Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 106

Search results for: poisoning

106 Characteristics of Acute Poisoning in Emergency Departments: Multicenter Study in Korea

Authors: Hyuk-Hoon Kim, Young Gi Min

Abstract:

Background: Acute poisoning is the common cause of morbidity and mortality. Characteristics of acute poisoning differ between countries. While other countries operate the database system for poisoning, Korea has not collected the database for acute poisoning. Distribution of incidence of acute poisoning depending on the types of materials have also not studied in Korea. Our aims are to evaluate the etiologic and demographic characteristics of acute poisoning cases and to obtain up-to-date information on acute poisonings. Method: We retrospectively recorded cases of acute poisoning from eight emergency departments of second level or university hospitals from different cities in Gyeonggi province in Korea from April 2006 and March 2015. The distributions of incidence of acute poisoning depending on the types of materials are mapped by geographic information system. Result: A total of 3,449 poisoned cases were analyzed. Mean estimated age of patients was 39.56 ± 22.40 years. Mean male to female ratio of patients was 1:1.4. Mean proportion of intentional poisoning was 57.9%. Common materials are benzodiazepine (16.6%), carbon monoxide (10.5%), pesticide (8.1%) and zolpidem (7.1%) Common route of exposure is ingestion (79.5%) and followed by inhalation (16.5%). Common treatment methods are gastric lavage (20%) and activated charcoal (30%). Most cases had uneventful recovery; 61.4% were treated as outpatients and 0.1% of the poisoning resulted in death in ER. Conclusion: Even though the cases enrolled in our study is not the overall cases of acute poisoning in Korea, our study could be the basis of countermeasures for analysis and prevention of acute poisoning in Korea.

Keywords: acute poisoning, emergency department, epidemiology, Korea

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105 Poisoning Admission in Pediatrics Benghazi Hospital in Libya: Three Years Review of Medical Record

Authors: Mudafara Bengleil

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Estimation of the magnitude and causes of poisoning was the objective of the current study. A retrospective study of medical records of all poisoning children admitted to Benghazi Children Hospital in Libya from January 2008 up to December 2010. Number of children admitted was 244; the age ranged from less than one to 13 years old. Most of cases were admitted with mild symptom and the majority of them were boys. Only few cases admitted to intensive care unit and there was no mortality recorded through the period of study. Age group 1 to 3 years (50.8%) had the highest frequency of admission and the peak of admission was during summer. The most common cause of admission was due to ingestion of medication (53.69%), House hold product exposure (26.64%) was the second causes of admission while, 19.67% of admissions were due to Food poisoning. Almost all admitted cases were accidental and medicines were the most consumed substances in addition, improper storage of toxic agents were the first risk factor of poisoning. Present results indicated that, children poisoning seems to be a common pediatric care problem which need to control and prevent.

Keywords: poisoning, children, hospital, medical

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
104 Emergency Treatment of Methanol Poisoning: A Mathematical Approach

Authors: Priyanka Ghosh, Priti Kumar Roy

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Every year a considerable number of people die due to methyl alcohol poisoning, in which most of them die even before proper treatment. This work gives a simple and cheap first aid to those affected individuals by the administration of activated charcoal. In this article, we emphasise on the adsorption capability of activated charcoal for the treatment of poisoning and use an impulsive differential equation to study the effect of activated charcoal during adsorption. We also investigate the effects of various parameters on the adsorption which are incorporated in the model system.

Keywords: activated charcoal, adsorption, impulsive differential equation, methanol poisoning

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
103 Civil Protection in Mass Methanol Poisoning in the Czech Republic

Authors: Michaela Vašková, Jiří Barta, Otakar J. Mika, Jan Hrdlička, Josef Kellner

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The paper is focused on the method to solutions the crisis situation in the Czech Republic associated with the mass methanol poisoning. The emphasis is put on tasks of individual state bodies and of Integrated Rescue System during the handling of the crisis. The theoretical part describes poisonings, ways of intoxication, types of intoxicants and cases of mass poisoning by dangerous substances in the world. The practical part describes the development, causes and solutions of extraordinary event, mass methanol poisoning in the Czech Republic. The main emphasis was put on the crisis management of the Czech Republic in solving this situation.

Keywords: crisis management, poisoning, methanol, hazardous substances, extraordinary event

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
102 Data Poisoning Attacks on Federated Learning and Preventive Measures

Authors: Beulah Rani Inbanathan

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In the present era, it is vivid from the numerous outcomes that data privacy is being compromised in various ways. Machine learning is one technology that uses the centralized server, and then data is given as input which is being analyzed by the algorithms present on this mentioned server, and hence outputs are predicted. However, each time the data must be sent by the user as the algorithm will analyze the input data in order to predict the output, which is prone to threats. The solution to overcome this issue is federated learning, where the models alone get updated while the data resides on the local machine and does not get exchanged with the other local models. Nevertheless, even on these local models, there are chances of data poisoning, and it is crystal clear from various experiments done by many people. This paper delves into many ways where data poisoning occurs and the many methods through which it is prevalent that data poisoning still exists. It includes the poisoning attacks on IoT devices, Edge devices, Autoregressive model, and also, on Industrial IoT systems and also, few points on how these could be evadible in order to protect our data which is personal, or sensitive, or harmful when exposed.

Keywords: data poisoning, federated learning, Internet of Things, edge computing

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101 The Evaluation of Caustic and Corrosive Poisoning in Children

Authors: Sabiha Sahin

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Introduction: We have planned this study because of the increasing number of corrosive substance poisoning who admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Department. Method: 636 corrosive substance poisoning cases applied to the Osmangazi University PED between 1 January 2015 - 31 December 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: 438 (69%) cases were male.The poisoning rate of groups 0-4 was significantly higher and occurred by accident. A total of 616 cases (96.9%) were poisoned by the oral route, and 20 cases were poisoned by inhalation.462 Patients were admitted to the hospital within an hour (72.8%). Of the 134 patients who had only erosion and redness around the mouth, 24 patients had salivation and dysphagia symptoms besides these. Of the 28 cases of 158 patients with symptoms, eusaphegeal stenosis was detected. on third day examination. Although there was no statistically significant correlation between esophageal stenosis and erosion and redness around the mouth, there was a statistically significant correlation between dysphagia and salivation between esophageal stenosis Conclusion: The increased salivation and the dysphagia are important signs of risk of devoloping esophageal stenosis at first examination corrosive poisoning in children.

Keywords: caustic, corrosive, poisoning, children

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
100 Community Engagement Policy for Decreasing Childhood Lead Poisoning in Philadelphia

Authors: Hasibe Caballero-Gomez, Richard Pepino

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Childhood lead poisoning is an issue that continues to plague major U.S. cities. Lead poisoning has been linked to decreases in academic achievement and IQ at levels as low as 5 ug/dL. Despite efforts from the Philadelphia Health Department to curtail systemic childhood lead poisoning, children continue to be identified with elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs) above the CDC reference level for diagnosis. This problem disproportionately affects low-income Black communities. At the moment, remediation is costly, and with the current policies in place, comprehensive remediation seems unrealistic. This research investigates community engagement policy and the ways pre-exisiting resources in target communities can be adjusted to decrease childhood lead poisoning. The study was done with two methods: content analysis and case studies. The content analysis includes 12 interviews from stakeholders and five published policy recommendations. The case studies focus on Baltimore, Chicago, Rochester, and St. Louis, four cities with significant childhood lead poisoning. Target communities were identified by mapping five factors that indicate a higher risk for lead poisoning. Seven priority zipcodes were identified for the model developed in this study. For these urban centers, 28 policy solutions and suggestions were identified, with three being identified at least four times in the content analysis and case studies. These three solutions create an interdependent model that offers increased community awareness and engagement with the issue that could potentially improve health and social outcomes for at-risk children.

Keywords: at-risk populations, community engagement, environmental justice, policy translation

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99 An Investigation of E. coli Contamination in Fars Province, Iran and Methods of Reducing the Contamination

Authors: Ali Mohagheghzadeh, Samad Vaez Badiegard, Bita Shomali

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Nowadays, with the increase in population, the need for protein sources is increasing. Different bacteria can cause food poisoning while most of the symptoms of food poisoning are similar to those of gastrointestinal infections. As a result, the diagnosis of bacteria and viruses causing food poisoning would not be possible without a stool culture. Cases of food poisoning are often accompanied by gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea, vomit, and gastrointestinal stomach cramps. Thus, providing enough food, taking into account health issues has always been a concern of authorities. Since E. coli bacterium is one of the important indicators of food hygiene and quality, producing food without being contaminated by this bacterium is desired in the food industry. This study aimed at assessing the E. coli contamination of poultry meat produced in slaughterhouses. Samples were taken from critical areas of slaughterhouses, namely the feather picking area, viscera and carcass evacuation area the area after cooling chillers. The results showed that 60% of contamination occurs in feather picking area. Among antiseptic and detergent materials, the highest reduction belongs to Epimax.

Keywords: slaughterhouse, E. coli, Epimax, contamination

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98 A Study on Pattern of Acute Poisoning in Patients Admitted to Emergency Wards in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Authors: Sathvika Reddy, Devi Revathi

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Background: In India, deliberate self-harm (DSH) with poisoning agents carries a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Changes in the patterns of poisoning vary across various geographical locations. It is important to know the patterns in a given region in order to facilitate rapid clinical diagnosis, appropriate treatment to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. Aim and Objective: To study the patterns, treatment outcomes of acute poisoning in patients admitted to emergency wards in a tertiary care hospital and to provide poison information services. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at M.S Ramaiah Memorial and Teaching Hospital from November 2016 to March 2017. The patient’s data was obtained from patient case sheet, interaction with health care professionals, interviewing patients and their caretakers (if possible), and were documented in a suitably designed form. Results: The study involved 131 patients with a mean age of 27.76 ± 15.5 years. Majority of the patients were in the age group 21-30 years, literates (n=53) dwelling in urban (n=113) areas belonging to upper middle class (n=50). Analgesics and antipyretics were commonly utilized in intentional drug overdosage (n=49). Envenomation constituted n=21(16.03%). Furthermore, a significant relationship was observed between marital status and self-poisoning (n=64) (P < 0.001) which commonly occurred through oral ingestion. The outcomes were correlated with the GCS and PSS system and n=85 recovered, n=17 were discharged against medical advice, and n=4 died, and n=4 were lost to follow up respectively. The poison information queries include drug overdose (n=29) and management related queries (n=22) provided majorly by residents (n=45) to update knowledge (n=11) and for better patient care (n=40). Conclusion: The trend in poisoning is dynamic. Medications were identified as the main cause of poisoning in urban areas of India. Educational programs with more emphasis on preventive measures are necessary to create awareness among the general public.

Keywords: poisoning, suicides, clinical pharmacist, envenomation, poison information services

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
97 Rice Tablet Poisoning in Iran

Authors: Somayeh Khanjani, Samaneh Nabavi, Shirin Jalili

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Aluminum phosphide (ALP) is an inorganic phosphide used to control insects and is a highly effective insecticide and rodenticide used frequently to protect stored grain. Acute poisoning with this compound is common in some countries including India and Iran, and is a serious health problem. In Iran it was known as "rice tablet", for its use to preserve rice. Two kinds of rice tablets one being herbal while other containing 3g aluminum phosphide (AlP) are available for use in Iranian households to protect stored food grains from pests and rodents. The toxicity of Aluminum phosphide is attributed to the liberation of phosphine gas in contact with water or weak acid and is the major cause of poisoning and deaths. Rice tablet (Aluminum Phosphid) poisoning may be associated with serious and sometimes incurable complications. In 61.3% of patients were shown uniform ingestion. Vomiting was the most common symptoms reported by 96.4% patients. Agitation was reported in 36.9% and felling of thirsty in 27.9 %. Although many complications such as Hypotension, Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Acute Renal Failure (ARF) AND Multi Organ Failure (MOF) were the common complications observed in these patients, but the most lethal complication was Cardiac Arrhythmias occurred in 36.9% of cases. Abdominal pain in 31.4% of the patients, nausea in 79.4% of the patients and 41.1% of the patients showed metabolic acidosis. Suicidal intention was the most common cause of poisoning leading to deaths in 18.6% of the patients. Aluminum phosphide can cause either elevation, decrease or no change in electrolytes, bicarbonate and blood glucose level. The possible mechanism for changes in blood glucose levels are complex and depend on the balance of factors which increase its concentration and those which reduce it. AlP poisoning has been postulated to stimulate cortisol which leads to increasing blood level of cortisol, also it may cause stimulation of glucagon, and Adrenaline secretion; in addition, it can inhibit insulin synthesis which may lead to hyperglycemia. Another suggested mechanism of hyperglycemia is rennin activity in some cases, an increase in magnesium level of plasma and that of tissues, and high phosphate level. Although hyperglycemia is most frequent in this poisoning and also is known as a marker of poor prognostic, hypoglycemia in aluminum phosphide poisoning is a rare finding which may be so dangerous. Patients showed sever hypotension and sever acidosis in addition to sever hypoglycemia. The presenting features of AlP intoxication are rapid onset of shock, severe metabolic acidosis, cardiac dysrhythmias and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

Keywords: aluminum phosphide (ALP), rice tablet, poisoning, phosphine gas

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96 An Electrochemical Study on Ethanol Oxidation with Pt/Pd Composite Electrodes in Sodium Hydroxide Solution

Authors: Yu-Chen Luo, Wan-Tzu Yen, I-Ping Liu, Po-Hsuan Yeh, Yuh-Lang Lee

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The use of a Pt electrode leads to high catalytic efficiency in the ethanol electro-oxidation. However, the carbon monoxide (CO) released in the reaction will poison the Pt surfaces, lowering the electrocatalytic activity. In this study, composite electrodes are prepared to overcome the poisoning issue, and the related electro-oxidation behaviors are studied by surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). An electroless plating method is utilized to deposit Pt catalytic layers on the Pd film-coated FTO substrates. According to the SEIRAS spectra, the carbon dioxide signal of the Pt/Pd composite electrode is larger than that of the Pt one, whereas the CO signal of the composite electrode is relatively smaller. This result suggests that the studied Pt/Pd electrode has a better ability against CO poisoning. The CV analyses are conducted in alkaline environments, and current densities related to the ethanol oxidation in the forward scan (If) and to the CO poisoning in the backward scan (Ib) are measured. A higher ratio of If to Ib (If/Ib) usually represents a better ability against the poisoning effect. The If/Ib values are 2.53 and 2.07 for the Pt and Pt/Pd electrodes, respectively, which is possibly attributed to the increasing ability of CO adsorption of Pt electrode. Despite the lower If/Ib, the Pt/Pd composite electrode shows a higher ethanol oxidation performance in the alkaline system than the Pt does. Furthermore, its stability is also superior.

Keywords: cyclic voltammogram, electroless deposition, ethanol electro-oxidation, surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy

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95 Evaluating the Characteristics of Paediatric Accidental Poisonings

Authors: Grace Fangmin Tan, Elaine Yiling Tay, Elizabeth Huiwen Tham, Andrea Wei Ching Yeo

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Background: While accidental poisonings in children may seem unavoidable, knowledge of circumstances surrounding such incidents and identification of risk factors is important in the development of secondary prevention strategies. Some risk factors include age of the child, lack of adequate supervision and improper storage of substances. The aim of this study is to assess risk factors and circumstances influencing outcomes in these children. Methodology: A retrospective medical record review of all accidental poisoning cases presenting to the Children’s Emergency at National University Hospital (NUH), Singapore between January 2014 and December 2015 was conducted. Information on demographics, poisoning circumstances and clinical outcomes were collected. Results: Ninety-nine of a total of 186 poisoning cases were accidental ingestions, with a mean age of 4.7 (range 0.4 to 18.3 years). The gender distribution is rather equal with 52(52.5%) females and 47(47.5%) males. Seventy-nine (79.8%) were self-administered by the child and in 20 cases (20.2%), the substance was administered erroneously by caregivers 12/20 (60.0%) of whom were given the wrong drug dose while 8/20 (40.0%) were given the wrong substance. Self-administration was associated with presentation to the ED within 12 hours (p=0.027, OR 6.65, 95% CI 1.24-35.72). Notably, 94.9% of the cases involved substances kept within reach of the child. Sixty-nine (82.1%) had the substance kept in the original container, 3(3.6%) in food containers, 8(9.5%) in other containers and 4(4.8%) without a container. Of the 50 cases with information on labelling, 40/50(80.0%) were accurately labelled, 2/50 (4.0%) wrongly labelled, and 8/50 (16.0%) were unlabelled. Implicated substances included personal care products (11.1%), household cleaning products (3.0%), and different classes of drugs such as paracetamol (22.2%), antihistamines (17.2%) and sympathomimetics (8.1%). Children < 3 years of age were 4.8 times more likely to be poisoned by household substances than children >3 years of age (p=0.009, 95% CI 1.48-15.77). Prehospital interventions were more likely to have been done in poisoning with household substances (p=0.005, OR 6.12 95% CI 1.73-21.68). Fifty-nine (59.6%) were asymptomatic, 34 (34.3%) had a Poisoning Severity Score (PSS) grade of 1 (minor) and 6 (6.1%) grade 2 (moderate). Older children were 9.3 times more likely to be symptomatic (p<0.001, 95% CI 3.15-27.25). Thirty (32%) required admission. Conclusion: A significant proportion of accidental poisoning cases were due to medication administration errors by caregivers, which should be preventable. Risk factors for accidental poisoning included lack of adequate caregiver supervision, improper labelling and young age of the child. There is an urgent need to improve caregiver counselling during medication dispensing as well as to educate caregivers on basic child safety measures in the home to prevent future accidental poisonings.

Keywords: accidental, caregiver, paediatrics, poisoning

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
94 Recovery of Hydrogen Converter Efficiency Affected by Poisoning of Catalyst with Increasing of Temperature

Authors: Enayat Enayati, Reza Behtash

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The purpose of the H2 removal system is to reduce a content of hydrogen and other combustibles in the CO2 feed owing to avoid developing a possible explosive condition in the synthesis. In order to reduce the possibility of forming an explosive gas mixture in the synthesis as much as possible, the hydrogen percent in the fresh CO2, will be removed in hydrogen converter. Therefore the partly compressed CO2/Air mixture is led through Hydrogen converter (Reactor) where the H2, present in the CO2, is reduced by catalytic combustion to values less than 50 ppm (vol). According the following exothermic chemical reaction: 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O + Heat. The catalyst in hydrogen converter consist of platinum on a aluminum oxide carrier. Low catalyst activity maybe due to catalyst poisoning. This will result in an increase of the hydrogen content in the CO2 to the synthesis. It is advised to shut down the plant when the outlet of hydrogen converter increased above 100 ppm, to prevent undesirable gas composition in the plant. Replacement of catalyst will be time exhausting and costly so as to prevent this, we increase the inlet temperature of hydrogen converter according to following Arrhenius' equation: K=K0e (-E_a/RT) K is rate constant of a chemical reaction where K0 is the pre-exponential factor, E_a is the activation energy, and R is the universal gas constant. Increment of inlet temperature of hydrogen converter caused to increase the rate constant of chemical reaction and so declining the amount of hydrogen from 125 ppm to 70 ppm.

Keywords: catalyst, converter, poisoning, temperature

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93 L-Carnitine vs Extracorporeal Elimination for Acute Valproic Acid Intoxication: A Systemic Review

Authors: Byung Keun Yang, Jae Eun Ku, Young Seon Joo, Je Sung You, Sung Phil Chung, Hahn Shick Lee

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The purpose of this study is to review the evidence comparing the efficacy and safety between L-carnitine and extracorporeal elimination therapy in the management of acute valproic acid L-carnitine vs Extracorporeal Elimination for Acute Valproic acid Intoxication. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, Web of Science, KoreaMed, KMbase, and KISS were searched, using the terms carnitine and valproic acid. All studies, regardless of design, reporting efficacy or safety endpoints were included. Reference citations from identified publications were reviewed. Both English and Korean languages were included. Two authors extracted primary data elements including poisoning severity, presenting features, clinical management, and outcomes. Thirty two articles including 33 cases were identified. Poisoning severity was classified as 3 mild, 11 moderate, and 19 severe cases. Nine cases were treated with L-carnitine while 24 cases received extracorporeal therapy without L-carnitine. All patients except one expired patient treated with hemodialysis recovered clinically and no adverse effects were noted. A case report comparing two patients who ingested the same amount of valproic acid showed increased ICU stay (3 vs. 11 days) in case of delayed extracorporeal therapy. Published evidence comparing L-carnitine with extracorporeal therapy is limited. Based on the available evidence, it is reasonable to consider L-carnitine for patients with acute valproic acid overdose. In case of severe poisoning, extracorporeal therapy would also be considered in the early phase of treatment.

Keywords: carnitine, overdose, poisoning, renal dialysis, valproic acid

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92 Appearance of Ciguatoxin Fish in Atlantic Europe Waters

Authors: J. Bravo, F. Cabrera Suárez, B. Vega, L. Román, M. Martel, F. Acosta

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Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most common non-bacterial intoxication in the world caused by ingestion of fish with bio-accumulated ciguatoxins (CTXs). It is typical in tropical and subtropical areas, mainly affecting the Caribbean Sea, Polynesia and other areas in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Interest in Europe by the CFP is increasing in recent years as more and more cases in European hospitals are appearing, usually by people who have consumed ciguatoxin imported fish or have travelled to areas of risk for this poisoning. Since 2004 a series of poisonings raised the question of a possible occurrence of ciguatoxin in Europe, especially in the area of Macaronesia in the East Atlantic temperate zone. Furthermore, some studies have identified the presence of Gambierdiscus spp. in waters surrounding the Canary Islands and Madeira, a toxic dinoflagellate related to this poisoning. The toxin accumulates and concentrates through the food chain and affects to the end of the chain, the human consumer. Fish were collected from the Canary Islands waters and the toxin has been extracted and purified by using acetone and liquid/liquid partition in order to eliminate the excess of fatty acids that may interfere with the detection of the toxin. The fish extracts were inoculated in Neuroblastoma (neuro-2a) cells. After 24-h cell viability was used as an endpoint for cytotoxic effects measurement. Since 2011 our laboratory is collecting data for species such Seriola spp., Epinephelus spp., Makaira spp., Pomatomus spp., Xiphias spp., and Acantocybium spp., from all islands and including the sports fishing and professional activities, we obtained a 8% of fish that have ciguatoxin in their muscle. With these results, we conclude that the island where fishing and fish size affects the probability of catching a fish with the ciguatoxin.

Keywords: Canary Islands, ciguatera fish poisoning, ciguatoxin, Europe

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91 Food Poisoning (Salmonellosis) as a Public Health Problem Through Consuming the Meat and Eggs of the Carrier Birds

Authors: M.Younus, M. Athar Khan, Asif Adrees

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The present research endeavour was made to investigate the Public Health impact of Salmonellosis through consuming the meat and eggs of the carrier’s birds and to see the prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from poultry feed, poultry meat, and poultry eggs and their role in the chain of transmission of salmonellae to human beings and causing food poisoning. The ultimate objective was to generate data to improve the quality of poultry products and human health awareness. Salmonellosis is one of the most wide spread food borne zoonoses in all the continents of the world. The etiological agents Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium not only produce the disease but during the convalescent phase (after the recovery of disease) remain carriers for indefinite period of time. The carrier state was not only the source of spread of disease with in the poultry but also caused typhoid fever in humans. The chain of transmission started from poultry feed to poultry meat and ultimately to humans as dead end hosts. In this experiment a total number of 200 samples of human stool and blood were collected randomly (100 samples of human stool and 100 samples of human blood) of 100 patients suspected from food poisoning patients from different hospitals of Lahore area for the identification of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium through PCR method in order to see the public health impact of Salmonellosis through consuming the meat and eggs of the carrier birds. On the average 14 and 10 stool samples were found positive against Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from each of the 25 patients from each hospital respectively in case of suspected food poisoning patients. Similarly on an average 5% and 6% blood samples were found positive from 25 patients of each hospital respectively. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) in the sero positivity of stool and blood samples of suspected food poisoning patients as far as Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium was concerned. However there was no significant difference (P<0.05) between the hospitals.

Keywords: salmonella, zoonosis, food, transmission, eggs

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90 Improving the Competency of Undergraduate Nursing Students in Addressing a Timely Public Health Issue

Authors: Tsu-Yin Wu, Jenni Hoffman, Lydia McMurrows, Sarah Lally

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Recent events of the Flint Water Crisis and elevated lead levels in Detroit public school water have highlighted a specific public health disparity and shown the need for better education of healthcare providers on lead education. Identifying children and pregnant women with a high risk for lead poisoning and ensuring lead testing is completed is critical. The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of an educational intervention on knowledge and confidence levels among nursing students enrolled in the prelicensure Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) and Registered Nurse to BSN program (R2B). The study used both quantitative and qualitative research methods to assess the impact of multi-modal pedagogy on knowledge and confidence of lead screening and prevention among prelicensure and R2B nursing students. The students received lead poisoning and prevention content in addition to completing an e-learning module developed by the Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Units. A total of 115 students completed the pre-and post-test instrument that consisted of demographic, lead knowledge, and confidence items. Despite the increase of total knowledge, three dimensions of lead poisoning, and confidence from pre- to post-test scores for both groups, there was no statistical significance on the increase between prelicensure and R2B students. Thematic analysis of qualitative data showed five themes from participants' learning experiences: lead exposure, signs and symptoms of lead poisoning, screening and diagnosis, prevention, and policy and statewide issues. The study is limited by a small sample and participants recalling some correct answers from the pretest, thus, scoring higher on the post-test. The results contribute to the minimally existent literature examining a critical public health concern regarding lead health exposure and prevention education of nursing students. Incorporating such content area into the nursing curriculum is essential in ensuring that such public health disparities are mitigated.

Keywords: lead poisoning, emerging public health issue, community health, nursing edducation

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89 The Role of Pharmacist in The Community: A Study of Methanol Toxicity Disaster in Tripoli Libya During March 2013

Authors: Abdurrauf M. Gusbi, Mahmud H. Arhima, Abdurrahim A. Elouzi, Ebtisam A. Benomran, Salsabeela Elmezwghi, Aram Elhatan, Nafesa Elgusbi

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Mass poisonings with methanol are rare but occur regularly both in developed and in non-developing countries. As a result of the tragedy that happened in the city of Tripoli Libya in March during year 2013 a number of patients were admitted to Tripoli Medical Center and Tripoli Central Hospital suffering from poisoning following ingestion of methanol by mistake. Our aims have been formulated to collect Information about those cases as much as we can from the archiving departments from the two hospitals including the number of cases that had been admitted, recovered patients and died victims. This retrospective study was planned to find out the reasons which allow those patients to drink methanol in our Muslim community and also the role of pharmacist to prevent such a disaster that claimed the lives of many people. During this tragedy 291 ospitalized patients their ages between 16-32 years old were admitted to both hospitals, total number of died 189 (121 at Tripoli medical center) and (68 at Tripoli central hospital), demographic data also shows that most of them are male (97%) and (3% female), about 4% of the patients foreigners and 96% were Libyans. There were a lot of obstacles and poor facilities at the time of patient admission as recognized in many cases including lack of first line of treatment. The morbidity was high due to the lack of antidote and availability of dialysis machines at this two main hospitals in Tripoli also according to survey done to the medical staff and also a random number of medical students shows about 28% have no idea about the first aid procedure used for methanol poisoning cases and this due to the absence of continuing education for all medical staff through the establishment of training courses on first aid, rapid diagnosis of poisoning and follow the written procedures to dealing with such cases.

Keywords: ethanol, fomepizole, methanol, poisoning

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88 Evaluation of the Effects of Lead on Some Physiological and Hormonal Biomarkeurs among Workers

Authors: Mansouri Ouarda, Adbdennour Cherif, Boukarma Ziad

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Environmental and biological monitoring are used for the evaluation of exposure to industrial chemicals, and provide a tool for assessing workers’ exposure to chemicals. The organs or tissues where the first biological effects can be observed with increasing amounts of lead toxicity. This study aims at evaluating the effect of the metal element-trace; lead, on the sex hormones in male workers, exposed to this metal on the level of the manufacturing plant of lead accumulators. The results indicate a significant reduction of the testosterone concentration in exposed workers compared to the control. However, the rate of LH was strongly increased at the individuals exposed to Pb. A significant difference concerning the rate of FSH, the hormone Prolactin and cortisol was recorded. The indicators of the lead poisoning indicate a very highly significant increase in the value of Pbs which vary between (142-796 µg/L) among which 50% of the workers present a high lead poisoning and the value of PPZ which vary between (43-554µg/L). The biochemical parameters show a significant increase in the rate of the créatinine, the urea and the acid urique. The hepatic results show no significant differentiation in the rate of TGO and TGP between both groups of study. However the rates of the enzyme phosphatase alkaline, triglyceride, and cholesterol a significant difference were registered.

Keywords: hormons, parameters, physilogical, Pbs, PPZ

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87 Perception of Hygiene Knowledge among Staff Working in Top Five Famous Restaurants of Male’

Authors: Zulaikha Reesha Rashaad

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One of the major factors which can contribute greatly to success of catering businesses is to employ food and beverage staff having sound hygiene knowledge. Individuals having sound knowledge of hygiene has a higher chance of following safe food practices in food production. One of the leading causes of food poisoning and food borne illnesses has been identified as lack of hygiene knowledge among food and beverage staff working in catering establishments and restaurants. This research aims to analyze the hygiene knowledge among food and beverage staff working in top five restaurants of Male’, in relation to their age, educational background, occupation and training. The research uses quantitative and descriptive methods in data collection and in data analysis. Data was obtained through random sampling technique with self-administered survey questionnaires which was completed by 60 respondents working in 5 different restaurants operating at top level in Male’. The respondents of the research were service staff and chefs working in these restaurants. The responses to the questionnaires have been analyzed by using SPSS. The results of the research indicated that age, education level, occupation and training correlated with hygiene knowledge perception scores.

Keywords: food and beverage staff, food poisoning, food production, hygiene knowledge

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86 Raising Antibodies against Epoxyscillirosidine, the Toxic Principle Contained in Moraea pallida Bak. in Rabbits

Authors: Hamza I. Isa, Gezina C. H. Ferreira, Jan E. Crafford, Christoffel J. Botha

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Moraea pallida Bak. (yellow tulip) poisoning is the most important plant-induced cardiac glycoside toxicosis in South Africa. Cardiac glycoside poisonings collectively account for about 33 and 10 % mortalities due to plants, in large and small stock respectively, in South Africa. The toxic principle is 1α, 2α-epoxyscillirosidine, a bufadienolide. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential to develop a vaccine against epoxyscillirosidine. Epoxyscillirosidine and the related bufadienolides proscillaridin and bufalin, which are commercially available, were conjugated to the carrier proteins [Hen ovalbumin (OVA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH)], rendering them immunogenic. Adult male New Zealand White rabbits were immunized. In Trials 1 and 2, rabbits (n=6) were, each assigned to two groups. Experimental animals (n=3; n=4) were vaccinated with epoxyscillirosidine-OVA conjugate, while the control (n=3; n=2) were vaccinated with OVA, using Freund’s complete and incomplete and Montanide adjuvants, for Trials 1 and 2, respectively. In Trial 3, rabbits (n=15), randomly allocated to 5 equal groups (I, II, III, IV and V), were vaccinated with proscillaridin-BSA, bufalin-BSA, epoxyscillirosidine-KLH, epoxyscillirosidine-BSA conjugates, and BSA respectively, using Montanide as adjuvant. Vaccination was on Days 0, 21 and 42. Additional vaccinations were done on Day 56 and 63 for Trial 1. Vaccination was by intradermal injection of 0.4 ml of the immunogen (4 mg/ml [Trial 1] and 8 mg/ml for Trials 2 and Trial 3, respectively). Blood was collected pre-vaccination and at 3 week intervals following each vaccination. Antibody response was determined using an indirect ELISA. There was poor immune response associated with the dose (0.4 mg per rabbit) and adjuvant used in Trial 1. Antibodies were synthesized against the conjugate administered in Trial 2. For Trail 3, antibodies against the immunogens were successfully raised in rabbits with epoxyscillirosidine-KLH inducing the highest immune response. The antibodies raised against proscillaridin and bufalin cross-reacted with epoxyscillirosidine when used as antigen in the ELISA. The study successfully demonstrated the synthesis of antibodies against the bufadienolide conjugates administered. The cross-reactivity of proscillaridin and bufalin with epoxyscillirosidine could potentially be utilized as alternative to epoxyscillirosidine in future studies to prevent yellow tulp poisoning by vaccination.

Keywords: antibodies , bufadienolides, cross-reactivity, epoxyscillirosidine, Moraea pallida, poisoning

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85 Analysis of Brain Specific Creatine Kinase of Postmortem Cerebrospinal Fluid and Serum in Blunt Head Trauma Cases

Authors: Rika Susanti, Eryati Darwin, Dedi Afandi, Yanwirasti, Syahruddin Said, Noverika Windasari, Zelly Dia Rofinda

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Introduction: Blunt head trauma is one of the leading causes of death associated with murders and other deaths involved in criminal acts. Creatine kinase (CKBB) levels have been used as a biomarker for blunt head trauma. Therefore, it is now used as an alternative to an autopsy. The aim of this study is to investigate CKBB levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and post-mortem serum in order to deduce the cause and time of death. Method: This investigation was conducted through post-test–only group design involving deaths caused by blunt head trauma, which was compared to deaths caused by ketamine poisoning. Results: There were eight treatment groups, each consisting of six adult rats (Rattus norvegicus) Sprague-Dawley strain. Examinations were done at 0 hours, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 3 hours post-mortem, which followed by brain tissue observation. Data were then analyzed statistically with a repeated-measures general linear model. Conclusion: There were increases in the level of CKBB in CSF and postmortem serum in both blunt head trauma and ketamine poisoning treatment groups. However, there were no significant differences between these two groups.

Keywords: blunt head trauma, CKBB, the cause of death, estimated time of death

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84 Protective Effects of Sinapic Acid on Organophosphate Poisoning

Authors: Turker Yardan, Bahattin Avci, S. Sirri Bilge, Ayhan Bozkurt

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Sinapic acid (SA) is a phenylpropanoid compound with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective activities. The purpose of this study was to characterize the possible protective effect of sinapic acid on chlorpyrifos (CPF), a common organophosphorus pesticide used worldwide, induced toxicity in rats. Forty male and female rats (240-270 g) were used in this study. Each group was composed of 5 male and 5 female rats. Sinapic acid (20 mg/kg or 40 mg/kg) or vehicle (olive oil, 1 ml ⁄ rat) were given orally for 5 days. CPF (279 mg/kg) or vehicle (peanut oil, 2 ml ⁄ kg, s.c.) was administered on the sixth day, immediately after the recording of the body weight of the animals. Twenty four hours following CPF administration body weight, body temperature and locomotor activity values were recorded before decapitation of the animals. Trunk blood, brain, and liver samples were collected for biochemical examinations. Chlorpyrifos administration decreased butyrylcholinesterase activity in blood, brain, and liver, while it increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) (p < 0.01 - 0.001). Additionally, CPF administration reduced the body weight, body temperature, and locomotor activity values of the animals (p < 0.01 - 0.001). All these physiological and biochemical changes induced by CPF were reduced with the 40 mg/kg dose of SA (p < 0.05 - 0.001). Our results suggest that SA administration ameliorates CPF induced toxicity in rats, possibly by supporting the antioxidant mechanism.

Keywords: antioxidant, Chlorpyrifos, poisoning, sinapic acid

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83 The Retrospective Investigation of the Impacts of Alien Taxa on Human Health: A Case Study of Two Poison Information Centers

Authors: Moleseng Claude Moshobane

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Alien species cause considerable negative impacts on biodiversity, economy and public health. Impacts of alien species on public health have received a degree of attention worldwide, largely in developed countries, but scarce in developing countries. Here, we provide a review of human exposures and poisonings cases from native and alien plant species reported to poison information centers. A retrospective review of the Tygerberg Poison Information Centre (TPIC) and Poisons Information Centre (PIC) at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RCWMCH) was conducted over approximately 2-year period (1 June 2015 through to 06 March 2017). Combined, TPIC and PIC handled 626 cases during the 2-year period. Toxicity cases were more abundant in Gauteng (47.1%), followed by Western Cape (29.4%). The primary mechanism of injury was ingestion (96.7%), and all cases were predominantly accidental. Most reported cases involved infants (20.6%), with few fully-grown adults related cases (5.8%). Adults presented minor to moderate toxicity, while infants none to minor toxicity. We conclude that reported toxicity cases on human health are biased towards few alien species and that several cases relate to unknown species of mushrooms. Public awareness is essential to reducing the poisoning incidences.

Keywords: alien species, poisoning, invasive species, public health

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82 Honey Intoxication: A Unique Cause of Sudden Cardiac Collapse

Authors: Bharat Rawat, Shekhar Rajbhandari, Yadav Bhatta, Jay Prakash Jaiswal, Shivaji Bikram Silwal, Rajiv Shrestha, Shova Sunuwar

Abstract:

Introduction: The honey produced by the bees fed on Rhobdodendron species containing grayanotoxin is known as mad honey. Grayanotoxin is found in honey obtained from the nectar of Rhododendron species growing on the mountains of the Black Sea region of Turkey and also in Japan, Nepal, Brazil, parts of North America, and Europe. Although the incidence of grayanotoxin poisoning is rare, there is concern that the number of cases per year will rise with the increasing demand for organic products. Mad honey intoxication might present with mild symptoms of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and neurological systems or might also present with a life-threatening form with AV block and cardiovascular collapse. In this article, we describe the summary of five cases, which came to our hospital with mad honey related cardiac complications. Findings: In last one year, five cases presented in the emergency department with sudden onset of Loss of consciousness, dizziness, shortness of breath. They felt difficulty after the consumption of 1-3 teaspoonful of wild honey. The honey was brought from most of the rural parts of Nepal like khotang. Some of them also came with vomiting, dizziness, and loose stool. On examination, most of them had severe bradycardia and low blood pressure. No abnormalities were detected on systemic examinations. In one patient, ECG and cardiac enzymes showed features of the acute coronary syndrome, but his treadmill test done few days later was normal. All patients were managed with inj. Atropine, I/V normal saline, and other supportive measures and discharged in a stable condition within one or two days. Conclusions: Rhododendrons is the national flower of Nepal. The specific species of rhododendron found in Nepal which contains the toxin is not known. Bees feeding on these rhododendrons are known to transfer the grayanotoxin to the honey they produce. Most symptoms are mild and resolve themselves without medical intervention. Signs and symptoms of grayanotoxin poisoning rarely last more than 24 hours and are usually not fatal. Some signs of mad honey poisoning include Bradycardia, Cardiac arrhythmia, Hypotension, Nausea and Vomiting. They respond to close monitoring and appropriate supportive treatment. Normally, patients recover completely with no residual damage to the heart or its conduction system.

Keywords: rhobdodendron, honey, grayanotoxin, bradycardia

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81 The Potential Effect of Climate Changes on Food and Water Associated Infections

Authors: Mohammed A. Alhoot, Rathika A/P Nagarajan

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Climate change and variability are affecting human health and diseases direct or indirectly through many mechanisms. Change in rain pattern, an increase of temperature and humidity are showing an increased trend in Malaysia. This will affect the biological, physical and chemical component of water through different pathways and will enhance the risk of waterborne diseases. Besides, the warm temperature and humid climate provide very suitable conditions for the growth of pathogenic bacteria. This study is intended to highlight the relationship between the climate changes and the incidence food and water associated infections. Incidences of food and water associated infection and climate data were collected from Malaysian Ministry of health and Malaysian Metrological Department respectively. Maximum and minimum temperature showed high correlation with incidence of typhoid, hepatitis A, dysentery, food poisoning (P value <0.05 significant with 2 tailed / 0.5<[r]). Heavy rainfall does not associated with any outbreaks. Climate change brings out new challenges in controlling food and water associated infections. Adaptation strategies should involve all key stakeholders with a strong regional cooperation to prevent and deal with cross-boundary health crises. Moreover, the role of health care personnel at local, state and national levels is important to ensure the success of these programmes. As has been shown herein, climate variability is an important element influencing the food and water associated epidemiology in Malaysia. The results of this study are crucial to implementing climate changes as a factor to reduce any future outbreaks.

Keywords: climate change, typhoid, hepatitis A, dysentery, food poisoning

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80 Comparison of Acetylcholinesterase Reactivators Cytotoxicity with Their Structure

Authors: Lubica Muckova, Petr Jost, Jaroslav Pejchal, Daniel Jun

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The development of acetylcholinesterase reactivators, i.e. antidotes against organophosphorus poisoning, is an important goal of defence research. The aim of this study was to compare cytotoxicity and chemical structure of 5 currently available (pralidoxime, trimedoxime, obidoxime, methoxime, and asoxime) and 4 newly developed compounds (K027, K074, K075, and K203). In oximes, there could be at least four important structural factors affecting their toxicity, including the number of oxime groups in the molecule, the position of oxime group(s) on pyridinium ring, the length of carbon linker, and the substitution by oxygen or insertion of the double bond into the connection chain. The cytotoxicity of tested substances was measured using colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay (MTT assay) in SH-SY5Y cell line. Toxicity was expressed as toxicological index IC₅₀. The tested compounds showed different cytotoxicity ranging from 1.5 to 27 mM. K027 was the least, and methoxime was the most toxic reactivator. The lowest toxicity was found in a monopyridinium reactivator and bispyridinium reactivators with simple 3C carbon linker. Shortening of connection chain length to 1C, incorporation of oxygen moiety into 3C compounds, elongation of carbon linker to 4C and insertion of a double bond into 4C substances increase AChE reactivators' cytotoxicity. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by a long-term organization development plan Medical Aspects of Weapons of Mass Destruction of the Faculty of Military Health Sciences, University of Defence.

Keywords: acetylcholinesterase, cytotoxicity, organophosphorus poisoning, reactivators of acetylcholinesterase

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79 Determination of the Pull-Out/ Holding Strength at the Taper-Trunnion Junction of Hip Implants

Authors: Obinna K. Ihesiulor, Krishna Shankar, Paul Smith, Alan Fien

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Excessive fretting wear at the taper-trunnion junction (trunnionosis) apparently contributes to the high failure rates of hip implants. Implant wear and corrosion lead to the release of metal particulate debris and subsequent release of metal ions at the taper-trunnion surface. This results in a type of metal poisoning referred to as metallosis. The consequences of metal poisoning include; osteolysis (bone loss), osteoarthritis (pain), aseptic loosening of the prosthesis and revision surgery. Follow up after revision surgery, metal debris particles are commonly found in numerous locations. Background: A stable connection between the femoral ball head (taper) and stem (trunnion) is necessary to prevent relative motions and corrosion at the taper junction. Hence, the importance of component assembly cannot be over-emphasized. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the influence of head-stem junction assembly by press fitting and the subsequent disengagement/disassembly on the connection strength between the taper ball head and stem. Methods: CoCr femoral heads were assembled with High stainless hydrogen steel stem (trunnion) by Push-in i.e. press fit; and disengaged by Pull-out test. The strength and stability of the two connections were evaluated by measuring the head pull-out forces according to ISO 7206-10 standards. Findings: The head-stem junction strength linearly increases with assembly forces.

Keywords: wear, modular hip prosthesis, taper head-stem, force assembly and disassembly

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78 Ecological and Biological Effects of Pollution and Dredging Activities on Fisheries and Fisheries Products in Niger Delta Ecological Zone

Authors: Ikpesu, Thomas Ohwofasa, Babtunde Ilesanmi

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The effects of anthropogenic activities on fish and fisheries products in Niger Delta water bodies were investigated. The rivers were selected based on their close proximity to contaminants and dredging activities. Three stations were chosen per river. The stations chosen to depicting downstream and upstream stations were visited and samples collected on monthly basis. The down streams stations are the polluted and heavily dredged sites, where the upstream station is far, without any evidence of pollution or human activities. During these periods, the fishes of the same species were collected and analyzed for morphological and physiological changes, after which they were returned back to the rivers. The physico-chemicals parameters of these stations were also taken. Morphological changes such as skin ulcerations and other lesions, as well as fungi infections were observed in the down streams fishes. The fish in up streams look healthier and bigger (though the age could not be affirmed) than the downstream fishes. The physico-chemical parameters between the up streams and down streams stations vary significantly (p < 0.01). These anthropogenic effects must have interfere with the normal migration pattern of these fishes, because there were changes in the composition of population and species diversity in the samples sites, with the upstream having true species diversity. The release of pollutants into the water in the Niger Delta areas may triggers off naturally occurring bio toxicity cycles and other fish poisoning. There is risk of biomagnifications of these poisons along the tropic level. This makes the normally valuable food resource dangerous for human consumption and thereby instances of human death caused by such poisoning.

Keywords: anthropogenic, dredging, fisheries, niger delta, pollution, rivers

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77 Harmful Algal Poisoning Symptoms in Coastal Areas of Nigeria

Authors: Medina Kadiri

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Nigeria has an extensive coastline of 853 km long between latitude 4°10′ to 6°20′ N and longitude 2°45′ to 8°35′ E and situated in the Gulf of Guinea within the Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem. There is a substantial coastal community relying on this region for their livelihood of fishing, aquaculture, mariculture for various sea foods either for consumption or economic sustenance or both. Socio-economic study was conducted, using questionnaires and interview, to investigate the health symptoms of harmful algae experienced by these communities on consumption of sea foods. Eighteen symptoms were recorded. Of the respondents who experienced symptoms after consumption of sea foods, overall, more people (33.5%) experienced vomiting as a symptom, followed by nausea (14.03%) and then diarrhea (13.57%). Others were headache (9.95%), mouth tingling (8.6%) and tiredness (7.24%).The least were muscle pain, rashes, confusion, chills, burning sensation, breathing difficulty and balance difficulty which represented 0.45% each and the rest (dizziness, digestive tract tumors, itching, memory loss, & stomach pain) were less than 3% each. In terms of frequency, the most frequent symptom was diarrhea with 87.5% occurrence, closely followed by vomiting with 81.3%. Tiredness was 75% while nausea was 62.5% and headache 50%. Others such as dizziness, itching, memory loss, mouth tingling and stomach pain had about 40% occurrence or less. The least occurring symptoms were muscle pain, rashes, confusion, chills and balance difficulty and burning sensation occurring only once i.e 6.3%. Breathing difficulty was last but one with 12.5%. Visible symptom from seafood and the particular seafood consumed that prompted the visible symptoms, shows that 3.5% of the entire respondents who ate crab experienced various symptoms ranging from vomiting (2.4%), itching (0.5%) and headache (0.4%). For periwinkle, vomiting had 1.7%, while 1.2% represented diarrhea and nausea symptom comprised 0.8% of all the respondents who ate periwinkle. Some respondents who consumed fish shows that 0.4% of the respondents had Itching. From the respondents who preferred to consume shrimps/crayfish and crab, shrimps/crayfish, crab and periwinkle, the most common illness was tiredness (1.2%), while 0.5% had experienced diarrhea and many others. However, for most respondents who claimed to have no preference for any seafood, with 55.7% affirming this with vomiting being the highest (6.1%), followed closely by mouth tingling/ burning sensation (5.8%). Examining the seasonal influence on visible symptoms revealed that vomiting occurred more in the month of January with 5.5%, while headache and itching were predominant in October with (2.8%). Nausea has 3.1% in January than any season of the year, 2.6% of the entire respondents opined to have experience diarrhea in October than in any other season of the year. Regular evaluation of harmful algal poisoning symptoms is recommended for coastal communities.

Keywords: coastal, harmful algae, human poisoning symptoms, Nigeria, phycotoxins

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