Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7896

Search results for: education policy

7896 Policy Imperatives for Privatisation of Higher Education in India

Authors: Roli Pradhan

Abstract:

All over the globe, the resources of the government are declining, and the funding requirements in education are on a constant rise. The governments are desperately increasing the budgetary allocation for higher education, the economic plans have been labeling investment in higher education to be immensely vital for development of the nation. Still the fact is that the government of the developing nations like India lacks the potential to fund the rising demands of this sector. In the face of declining government funding for higher education, there are the growing needs and justifiable pressure for direct beneficiaries to bear a reasonable part of the cost of higher education. The supply-demand gap in higher education in India is on the increase. This paper evaluates the Indian National Education Policy over the past three decades, furnishes the need of financing of education by private players. The paper also covers the aspects of incorporating the different forms of financing in education and also focuses on the regulations pertaining to quality maintenance in the education system. The paper also targets to suggest policy imperatives for the future education policy for India.

Keywords: national education policy, privatisation, private financing, government funding

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7895 The Appropriation of Education Policy on Information and Communication Technology in South African Schools

Authors: T. Vandeyar

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore how Government policy on ICT influences teaching and learning in South African schools. An instrumental case study using backward mapping principles as a strategy of inquiry was used. Utilizing a social constructivist lens and guided by a theoretical framework of a sociocultural approach to policy analysis, this exploratory qualitative research study set out to investigate how teachers appropriate government policy on ICT in South African schools. Three major findings emanated from this study. First, although teachers were ignorant of the national e-education policy their professionalism and agency were key in formulating and implementing an e-education policy in practice. Second, teachers repositioned themselves not as recipients or reactors of the e-education policy but as social and cultural actors of policy appropriation and formulation. Third, the lack of systemic support to teachers catalyzed improved school and teacher collaborations, teachers became drivers of ICT integration through collaboration, innovation, institutional practice and institutional leadership.

Keywords: ICT, teachers as change agents, practice as policy, teacher's beliefs, teacher's attitudes

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7894 The Challenges of Decentralised Education Policy for Teachers in Indonesian Contexts

Authors: Ahmad Ardillah Rahman

Abstract:

The decentralisation policy in education has been a trend in some countries in the last two decades. In Indonesia, the implementation of the policy has been introduced since 2003 with the occurrence of School-Based Management policy. The reform has affected the way principals and teachers should involve in school practices in which more autonomies and flexibilities are given to teachers in conducting their teaching practices. Almost 13 years since the policy was firstly introduced, the government and teachers in Indonesia still face some obstacles in maximising the potential benefits of the implementation of the decentralised education system. This study, thus, critically analyses the challenges of decentralised education policy for teachers in Indonesian education context. The purposes of this study are threefold. Firstly, it will explore the history of policy transformation from a centralised to a decentralised education policy. Secondly, it points out the advantages of the decentralised policy implementation. The last, it provides a comprehensive description of challenges faced by Indonesian teachers with the new roles in designing and implementing a curriculum. By using data from existing surveys and research, this study concludes that to successfully implement the transformation in the educational reform of Indonesia, continual and gradual teachers’ training, professional career pathway, and local monitoring for teachers should be developed and strengthened.

Keywords: curriculum design, decentralisation, school-based management, teachers’ autonomy

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7893 Semantic Analysis of the Change in Awareness of Korean College Admission Policy

Authors: Sujin Hwang, Hyerang Park, Hyunchul Kim

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to find the effectiveness of the admission simplification policy. The number of online news articles about ‘high school record’ was collected and semantically analyzed to identify and analyze the social awareness during 2014 to 2015. The main results of the study are as follows: First, there was a difference in expectations that the burden of the examinees would decrease as announced by KCUE. Thus, there was still a strain on the university entrance exam after the enforcement of the policy. Second, private tutoring is expanding in different forms, rather than reducing the policy. It is different from the prediction that examinees can prepare for university admissions without the private tutoring. Thus, the college admission rules currently enforced needs to be improved. The reasonable college admission system changes are discussed.

Keywords: education policy, private tutoring, shadow education, education admission policy

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7892 Public Policy and Sexuality Education for Youth with Disabilities: Impact on Sexual Behavior and Outcomes

Authors: Alexandra M. Kriofske Mainella

Abstract:

This paper will examine the need for more aggressive public policies around bodily, reproductive and sexual health education for young people with disabilities in the United States. This paper will consider the policies around sexuality education for students in the United States and the recommendation for national standards around sexuality education. We will investigate the intersection of these policies and recommendations for students with disabilities and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): what this means for students with disabilities’ access to comprehensive sexuality education and how it affects their behaviors and outcomes.

Keywords: disability, sexuality, education, policy

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7891 Policies and Practice of Refugee Education from Malaysian Perspective: Preliminary Findings

Authors: A. H. A. Hamid, N. A. Zainuddin, M. Y. M. Nor

Abstract:

Millions of child refugees leave their countries in the hope of better and safer lives particularly in the aspect of education. However, the education access for the child refugees is strongly depending on the policies made by the federal and local governments. Malaysia, in particular, is a country which does not have a specific educational policy that is inclusive of child refugees. Hence, this study explores the feasibility of possible educational policy that specifically caters the needs of child refugees in Malaysia. These are preliminary findings of a case study which involved thirty-five postgraduate students in a local university who undertook Educational Policy coursework and five teachers in a refugee community centre in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed in relation to issues highlighted in the refugee education literature. The findings showed that most of the informants felt there is an urgent need of a systematic intervention put in place by the local government to cater to the needs of equal education access to the child refugees. A further large scale study is needed in the near future by integrating different perspectives of relevant stakeholders for an effective, efficient and sustainable policy formulation and implementation related to child refugees in Malaysia. The findings may be of interests to the educators, the ministry of education, state education office, district education office, teachers, parents and surrounding communities for their awareness about the needs of refugee education and the feasibility of educational policy for child refugees in the country.

Keywords: child refugees, educational policy, inclusive education, Malaysia

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7890 The Role of Human Capital in Rural Development: A Critical Look at Ethiopian Education Policy

Authors: Blen Telayneh Melese

Abstract:

Rural development, the unending quest of a developing country, cannot be succeeded in deprived of human capital development. Human capital, the economic pillars of a country's development, appeals a policy-based supports while fulfilling what is expected. Ethiopia, one of the rural countries with untouched and forgotten land and human force, owes historical experiences of educational policy intending for mobilization of its citizen for the advancement of the overall economy. Rural Ethiopia as well has been the focus of those educational policies, considering the economic resources entrenched with in. In this literature review paper, Ethiopian educational policy and its contribution to human capital development, as well as its role in generating quality human labor force, is assessed concisely. The author argues that the foundation of rural development such as technology, knowledge, infrastructure, market chain, communication and etc., can only be achieved through enhanced education policy that conciliates the existing reality of rural communities. Ethiopia still needs an education policy that enables it to generate a human capital that is oriented with the rural areas economic opportunities and challenges.

Keywords: Ethiopia, rural development, human capital development, education policy

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7889 The Dynamic of Decentralization of Education Policy in Post-Reform Indonesia: Local Perspectives

Authors: Mudiyati Rahmatunnisa

Abstract:

This study is about the implementation of decentralization of education policy in today’s Indonesia’s reform era. The policy has made education as one of the basic public services that must be performed by the local governments. After more than a decade of implementing the policy, what have been achieved? Has the implementation of educational affairs in the region been able to improve the quality of education services in the region? What obstacles or challenges faced by the region in the implementation of the educational affairs? How does region overcome obstacles or challenges? In answering those strategic questions, this study will particularly investigate the implementation of educational affairs in the city and District of Cirebon, the two district level of governments in West Java Province. The two loci of study provide interesting insight, given the range of previous studies did not specifically investigate using a local perspective (city and district level). This study employs a qualitative research method through case studies. Operationally, this study is sustained by several data collection techniques, i.e. interviews, documentary method, and systematic observation. Needless to say, there have been many factors distorting the ideal construction of decentralization of education policy.

Keywords: decentralization, decentralization of education, policy implementation, public service

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7888 Evidence Based Policy Studies: Examining Alternative Policy Practice towards Improving Enrolment to Higher Education in Nigeria

Authors: Muftahu Jibirin Salihu, Hazri Jamil

Abstract:

The persisting challenge of access and enrolment to higher education in commonwealth countries has been reported in several studies, including reports of the international organization such as World Bank, UNESCO among others however from the macro perspective. The overarching aim of this study is to examine alternative policy practices towards improving access to university education in Nigeria at meso level of policy practice from evidence base policy studies using one university as a case. The study adopted a qualitative approach to gain insightful understanding on the issue of the study employing a semi-structure interview and policy documents as the means for obtaining the data and other relevant information for the study. The participants of the study were purposively chosen which comprise of a number of individuals from the selected university and other related organization which responsible for the policies development and implementation of Nigerian higher education system. From the findings of the study, several initiatives have been taken at meso level to address this challenge including the introduction of the University Matriculation Program as an alternative route for enhancing to access to the university education. However, the study further provided a number of recommendations which aimed at improving access to university education such as improving the entry requirements, society orientation on university education and the issue of ranking of certificate among the Nigerian higher institutions of learning.

Keywords: policy practice, access, enrolment, university, education, Nigeria

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7887 Attitudes of University Students toward English Language Education Policy in Iraqi Kurdistan

Authors: Momen Yaseen M. Amin

Abstract:

Despite widespread coverage of language policy in the literature, there has been scant research probing into English language education policy at tertiary levels in general and in the case of higher education context of Iraqi Kurdistan in particular. The present qualitative study investigated the results of a questionnaire on attitudes toward English language education policy in terms of attitudes toward the English language in general, the current English education policy, and the purposes for learning English among Kurdish EFL university students. Moreover, this study aimed to investigate this topic in light of the participants’ gender and major. To this end, an adapted version of Yang’s (2012) questionnaire was administered to university EFL students majoring in soft and hard sciences (N=300, male 34%, female 67%, four and two disciplines, respectively) at two-state and private universities in Iraqi Kurdistan. The findings revealed positive attitudes toward English as an international language in both soft and hard sciences. While strongly subscribing to the idea that all Iraqi Kurdish students should learn the English language and the courses to be offered in English as well as Kurdish, the majority of the participants expressed their readiness and enthusiasm to excel in English and considered such competency a significant academic accomplishment. However, a good number felt dissatisfied with the status quo of English education at their institutions. This paper provides some implications and recommendations for English education policies makers, administrators, and English language instructors at tertiary levels.

Keywords: attitudes, language policy, English language education, Iraqi Kurdistan

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7886 Social Work Education in Gujarat: Challenges and Responses

Authors: Rajeshkumar Mahendrabhai Patel, Narendrakumar D. Vasava

Abstract:

It is seen that higher education in India requires a high degree of attention for the quality. The Government of India has been putting its efforts to improvise the quality of higher education through different means such as need based changes in the policy of higher education, accreditation of the institutions of higher education and many others. The Social Work education in India started way back in Tata School of Social Sciences in the year 1936. Gradually the need for social work education was felt, and different institution started imparting social work education in different regions. Due to the poor educational policy of Gujarat state (The Concept of Self-Financed Education) different Universities initiated the MSW program on a self-financed basis. The present scenario of the Social work Education in Gujarat faces ample challenges and problems which need to be addressed consciously. The present paper will try to examine and analyze the challenges and problems such as curriculum, staffing, quality of teaching, the pattern of education etc. The probable responses to this scenario are also discussed in this paper.

Keywords: social work education, challenges, problems, responses, self-financed education in Gujarat

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7885 Mother Tounge Based Multilingual Education Policy: Voices of Two Cities, 'The Voice of Laguna'

Authors: Cecilia Velasco, Q.

Abstract:

This study was undertaken to find out the perceived efficiency, appropriateness effectiveness, acceptability and relevance, if at all such exist, of the Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education Policy under the K-12 Curriculum, as seen by the stakeholders who are directly affected by this policy. The researcher believed that it is right and fitting to get the views and opinions of the people directly involved and/or concerned about this education policy. The results of the study will hopefully guide lawmakers and/or policymakers to fine-tune educational policy or policies. The locale of the study was the DepEd schools in Laguna, (San Pablo City and other nearby cities). The subjects of the study were the teachers (first phase) from the public schools of Department of Education (San Pablo City), in particular and parents (second phase) from nearby cities who are the direct stakeholders of this Policy. To determine the perception of the teachers toward Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education Policy; its acceptability, efficiency, appropriateness, effectiveness and relevance, factor analysis was used to refine the instrument (questionnaire). To find out the significant difference between the perceptions of the primary and intermediate group of teachers, including those who teach mother tongue and non-mother tongue subjects, t-test of difference between means was employed.

Keywords: DepEd, K12 curriculum, MTBMLE, stakeholders

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7884 Principle of Progressive Implementation and Education Policy for Former Combatants in Colombia

Authors: Ximena Rincon Castellanos

Abstract:

The research target was analyzed the education public policy of Colombia according to the content of the right to education. One problematic element of that content is the principle of progressive implementation of economic, social and cultural rights. The research included a complete study of public documents and other papers; as well as, one focus group with former combatants in a city where is located one of some 'hogares de paz', which hosts these people after leaving the illegal group. This paper presents a critical approach to the public policy strategies to guarantee education to former combatants and its tension with the right to a progressive implementation. Firstly, education is understood as a technology level without considering higher education. Former combatant attends to SENA and private institutions, which offer technology education and it is counted by the Colombian Government as higher education. Therefore, statistics report a high level of attendance of excombatant to that education level, but actually, they do not expect to study a university carrier. Secondly, the budget approved has been invested in private institutions, despite public institutions are able to include this population and they need more money to strengthen the public offer, which has been considered as a better strategy to ensure education as a human right but not a good, by the special rapporteur on the right to education. As a consequence, the progressive implementation should be a guide to change and improve current strategies, invest the budget available into the public system of education in order to give former combatants the chance to access to universities.

Keywords: higher education, progressive implementation, public service, private offering and technology education

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7883 Impacts of E-Learning on Educational Policy: Policy of Sensitization and Training in E-Learning in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Layla Albdr

Abstract:

Saudi Arabia instituted the policy of Sensitizing and Training Stakeholders for E-learning and witnessed wide adoption in many institutions. However, it is at the infancy stage and needs time to develop to mirror the US and UK. The majority of the higher education institutions in Saudi Arabia have adopted E-learning as an alternative to traditional methods to advance education. Conversely, effective implementation of the policy of sensitization and training of stakeholders for E-learning implementation has not been attained because of various challenges. The objectives included determining the challenges and opportunities of the E-learning policy of sensitization and training of stakeholders in Saudi Arabia's higher education and examining if sensitization and training of stakeholder's policy will help promote the implementation of E-learning in institutions. The study employed a descriptive research design based on qualitative analysis. The researcher recruited 295 students and 60 academic staff from four Saudi Arabian universities to participate in the study. An online questionnaire was used to collect the data. The data was then analyzed and reported both quantitatively and qualitatively. The analysis provided an in-depth understanding of the opportunities and challenges of E-learning policy in Saudi Arabian universities. The main challenges identified as internal challenges were the lack of educators’ interest in adopting the policy, and external challenges entailed lack of ICT infrastructure and Internet connectivity. The study recommends encouraging, sensitizing, and training all stakeholders to address these challenges and adopt the policy.

Keywords: e-learning, educational policy, Saudi Arabia, policy of sensitization and training

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7882 The Effect of Affirmative Action in Private Schools on Education Expenditure in India: A Quasi-Experimental Approach

Authors: Athira Vinod

Abstract:

Under the Right to Education Act (2009), the Indian government introduced an affirmative action policy aimed at the reservation of seats in private schools at the entry-level and free primary education for children from lower socio-economic backgrounds. Using exogenous variation in the status of being in a lower social category (disadvantaged groups) and the year of starting school, this study investigates the effect of exposure to the policy on the expenditure on private education. It employs a difference-in-difference strategy with the help of repeated cross-sectional household data from the National Sample Survey (NSS) of India. It also exploits regional variation in exposure by combining the household data with administrative data on schools from the District Information System for Education (DISE). The study compares the outcome across two age cohorts of disadvantaged groups, starting school at different times, that is, before and after the policy. Regional variation in exposure is proxied with a measure of enrolment rate under the policy, calculated at the district level. The study finds that exposure to the policy led to an average reduction in annual private school fees of ₹223. Similarly, a 5% increase in the rate of enrolment under the policy in a district was associated with a reduction in annual private school fees of ₹240. Furthermore, there was a larger effect of the policy among households with a higher demand for private education. However, the effect is not due to fees waived through direct enrolment under the policy but rather an increase in the supply of low-fee private schools in India. The study finds that after the policy, 79,870 more private schools entered the market due to an increased demand for private education. The new schools, on average, charged a lower fee than existing schools and had a higher enrolment of children exposed to the policy. Additionally, the district-level variation in the enrolment under the policy was very strongly correlated with the entry of new schools, which not only charged a low fee but also had a higher enrolment under the policy. Results suggest that few disadvantaged children were admitted directly under the policy, but many were attending private schools, which were largely low-fee. This implies that disadvantaged households were willing to pay a lower fee to secure a place in a private school even if they did not receive a free place under the policy.

Keywords: affirmative action, disadvantaged groups, private schools, right to education act, school fees

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7881 Education in Schools and Public Policy in India

Authors: Sujeet Kumar

Abstract:

Education has greater importance particularly in terms of increasing human capital and economic competitiveness. It plays a crucial role in terms of cognitive and skill development. Its plays a vital role in process of socialization, fostering social justice, and enhancing social cohesion. Policy related to education has been always a priority for developed countries, which is later adopted by developing countries also. The government of India has also brought change in education polices in line with recognizing change at national and supranational level. However, quality education is still not become an open door for every child in India and several reports are produced year to year about level of school education in India. This paper is concerned with schooling in India. Particularly, it focuses on two government and two private schools in Bihar, but reference has made to schools in Delhi especially around slum communities. The paper presents brief historical context and an overview of current school systems in India. Later, it focuses on analysis of current development in policy in reference with field observation, which is anchored around choice, diversity, market – orientation and gap between different groups of pupils. There is greater degree of difference observed at private and government school levels in terms of quality of teachers, method of teaching and overall environment of learning. The paper concludes that the recent policy development in education particularly Sarva Siksha Abhiyaan (SAA) and Right to Education Act (2009) has required renovating new approach to bridge the gap through broader consultation at grassroots and participatory approach with different stakeholders.

Keywords: education, public policy, participatory approach

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7880 Neoliberal Policies and International Organizations: The OECD and Higher Education Policy

Authors: Ellen Holtmaat

Abstract:

With an ever increasing influence of international organizations (IOs) on national policies and with the expectation that IOs are the transmission belts of world ideologies it is interesting to see to what extent IOs express a specific ideology and what determines the dominance of this ideology. This thesis looks at the OECD as IO and higher education as a field of policy. Evidence is found that the OECD promotes neoliberal developments in higher education and that its position is influenced by business, dominant countries and the dominant beliefs that are carried by the people working for the OECD that form an epistemic community. These results can possibly be extrapolated to other IOs.

Keywords: higher education, international organizations, neoliberal, OECD

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7879 Contribution of Women to Post-Colonial Education and Leadership

Authors: Naziema Begum Jappie

Abstract:

This paper explores the relationship between educational transformation and gender equity in higher education. It draws on various policies and experiences and investigates the paradox of increased female leadership in higher education and the persistence of gender discrimination in the sphere of work. The paper will also address specific aspects of culture and education in post-colonial South Africa. Traditional features of past education systems were not isolated, they became an essential component of the education system, post-democracy. This is currently contested through the call for decolonizing the education system. The debates and discussions seek to rectify the post-colonial education structure within which women suffered triple oppression. Using feminist critical policy analysis and post-colonial theory, the paper examines how transformation over the past two decades has impacted on gender equity and how educational reform is itself gendered. It considers the nature of gender restructuring and key developments in gender equity policy. The social inequality in education is highlighted throughout this discussion. Through an analysis of research and interviews, this paper argues that gender can no longer be privileged when identifying and responding to educational and workplace inequality. In conclusion, the paper discusses the important assumptions that support how social and educational change deliver equity and how social justice may inform equity policy and practice in a culturally diverse educational framework.

Keywords: culture, educational leadership, gender inequality in the workplace, policy implementation

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7878 English as a Foreign Language for Deaf Students in the K-12 Schools in Turkey: A Policy Analysis

Authors: Cigdem Fidan

Abstract:

Deaf students in Turkey generally do not have access to foreign language classes. However, the knowledge of foreign languages, especially English, is important for them to access knowledge and other opportunities in the globalizing world. In addition, learning any language including foreign languages is a basic linguistic human right. This study applies critical discourse analysis to examine language ideologies, perceptions of deafness and current language and education policies used for deaf education in Turkey. The findings show that representation of deafness as a disability in policy documents, ignorance the role of sign languages in education and lack of policies that support foreign language education for the deaf may result in inaccessibility of foreign language education for deaf students in Turkey. The paper concludes with recommendations for policymakers, practitioners, and advocates for the deaf.

Keywords: deaf learners, English as a foreign language, language policy, linguistic human rights

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7877 The Influence of Theories and Approaches to Educational Policy and Planning in Ghana’s Current Educational Developments

Authors: Ruth Donkoh, Wing On Lee, Solomon A. Boateng, Portia Oware Twerefoo, Josephine Donkor

Abstract:

In this paper we defend the value of theories and approaches to educational policy and planning in enhancing the educational developments in Ghana. This mission is achieved by enumerating the recent educational developments in Ghana and juxtaposing it with some educational theories, approaches to policy making, and policy planning to see if the educational developments conform with the theory principles as well as policy making and planning processes. Data collection for the research was made through textual analysis of policy documents as well as review of relevant literatures. The findings reveled that educational developments in Ghana are unable to attain its objectives due to the policies not conforming with the policy formation and planning principles. In addition, was that education planning in Ghana does not follow the policy-administration dichotomy theory principles and likewise the distribution of educational needs goes contrary to the equity theory. We recommend that educational policies in Ghana should be in conformity with the principles of theories as well as the approaches to educational policy making and planning to help meet the needs of learners, attain educational quality, and to help in the accomplishment of educational development objectives.

Keywords: Ghana education, equity theories, politics- administration dichotomy theory, educational policies, educational planning

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7876 Strategic Fit between Higher Education Funding and the National Development Goals in Kazakhstan

Authors: Ali Ait Si Mhamed, Rita Kasa, Hans Vossensteyn

Abstract:

Kazakhstan is the eight largest country on the globe, in terms of the territory, it is rich in natural resources and is developing dynamically. Kazakhstan strives to become one of the top 30 global economies by 2050. This goal preconditions intensive reforms in all sectors of economy, including higher education. This paper focuses on the higher education funding reforms that take place in Kazakhstan and their alignment with the strategic goals of national development. Currently, the government funds higher education costs for only a limited number of students while the majority of students pay full cost covering tuition fees. Only students with high examination scores at the end of the secondary education are eligible to be admitted to publically funded study places in higher education. While this merit-based higher education funding model is overall well-received in the country, there is also a discourse calling to change the existing approach of higher education funding. This paper draws on interviews with national policy makers and leadership at institutions of higher education in Kazakhstan collected during 2016. It seeks to answer a question about how well the current higher education funding mechanism is aligned with the strategic development goals in higher education. The paper discusses how stakeholders see the fit between the current higher education funding mechanism and the ability of higher education institutions to achieve the aims of national strategic development.

Keywords: higher education reform, higher education funding, higher education policy, Kazakhstan

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7875 Academic Freedom Policy: A Case Study

Authors: Marlin Killen

Abstract:

The American Association of University Professors (AAUP) describes academic freedom as essential to the purposes of research and teaching. The importance of academic freedom as a bedrock foundation that supports the work of the professoriate cannot be overstated, and there have been innumerable challenges that have attempted to curtail it. These challenges come from a variety of sources that span legal, ethical, cultural, institutional, and professional perspective and are amplified by social media, traditional media, and political action efforts. Because of these challenges, the development of a comprehensive institutional policy on academic freedom that addresses the principles, practices, and appropriate responses to modern challenges can be a daunting task. This presentation will focus on a case study of a university’s effort to develop an updated, evolving policy on academic freedom that provides a framework and remedies for contemporary challenges to this critical function in higher education.

Keywords: academic freedom, academic freedom policy, higher education policy

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7874 Addressing the Water Shortage in Beijing: Increasing Water Use Efficiency in Domestic Sector

Authors: Chenhong Peng

Abstract:

Beijing, the capital city of China, is running out of water. The water resource per capita in Beijing is only 106 cubic meter, accounts for 5% of the country’s average level and less than 2% of the world average level. The tension between water supply and demand is extremely serious. For one hand, the surface and ground water have been over-exploited during the last decades; for the other hand, water demand keep increasing as the result of population and economic growth. There is a massive gap between water supply and demand. This paper will focus on addressing the water shortage in Beijing city by increasing water use efficiency in domestic sector. First, we will emphasize on the changing structure of water supply and demand in Beijing under the economic development and restructure during the last decade. Second, by analyzing the water use efficiency in agriculture, industry and domestic sectors in Beijing, we identify that the key determinant for addressing the water crisis is to increase the water use efficiency in domestic sector. Third, this article will explore the two primary causes for the water use inefficiency in Beijing: The ineffective water pricing policy and the poor water education and communication policy. Finally, policy recommendation will offered to improve the water use efficiency in domestic sector by making and implementing an effective water pricing policy and people-engaged water education and communication policy.

Keywords: Beijing, water use efficiency, domestic sector, water pricing policy, water education policy

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7873 An Abductive Approach to Policy Analysis: Policy Analysis as Informed Guessing

Authors: Adrian W. Chew

Abstract:

This paper argues that education policy analysis tends to be steered towards empiricist oriented approaches, which place emphasis on objective and measurable data. However, this paper argues that empiricist oriented approaches are generally based on inductive and/or deductive reasoning, which are unable to generate new ideas/knowledge. This paper will outline the logical structure of induction, deduction, and abduction, and argues that only abduction provides possibilities for the creation of new ideas/knowledge. This paper proposes the neologism of ‘informed guessing’ as a reformulation of abduction, and also as an approach to education policy analysis. On one side, the signifier ‘informed’ encapsulates the idea that abductive policy analysis needs to be informed by descriptive conceptualization theory to be able to make relations and connections between, and within, observed phenomenon and unobservable general structures. On the other side, the signifier ‘guessing’ captures the cyclical and unsystematic process of abduction. This paper will end with a brief example of utilising ‘informed guessing’ for a policy analysis of school choice lotteries in the United States.

Keywords: abductive reasoning, empiricism, informed guessing, policy analysis

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7872 The Transition from National Policy to Institutional Practice of Vietnamese English Language Teacher Education

Authors: Thi Phuong Lan Nguyen

Abstract:

The English Language Teacher Education (ELTE) in Vietnam is rapidly changing to address the new requirements of the globalization and socialization era. Although there has been a range of investments and innovation in policy and curriculum, tertiary educators and learners do not engage in the enactment. It is vital to understand the practices at the tertiary education level. The study is to understand the higher education curriculum development policy, both in theory and in practice across four representatives of ELTE institutions in the North of Vietnam. The lecturers’ perceptions about the extent to which the enacted curriculum is aligned with national standards will be explored. Nineteen policy documents, seventy surveys, and twelve interviews with lecturers and instructional leaders across these four Vietnamese Northern ELTE institutions have been analyzed to investigate how the policy shape the practice. The two most significant findings are (i) a low level of alignment between curriculum and soft-skills standards of the graduates required by the Vietnamese Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) and (ii) incoherence between current national policy and these institutions’ implementation. In order to address these gaps, it is strongly recommended that curriculum needs to be further developed, focusing more on the institutional outcomes, MOET’s standards, and the social demands in times of globalization. More importantly, professional development in ELTE is vital for a range of curriculum and educational policy stakeholders. The study helps to develop the English teaching profession in Vietnam in a systematic way, from policymakers to implementers, and from instructors to learners. Its significance lies in its relevance to English teaching careers, particularly within the researcher’s specific context, yet also remains relevant to ELTE in other parts of Vietnam and in other EFL (English as a Foreign Language) countries.

Keywords: curriculum, English language teaching education, policy implementation, standard, teaching practice

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7871 On the Allopatry of National College Entrance Exam in China: The Root, Policy and Strategy

Authors: Shi Zhang

Abstract:

This paper aims to introduce the allopatry of national college entrance examination which allow migrant students enter senior high schools and take college entrance exam where they live, identifies the reasons affect the implementation of this policy in the Chinese context. Most of China’s provinces and municipalities recently have announced new policies regarding national college entrance exams for non-local students. The paper conducts SWOT analysis reveals the opportunities, strength, weakness and challenges of the scheme, so as to discuss the implementation strategies from the perspectives of idea and institution. The research findings imply that the government should take a more positive attitude toward relaxing the allopatry of NCEE policy restrictions, and promote the reform household registration policy and NCEE policy with synchronous operations. Higher education institutions should explore the diversification of enrollment model; the government should issue the authority of universities and colleges to select elite migrant students beyond the restrictions of NCEE. To suit reform policies to local conditions, the big cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou should publish related compensate measures for children of migrant workers access to higher vocational colleges with tuition fee waivered. 

Keywords: college entrance examination, higher education, education policy, education equality

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7870 Girls’ Education Policy and Practices in Three Selected Countries of Africa: Feminism, Educational Reform and Cultural Inflections in View

Authors: Endalew Fufa Kufi

Abstract:

One of the major concerns in educational provision and success determination is access to available opportunities. In that, girls’ access to education has been a point of concern, and more emphasis has come to be at the forefront regarding success. Researches have mostly been held on extremes such as equal access and success, but only a few works deal with process issues related to home and school interplay, issues of progress from lower to higher levels, and spatial conditions related to girls’ education. Hence, this survey assessed experiences in three countries of Africa: Ethiopia, Ghana, and Botswana regarding girls’ education in policy and practice as related to contextual matters in girls’ education. Contextual discourse analysis of qualitative design was used to materialize the study. From each country, five research works held 2010 onwards were purposively selected through criterion-sampling. On the policy aspect, workable documents were looked into. The findings denoted that educational access was of more stretch and generic nature, and the narration was dominated by institutional expectations, not identifying which group should benefit what. The researches largely dealt with either subject-specific dealings or access alone at large. Success studies, by far, dealt with a comparison of girls with boys rather than determinant-related projections. Moreover, the cultural representation of girls’ education had a very minimal part in both policy and researches. From that, it could be found that in-depth scrutiny on the individual, institutional, and leadership determinants of girls’ education would be necessary.

Keywords: determinants, girls, education, feminism

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7869 Eradicating Rural Poverty in Nigeria through Entrepreneurship Education

Authors: Nwachukwu Ihiejeto Celestine

Abstract:

Rural poverty in Nigeria has been the bake of the society. It has been a canker worm which has eaten deep into the fabric of Nigerian society. Different models and principles have been applied to eradicate it, such as operation feed the nation, green revolution, NAPEP etc. Little or nothing has been done in the area of entrepreneurship education to tame this monster. It is based on this that the author wants to x-ray the role entrepreneurship education which studies “the process of identifying, bringing a vision to life” could play in the eradication of rural poverty in Nigeria. This will go along in providing appropriate principles for poverty alleviation and eradication in Nigeria. Some selected states in the eastern Geo-political region could be x-rayed in this circumstance. It is hoped that policy makers etc will find the work cogent in formulating and implementing policy decisions.

Keywords: poverty, entrepreneurship, education, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
7868 Inclusive Education in Nigeria Prospects and Challenges

Authors: Laraba Bala Mohammed

Abstract:

Education is a very vital tool in enhancement of the general development of individuals in the society who would participate effectively in national development processes, including people with special need, educating children with special needs is one of the greatest challenges of this millennium, this is because professionals in the field of special education are operating in an exciting and rapidly changing phenomenon. Inclusive education in Nigeria is not a new development in the teaching and learning process, but the most important aspect is the utilization and effective integration of people with special needs in the society. This paper focuses on the need of parents, government, professionals in the field of special education and stakeholders to work together for the full implementation of inclusive education in Nigeria.

Keywords: inclusive education, national policy, education, special needs

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7867 Economic Growth through Quality in Higher Education

Authors: Mohammad Mushir Khan, C. Satyanarayana

Abstract:

Education is considered as one of the prime bottlenecks in the economic growth of India. The Ministry of Human Resource & Development, Government of India has, therefore, given special attention to this issue and the Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) in Higher Education has increased marginally during last five years, with the efforts and various policy decisions like Right to Education (RTE) and other fee reimbursement schemes, initiated by the State Governments. But still this is one of the lowest, if assessed at the global level. It is true that the GER has improved but the survey reveals that the quality has been badly affected. This paper tries to assess the impact of lack of quality education in various sectors that affects Indian Economy and thereby signifies the need of immediate policy decision at the government level. It is to be noted that in higher education, science, management, engineering and technology plays vital role as far as shaping country’s economy is concerned and as such the quality needs to be addressed, particularly, in these streams. The paper, after carefully studying lots of survey reports and other government/ non-government documents recommends measures to be initiated by the Central Government, on priority, for improving quality of education. The quality up-gradation in higher education single handedly provides real fuel to the India’s growth Engine, as it has potential to touch each and every sector that strengthens country’s economy.

Keywords: higher education, economy, accreditation, industry, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 340