 2016, in Suppa, Mattirobulu, the district of Pinrang, South Sulawesi province. The mapping process of grazing area was conducted in several stages; inputting and tracking of data points into Google Earth Pro (version 7.1.4.1529), affirmation and confirmation of tracking line visualized by satellite with a variety of records at the point, a certain point and tracking input data into ArcMap Application (ArcGIS version 10.1), data processing DEM/SRTM (S04E119) with respect to the location of the grazing areas, creation of a contour map (a distance of 5 m) and mapping tilt (slope) of land and land cover map-making. Analysis of land cover, particularly the state of the vegetation was done through the identification procedure NDVI (Normalized Differences Vegetation Index). This procedure was performed by making use of the Landsat-8. The results showed that the topography of the grazing areas of hills and some sloping surfaces and flat with elevation vary from 74 to 145 above sea level (asl), while the requirements for growing superior grass and legume is an altitude of up to 143-159 asl. Slope varied between 0 - > 40% and was dominated by a slope of 0-15%, according to the slope/topography pasture maximum of 15%. The range of NDVI values for pasture image analysis results was between 0.1 and 0.27. Characteristics of vegetation cover of pasture land in the category of vegetation density were low, 70% of the land was the land for cattle grazing, while the remaining approximately 30% was a grove and forest included plant water where the place for shelter of the cattle during the heat and drinking water supply. There are seven types of graminae and 5 types of legume that was dominant in the region. Proportionally, graminae class dominated up 75.6% and legume crops up to 22.1% and the remaining 2.3% was another plant trees that grow in the region. The dominant weed species in the region were Cromolaenaodorata and Lantana camara, besides that there were 6 types of floor plant that did not include as forage fodder.

Keywords: pastoral, ecology, mapping, beef cattle

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43 Nitrogen-Fixing Rhizobacteria (Rhizobium mililoti 2011) Enhances the Tolerance and the Accumulation of Cadmium in Medicago sativa

Authors: Tahar Ghnaya, Majda Mnasri, Hanen Zaier, Rim Ghabriche, Chedly Abdelly

Abstract:

It is known that the symbiotic association between plant and microorganisms are beneficial for plant growth and resistance to metal stress. Hence, it was demonstrated that Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have a positive effect on host plants growing in metal polluted soils. Legume plants are those which normally associate to rhizobacteria in order to fix atmospheric nitrogen. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect this type of symbiosis on the tolerance and the accumulation of Cd. We chose Medicago sativa, as a modal for host legume plants and Rhizobium mililoti 2011 as rhizobial strain. Inoculated and non-inoculated plants of M. sativa were submitted during three month to 0, 50, and 100 mgCd/kg dry soil. Results showed that the presence of Cd in the medium induced, in both inoculated and non-inoculated plants, a chlorosis and necrosis. However, these symptoms were more pronounced in non-inoculated plants. The beneficial effect of inoculation of M. sativa with R. meliloti, on plant growth was confirmed by the measurement of biomass production which showed that the symbiotic association between host plant and rhizobacteria alleviates significantly Cd effect on biomass production, so inoculated plants produced more dry weight as compared to non-inoculated ones in the presence of all Cd tretments. On the other hand, under symbiosis conditions, Cd was more accumulated in different plant organs. Hence, in these plants, shoot Cd concentration reached 425 and it was 280 µg/gDW in non-inoculated ones in the presence of 100 ppm Cd. This result suggests that symbiosis enhances the absorption and translocation of Cd in this plant. In nodules and roots, we detected the highest Cd concentrations, demonstrating that these organs are able to concentrate Cd in their tissues. These data confirm that M. sataiva, cultivated in symbiosis with Rhizobium mililoti could be used in phytoextraction of Cd from contaminated soils.

Keywords: Cd, phytoremediation, Medicago sativa, Arbuscular mycorrhizal

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42 Conservation Agriculture and Precision Water Management in Alkaline Soils under Rice-Wheat Cropping System: Effect on Wheat Productivity and Irrigation Water Use-a Case Study from India

Authors: S. K. Kakraliya, H. S. Jat, Manish Kakraliya, P. C. Sharma, M. L. Jat

Abstract:

The biggest challenge in agriculture is to produce more food for the continually increasing world population with in the limited land and water resources. Serious water deficits and reducing natural resources are some of the major threats to the agricultural sustainability in many regions of South Asia. Food and water security may be gained by bringing improvement in the crop water productivity and the amount produced per unit of water consumed. Improvement in the crop water productivity may be achieved by pursuing alternative modern agronomics approaches, which are more friendly and efficient in utilizing natural resources. Therefore, a research trial on conservation agriculture (CA) and precision water management (PWM) was conducted in 2018-19 at Karnal, India to evaluate the effect on crop productivity and irrigation in sodic soils under rice-wheat (RW) systems of Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). Eight scenarios were compared varied in the tillage, crop establishment, residue and irrigarion management i.e., {First four scenarios irrigated with flood irrigation method;Sc1-Conventional tillage (CT) without residue, Sc2-CT with residue, Sc3- Zero tillage (ZT) without residue, Sc4-ZT with residue}, and {last four scenarios irrigated with sub-surface drip irrigation method; Sc5-ZT without residue, Sc6- ZT with residue, Sc7-ZT inclusion legume without residue and Sc8- ZT inclusion legume with residue}. Results revealed that CA-flood irrigation (S3, Sc4) and CA-PWM system (Sc5, Sc6, Sc7 and Sc8) recorded about ~5% and ~15% higher wheat yield, respectively compared to Sc1. Similar, CA-PWM saved ~40% irrigation water compared to Sc1. Rice yield was not different under different scenarios in the first year (kharif 2019) but almost half irrigation water saved under CA-PWM system. Therefore, results of our study on modern agronomic practices including CA and precision water management (subsurface drip irrigation) for RW rotation would be addressed the existing and future challenges in the RW system.

Keywords: Sub-surface drip, Crop residue, Crop yield , Zero tillage

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41 Functional Traits and Agroecosystem Multifunctionality in Summer Cover Crop Mixtures and Monocultures

Authors: Etienne Herrick

Abstract:

As an economically and ecologically feasible method for farmers to introduce greater diversity into their crop rotations, cover cropping presents a valuable opportunity for improving the sustainability of food production. Planted in-between cash crop growing seasons, cover crops serve to enhance agroecosystem functioning, rather than being destined for sale or consumption. In fact, cover crops may hold the capacity to deliver multiple ecosystem functions or services simultaneously (multifunctionality). Building upon this line of research will not only benefit society at present, but also support its continued survival through its potential for restoring depleted soils and reducing the need for energy-intensive and harmful external inputs like fertilizers and pesticides. This study utilizes a trait-based approach to explore the influence of inter- and intra-specific interactions in summer cover crop mixtures and monocultures on functional trait expression and ecosystem services. Functional traits that enhance ecosystem services related to agricultural production include height, specific leaf area (SLA), root, shoot ratio, leaf C and N concentrations, and flowering phenology. Ecosystem services include biomass production, weed suppression, reduced N leaching, N recycling, and support of pollinators. Employing a trait-based approach may allow for the elucidation of mechanistic links between plant structure and resulting ecosystem service delivery. While relationships between some functional traits and the delivery of particular ecosystem services may be readily apparent through existing ecological knowledge (e.g. height positively correlating with weed suppression), this study will begin to quantify those relationships so as to gain further understanding of whether and how measurable variation in functional trait expression across cover crop mixtures and monocultures can serve as a reliable predictor of variation in the types and abundances of ecosystem services delivered. Six cover crop species, including legume, grass, and broadleaf functional types, were selected for growth in six mixtures and their component monocultures based upon the principle of trait complementarity. The tricultures (three-way mixtures) are comprised of a legume, grass, and broadleaf species, and include cowpea/sudex/buckwheat, sunnhemp/sudex/buckwheat, and chickling vetch/oat/buckwheat combinations; the dicultures contain the same legume and grass combinations as above, without the buckwheat broadleaf. By combining species with expectedly complimentary traits (for example, legumes are N suppliers and grasses are N acquirers, creating a nutrient cycling loop) the cover crop mixtures may elicit a broader range of ecosystem services than that provided by a monoculture, though trade-offs could exist. Collecting functional trait data will enable the investigation of the types of interactions driving these ecosystem service outcomes. It also allows for generalizability across a broader range of species than just those selected for this study, which may aid in informing further research efforts exploring species and ecosystem functioning, as well as on-farm management decisions.

Keywords: agroecology, cover crops, functional traits, multifunctionality, trait complementarity

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40 Alleviation of Adverse Effects of Salt Stress on Soybean (Glycine max. L.) by Using Osmoprotectants and Compost Application

Authors: Ayman El Sabagh, SobhySorour, AbdElhamid Omar, Adel Ragab, Mohammad Sohidul Islam, Celaleddin Barutçular, Akihiro Ueda, Hirofumi Saneoka

Abstract:

Salinity is one of the major factors limiting crop production in an arid environment. What adds to the concern is that all the legume crops are sensitive to increasing soil salinity. So it is implacable to either search for salinity enhancement of legume plants. The exogenous of osmoprotectants has been found effective in reducing the adverse effects of salinity stress on plant growth. Despite its global importance soybean production suffer the problems of salinity stress causing damages at plant development. Therefore, in the current study we try to clarify the mechanism that might be involved in the ameliorating effects of osmo-protectants such as proline and glycine betaine and compost application on soybean plants grown under salinity stress. Experiments were carried out in the greenhouse of the experimental station, plant nutritional physiology, Hiroshima University, Japan in 2011- 2012. The experiment was arranged in a factorial design with 4 replications at NaCl concentrations (0 and 15 mM). The exogenous, proline and glycine betaine concentrations (0 mM and 25 mM) for each. Compost treatments (0 and 24 t ha-1). Results indicated that salinity stress induced reduction in all growth and physiological parameters (dry weights plant-1, chlorophyll content, N and K+ content) likewise, seed and quality traits of soybean plant compared with those of the unstressed plants. In contrast, salinity stress led to increases in the electrolyte leakage ratio, Na and proline contents. Thus tolerance against salt stress was observed, the improvement of salt tolerance resulted from proline, glycine betaine and compost were accompanied with improved membrane stability, K+, and proline accumulation on contrary, decreased Na+ content. These results clearly demonstrate that could be used to reduce the harmful effect of salinity on both physiological aspects and growth parameters of soybean. They are capable of restoring yield potential and quality of seed and may be useful in agronomic situations where saline conditions are diagnosed as a problem. Consequently, exogenous osmo-protectants combine with compost will effectively solve seasonal salinity stress problem and are a good strategy to increase salinity resistance in the drylands.

Keywords: compost, glycine betaine, proline, salinity tolerance, soybean

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39 An Assessment of Nodulation and Nitrogen Fixation of Lessertia Frutescens Plants Inoculated with Rhizobial Isolates from the Cape Fynbos

Authors: Mokgadi Miranda Hlongwane, Ntebogeng Sharon Mokgalaka, Felix Dapare Dakora

Abstract:

Lessertia (L.) frutescens (syn. Sutherlandia frutescens) is a leguminous medicinal plant indigenous to South Africa. Traditionally, L. frutescens has been used to treat cancer, diabetes, epilepsy, fever, HIV, stomach problems, wounds and other ailments. This legume is endemic to the Cape fynbos, with large populations occurring wild and cultivated in the Cape Florist Region. Its widespread distribution in the Western Cape, Northern Cape, Eastern Cape and Kwazulu-Natal is linked to its increased use as a phytomedicine in the treatment of various diseases by traditional healers. The frequent harvesting of field plants for use as a medicine has made it necessary to undertake studies towards the conservation of Lessertia frutescens. As a legume, this species can form root nodules and fix atmospheric N₂ when in symbiosis with soil bacteria called rhizobia. So far, however, few studies (if any) have been done on the efficacy and diversity of native bacterial symbionts nodulating L. frutescens in South Africa. The aim of this project was to isolate and characterize L. frutescens-nodulating bacteria from five different locations in the Western Cape Province. This was done by trapping soil rhizobia using rhizosphere soil suspension to inoculate L. frutescens seedlings growing in sterilized sand and receiving sterile N-free Hoagland nutrient solution under glasshouse conditions. At 60 days after planting, root nodules were harvested from L. frutescens plants, surface-sterilized, macerated, and streaked on yeast mannitol agar (YMA) plates and incubated at 28 ˚C for observation of bacterial growth. The majority of isolates were slow-growers that took 6-14 days to appear on YMA plates. However, seven isolates were fast-growers, taking 2-4 days to appear on YMA plates. Single-colony cultures of the isolates were assessed for their ability to nodulate L. frutescens as a homologous host under glasshouse conditions. Of the 92 bacterial isolates tested, 63 elicited nodule formation on L. frutescens. Symbiotic effectiveness varied markedly between and among test isolates. There were also significant (p≤0.005) differences in nodulation, shoot biomass, photosynthetic rates, leaf transpiration and stomatal conductance of L. frutescens plants inoculated with the test isolates, which is an indication of their functional diversity.

Keywords: lessertia frutescens, nodulating, rhizobia, symbiotic effectiveness

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
38 Evaluation of Dry Matter Yield of Panicum maximum Intercropped with Pigeonpea and Sesbania Sesban

Authors: Misheck Musokwa, Paramu Mafongoya, Simon Lorentz

Abstract:

Seasonal shortages of fodder during the dry season is a major constraint to smallholder livestock farmers in South Africa. To mitigate the shortage of fodder, legume trees can be intercropped with pastures which can diversify the sources of feed and increase the amount of protein for grazing animals. The objective was to evaluate dry matter yield of Panicum maximum and land productivity under different fodder production systems during 2016/17-2017/18 seasons at Empangeni (28.6391° S and 31.9400° E). A randomized complete block design, replicated three times was used, the treatments were sole Panicum maximum, Panicum maximum + Sesbania sesban, Panicum maximum + pigeonpea, sole Sesbania sesban, Sole pigeonpea. Three months S.sesbania seedlings were transplanted whilst pigeonpea was direct seeded at spacing of 1m x 1m. P. maximum seeds were drilled at a respective rate of 7.5 kg/ha having an inter-row spacing of 0.25 m apart. In between rows of trees P. maximum seeds were drilled. The dry matter yield harvesting times were separated by six months’ timeframe. A 0.25 m² quadrant randomly placed on 3 points on the plot was used as sampling area during harvesting P. maximum. There was significant difference P < 0.05 across 3 harvests and total dry matter. P. maximum had higher dry matter yield as compared to both intercrops at first harvest and total. The second and third harvest had no significant difference with pigeonpea intercrop. The results was in this order for all 3 harvest: P. maximum (541.2c, 1209.3b and 1557b) kg ha¹ ≥ P. maximum + pigeonpea (157.2b, 926.7b and 1129b) kg ha¹ > P. maximum + S. sesban (36.3a, 282a and 555a) kg ha¹. Total accumulation of dry matter yield of P. maximum (3307c kg ha¹) > P. maximum + pigeonpea (2212 kg ha¹) ≥ P. maximum + S. sesban (874 kg ha¹). There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) on seed yield for trees. Pigeonpea (1240.3 kg ha¹) ≥ Pigeonpea + P. maximum (862.7 kg ha¹) > S.sesbania (391.9 kg ha¹) ≥ S.sesbania + P. maximum. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) was in the following order P. maximum + pigeonpea (1.37) > P. maximum + S. sesban (0.84) > Pigeonpea (0.59) ≥ S. Sesbania (0.57) > P. maximum (0.26). Results indicates that it is beneficial to have P. maximum intercropped with pigeonpea because of higher land productivity. Planting grass with pigeonpea was more beneficial than S. sesban with grass or sole cropping in terms of saving the shortage of arable land. P. maximum + pigeonpea saves a substantial (37%) land which can be subsequently be used for other crop production. Pigeonpea is recommended as an intercrop with P. maximum due to its higher LER and combined production of livestock feed, human food, and firewood. Panicum grass is low in crude protein though high in carbohydrates, there is a need for intercropping it with legume trees. A farmer who buys concentrates can reduce costs by combining P. maximum with pigeonpea this will provide a balanced diet at low cost.

Keywords: fodder, livestock, productivity, smallholder farmers

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
37 The Effects of Different Amounts of Additional Moisture on the Physical Properties of Cow Pea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Extrudates

Authors: L. Strauta, S. Muižniece-Brasava

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Even though legumes possess high nutritional value and have a rather high protein content for plant origin products, they are underutilized mostly due to their lengthy cooking time. To increase the presence of legume-based products in human diet, new extruded products were made of cow peas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). But as it is known, adding different moisture content to flour before extrusion can change the physical properties of the extruded product. Experiments were carried out to estimate the optimal moisture content for cow pea extrusion. After extrusion, the pH level had dropped from 6.7 to 6.5 and the lowest hardness rate was observed in the samples with additional 9 g 100g-1 of moisture - 28±4N, but the volume mass of the samples with additional 9 g100g-1 of water was 263±3 g L-1; all samples were approximately 7±1mm long.

Keywords: cow pea, extrusion–cooking, moisture, size

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
36 Effect of Non-Legume Primary Ecological Successor on Nitrogen Content of Soil

Authors: Vikas Baliram Kalyankar

Abstract:

Study of ecology is important as it plays role in development of environment engineering. With the advent of technologies the study of ecosystem structure and changes in it are remaining unnoticed. The ecological succession is the sequential replacement of plant species following changes in the environment. The present study depicts the primary ecological succession in an area leveled up to the height of five feet with no signs of plant life on it. The five quadrates of 1 meter square size were observed during the study period of six months. Rain water being the only source of water in the area increased its ecological importance. The primary successor was non- leguminous plant Balonites roxburgii during the peak drought periods in the region of the summer 2013-14. The increased nitrogen content of soil after the plant implied its role in atmospheric nitrogen fixation.

Keywords: succession, Balonites roxburgii, non-leguminous plant, ecology

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
35 The Impact of Different Rhizobium leguminosarum Strains on the Protein Content of Peas and Broad Beans

Authors: Alise Senberga, Laila Dubova, Liene Strauta, Ina Alsina, Ieva Erdberga

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Legume symbiotic relationship with nitrogen fixating bacteria Rhizobim leguminosarum is an important factor used to improve the productivity of legumes, due to the fact that rhizobia can supply plant with the necessary amount of nitrogen. R. leguminosarum strains have shown different activity in fixing nitrogen. Depending on the chosen R. leguminosarum strain, host plant biochemical content can be altered. In this study we focused particularly on the changes in protein content in beans (using two different varieties) and peas (five different varieties) due to the use of several different R. leguminosarum strains (four strains for both beans and peas). Overall, the protein content increase was observed after seed inoculation with R. leguminosarum. Strain and plant cultivar interaction specification was observed. The effect of R. leguminosarum inoculation on the content of protein was dependent on the R. leguminosarum strain used. Plant cultivar also appeared to have a decisive role in protein content formation with the help of R. leguminosaru.

Keywords: legumes, protein content, rhizobia strains, soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
34 Solid State Fermentation of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) Seed to Produce Food Condiment

Authors: Olufunke O. Ezekiel, Adenike O. Ogunshe, Omotola F. Olagunju, Arinola O. Falola

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Studies were conducted on fermentation of tamarind seed for production of food condiment. Fermentation followed the conventional traditional method of fermented locust bean (iru) production and was carried out over a period of three days (72 hours). Samples were withdrawn and analysed for proximate composition, pH, titratable acidity, tannin content, phytic acid content and trypsin inhibitor activity using standard methods. Effects of fermentation on proximate composition, anti-nutritional factors and sensory properties of the seed were evaluated. All data were analysed using ANOVA and means separated using Duncan multiple range test. Microbiological analysis to identify and characterize the microflora responsible for the fermentation of the seed was also carried out. Fermentation had significant effect on the proximate composition on the fermented seeds. As fermentation progressed, there was significant reduction in the anti-nutrient contents. Organisms isolated from the fermenting tamarind seeds were identified as non-pathogenic and common with fermented legumes.

Keywords: condiment, fermentation, legume, tamarind seed

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
33 Evaluation of Forage Yield and Competition Indices for Intercropped Barley and Legumes

Authors: Abdollah Javanmard, Fariborz Shekari

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Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), vetch (Vicia villosa), and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) monocultures as well as mixtures of barley with each of the above legumes, in three seeding ratios (i.e., barley: legume 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 based on seed numbers) were used to investigate forage yield and competition indices. The results showed that intercropping reduced the dry matter yield of the three component plants, compared with their respective monocrops. The greatest value of total dry matter yield was obtained from barley25-grasspea75 (5.44 t ha-1) mixture, followed by grass pea sole crop (4.99 t ha-1). The total AYL values were positive and greater than 0 in all mixtures, indicating an advantage from intercropping over sole crops. Intercropped barley had a higher relative crowding coefficient (K=1.64) than intercropped legumes (K=1.20), indicating that barley was more competitive than legumes in mixtures. Furthermore, grass pea was more competitive than vetch in mixtures with barley. The highest LER, SPI and MAI were obtained when barley was mixed at a rate of 25% with 75% seed rate of grass pea. It is concluded that intercropping of barley with grass pea has a good potential to improve the performance of forage with high land-use efficiency.

Keywords: forage, grass pea, intercropping, LER, monetary advantage

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
32 Co-Limitation of Iron Deficiency in Stem Allantoin and Amino-N Formation of Peanut Plants Intercropped with Cassava

Authors: Hong Li, Tingxian Li, Xudong Wang, Weibo Yang

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Co-limitation of iron (Fe) deficiency in legume nitrogen fixation process is not well understood. Our objectives were to examine how peanut plants cope with Fe deficiency with the rhizobial inoculants and N-nutrient treatments. The study was conducted in the tropical Hainan Island during 2012-2013. The soil was strongly acidic (pH 4.6±0.7) and deficient in Fe (9.2±2.3 mg/kg). Peanut plants were intercropped with cassava. The inoculants and N treatments were arranged in a split-plot design with three blocks. Peanut root nodulation, stem allantoin, amino acids and plant N derived from fixation (P) reduced with declining soil Fe concentrations. The treatment interactions were significant on relative ureide % and peanut yields (P<0.05). Residual fixed N from peanut plants was beneficial to cassava plants. It was concluded that co-variance of Fe deficiency could influence peanut N fixation efficiency and rhizobia and N inputs could help improving peanut tolerance to Fe deficiency stress.

Keywords: amino acids, plant N derived from N fixation, root nodulation, soil Fe co-variance, stem ureide, peanuts, cassava

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
31 Phytoestrogen Content of Fermented Lupin Tempeh and Natto

Authors: Niranjani Wickramsinghe, Mario Soares, Stuart Johnson, Ranil Cooray, Vijay Jayasena

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Tempeh is a traditional fermented soya bean food in Indonesia which is produced from de-hulled soya fermented with Rhizopusoligosporus. Natto is a traditional Japanese food made from whole soya bean seed fermentation with the bacteriaBacillus subtilis natto. Lupin is a grain legume with a low content of the phytoestrogenic isoflavones genistein and daidzein compared to soya. However due a comparable nutrition profile and increased cost effectiveness relative to soy, lupin has been substituted into various oriental fermented foods such as tempe and natto. Lupin tempeh and lupin natto were prepared using either WS or DHS. Analysis for genistein and daidzein content was conducted using HPLC for time points zero, 12h, 24h, 36h, 48h and 72h after fermentation. Results revealed that the amount of genistein and daidzein significantly increased with time in both tempeh and natto. Both isoflavones peaked at 48h in lupin tempeh and earlier at 36h in lupin natto. WS tempeh and WS natto had significantly more genistein than WHS tempe and WHS natto. Diadzeincontent of WHS tended to be higher than WS across both products. It is concluded that, fermentation time increased the amount of genistein and daidzein content in both lupin tempeh and natto and the form of lupin raw material used affected the genistein level and to some extent the daidzein content of fermented products.

Keywords: lupin, natto, soya, tempeh

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
30 The Evaluation of Substitution of Acacia villosa in Ruminants Ration

Authors: Hadriana Bansi, Elizabeth Wina, Toto Toharmat

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Acacia villosa is thornless shrub legume which contents high crude protein. However, the utilization of A. villosa as ruminant feed is limited by its secondary compounds. The aim of this article is to find out the maximum of substitution A. villosa in sheep ration. The nutritional evaluation consisted of in vitro two stages, in vivo, and in vitro gas production trials. The secondary compounds of A. villosa also were analyzed. Evaluating digestibility of increasing level of substitution A. villosa replacing Pennisetum purpureum was using in vitro two stages. The substitution of 30% A. villosa was compared to 100% P. purpureum by in vitro gas production technique and in vivo digestibility. The results of two stages in vitro showed that total phenol, condensed tannin, and non-protein amino acid (NPAA) were high. Substitution 15% A. villosa reached the highest digestibility for both dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) which were 67% and 86% respectively, but it was shown that DM and CP digestibility of substitution 30% of A. villosa was still high which were 61.82% and 75-67% respectively. The pattern of gas production showed that first 8 hours total gas production substitution of 30% A. villosa was higher than 100% P. purpureum and declined after 10 hours incubation. In vivo trials showed that substitution of 30% A. villosa significantly increased CP intake, CP digestibility, and nitrogen retention. It can be concluded that substitution A. villosa until 30% still gave the good impact even though it has high secondary compounds.

Keywords: Acacia villosa, digestibility, gas production, secondary compounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
29 Response of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes to Drought Stress at Different Growth Stages

Authors: Ali. Marjani, M. Farsi, M. Rahimizadeh

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Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the important grain legume crops in the world. However, drought stress is a serious threat to chickpea production, and development of drought-resistant varieties is a necessity. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of 8 chickpea genotypes (MCC* 696, 537, 80, 283, 392, 361, 252, 397) and drought stress (S1: non-stress, S2: stress at vegetative growth stage, S3: stress at early bloom, S4: stress at early pod visible) at different growth stages. Experiment was arranged in split plot design with four replications. Difference among the drought stress time was found to be significant for investigated traits except biological yield. Differences were observed for genotypes in flowering time, pod information time, physiological maturation time and yield. Plant height reduced due to drought stress in vegetative growth stage. Stem dry weight reduced due to drought stress in pod visibly. Flowering time, maturation time, pod number, number of seed per plant and yield cause of drought stress in flowering was also reduced. The correlation between yield and number of seed per plant and biological yield was positive. The MCC283 and MCC696 were the high-tolerance genotypes. These results demonstrated that drought stress delayed phonological growth in chickpea and that flowering stage is sensitive.

Keywords: chickpea, drought stress, growth stage, tolerance

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
28 Isolation and Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria Associated with Root-Nodules of Medicago sativa in Al-Ahasa Region

Authors: Ashraf Y. Z. Khalifa, Mohammed A. Almalki

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Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) is an important forage crop legume worldwide including Saudia Arabia due to its high nutritive value. Soil bacteria exist in root or root-nodules of Medicago sativa in either symbiotic relationships or in associations. The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria that live in association with non-nodulated roots of Medicago sativa growing in Al-Ahsaa region, Saudia Arabia. Several bacterial strains were isolated from sterilized roots of Medicago sativa. Strains were characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequences, phylogenetic relationships analysis, morphological and biochemical characteristics. The strains utilized 50% (10 out of 20) of the different chemical substrates contained in the API20E strip. In general, many strains had the ability to ferment/oxidise all the carbohydrate tested except for rhamnose and the polyol carbohydrate, inositol. Comparative sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA gene indicated that the strains were closely related to the genus Bacillus. Furthermore, the growth parameters of Vigna sinensis were enhanced upon single-inoculation of the isolated strains, compared to the uninoculated control plants. The results highlighted that the root-nodules of Medicago sativa harbor non-nodulating bacterial strains that could have significant agricultural applications.

Keywords: Medicago sativa, endophytic bacteria, Pisum sativum, Vigna sinensis

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
27 Evaluation of the Role of Bacteria-Derived Flavins as Plant Growth Promoting Molecules

Authors: Nivethika Ajeethan, Lord Abbey, Svetlana Yurge

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Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin and the direct precursor of the flavin cofactors flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide. Flavins (FLs) are bioactive molecules that have a beneficial effect on plant growth and development. Sinorhizobium meliloti strain 1021 is an α-proteobacterium that forms agronomically important N₂-fixing symbiosis with Medicago plants and secretes a considerable amount of FLs (FL⁺ strain). This strain was also implicated in plant growth promotion in its association with non-legume host plants. However, the mechanism of this plant growth promotion is not well understood. In this study, we evaluated the growth and development of tomato plants inoculated with S. meliloti 1021 and its mutant (FL⁻ strain) with limited ability to secrete FLs. Our preliminary experiments indicated that inoculation with FL⁺ strain significantly increased seedlings' root and shoot length and surface area compared to those of plants inoculated with FL⁻ strain. For example, the root lengths of 9-day old seedlings inoculated with FL⁺ strain were 35% longer than seedlings inoculated with the mutant. Proteomic approaches combined with the analysis of plant physiological responses such as growth and photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and chlorophyll content will be used to evaluate the host-plant response to bacteria-derived FLs.

Keywords: flavin, plant growth promotion, riboflavin, Sinorhizobium meliloti

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
26 Influence of Agroforestry Trees Leafy Biomass and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Crop Growth Rate and Relative Growth Rate of Maize

Authors: A. B. Alarape, O. D. Aba

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The use of legume tree pruning as mulch in agroforestry system is a common practice to maintain soil organic matter and improve soil fertility in the tropics. The study was conducted to determine the influence of agroforestry trees leafy biomass and nitrogen fertilizer on crop growth rate and relative growth rate of maize. The experiments were laid out as 3 x 4 x 2 factorial in a split-split plot design with three replicates. Control, biomass species (Parkia biglobosa and Albizia lebbeck) as main plots were considered, rates of nitrogen considered include (0, 40, 80, 120 kg N ha⁻¹) as sub-plots, and maize varieties (DMR-ESR-7 and 2009 EVAT) were used as sub-sub plots. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (ANOVA) at α = 0.05. Incorporation of leafy biomass was significant in 2015 on Relative Growth Rate (RGR), while nitrogen application was significant on Crop Growth Rate (CGR). 2009 EVAT had higher CGR in 2015 at 4-6 and 6-8 WAP. Incorporation of Albizia leaves enhanced the growth of maize than Parkia leaves. Farmers are, therefore, encouraged to use Albizia leaves as mulch to enrich their soil for maize production and most especially, in case of availability of inorganic fertilizers. Though, production of maize with biomass and application of 120 kg N ha⁻¹ will bring better growth of maize.

Keywords: agroforestry trees, fertilizer, growth, incorporation, leafy biomass

Procedia PDF Downloads 70