Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 111

Search results for: Priya Kulkarni

111 Potential Role of IL-1β in Synovial Fluid in Modulating Multiple Joint Tissue Pathologies Leading to Inflammation and Accelerating Cartilage Degeneration

Authors: Priya Kulkarni, Soumya Koppikar, Datta Shinde, Shantanu Deshpande, Narendrakumar Wagh, Abhay Harsulkar

Abstract:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with multiple and overlapping aetiologies. IL-1β is produced by stressed tissue and known to aggravate disease pathologies. We selected 10 patients with elevated IL-1β in their synovial fluids (SF). We hypothesized IL-1β as nodal-point connecting different pathologies. IL-1β was higher in all meniscal tear (MT) patients perhaps as the earliest response to injury. Since MT above age of 30 leads to OA in less than 5 years, it is attributed that IL-1β modulates OA pathology. Among all bilateral OA patients, an interesting case operated for Total-Knee-Replacement revealed differential cartilage degeneration demonstrating strong association with higher IL-1β. Symptoms like acute-pain, effusion and redness were correlated with higher IL-1β and NO (Nitric-oxide). However, higher IL-1β was also found without typical-inflammation characterized by infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages. Cultured synoviocytes responded to IL-1β by releasing NO. In conclusion, IL-1β in SF acquires central position influencing different OA pathologies and aetiologies.

Keywords: IL-1β, meniscal tear, osteoarthritis, synovial fluid

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110 Glycosaminoglycan, a Cartilage Erosion Marker in Synovial Fluid of Osteoarthritis Patients Strongly Correlates with WOMAC Function Subscale

Authors: Priya Kulkarni, Soumya Koppikar, Narendrakumar Wagh, Dhanshri Ingle, Onkar Lande, Abhay Harsulkar

Abstract:

Cartilage is an extracellular matrix composed of aggrecan, which imparts it with a great tensile strength, stiffness and resilience. Disruption in cartilage metabolism leading to progressive degeneration is a characteristic feature of Osteoarthritis (OA). The process involves enzymatic depolymerisation of cartilage specific proteoglycan, releasing free glycosaminoglycan (GAG). This released GAG in synovial fluid (SF) of knee joint serves as a direct measure of cartilage loss, however, limited due to its invasive nature. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) is widely used for assessing pain, stiffness and physical-functions in OA patients. The scale is comprised of three subscales namely, pain, stiffness and physical-function, intends to measure patient’s perspective of disease severity as well as efficacy of prescribed treatment. Twenty SF samples obtained from OA patients were analysed for their GAG values in SF using DMMB based assay. LK 1.0 vernacular version was used to attain WOMAC scale. The results were evaluated using SAS University software (Edition 1.0) for statistical significance. All OA patients revealed higher GAG values compared to the control value of 78.4±30.1µg/ml (obtained from our non-OA patients). Average WOMAC calculated was 51.3 while pain, stiffness and function estimated were 9.7, 3.9 and 37.7, respectively. Interestingly, a strong statistical correlation was established between WOMAC function subscale and GAG (p = 0.0102). This subscale is based on day-to-day activities like stair-use, bending, walking, getting in/out of car, rising from bed. However, pain and stiffness subscale did not show correlation with any of the studied markers and endorsed the atypical inflammation in OA pathology. On one side, where knee pain showed poor correlation with GAG, it is often noted that radiography is insensitive to cartilage degenerative changes; thus OA remains undiagnosed for long. Moreover, active cartilage degradation phase remains elusive to both, patient and clinician. Through analysis of large number of OA patients we have established a close association of Kellgren-Lawrence grades and increased cartilage loss. A direct attempt to correlate WOMAC and radiographic progression of OA with various biomarkers has not been attempted so far. We found a good correlation in GAG levels in SF and the function subscale.

Keywords: cartilage, Glycosaminoglycan, synovial fluid, western ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
109 Experiential Learning: A Case Study for Teaching Operating System Using C and Unix

Authors: Shamshuddin K., Nagaraj Vannal, Diwakar Kulkarni, Raghavendra Nakod

Abstract:

In most of the universities and colleges Operating System (OS) course is treated as theoretical and usually taught in a classroom using conventional teaching methods. In this paper we are presenting a new approach of teaching OS through experiential learning, the course is designed to suit the requirement of undergraduate engineering program of Instrumentation Technology. This new approach has benefited us to improve our student’s programming skills, presentation skills and understanding of the operating system concepts.

Keywords: pedagogy, interactive learning, experiential learning, OS, C, UNIX

Procedia PDF Downloads 471
108 Computation of Natural Logarithm Using Abstract Chemical Reaction Networks

Authors: Iuliia Zarubiieva, Joyun Tseng, Vishwesh Kulkarni

Abstract:

Recent researches has focused on nucleic acids as a substrate for designing biomolecular circuits for in situ monitoring and control. A common approach is to express them by a set of idealised abstract chemical reaction networks (ACRNs). Here, we present new results on how abstract chemical reactions, viz., catalysis, annihilation and degradation, can be used to implement circuit that accurately computes logarithm function using the method of Arithmetic-Geometric Mean (AGM), which has not been previously used in conjunction with ACRNs.

Keywords: chemical reaction networks, ratio computation, stability, robustness

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
107 Analysis of the Inverse Kinematics for 5 DOF Robot Arm Using D-H Parameters

Authors: Apurva Patil, Maithilee Kulkarni, Ashay Aswale

Abstract:

This paper proposes an algorithm to develop the kinematic model of a 5 DOF robot arm. The formulation of the problem is based on finding the D-H parameters of the arm. Brute Force iterative method is employed to solve the system of non linear equations. The focus of the paper is to obtain the accurate solutions by reducing the root mean square error. The result obtained will be implemented to grip the objects. The trajectories followed by the end effector for the required workspace coordinates are plotted. The methodology used here can be used in solving the problem for any other kinematic chain of up to six DOF.

Keywords: 5 DOF robot arm, D-H parameters, inverse kinematics, iterative method, trajectories

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
106 Foil Bearing Stiffness Estimation with Pseudospectral Scheme

Authors: Balaji Sankar, Sadanand Kulkarni

Abstract:

Compliant foil gas lubricated bearings are used for the support of light loads in the order of few kilograms at high speeds, in the order of 50,000 RPM. The stiffness of the foil bearings depends both on the stiffness of the compliant foil and on the lubricating gas film. The stiffness of the bearings plays a crucial role in the stable operation of the supported rotor over a range of speeds. This paper describes a numerical approach to estimate the stiffness of the bearings using pseudo spectral scheme. Methodology to obtain the stiffness of the foil bearing as a function of weight of the shaft is given and the results are presented.

Keywords: foil bearing, simulation, numerical, stiffness estimation

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105 Design and Implementation of Wireless Syncronized AI System for Security

Authors: Saradha Priya

Abstract:

Developing virtual human is very important to meet the challenges occurred in many applications where human find difficult or risky to perform the task. A robot is a machine that can perform a task automatically or with guidance. Robotics is generally a combination of artificial intelligence and physical machines (motors). Computational intelligence involves the programmed instructions. This project proposes a robotic vehicle that has a camera, PIR sensor and text command based movement. It is specially designed to perform surveillance and other few tasks in the most efficient way. Serial communication has been occurred between a remote Base Station, GUI Application, and PC.

Keywords: Zigbee, camera, pirsensor, wireless transmission, DC motor

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
104 Review on Effective Texture Classification Techniques

Authors: Sujata S. Kulkarni

Abstract:

Effective and efficient texture feature extraction and classification is an important problem in image understanding and recognition. This paper gives a review on effective texture classification method. The objective of the problem of texture representation is to reduce the amount of raw data presented by the image, while preserving the information needed for the task. Texture analysis is important in many applications of computer image analysis for classification include industrial and biomedical surface inspection, for example for defects and disease, ground classification of satellite or aerial imagery and content-based access to image databases.

Keywords: compressed sensing, feature extraction, image classification, texture analysis

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103 Reliability Analysis of Heat Exchanger Cycle Using Non-Parametric Method

Authors: Apurv Kulkarni, Shreyas Badave, B. Rajiv

Abstract:

Non-parametric reliability technique is useful for assessment of reliability of systems for which failure rates are not available. This is useful when detection of malfunctioning of any component is the key purpose during ongoing operation of the system. The main purpose of the Heat Exchanger Cycle discussed in this paper is to provide hot water at a constant temperature for longer periods of time. In such a cycle, certain components play a crucial role and this paper presents an effective way to predict the malfunctioning of the components by determination of system reliability. The method discussed in the paper is feasible and this is clarified with the help of various test cases.

Keywords: heat exchanger cycle, k-statistics, PID controller, system reliability

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102 Luminescent Enhancement with Morphology Controlled Gd2O3:Eu Phosphors

Authors: Ruby Priya, Om Parkash Pandey

Abstract:

Eu doped Gd₂O₃ phosphors are synthesized via co-precipitation method using ammonia as a precipitating agent. The concentration of the Eu was set as 4 mol% for all the samples. The effect of the surfactants (CTAB, PEG, and SDS) on the structural, morphological and luminescent properties has been studied in details. The as-synthesized phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction technique, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and photoluminescence technique. It was observed that the surfactants have not changed the crystal structure, but influenced the morphology of as-synthesized phosphors to a great extent. The as-synthesized phosphors are expected to be promising candidates for optoelectronic devices, biosensors, MRI contrast agents and various biomedical applications.

Keywords: co-precipitation, Europium, photoluminescence, surfactants

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
101 Structural and Luminescent Properties of EU Doped SrY₂O₄ Phosphors

Authors: Ruby Priya, O. P. Pandey

Abstract:

Herein, we report the structural and luminescent properties of undoped and Eu doped SrY₂O₄ phosphors. The phosphors are synthesized via the combustion synthesis route using glycine as a fuel. The structural, morphological, and optical characterizations are done via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescent (PL) techniques. The pure phase SrY₂O₄ is obtained at 1100℃, below which impure phases such as Y₂O₃ and SrO were dominant. All the phosphors are excited under UV excitation and exhibited intense emission around 611 nm, which is the typical transition of Eu ions. The phase formation of the synthesized phosphors is studied via analyzing XRD patterns. The as-synthesized phosphors find tremendous applications in optoelectronic devices, light-emitting diodes, and sensors.

Keywords: combustion, europium, glycine, luminescence

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100 Portrayal of Women in Television Advertisement

Authors: Priya Sarah Vijoy

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyze the Portrayal of women in Television Advertisements. This research study is conducted to analyze how women are portrayed in Television Advertisements. Advertising dates back to several hundreds of years. Right from the beginning, the seller wanted his goods to be sold and he used various techniques for achieving his objective. Advertisements have consistently confined women to traditional mother, home, or beauty/sex-oriented roles that are not representative of women’s diversity. Currently, in our society the television stereotyping of woman is the dominating forces in the media that degrade women and limit their representation. Thus the study analyzes how women are portrayed in Television advertisements and find whether roles of women in Television Advertisement are related to the product or not.

Keywords: advertising, stereotyping, television, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
99 Enhancement of Capacity in a MC-CDMA based Cognitive Radio Network Using Non-Cooperative Game Model

Authors: Kalyani Kulkarni, Bharat Chaudhari

Abstract:

This paper addresses the issue of resource allocation in the emerging cognitive technology. Focusing the quality of service (QoS) of primary users (PU), a novel method is proposed for the resource allocation of secondary users (SU). In this paper, we propose the unique utility function in the game theoretic model of Cognitive Radio which can be maximized to increase the capacity of the cognitive radio network (CRN) and to minimize the interference scenario. The utility function is formulated to cater the need of PUs by observing Signal to Noise ratio. The existence of Nash equilibrium is for the postulated game is established.

Keywords: cognitive networks, game theory, Nash equilibrium, resource allocation

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98 Video Stabilization Using Feature Point Matching

Authors: Shamsundar Kulkarni

Abstract:

Video capturing by non-professionals will lead to unanticipated effects. Such as image distortion, image blurring etc. Hence, many researchers study such drawbacks to enhance the quality of videos. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed to stabilize jittery videos .A stable output video will be attained without the effect of jitter which is caused due to shaking of handheld camera during video recording. Firstly, salient points from each frame from the input video are identified and processed followed by optimizing and stabilize the video. Optimization includes the quality of the video stabilization. This method has shown good result in terms of stabilization and it discarded distortion from the output videos recorded in different circumstances.

Keywords: video stabilization, point feature matching, salient points, image quality measurement

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97 Kirchhoff’s Depth Migration over Heterogeneous Velocity Models with Ray Tracing Modeling Approach

Authors: Alok Kumar Routa, Priya Ranjan Mohanty

Abstract:

Complex seismic signatures are generated due to the complexity of the subsurface which is difficult to interpret. In the present study, an attempt has been made to model the complex subsurface using the Ray tracing modeling technique. Add to this, for the imaging of these geological features, Kirchhoff’s prestack depth migration is applied over the synthetic common shot gather dataset. It is found that the Kirchhoff’s migration technique in addition with the Ray tracing modeling concept has the flexibility towards the imaging of various complex geology which gives satisfactory results with proper delineation of the reflectors at their respective true depth position. The entire work has been carried out under the MATLAB environment.

Keywords: Kirchhoff's migration, Prestack depth migration, Ray tracing modelling, velocity model

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
96 Ultrasound Assisted Extraction and Microwave Assisted Extraction of Carotenoids from Melon Shells

Authors: A. Brinda Lakshmi, J. Lakshmi Priya

Abstract:

Cantaloupes (muskmelon and watermelon) contain biologically active molecules such as carotenoids which are natural pigments used as food colorants and afford health benefits. ß-carotene is the major source of carotenoids present in muskmelon and watermelon shell. Carotenoids were extracted using Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) utilising organic lipophilic solvents such as acetone, methanol, and hexane. Extraction conditions feed-solvent ratio, microwave power, ultrasound frequency, temperature and particle size were varied and optimized. It was found that the yield of carotenoids was higher using UAE than MAE, and muskmelon had the highest yield of carotenoids when was ethanol used as a solvent for 0.5 mm particle size.

Keywords: carotenoids, extraction, muskmelon shell, watermelon shell

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95 Advanced Fuzzy Control for a Doubly Fed Induction Generator in Wind Energy Conversion Systems

Authors: Santhosh Kumat T., Priya E.

Abstract:

The control of a doubly fed induction generator by fuzzy is described. The active and reactive power can be controlled by rotor and grid side converters with fuzzy controller. The main objective is to maintain constant voltage and frequency at the output of the generator. However the Line Side Converter (LSC) can be controlled to supply up to 50% of the required reactive current. When the crowbar is not activated the DFIG can supply reactive power from the rotor side through the machine as well as through the LSC.

Keywords: Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG), Rotor Side Converter (RSC), Grid Side Converter (GSC), Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS)

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94 Design and Development of Automatic Onion Harvester

Authors: P. Revathi, T. Mrunalini, K. Padma Priya, P. Ramya, R. Saranya

Abstract:

During the tough times of covid, those people who were hospitalized found it difficult to always convey what they wanted to or needed to the attendee. Sometimes the attendees might also not be there. In that case, the patients can use simple hand gestures to control electrical appliances (like its set it for a zero watts bulb)and three other gestures for voice note intimation. In this AI-based hand recognition project, NodeMCU is used for the control action of the relay, and it is connected to the firebase for storing the value in the cloud and is interfaced with the python code via raspberry pi. For three hand gestures, a voice clip is added for intimation to the attendee. This is done with the help of Google’s text to speech and the inbuilt audio file option in the raspberry pi 4. All the 5 gestures will be detected when shown with their hands via a webcam which is placed for gesture detection. A personal computer is used for displaying the gestures and for running the code in the raspberry pi imager.

Keywords: onion harvesting, automatic pluging, camera, raspberry pi

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93 Pin Count Aware Volumetric Error Detection in Arbitrary Microfluidic Bio-Chip

Authors: Kunal Das, Priya Sengupta, Abhishek K. Singh

Abstract:

Pin assignment, scheduling, routing and error detection for arbitrary biochemical protocols in Digital Microfluidic Biochip have been reported in this paper. The research work is concentrating on pin assignment for 2 or 3 droplets routing in the arbitrary biochemical protocol, scheduling and routing in m × n biochip. The volumetric error arises due to droplet split in the biochip. The volumetric error detection is also addressed using biochip AND logic gate which is known as microfluidic AND or mAND gate. The algorithm for pin assignment for m × n biochip required m+n-1 numbers of pins. The basic principle of this algorithm is that no same pin will be allowed to be placed in the same column, same row and diagonal and adjacent cells. The same pin should be placed a distance apart such that interference becomes less. A case study also reported in this paper.

Keywords: digital microfludic biochip, cross-contamination, pin assignment, microfluidic AND gate

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
92 Synthesis and Performance Study of Co3O4 as a Bi-Functional Next Generation Material

Authors: Shrikaant Kulkarni, Akshata Naik Nimbalkar

Abstract:

In this worki a method protocol has been developed for the synthesis of innovative Co3O4 material by using a method of chemical synthesis followed by calcination. The effect of calcination temperature on the morphology, structure and catalytic performance on material in question is investigated by using characterization tools like scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. The SEM images reveal that the morphology of the Co3O4 material undergoes a change from the rod to a beadlike shape on calcination at temperature of 700 °C. The XRD image shows that although the morphology of synthesized Co3O4 material exhibits a cubic phase but it differs in crystallinity depending upon morphology. Similarly spherical beadlike Co3O4 material has exhibited better activity than its rodlike counterpart which is reflected from electrochemical findings. Further, its performance in terms of bifunctional nature and hlods a lot much of promise as a excellent electrode material in the next generation batteries and fuel cells.

Keywords: bifunctional, next generation material, Co3O4, XRD

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
91 Employee Branding: An Exploratory Study Applied to Nurses in an Organization

Authors: Pawan Hinge, Priya Gupta

Abstract:

Due to cutting edge competitions between organizations and war for talent, the workforce as an asset is gaining significance. The employees are considered as the brand ambassadors of an organization, and their interactions with the clients and customers might impact directly or indirectly on the overall value of the organization. Especially, organizations in the healthcare industry the value of an organization in the perception of their employees can be one of the revenue generating and talent retention strategy. In such context, it is essential to understand that the brand awareness among employees can effect on employer brand image and brand value since the brand ambassadors are the interface between organization and customers and clients. In this exploratory study, we have adopted both quantitative and qualitative approaches for data analysis. Our study shows existing variation among nurses working in different business units of the same organization in terms of their customer interface or interactions and brand awareness.

Keywords: brand awareness, brand image, brand value, customer interface

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90 Gender Identity in the Fashion Industry in 21st Century in India

Authors: Priya Sharma

Abstract:

As one think of fashion, the only things that come to mind are feminine activities such as acquiring high-end bags, clothing, and shoes. A person's personal style is defined by their clothing. Fashion been more feminine over the centuries, but the masculine identity has also dwindled. Fashion has an impact on social status, trends, and the socio-economic and political environment. The major focus of this study is on how the most prominent fast fashion businesses establish their gender identities in order to achieve industry legitimacy. A questionnaire survey was conducted to understand the people prospection. It also helps in understanding the different driving factors which contribute collectively from the Doman from social and economic norms across the different reign in India. A conceptual module was made which help to understand the future scope of fashion with respect to gender identity in India. The ways there feel to create their own personal style and their feelings and how fashion can make more confident and authentic in their minds.

Keywords: fashion, gender, identity, feminism, environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
89 Interactive Learning Practices for Class Room Teaching

Authors: Shamshuddin K., Nagaraj Vannal, Diwakar Kulkarni

Abstract:

This paper presents details of teaching and learning pedagogical techniques attempted for the undergraduate engineering program to improve the concentration span of students in a classroom. The details of activities such as valid statement, quiz competition, classroom paper, group work and product marketing to make the students remain active for the entire class duration and to improve presentation skills are presented. These activities shown tremendous improvement in student’s performance in academics, also in asking questions, concept understanding and interaction with the course instructor. With these pedagogical activities we are able to achieve Program outcome elements and ABET Program outcomes such as d, i, g and h which are difficult to achieve through the conventional teaching methods.

Keywords: activities, pedagogy, interactive learning, valid statement, quiz competition, classroom papers, group work, product marketing

Procedia PDF Downloads 530
88 A Review on Modeling and Optimization of Integration of Renewable Energy Resources (RER) for Minimum Energy Cost, Minimum CO₂ Emissions and Sustainable Development, in Recent Years

Authors: M. M. Wagh, V. V. Kulkarni

Abstract:

The rising economic activities, growing population and improving living standards of world have led to a steady growth in its appetite for quality and quantity of energy services. As the economy expands the electricity demand is going to grow further, increasing the challenges of the more generation and stresses on the utility grids. Appropriate energy model will help in proper utilization of the locally available renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass, small hydro etc. to integrate in the available grid, reducing the investments in energy infrastructure. Further to these new technologies like smart grids, decentralized energy planning, energy management practices, energy efficiency are emerging. In this paper, the attempt has been made to study and review the recent energy planning models, energy forecasting models, and renewable energy integration models. In addition, various modeling techniques and tools are reviewed and discussed.

Keywords: energy modeling, integration of renewable energy, energy modeling tools, energy modeling techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
87 Critical Analysis of Heat Exchanger Cycle for its Maintainability Using Failure Modes and Effect Analysis and Pareto Analysis

Authors: Sayali Vyas, Atharva Desai, Shreyas Badave, Apurv Kulkarni, B. Rajiv

Abstract:

The Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is an efficient evaluation technique to identify potential failures in products, processes, and services. FMEA is designed to identify and prioritize failure modes. It proves to be a useful method for identifying and correcting possible failures at its earliest possible level so that one can avoid consequences of poor performance. In this paper, FMEA tool is used in detection of failures of various components of heat exchanger cycle and to identify critical failures of the components which may hamper the system’s performance. Further, a detailed Pareto analysis is done to find out the most critical components of the cycle, the causes of its failures, and possible recommended actions. This paper can be used as a checklist which will help in maintainability of the system.

Keywords: FMEA, heat exchanger cycle, Ishikawa diagram, pareto analysis, RPN (Risk Priority Number)

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86 Estimation of PM2.5 Emissions and Source Apportionment Using Receptor and Dispersion Models

Authors: Swetha Priya Darshini Thammadi, Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Sanjay Kumar Shukla

Abstract:

Source apportionment using Dispersion model depends primarily on the quality of Emission Inventory. In the present study, a CMB receptor model has been used to identify the sources of PM2.5, while the AERMOD dispersion model has been used to account for missing sources of PM2.5 in the Emission Inventory. A statistical approach has been developed to quantify the missing sources not considered in the Emission Inventory. The inventory of each grid was improved by adjusting emissions based on road lengths and deficit in measured and modelled concentrations. The results showed that in CMB analyses, fugitive sources - soil and road dust - contribute significantly to ambient PM2.5 pollution. As a result, AERMOD significantly underestimated the ambient air concentration at most locations. The revised Emission Inventory showed a significant improvement in AERMOD performance which is evident through statistical tests.

Keywords: CMB, GIS, AERMOD, PM₂.₅, fugitive, emission inventory

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85 Removal of Aromatic Fractions of Natural Organic Matter from Synthetic Water Using Aluminium Based Electrocoagulation

Authors: Tanwi Priya, Brijesh Kumar Mishra

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Occurrence of aromatic fractions of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) led to formation of carcinogenic disinfection by products such as trihalomethanes in chlorinated water. In the present study, the efficiency of aluminium based electrocoagulation on the removal of prominent aromatic groups such as phenol, hydrophobic auxochromes, and carboxyl groups from NOM enriched synthetic water has been evaluated using various spectral indices. The effect of electrocoagulation on turbidity has also been discussed. The variation in coagulation performance as a function of pH has been studied. Our result suggests that electrocoagulation can be considered as appropriate remediation approach to reduce trihalomethanes formation in water. It has effectively reduced hydrophobic fractions from NOM enriched low turbid water. The charge neutralization and enmeshment of dispersed colloidal particles inside metallic hydroxides is the possible mechanistic approach in electrocoagulation.

Keywords: aromatic fractions, electrocoagulation, natural organic matter, spectral indices

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84 Protective Approach of Mentha Piperita against Cadmium Induced Renotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Baby Tabassum, Priya Bajaj

Abstract:

Cadmium is the second most hazardous heavy metal occurring in both elemental as well as compound forms. It is a highly toxic metal with a very high bio-concentration factor (BCF>100). WHO permitted groundwater cadmium concentration is 0.005 mg/L only, but reality is far away from this limit. A number of natural and anthropogenic industrial activities contribute to the spread of cadmium into the environment. The present study had been designated to find out the renal changes at functional level after cadmium intoxication and protection against these changes offered by Mentha piperata. For the purpose, albino rats were selected as the model organism. Cadmium significantly increases the serum level of serum proteins and nitrogenous wastes showing reduced filtration rate of kidneys. Pretreatment with Mentha piperata leaf extract causes significant retention of these levels to normalcy. These findings conclude that Cadmium exposure affects renal functioning but Mentha could prevent it, proving its nephro-protective potential against heavy metal toxicity.

Keywords: albino rat, cadmium, Mentha piperata, nephrotoxicity

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83 Adsorption of Reactive Dye Using Entrapped nZVI

Authors: P. Gomathi Priya, M. E. Thenmozhi

Abstract:

Iron nanoparticles were used to cleanup effluents. This paper involves synthesis of iron nanoparticles chemically by sodium borohydride reduction of ammonium ferrous sulfate solution (FAS). Iron oxide nanoparticles have lesser efficiency of adsorption than Zero Valent Iron nanoparticles (nZVI). Glucosamine acts as a stabilizing agent and chelating agent to prevent Iron nanoparticles from oxidation. nZVI particles were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thus, the synthesized nZVI was subjected to entrapment in biopolymer, viz. barium (Ba)-alginate beads. The beads were characterized using SEM. Batch dye degradation studies were conducted using Reactive black Water soluble Nontoxic Natural substances (WNN) dye which is one of the most hazardous dyes used in textile industries. Effect of contact time, effect of pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, isotherm and kinetic studies were carried out.

Keywords: ammonium ferrous sulfate solution, barium, alginate beads, reactive black WNN dye, zero valent iron nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
82 Performance Evaluation of Various Segmentation Techniques on MRI of Brain Tissue

Authors: U.V. Suryawanshi, S.S. Chowhan, U.V Kulkarni

Abstract:

Accuracy of segmentation methods is of great importance in brain image analysis. Tissue classification in Magnetic Resonance brain images (MRI) is an important issue in the analysis of several brain dementias. This paper portraits performance of segmentation techniques that are used on Brain MRI. A large variety of algorithms for segmentation of Brain MRI has been developed. The objective of this paper is to perform a segmentation process on MR images of the human brain, using Fuzzy c-means (FCM), Kernel based Fuzzy c-means clustering (KFCM), Spatial Fuzzy c-means (SFCM) and Improved Fuzzy c-means (IFCM). The review covers imaging modalities, MRI and methods for noise reduction and segmentation approaches. All methods are applied on MRI brain images which are degraded by salt-pepper noise demonstrate that the IFCM algorithm performs more robust to noise than the standard FCM algorithm. We conclude with a discussion on the trend of future research in brain segmentation and changing norms in IFCM for better results.

Keywords: image segmentation, preprocessing, MRI, FCM, KFCM, SFCM, IFCM

Procedia PDF Downloads 216