Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 155

Search results for: confinement

155 Effect of Confinement on Flexural Tensile Strength of Concrete

Authors: M. Ahmed, Javed Mallick, Mohammad Abul Hasan


The flexural tensile strength of concrete is an important parameter for determining cracking behavior of concrete structure and to compute deflection under flexure. Many factors have been shown to influence the flexural tensile strength, particularly the level of concrete strength, size of member, age of concrete and confinement to flexure member etc. Empirical equations have been suggested to relate the flexural tensile strength and compressive strength. Limited literature is available for relationship between flexural tensile strength and compressive strength giving consideration to the factors affecting the flexural tensile strength specially the concrete confinement factor. The concrete member such as slabs, beams and columns critical locations are under confinement effects. The paper presents the experimental study to predict the flexural tensile strength and compressive strength empirical relations using statistical procedures considering the effect of confinement and age of concrete for wide range of concrete strength (from 35 to about 100 MPa). It is concluded from study that due consideration of confinement should be given in deriving the flexural tensile strength and compressive strength proportionality equations.

Keywords: compressive strength, flexural tensile strength, modulus of rupture, statistical procedures, concrete confinement

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154 Who Killed Kalief? Examining the Effects of Solitary Confinement on Juvenile Detainees in the United States

Authors: Esther Baldwin


It is well settled that the use of solitary confinement can cause psychological and physical harm to detainees. For juveniles, who are more susceptible to irreparable harm due to their underdeveloped psyches, the risks are exacerbated. Despite these risks, across the United States juvenile detainees are regularly held in isolation for prolonged periods of time. This essay will examine the broad impact of solitary confinement on juvenile detainees while giving particular focus to the story of Kalief Browder, a juvenile awaiting trial on Rikers Island in New York for a period of three years, nearly two years of which were spent in solitary confinement. Although sadly, his story is not uncommon, Kalief’s story offers a unique perspective in that it provides first-hand insight on the effects of solitary confinement on juveniles. It is our hope that by sharing his story, we will demand better detention practices and policies for juveniles under correctional control in the United States.

Keywords: criminal justice system, juveniles, Kalief browder, solitary confinement

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
153 Soil Mass Loss Reduction during Rainfalls by Reinforcing the Slopes with the Surficial Confinement

Authors: Ramli Nazir, Hossein Moayedi


Soil confinement systems serve as effective solutions to any erosion control project. Various confinements systems, namely triangular, circular and rectangular with the size of 50, 100, and 150 mm, and with a depth of 10 mm, were embedded in soil samples at slope angle of 60°. The observed soil mass losses for the confined soil systems were much smaller than those from unconfined system. As a result, the size of confinement and rainfall intensity have a direct effect on the soil mass loss. The triangular and rectangular confinement systems showed the lowest and highest soil loss masses, respectively. The slopes also failed much faster in the unconfined system than in the confined slope.

Keywords: erosion control, soil confinement, soil erosion, slope stability

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152 Influence of Behavior Models on the Response of a Reinforced Concrete Frame: Multi-Fiber Approach

Authors: A. Kahil, A. Nekmouche, N. Khelil, I. Hamadou, M. Hamizi, Ne. Hannachi


The objective of this work is to study the influence of the nonlinear behavior models of the concrete (concrete_BAEL and concrete_UNI) as well as the confinement brought by the transverse reinforcement on the seismic response of reinforced concrete frame (RC/frame). These models as well as the confinement are integrated in the Cast3m finite element calculation code. The consideration of confinement (TAC, taking into account the confinement) provided by the transverse reinforcement and the non-consideration of confinement (without consideration of containment, WCC) in the presence and absence of a vertical load is studied. The application was made on a reinforced concrete frame (RC/frame) with 3 levels and 2 spans. The results show that on the one hand, the concrete_BAEL model slightly underestimates the resistance of the RC/frame in the plastic field, whereas the concrete_uni model presents the best results compared to the simplified model "concrete_BAEL", on the other hand, for the concrete-uni model, taking into account the confinement has no influence on the behavior of the RC/frame under imposed displacement up to a vertical load of 500 KN.

Keywords: reinforced concrete, nonlinear calculation, behavior laws, fiber model confinement, numerical simulation

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151 Design of a Laboratory Test for InvestigatingPermanent Deformation of Asphalt

Authors: Esmaeil Ahmadinia, Frank Bullen, Ron Ayers


Many concerns have been raised in recent years about the adequacy of existing creep test methods for evaluating rut-resistance of asphalt mixes. Many researchers believe the main reason for the creep tests being unable to duplicate field results is related to a lack of a realistic confinement for laboratory specimens. In-situ asphalt under axle loads is surrounded by a mass of asphalt, which provides stress-strain generated confinement. However, most existing creep tests are largely unconfined in their nature. It has been hypothesised that by providing a degree of confinement, representative of field conditions, in a creep test, it could be possible to establish a better correlation between the field and laboratory. In this study, a new methodology is explored where confinement for asphalt specimens is provided. The proposed methodology is founded on the current Australian test method, adapted to provide simulated field conditions through the provision of sample confinement.

Keywords: asphalt mixture, creep test, confinements, permanent deformation

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150 Ultra-Low Chromatic Dispersion, Low Confinement Loss, and Low Nonlinear Effects Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fiber

Authors: S. Olyaee, M. Seifouri, A. Nikoosohbat, M. Shams Esfand Abadi


Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) can be used in optical communications as transmission lines. For this reason, the PCFs with low confinement loss, low chromatic dispersion, and low nonlinear effects are highly suitable transmission media. In this paper, we introduce a new design of index-guiding photonic crystal fiber (IG-PCF) with ultra-low chromatic dispersion, low nonlinearity effects, and low confinement loss. Relatively low dispersion is achieved in the wavelength range of 1200 to 1600 nm using the proposed design. According to the new structure of IG-PCF presented in this study, the chromatic dispersion slope is -30(ps/km.nm) and the confinement loss reaches below 10-7 dB/km. While in the wavelength range mentioned above at the same time an effective area of more than 50.2μm2 is obtained.

Keywords: optical communication systems, index-guiding, dispersion, confinement loss, photonic crystal fiber

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149 Effect of Stirrup Corrosion on Concrete Confinement Strength

Authors: Mucip Tapan, Ali Ozvan, Ismail Akkaya


This study investigated how the concrete confinement strength and axial load carrying capacity of reinforced concrete columns are affected by corrosion damage to the stirrups. A total of small-scale 12 test specimens were cast for evaluating the effect of stirrup corrosion on confinement strength of concrete. The results of this study show that the stirrup corrosion alone dramatically decreases the axial load carrying capacity of corroded reinforced concrete columns. Recommendations were presented for improved inspection practices which will allow estimating concrete confinement strength of corrosion-damaged reinforced concrete bridge columns.

Keywords: bridge, column, concrete, corrosion, inspection, stirrup reinforcement

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148 Effects of COVID-19 Confinement on Physical Activity and Screen Time in Spanish Children

Authors: Maria Medrano, Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Maddi Oses, Lide Arenaza, Maria Amasene, Idoia Labayen


The COVID-19 outbreak began in December 2019 in China and was rapidly expanded globally. Emergency measures, such as social distance or home confinement, were adopted by many country governments to prevent its transmission. In Spain, one of the most affected countries, the schools were closed, and one of the most severe mandatory home confinement was established for children from 14th March to 26th April 2020. The hypothesis of this study was that the measures adopted during the COVID-19 pandemic may have negatively affected physical activity and screen time of children. However, few studies have examined the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on lifestyle behaviours. Thus, the aim of the current work was to analyse the effects of the COVID-19 confinement on physical activity and screen time in Spanish children. For the current purpose, a total of 113 children and adolescents (12.0 ± 2.6 yr., 51.3% boys, 24.0% with overweight/obesity according to the World Obesity Federation) of the MUGI project were included in the analyses. Physical activity and screen time were longitudinally assessed by 'The Youth Activity Profile' questionnaire (YAP). Differences in physical activity and screen time before and during the confinement were assessed by dependent t-test. Before the confinement, 60% did not meet physical activity recommendations ( ≥ 60/min/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity), and 61% used screens ≥ 2 h/day. During the COVID-19 confinement, children decreased their physical activity levels (-91 ± 55 min/day, p < 0.001) and increased screen time ( ± 2.6 h/day, p < 0.001). The prevalence of children that worsened physical activity and screen time during the COVID-19 confinement were 95.2% and 69.8%, respectively. The current study evidence the negative effects of the COVID-19 confinement on physical activity and screen time in Spanish children. These findings should be taken into account to develop and implement future public health strategies for preserving children's lifestyle behaviours and health during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: COVID-19, lifestyle changes, paediatric, physical activity, screen time

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147 Aqueous Hydrogen Sulphide in Slit-Shaped Silica Nano-Pores: Confinement Effects on Solubility, Structural and Dynamical Properties

Authors: Sakiru Badmos, David R. Cole, Alberto Striolo


It is known that confinement in nm-size pores affects many structural and transport properties of water and co-existing volatile species. Of particular interest for fluids in sub-surface systems, in catalysis, and in separations are reports that confinement can enhance the solubility of gases in water. Equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were performed for aqueous H₂S confined in slit-shaped silica pores at 313K. The effect of pore width on the H₂S solubility in water was investigated. Other properties of interest include the molecular distribution of the various fluid molecules within the pores, the hydration structure for solvated H₂S molecules, and the dynamical properties of the confined fluids. The simulation results demonstrate that confinement reduces the H₂S solubility in water and that the solubility increases with pore size. Analysis of spatial distribution functions suggests that these results are due to perturbations on the coordination of water molecules around H₂S due to confinement. Confinement is found to dampen the dynamical properties of aqueous H₂S as well. Comparing the results obtained for aqueous H₂S to those reported elsewhere for aqueous CH₄, it can be concluded that H₂S permeates hydrated slit-shaped silica nano-pores faster than CH₄. In addition to contributing to better understanding the behavior of fluids in subsurface formations, these observations could also have important implications for developing new natural gas sweetening technologies.

Keywords: confinement, interfacial properties, molecular dynamic simulation, sub-surface formations

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146 Effects of CFRP Confinement on PCC and Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Muhammad Jahangeer Munir, Liaqat Ali Qureshi, Junaid Ahmed


This paper presents the investigation regarding use of glass fibers in structural concrete members and determining the behavior of normal PCC, GFRC and retrofitted GFRC under different tests performed in the laboratory. Effect of retrofitting on the GFRC & PCC was investigated by using three patterns of CFRP wrapping. Properties like compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of normal GFRC and retrofitted GFRC were investigated and compared with their PCC counterparts. It was found that GFRC has more compressive strength as compared to PCC. At lower confinement pressures PCC behaves better than GFRC. Confinement efficiency was lower in GFRC as compared to PCC in terms of Split tensile strength. In case of GFRC all the patterns of wrapped CFRP strips showed more strength than their PCC counterparts.

Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced polymers, confinement, glass fibers, retrofitting

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145 Low Nonlinear Effects Index-Guiding Nanostructured Photonic Crystal Fiber

Authors: S. Olyaee, M. Seifouri, A. Nikoosohbat, M. Shams Esfand Abadi


Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) can be used in optical communications as transmission lines. For this reason, the PCFs with low confinement loss, low chromatic dispersion, and low nonlinear effects are highly suitable transmission media. In this paper, we introduce a new design of index-guiding nanostructured photonic crystal fiber (IG-NPCF) with ultra-low chromatic dispersion, low nonlinearity effects, and low confinement loss. Relatively low dispersion is achieved in the wavelength range of 1200 to 1600nm using the proposed design. According to the new structure of nanostructured PCF presented in this study, the chromatic dispersion slope is -30(ps/km.nm) and the confinement loss reaches below 10-7 dB/km. While in the wavelength range mentioned above at the same time an effective area of more than 50.2μm2 is obtained.

Keywords: optical communication systems, nanostructured, index-guiding, dispersion, confinement loss, photonic crystal fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 485
144 Effect of Confinement on the Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Spread Foundations

Authors: Tahsin Toma Sabbagh, Ihsan Al-Abboodi, Ali Al-Jazaairry


Allowable-bearing capacity is the competency of soil to safely carries the pressure from the superstructure without experiencing a shear failure with accompanying excessive settlements. Ensuring a safe bearing pressure with respect to failure does not tolerate settlement of the foundation will be within acceptable limits. Therefore, settlement analysis should always be performed since most structures are settlement sensitive. When visualising the movement of a soil wedge in the bearing capacity criterion, both vertically and horizontally, it becomes clear that by confining the soil surrounding the foundation, both the bearing capacity and settlement values improve. In this study, two sizes of spread foundation were considered; (2×4) m and (3×5) m. These represent two real problem case studies of an existing building. The foundations were analysed in terms of dimension as well as position with respect to a confining wall (i.e., sheet piles on both sides). Assuming B is the least foundation dimension, the study comprised the analyses of three distances; (0.1 B), (0.5 B), and (0.75 B) between the sheet piles and foundations alongside three depths of confinement (0.5 B), (1 B), and (1.5 B). Nonlinear three-dimensional finite element analysis (ANSYS) was adopted to perform an analytical investigation on the behaviour of the two foundations contained by the case study. Results showed that confinement of foundations reduced the overall stresses near the foundation by 65% and reduced the vertical displacement by 90%. Moreover, the most effective distance between the confinement wall and the foundation was found to be 0.5 B.

Keywords: bearing capacity, cohesionless soils, soil confinement, soil modelling, spread footings

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143 Fabrication and Properties of Al2O3/Si Quantum Well-Structured Silicon Solar Cells

Authors: Kwang-Ho Kim, Kwan-Hong Min, Pyungwoo Jang, Chisup Jung, Kyu Seomoon


By restricting the dimensions of silicon to less than Bohr radius of bulk crystalline silicon (∼5 nm), quantum confinement causes its effective bandgap to increase. Therefore, silicon quantum wells (QWs) using these quantum phenomena could be a good candidate to achieve high performance silicon solar cells. The Al2O3/Si QW structures were fabricated by using the successive deposition technique, as a quantum confinement device to increase the effective energy bandgap and passivation effect in Si surface for the 3rd generation solar cell applications. In Si/Al2O3 QWs, the thicknesses of Si layers and Al2O3 layers were varied between 1 to 5 nm, respectively. The roughness of deposited Si on Al2O3 was less than 4 Å in the thickness of 2 nm. By using the Al2O3/Si QW structures on Si surfaces, the lifetime measured by u-PCD technique increased as a result of passivated surface effects. The discussion about the other properties such as electrical and optical properties of the QWs structures as well as the fabricated solar cells will be presented in this paper.

Keywords: Al2O3/Si quantum well, quantum confinement, solar cells, third generation, successive deposition technique

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142 Simulation of Reflectometry in Alborz Tokamak

Authors: S. Kohestani, R. Amrollahi, P. Daryabor


Microwave diagnostics such as reflectometry are receiving growing attention in magnetic confinement fusionresearch. In order to obtain the better understanding of plasma confinement physics, more detailed measurements on density profile and its fluctuations might be required. A 2D full-wave simulation of ordinary mode propagation has been written in an effort to model effects seen in reflectometry experiment. The code uses the finite-difference-time-domain method with a perfectly-matched-layer absorption boundary to solve Maxwell’s equations.The code has been used to simulate the reflectometer measurement in Alborz Tokamak.

Keywords: reflectometry, simulation, ordinary mode, tokamak

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141 Effects of Methods of Confinement during Transportation of Market Pigs on Meat Quality

Authors: Pongchan Na-Lampang


The objective of this study was to compare the results of transport of slaughter pigs to slaughterhouse by 2 methods, i.e. individual confined and group confined on the truck on meat quality. The pigs were transported for 1 h on a distance of 70 km. The stocking densities were 0.35 m2/pig and 0.48 m2 for group and individual crate treatment, respectively. It was found that meat quality of pigs transported by 2 different methods as measured in terms of pH level (at 45 min and 48 hr post mortem), color (brightness, redness and yellowness) and water holding capacity was not significantly different.

Keywords: market pig, transportation, meat quality, confinement

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140 Confinement and Storage of Cyanate in the Nano Scale via Nanolayered Structures

Authors: Osama Saber


Cyanate is one such anion which is produced during protein poisoning in the body and has been studied extensively in the field of biochemistry because of its toxicity. The present work aims at confinement and storage of cyanate in the nano scale. It was achieved through the intercalation of cyanate anions into nanolayerd structures of Ni-Al LDH. In addition, the effect of aging time on the intercalation of cyanate was clarified using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, the effect of cations on the affinity towards the intercalation of cyanate anions inside LDH structure was studied by replacement of tetra-valent cations Ti4+ instead of the tri-vallent cations Al3+ during the preparation of LDH structure. X-ray diffraction patterns of the Ni-Ti LDH showed that the interlayer spacing was 0.73 nm. This spacing was smaller than that of Ni-Al LDH suggesting that the interlayered anions into Ni-Ti LDH are different from those into Ni-Al LDH. Thermal analyses (TG, DTG, and DTA) and Infra-red spectra revealed the presence of only cyanate anions into Ni-Ti LDH while, in the case of Ni-Al LDH, both cyanate and carbonate anions were observed. SEM images showed plate-like morphology for both Ni-Ti and Ni-Al LDHs although the shapes of their plates are not similar. Our results suggested that the LDH structures containing titanium cations have higher affinity for cyanate anions than those containing aluminum cations. Therefore, this choice for cyanate in the interlayered spacing widens the applicability to study the effect of the confinement on the toxicity of cyanate by bio researchers.

Keywords: nanolayered structures, Ni-Al LDH, Ni-Ti LDH, intercalation of cyanate anions, urea hydrolysis

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139 Removal of Na₂SO₄ by Electro-Confinement on Nanoporous Carbon Membrane

Authors: Jing Ma, Guotong Qin


We reported electro-confinement desalination (ECMD), a desalination method combining electric field effects and confinement effects using nanoporous carbon membranes as electrode. A carbon membrane with average pore size of 8.3 nm was prepared by organic sol-gel method. The precursor of support was prepared by curing porous phenol resin tube. Resorcinol-formaldehyde sol was coated on porous tubular resin support. The membrane was obtained by carbonisation of coated support. A well-combined top layer with the thickness of 35 μm was supported by macroporous support. Measurements of molecular weight cut-off using polyethylene glycol showed the average pore size of 8.3 nm. High salt rejection can be achieved because the water molecules need not overcome high energy barriers in confined space, while huge inherent dehydration energy was required for hydrated ions to enter the nanochannels. Additionally, carbon membrane with additional electric field can be used as an integrated membrane electrode combining the effects of confinement and electric potential gradient. Such membrane electrode can repel co-ions and attract counter-ions using pressure as the driving force for mass transport. When the carbon membrane was set as cathode, the rejection of SO₄²⁻ was 94.89%, while the removal of Na⁺ was less than 20%. We set carbon membrane as anode chamber to treat the effluent water from the cathode chamber. The rejection of SO₄²⁻ and Na⁺ reached to 100% and 88.86%, respectively. ECMD will be a promising energy efficient method for salt rejection.

Keywords: nanoporous carbon membrane, confined effect, electric field, desalination, membrane reactor

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138 Investigation of Cylindrical Multi-Layer Hybrid Plasmonic Waveguides

Authors: Prateeksha Sharma, V. Dinesh Kumar


Performances of cylindrical multilayer hybrid plasmonic waveguides have been investigated in detail considering their structural and material aspects. Characteristics of hybrid metal insulator metal (HMIM) and hybrid insulator metal insulator (HIMI) waveguides have been compared on the basis of propagation length and confinement factor. Necessity of this study is to understand newer kind of waveguides that overcome the limitations of conventional waveguides. Investigation reveals that sub wavelength confinement can be obtained in two low dielectric spacer layers. This study provides gateway for many applications such as nano lasers, interconnects, bio sensors and optical trapping etc.

Keywords: hybrid insulator metal insulator, hybrid metal insulator metal, nano laser, surface plasmon polariton

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137 Experimental Studies of Spiral-Confined HSCFST Columns under Uni-Axial Compression

Authors: Mianheng Lai, Johnny Ching Ming Ho, Hoat Joen Pam


Concrete-filled-steel-tube (CFST) columns are becoming increasingly popular owing to the superior behavior contributed by the composite action. However, this composite action cannot be fully developed because of different dilation properties between steel tube and concrete. During initial compression, there will be de-bonding between the constitutive materials. As a result, the strength, initial stiffness and ductility of CFST columns reduce significantly. To resolve this problem, external confinement in the form of spirals is proposed to improve the interface bonding. In this paper, a total of 14CFST columns with high-strength as well as ultra-high-strength concrete in-filled were fabricated and tested under uni-axial compression. From the experimental results, it can be concluded that the proposed spirals can improve the strength, initial stiffness, ductility and the interface bonding condition of CFST columns by restraining the lateral expansion of steel tube and core concrete. Moreover, the failure modes of confined core concrete change due to the strong confinement provided by spirals.

Keywords: concrete-filled-steel-tube, confinement, failure mode, high-strength concrete, spirals

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136 Anchorage Effect on Axial Strength of Fiber Reinforced Polymers Confined Rectangular Columns

Authors: Yavuz Yardim


FRP systems have been largely used to improve the performance of structural members, due to their high strength to weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Application of this strengthening procedure in circular columns has resulted quite beneficial in increasing their seismic and axial capacity. Whereas in the rectangular ones, strength enhancement was considerably less due to stress concentration in the corner. In this work three anchorage configurations are tested for their efficiency in increasing the uniformity of confinement pressure in the CFRP strengthened non-circular sections. There is a slight increase in the axial strength of specimens as a general trend. More specifically fan anchorage reached an increase of 17.5% compared to the unanchored specimens. The study shows that uniformity of confining pressure has increased by adding anchorage.

Keywords: rectangular columns, FRP, confinement, anchorage

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135 Effect of Aggregate Size on Mechanical Behavior of Passively Confined Concrete Subjected to 3D Loading

Authors: Ibrahim Ajani Tijani, C. W. Lim


Limited studies have examined the effect of size on the mechanical behavior of confined concrete subjected to 3-dimensional (3D) test. With the novel 3D testing system to produce passive confinement, concrete cubes were tested to examine the effect of size on stress-strain behavior of the specimens. The effect of size on 3D stress-strain relationship was scrutinized and compared to the stress-strain relationship available in the literature. It was observed that the ultimate stress and the corresponding strain was related to the confining rigidity and size. The size shows a significant effect on the intersection stress and a new model was proposed for the intersection stress based on the conceptual design of the confining plates.

Keywords: concrete, aggregate size, size effect, 3D compression, passive confinement

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134 Characterization of Inertial Confinement Fusion Targets Based on Transmission Holographic Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

Authors: B. Zare-Farsani, M. Valieghbal, M. Tarkashvand, A. H. Farahbod


To provide the conditions for nuclear fusion by high energy and powerful laser beams, it is required to have a high degree of symmetry and surface uniformity of the spherical capsules to reduce the Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities. In this paper, we have used the digital microscopic holography based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer to study the quality of targets for inertial fusion. The interferometric pattern of the target has been registered by a CCD camera and analyzed by Holovision software. The uniformity of the surface and shell thickness are investigated and measured in reconstructed image. We measured shell thickness in different zone where obtained non uniformity 22.82 percent.  

Keywords: inertial confinement fusion, mach-zehnder interferometer, digital holographic microscopy, image reconstruction, holovision

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133 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Supercooled Water in Nanoporous Confinement and Biological Systems

Authors: Viktor Soprunyuk, Wilfried Schranz, Patrick Huber


In the present work, we show that Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) with a measurement frequency range f= 0.2 - 100 Hz is a rather powerful technique for the study of phase transitions (freezing and melting) and glass transitions of water in geometrical confinement. Inserting water into nanoporous host matrices, like e.g. Gelsil (size of pores 2.6 nm and 5 nm) or Vycor (size of pores 10 nm) allows one to study size effects occurring at the nanoscale conveniently in macroscopic bulk samples. One obtains valuable insight concerning confinement induced changes of the dynamics by measuring the temperature and frequency dependencies of the complex Young's modulus Y* for various pore sizes. Solid-liquid transitions or glass-liquid transitions show up in a softening or the real part Y' of the complex Young's modulus, yet with completely different frequency dependencies. Analysing the frequency dependent imaginary part of the Young´s modulus in the glass transition regions for different pore sizes we find a clear-cut 1/d-dependence of the calculated glass transition temperatures which extrapolates to Tg(1/d=0)=136 K, in agreement with the traditional value of water. The results indicate that the main role of the pore diameter is the relative amount of water molecules that are near an interface within a length scale of the order of the dynamic correlation length x. Thus we argue that the observed strong pore size dependence of Tg is an interfacial effect, rather than a finite size effect. We obtained similar signatures of Y* near glass transitions in different biological objects (fruits, vegetables, and bread). The values of the activation energies for these biological materials in the region of glass transition are quite similar to the values of the activation energies of supercooled water in the nanoporous confinement in this region. The present work was supported by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF, project Nr. P 28672 – N36).

Keywords: biological systems, liquids, glasses, amorphous systems, nanoporous materials, phase transition

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132 2D PbS Nanosheets Synthesis and Their Applications as Field Effect Transistors or Solar Cells

Authors: T. Bielewicz, S. Dogan, C. Klinke


Two-dimensional, solution-processable semiconductor materials are interesting for low-cost electronic applications [1]. We demonstrate the synthesis of lead sulfide nanosheets and how their size, shape and height can be tuned by varying concentrations of pre-cursors, ligands and by varying the reaction temperature. Especially, the charge carrier confinement in the nanosheets’ height adjustable from 2 to 20 nm has a decisive impact on their electronic properties. This is demonstrated by their use as conduction channel in a field effect transistor [2]. Recently we also showed that especially thin nanosheets show a high carrier multiplication (CM) efficiency [3] which could make them, through the confinement induced band gap and high photoconductivity, very attractive for application in photovoltaic devices. We are already able to manufacture photovoltaic devices out of single nanosheets which show promising results.

Keywords: physical sciences, chemistry, materials, chemistry, colloids, physics, condensed-matter physics, semiconductors, two-dimensional materials

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131 Free and Encapsulated (TiO2)2 Dimers into Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: S. Dargouthi, S. Boughdiri, B. Tangour


This work invoked two complementary parts. In the first, we performed a theoretical study of various dimers of molecular of titanium dioxide. Five structures were examined. Three among them, the (T), (C) and (T/P) isomers, may be considered as stable compounds because they represent absolute minima on their potential energy surfaces. (T) and (C) may coexist because they are separted by only 6.5 kcal mol-1 but (T/P) dimer is in a metastable state from an energetic point of view. Non bonded dimer (P) transforms into its homologue (O) which has been considered as transitory specie with low lifetime which evolves to (T) structure. In the second part, we highlight the possible stabilization of (T), (C) and (P) dimers by encapsulation in carbon nanotubes. This indicates the probable role that plays this transitory specie the polymerization process of molecular TiO2. Confinement is suitable to control the fast evolution process and could towards the synthesis of new titanium dioxide nanostructured materials. An alternative description of TiO2 polymorphs (Rutie, anatase et Brookite) is proposed from (T), (C) and (T/P) dimmers motifs.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, carbon nanotube, confinement. encapsulation, transitory specie

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130 Confinement of Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Beams Using U-Links

Authors: Madiha Z. Ammari, Abdul Qader AlNajmi


A new system of U-links was used in this study to confine the concrete core in concrete-filled steel beams. This system aims to employ the separation expected between the steel tube and the concrete core in the compression side of the section in the plastic hinge zone. A total of six rectangular CFT beam specimens were tested under flexure using different D/t ratios and different diameters for the U-links to examine their effect on the flexural behavior of these beams. The ultimate flexural strength of the CFT beam specimens with U-links showed an increase of strength about 47% of the specimen with D/t ratio equals 37.5 above standard CFT beam specimen without U-links inside. State of concrete inside the tubes has shown no crushing of concrete when those beams were cut open at the location of the plastic hinge. Strain measurements revealed that the compressive strain of concrete was 5-6 times the concrete crushing strain.

Keywords: concrete-filled tubes, U-links, plated studies, beams, flexural strength, concrete, confinement

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129 Breeding Performance and Egg Quality of Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus Gallus L.) Mated with Native Hens (Gallus galus domesticus) in Selected Areas of Leyte under Confinement System

Authors: Francisco F. Buctot Jr.


This study was conducted to assess the breeding performance and egg quality traits of Red Jungle Fowls in selected areas of Leyte mated to Native hens under confinement system. A total of six Red Jungle Fowl roosters, two native roosters and 16 native hens were randomly assigned to four treatments with eight replications; each composed of one rooster and two hens randomly laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design set up. Result on egg weight showed highly significant difference at p<0.01 and revealed heaviest weight (39.0 g) and lightest weight (35.75 g) on Native x Native and Baybay RJF x Native, respectively. While comparable number of eggs per clutch, fertility and hatchability rates, yolk and albumen weights, shell weight, egg length and width, egg shape index and yolk color score were obtained.

Keywords: egg clutch, egg shape index, native chicken, hatchability rate

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128 Control of Asthma in Children with Asthma during the Containment Period following the Covid-19 Pandemic

Authors: Meryam Labyad, Karima Fakiri, Widad Lahmini, Ghizlane Draiss, Mohamed Bouskraoui, Nadia Ouzennou


Background: Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children, affecting nearly 235 million people worldwide (OMS). In Morocco, asthma is much more common in children than in adults; the prevalence rate in children between 13 and 14 years of age is 20%.1 This pathology is marked by high morbidity, a significant impact on the quality of life and development of children 2 This requires a rigorous management strategy in order to achieve clinical control and reduce any risk to the patient 3 A search for aggravating factors is mandatory if a child has difficulty maintaining good asthma control. The objective of the present study is to describe asthma control during this confinement period in children aged 4 to 11 years followed by a pneumo-paediatric consultation. For children whose asthma is not controlled, a search for associations with promoting factors and adherence to treatment is also among the objectives of the study. Knowing the level of asthma control and influencing factors is a therapeutic priority in order to reduce hospitalizations and emergency care use. Objective: To assess asthma control and determine the factors influencing asthma levels in children with asthma during confinement following the COVID 19 pandemic. Method: Prospective cross-sectional study by questionnaire and structured interview among 66 asthmatic children followed in pediatric pneumology consultation at the CHU MED VI of Marrakech from 13/06/2020 to 13/07/2020, asthma control was assessed by the Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT). Results: 66 children and their parents were included (mean age is 7.5 years), asthma was associated with allergic rhinitis (13.5% of cases), conjunctivitis (9% of cases), eczema (12% of cases), occurrence of infection (10.5% of cases). The period of confinement was marked by a decrease in the number of asthma attacks translated by a decrease in the number of emergency room visits (7.5%) of these asthmatic children, control was well controlled in 71% of the children, this control was significantly associated with good adherence to treatment (p<0.001), no infection (p<0.001) and no conjunctivitis (p=002) or rhinitis (p<0.001). This improvement in asthma control during confinement can be explained by the measures taken in the Kingdom to prevent the spread of COVID 19 (school closures, reduction in industrial activity, fewer means of transport, etc.), leading to a decrease in children's exposure to triggers, which justifies the decrease in the number of children having had an infection, allergic rhinitis or conjunctivitis during this period. In addition, the close monitoring of parents resulted in better therapeutic adherence (42.4% were fully observant). Confinement was positively perceived by 68% of the parents; this perception is significantly associated with the level of asthma control (p<0.001). Conclusion: Maintaining good control can be achieved through improved therapeutic adherence and avoidance of triggers, both of which were achieved during the containment period following the VIDOC pandemic 19.

Keywords: Asthma, control , COVID-19 , children

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127 Ultimate Stress of the Steel Tube in Circular Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Stub Columns Subjected to Axial Compression

Authors: Siqi Lin, Yangang Zhao


Concrete-filled steel tube column achieves the excellent performance of high strength, stiffness, and ductility due to the confinement from the steel tube. Well understanding the stress of the steel tube is important to make clear the confinement effect. In this paper, the ultimate stress of the steel tube in circular concrete-filled steel tube columns subjected to axial compression was studied. Experimental tests were conducted to investigate the effects of the parameters, including concrete strength, steel strength, and D/t ratio, on the ultimate stress of the steel tube. The stress of the steel tube was determined by employing the Prandtl-Reuss flow rule associated with isotropic strain hardening. Results indicate that the stress of steel tube was influenced by the parameters. Specimen with higher strength ratio fy/fc and smaller D/t ratio generally leads to a higher utilization efficiency of the steel tube.

Keywords: concrete-filled steel tube, axial compression, ultimate stress, utilization efficiency

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126 A Multipurpose Inertial Electrostatic Magnetic Confinement Fusion for Medical Isotopes Production

Authors: Yasser R. Shaban


A practical multipurpose device for medical isotopes production is most wanted for clinical centers and researches. Unfortunately, the major supply of these radioisotopes currently comes from aging sources, and there is a great deal of uneasiness in the domestic market. There are also many cases where the cost of certain radioisotopes is too high for their introduction on a commercial scale even though the isotopes might have great benefits for society. The medical isotopes such as radiotracers PET (Positron Emission Tomography), Technetium-99 m, and Iodine-131, Lutetium-177 by is feasible to be generated by a single unit named IEMC (Inertial Electrostatic Magnetic Confinement). The IEMC fusion vessel is the upgrading unit of the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement IEC fusion vessel. Comprehensive experimental works on IEC were carried earlier with promising results. The principle of inertial electrostatic magnetic confinement IEMC fusion is based on forcing the binary fuel ions to interact in the opposite directions in ions cyclotrons orbits with different kinetic energies in order to have equal compression (forces) and with different ion cyclotron frequency ω in order to increase the rate of intersection. The IEMC features greater fusion volume than IEC by several orders of magnitude. The particles rate from the IEMC approach are projected to be 8.5 x 10¹¹ (p/s), ~ 0.2 microampere proton, for D/He-3 fusion reaction and 4.2 x 10¹² (n/s) for D/T fusion reaction. The projected values of particles yield (neutrons and protons) are suitable for medical isotope productions on-site by a single unit without any change in the fusion vessel but only the fuel gas. The PET radiotracers are usually produced on-site by medical ion accelerator whereas Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) is usually produced off-site from the irradiation facilities of nuclear power plants. Typically, hospitals receive molybdenum-99 isotope container; the isotope decays to Tc-99mwith half-life time 2.75 days. Even though the projected current from IEMC is lesser than the proton current from the medical ion accelerator but still the IEMC vessel is simpler, and reduced in components and power consumption which add a new value of populating the PET radiotracers in most clinical centers. On the other hand, the projected neutrons flux from the IEMC is lesser than the thermal neutron flux at the irradiation facilities of nuclear power plants, but in the IEMC case the productions of Technetium-99m is suggested to be at the resonance region of which the resonance integral cross section is two orders of magnitude higher than the thermal flux. Thus it can be said the net activity from both is evened. Besides, the particle accelerator cannot be considered a multipurpose particles production unless a significant change is made to the accelerator to change from neutrons mode to protons mode or vice versa. In conclusion, the projected fusion yield from IEMC is a straightforward since slightly change in the primer IEC and ion source is required.

Keywords: electrostatic versus magnetic confinement fusion vessel, ion source, medical isotopes productions, neutron activation

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