Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: Abhay Harsulkar

16 Potential Role of IL-1β in Synovial Fluid in Modulating Multiple Joint Tissue Pathologies Leading to Inflammation and Accelerating Cartilage Degeneration

Authors: Priya Kulkarni, Soumya Koppikar, Datta Shinde, Shantanu Deshpande, Narendrakumar Wagh, Abhay Harsulkar

Abstract:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with multiple and overlapping aetiologies. IL-1β is produced by stressed tissue and known to aggravate disease pathologies. We selected 10 patients with elevated IL-1β in their synovial fluids (SF). We hypothesized IL-1β as nodal-point connecting different pathologies. IL-1β was higher in all meniscal tear (MT) patients perhaps as the earliest response to injury. Since MT above age of 30 leads to OA in less than 5 years, it is attributed that IL-1β modulates OA pathology. Among all bilateral OA patients, an interesting case operated for Total-Knee-Replacement revealed differential cartilage degeneration demonstrating strong association with higher IL-1β. Symptoms like acute-pain, effusion and redness were correlated with higher IL-1β and NO (Nitric-oxide). However, higher IL-1β was also found without typical-inflammation characterized by infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages. Cultured synoviocytes responded to IL-1β by releasing NO. In conclusion, IL-1β in SF acquires central position influencing different OA pathologies and aetiologies.

Keywords: IL-1β, meniscal tear, osteoarthritis, synovial fluid

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15 Glycosaminoglycan, a Cartilage Erosion Marker in Synovial Fluid of Osteoarthritis Patients Strongly Correlates with WOMAC Function Subscale

Authors: Priya Kulkarni, Soumya Koppikar, Narendrakumar Wagh, Dhanshri Ingle, Onkar Lande, Abhay Harsulkar

Abstract:

Cartilage is an extracellular matrix composed of aggrecan, which imparts it with a great tensile strength, stiffness and resilience. Disruption in cartilage metabolism leading to progressive degeneration is a characteristic feature of Osteoarthritis (OA). The process involves enzymatic depolymerisation of cartilage specific proteoglycan, releasing free glycosaminoglycan (GAG). This released GAG in synovial fluid (SF) of knee joint serves as a direct measure of cartilage loss, however, limited due to its invasive nature. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) is widely used for assessing pain, stiffness and physical-functions in OA patients. The scale is comprised of three subscales namely, pain, stiffness and physical-function, intends to measure patient’s perspective of disease severity as well as efficacy of prescribed treatment. Twenty SF samples obtained from OA patients were analysed for their GAG values in SF using DMMB based assay. LK 1.0 vernacular version was used to attain WOMAC scale. The results were evaluated using SAS University software (Edition 1.0) for statistical significance. All OA patients revealed higher GAG values compared to the control value of 78.4±30.1µg/ml (obtained from our non-OA patients). Average WOMAC calculated was 51.3 while pain, stiffness and function estimated were 9.7, 3.9 and 37.7, respectively. Interestingly, a strong statistical correlation was established between WOMAC function subscale and GAG (p = 0.0102). This subscale is based on day-to-day activities like stair-use, bending, walking, getting in/out of car, rising from bed. However, pain and stiffness subscale did not show correlation with any of the studied markers and endorsed the atypical inflammation in OA pathology. On one side, where knee pain showed poor correlation with GAG, it is often noted that radiography is insensitive to cartilage degenerative changes; thus OA remains undiagnosed for long. Moreover, active cartilage degradation phase remains elusive to both, patient and clinician. Through analysis of large number of OA patients we have established a close association of Kellgren-Lawrence grades and increased cartilage loss. A direct attempt to correlate WOMAC and radiographic progression of OA with various biomarkers has not been attempted so far. We found a good correlation in GAG levels in SF and the function subscale.

Keywords: cartilage, Glycosaminoglycan, synovial fluid, western ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index

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14 A Comprehensive Analysis of LACK (Leishmania Homologue of Receptors for Activated C Kinase) in the Context of Visceral Leishmaniasis

Authors: Sukrat Sinha, Abhay Kumar, Shanthy Sundaram

Abstract:

The Leishmania homologue of activated C kinase (LACK) is known T cell epitope from soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) that confers protection against Leishmania challenge. This antigen has been found to be highly conserved among Leishmania strains. LACK has been shown to be protective against L. donovani challenge. A comprehensive analysis of several LACK sequences was completed. The analysis shows a high level of conservation, lower variability and higher antigenicity in specific portions of the LACK protein. This information provides insights for the potential consideration of LACK as a putative candidate in the context of visceral Leishmaniasis vaccine target.

Keywords: bioinformatics, genome assembly, leishmania activated protein kinase c (lack), next-generation sequencing

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13 Understanding the Selectional Preferences of the Twitter Mentions Network

Authors: R. Sudhesh Solomon, P. Y. K. L. Srinivas, Abhay Narayan, Amitava Das

Abstract:

Users in social networks either unicast or broadcast their messages. At mention is the popular way of unicasting for Twitter whereas general tweeting could be considered as broadcasting method. Understanding the information flow and dynamics within a Social Network and modeling the same is a promising and an open research area called Information Diffusion. This paper seeks an answer to a fundamental question - understanding if the at-mention network or the unicasting pattern in social media is purely random in nature or is there any user specific selectional preference? To answer the question we present an empirical analysis to understand the sociological aspects of Twitter mentions network within a social network community. To understand the sociological behavior we analyze the values (Schwartz model: Achievement, Benevolence, Conformity, Hedonism, Power, Security, Self-Direction, Stimulation, Traditional and Universalism) of all the users. Empirical results suggest that values traits are indeed salient cue to understand how the mention-based communication network functions. For example, we notice that individuals possessing similar values unicast among themselves more often than with other value type people. We also observe that traditional and self-directed people do not maintain very close relationship in the network with the people of different values traits.

Keywords: information diffusion, personality and values, social network analysis, twitter mentions network

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12 Antioxidant Status in Synovial Fluid from Osteoarthritis Patients: A Pilot Study in Indian Demography

Authors: S. Koppikar, P. Kulkarni, D. Ingale , N. Wagh, S. Deshpande, A. Mahajan, A. Harsulkar

Abstract:

Crucial role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the progression Osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis has been endorsed several times though its exact mechanism remains unclear. Oxidative stress is known to instigate classical stress factors such as cytokines, chemokines and ROS, which hampers cartilage remodelling process and ultimately results in worsening the disease. Synovial fluid (SF) is a biological communicator between cartilage and synovium that accumulates redox and biochemical signalling mediators. The present work attempts to measure several oxidative stress markers in the synovial fluid obtained from knee OA patients with varying degree of disease severity. Thirty OA and five Meniscal-tear (MT) patients were graded using Kellgren-Lawrence scale and assessed for Nitric oxide (NO), Nitrate-Nitrite (NN), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels for comparison. Out of various oxidative markers studied, NO and SOD showed significant difference between moderate and severe OA (p= 0.007 and p= 0.08, respectively), whereas CAT demonstrated significant difference between MT and mild group (p= 0.07). Interestingly, NN revealed statistically positive correlation with OA severity (p= 0.001 and p= 0.003). MDA, a lipid peroxidation by-product was estimated maximum in early OA when compared to MT (p= 0.06). However, FRAP did not show any correlation with OA severity or MT control. NO is an essential bio-regulatory molecule essential for several physiological processes, and inflammatory conditions. However, due to its short life, exact estimation of NO becomes difficult. NO and its measurable stable products are still it is considered as one of the important biomarker of oxidative damage. Levels of NO and nitrite-nitrate in SF of patients with OA indicated its involvement in the disease progression. When SF groups were compared, a significant correlation among moderate, mild and MT groups was established. To summarize, present data illustrated higher levels of NO, SOD, CAT, DPPH and MDA in early OA in comparison with MT, as a control group. NN had emerged as a prognostic bio marker in knee OA patients, which may act as futuristic targets in OA treatment.

Keywords: antioxidant, knee osteoarthritis, oxidative stress, synovial fluid

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11 Formulation Development and Characterization of Oligonucleotide Containing Chitosan Nanoparticles

Authors: Gyati Shilakari Asthana, Abhay Asthana

Abstract:

Purpose: The therapeutic potential of oligonucleotide (ODN) is primarily dependent upon its safe and efficient delivery to specific cells overcoming degradation and maximizing cellular uptake in vivo. The present study is focused to design low molecular weight chitosan nanoconstructs to meet the requirements of safe and effectual delivery of ODNs. LMW-chitosan is a biodegradable, water soluble, biocompatible polymer and is useful as a non-viral vector for gene delivery due to its better stability in water. Methods: LMW chitosan ODN nanoparticles (CHODN NPs) were formulated by self assembled method using various N/P ratios (moles ratio of amine groups of CH to phosphate moieties of ODNs; 0.5:1, 1:1, 3:1, 5:1 and 7:1) of CH to ODN. The developed CHODN NPs were evaluated with respect to gel retardation assay, particle size, zeta potential and cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency. Results: Complete complexation of CH/ODN was achieved at the charge ratio of 0.5:1 or above and CHODN NPs displayed resistance against DNase I. On increasing the N/P ratio of CH/ODN, particle size of the NPs decreased whereas zeta potential (ZV) value increased. No significant toxicity was observed at all CH concentrations. The transfection efficiency was increased on increasing N/P ratio from 1:1 to 3:1, whereas it was decreased with further increment in N/P ratio upto 7:1. Maximum transfection of CHODN NPs with both the cell lines (Raw 267.4 cells and Hela cells) was achieved at N/P ratio of 3:1. The results suggest that transfection efficiency of CHODN NPs is dependent on N/P ratio. Conclusion: Thus the present study states that LMW chitosan nanoparticulate carriers would be acceptable choice to improve transfection efficiency in vitro as well as in vivo delivery of oligonucleotide.

Keywords: LMW-chitosan, chitosan nanoparticles, biocompatibility, cytotoxicity study, transfection efficiency, oligonucleotide

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10 Failure of Cable Reel Flat Spring of Crane: Beyond Fatigue Life Use

Authors: Urbi Pal, Piyas Palit, Jitendra Mathur, Abhay Chaturvedi, Sandip Bhattacharya

Abstract:

The hot rolled slab lifting crane cable reel drum (CRD) failed due to failure of cable reel flat spring which are inside the cassette of CRD. CRD is used for the movement of tong cable. Stereoscopic observation revealed beach marks and Scanning Electron Microscopy showed striations confirming fatigue mode of failure. Chemical composition should be spring steel (Cr-Mo-V) as per IS 3431:1982 instead of C-Mn steel. To find out the reason of fatigue failure, the theoretical fatigue life of flat spiral spring has been calculated. The calculation of number of fatigue cycles included bending moment, maximum stress on the spring, ultimate tensile strength and alternative stress. The bending moment determination has been taken account with various parameters like Young’s Modulus, width, thickness, outer diameter, arbor diameter, pay out the length and angular deflection in rotations. With all the required data, the calculated fatigue life turned to be 10000 cycles, but the spring served 15000 cycles which clearly indicated beyond fatigue life usage. Different UTS values have been plotted with respect to the number of fatigue cycles and clearly showed that the increase in UTS by 40% increases fatigue life by 50%. The significance of higher UTS lied here, and higher UTS depends on modified chemistry with proper tempered martensite microstructure. This kind of failure can be easily avoided by changing the crane spring maintenance schedule from 2 years to 1.5 years considering 600 cycles per month. The plant has changed changing the schedule of cable reel spring and procured new flat reel spring made of 50CrV2 steel.

Keywords: cable reel spring, fatigue life, stress, spring steel

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9 Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan Nanoparticles for Delivery of Oligonucleotides

Authors: Gyati Shilakari Asthana, Abhay Asthana, Dharm Veer Kohli, Suresh Prasad Vyas

Abstract:

Purpose: The therapeutic potential of oligonucleotide (ODN) is primarily dependent upon its safe and efficient delivery to specific cells overcoming degradation and maximizing cellular uptake in vivo. The present study is focused to design low molecular weight chitosan nanoconstructs to meet the requirements of safe and effectual delivery of ODNs. LMW-chitosan is a biodegradable, water soluble, biocompatible polymer and is useful as a non-viral vector for gene delivery due to its better stability in water. Methods: LMW chitosan ODN nanoparticles (CHODN NPs) were formulated by self-assembled method using various N/P ratios (moles ratio of amine groups of CH to phosphate moieties of ODNs; 0.5:1, 1:1, 3:1, 5:1, and 7:1) of CH to ODN. The developed CHODN NPs were evaluated with respect to gel retardation assay, particle size, zeta potential and cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency. Results: Complete complexation of CH/ODN was achieved at the charge ratio of 0.5:1 or above and CHODN NPs displayed resistance against DNase I. On increasing the N/P ratio of CH/ODN, the particle size of the NPs decreased whereas zeta potential (ZV) value increased. No significant toxicity was observed at all CH concentrations. The transfection efficiency was increased on increasing N/P ratio from 1:1 to 3:1, whereas it was decreased with further increment in N/P ratio upto 7:1. Maximum transfection of CHODN NPs with both the cell lines (Raw 267.4 cells and Hela cells) was achieved at N/P ratio of 3:1. The results suggest that transfection efficiency of CHODN NPs is dependent on N/P ratio. Conclusion: Thus the present study states that LMW chitosan nanoparticulate carriers would be acceptable choice to improve transfection efficiency in vitro as well as in vivo delivery of oligonucleotide.

Keywords: LMW-chitosan, chitosan nanoparticles, biocompatibility, cytotoxicity study, transfection efficiency, oligonucleotide

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8 Novel Wound Healing Biodegradable Patch of Bioactive

Authors: Abhay Asthana, Shally Toshkhani, Gyati Shilakari

Abstract:

The present research was aimed to develop a biodegradable dermal patch formulation for wound healing in a novel, sustained and systematic manner. The goal is to reduce the frequency of dressings with improved drug delivery and thereby enhance therapeutic performance. In present study optimized formulation was designed using component polymers and excipients (e.g. Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, Ethylcellulose, and Gelatin) to impart significant folding endurance, elasticity and strength. Gelatin was used to get a mixture using ethylene glycol. Chitosan dissolved in suitable medium was mixed with stirring to gelatin mixture. With continued stirring to the mixture Curcumin was added in optimized ratio to get homogeneous dispersion. Polymers were dispersed with stirring in final formulation. The mixture was sonicated casted to get the film form. All steps were carried out under under strict aseptic conditions. The final formulation was a thin uniformly smooth textured film with dark brown-yellow color. The film was found to have folding endurance was around 20 to 21 times without a crack in an optimized formulation at RT (23C). The drug content was in range 96 to 102% and it passed the content uniform test. The final moisture content of the optimized formulation film was NMT 9.0%. The films passed stability study conducted at refrigerated conditions (4±0.2C) and at room temperature (23 ± 2C) for 30 days. Further, the drug content and texture remained undisturbed with stability study conducted at RT 23±2C for 45 and 90 days. Percentage cumulative drug release was found to be 80% in 12 h and matched the biodegradation rate as drug release with correlation factor R2 > 0.9. The film based formulation developed shows promising results in terms of stability and release profiles.

Keywords: biodegradable, patch, bioactive, polymer

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7 The Ethical Healthcare Paradigm with in Corporate Framework: CSR for Equitable Access to Drugs

Authors: Abhay Vir Singh Kanwar

Abstract:

The pharmaceutical industry today is a multi-billion dollar business and yet disadvantages people in many corners of the globe who are still dying in large numbers from curable illnesses for lack of access to drugs. The astronomical prices of essential and life-saving drugs is not just an economic problem that can be settled through clever market strategies but is an ethical issue, given the accumulated wealth of today’s humanity and the sense of global justice that it increasingly comes to share. In this paper, I make a very practical argument for what I shall call ‘the ethical healthcare paradigm’, which, I propose, can replace the economistic paradigm that can still drive the healthcare sector without creating spillover effects on the market. Taking off from the ethical-philosophical argument for recognizing every individual’s right to capability to be healthy, I shall come to the focused practical proposal of the cost-rationalization and universal availability of essential, life-saving drugs through the undertaking of research and development funding for drug innovation by the business establishment as such in terms of the concept of CSR. The paper will first expose the concepts of basic and fundamental capabilities in relation to education and health, after which it will focus on the right to capability to be healthy of every person. In the third section, it will discuss the ‘ethical healthcare paradigm’ as opposed to the economistic health paradigm and will argue that the patient will have to be considered the primary stakeholder of this paradigm or the very ‘subject’ of healthcare. The next section will be on an ethical-historical critique of the pharmaceutical industry’s profit driven economism. The section after that will look at the business operation and the stages in the life cycle of a drug that comes to the market in order to understand the risks, strengths and problems of the pharmaceutical industry. Finally, the paper will discuss the concept of CSR in relation to the ethical healthcare paradigm in order to propose CSR funding in research and development for innovation on drugs so that life-saving drugs can be made available to every sick person cost-effectively.

Keywords: capability approach, healthcare, CSR, patient

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6 Polymeric Micelles Based on Block Copolymer α-Tocopherol Succinate-g-Carboxymethyl Chitosan for Tamoxifen Delivery

Authors: Sunil K. Jena, Sanjaya K. Samal, Mahesh Chand, Abhay T. Sangamwar

Abstract:

Tamoxifen (TMX) and its analogues are approved as a first line therapy for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive tumors. However, clinical development of TMX has been hampered by its low bioavailability and severe hepatotoxicity. Herein, we attempt to design a new drug delivery vehicle that could enhance the pharmacokinetic performance of TMX. Initially, high-molecular weight carboxymethyl chitosan was hydrolyzed to low-molecular weight carboxymethyl chitosan (LMW CMC) with hydrogen peroxide under the catalysis of phosphotungstic acid. Amphiphilic block copolymers of LMW CMC were synthesized via amidation reaction between the carboxyl group of α-tocopherol succinate (TS) and an amine group of LMW CMC. These amphiphilic block copolymers were self-assembled to nanosize core-shell-structural micelles in the aqueous medium. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) decreased with the increasing substitution of TS on LMW CMC, which ranged from 1.58 × 10-6 to 7.94 × 10-8 g/mL. Maximum TMX loading up to 8.08 ± 0.98% was achieved with Cmc-TS4.5 (TMX/Cmc-TS4.5 with 1:8 weight ratio). Both blank and TMX-loaded polymeric micelles (TMX-PM) of Cmc-TS4.5 exhibits spherical shape with the particle size below 200 nm. TMX-PM has been found to be stable in the gastrointestinal conditions and released only 44.5% of the total drug content by the first 72 h in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), pH 1.2. However, the presence of pepsin does not significantly increased the TMX release in SGF, pH 1.2, released only about 46.2% by the first 72 h suggesting its inability to cleave the peptide bond. In contrast, the release of TMX from TMX-PM4.5 in SIF, pH 6.8 (without pancreatin) was slow and sustained, released only about 10.43% of the total drug content within the first 30 min and nearly about 12.41% by the first 72 h. The presence of pancreatin in SIF, pH 6.8 led to an improvement in drug release. About 28.09% of incorporated TMX was released in the presence of pancreatin in 72 h. A cytotoxicity study demonstrated that TMX-PM exhibited time-delayed cytotoxicity in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Pharmacokinetic studies on Sprague-Dawley rats revealed a remarkable increase in oral bioavailability (1.87-fold) with significant (p < 0.0001) enhancement in AUC0-72 h, t1/2 and MRT of TMX-PM4.5 than that of TMX-suspension. Thus, the results suggested that CMC-TS micelles are a promising carrier for TMX delivery.

Keywords: carboxymethyl chitosan, d-α-tocopherol succinate, pharmacokinetic, polymeric micelles, tamoxifen

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5 Synthesis and Two-Photon Polymerization of a Cytocompatibility Tyramine Functionalized Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel That Mimics the Chemical, Mechanical, and Structural Characteristics of Spinal Cord Tissue

Authors: James Britton, Vijaya Krishna, Manus Biggs, Abhay Pandit

Abstract:

Regeneration of the spinal cord after injury remains a great challenge due to the complexity of this organ. Inflammation and gliosis at the injury site hinder the outgrowth of axons and hence prevent synaptic reconnection and reinnervation. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is the main component of the spinal cord extracellular matrix and plays a vital role in cell proliferation and axonal guidance. In this study, we have synthesized and characterized a photo-cross-linkable HA-tyramine (tyr) hydrogel from a chemical, mechanical, electrical, biological and structural perspective. From our experimentation, we have found that HA-tyr can be synthesized with controllable degrees of tyramine substitution using click chemistry. The complex modulus (G*) of HA-tyr can be tuned to mimic the mechanical properties of the native spinal cord via optimization of the photo-initiator concentration and UV exposure. We have examined the degree of tyramine-tyramine covalent bonding (polymerization) as a function of UV exposure and photo-initiator use via Photo and Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both swelling and enzymatic degradation assays were conducted to examine the resilience of our 3D printed hydrogel constructs in-vitro. Using a femtosecond 780nm laser, the two-photon polymerization of HA-tyr hydrogel in the presence of riboflavin photoinitiator was optimized. A laser power of 50mW and scan speed of 30,000 μm/s produced high-resolution spatial patterning within the hydrogel with sustained mechanical integrity. Using dorsal root ganglion explants, the cytocompatibility of photo-crosslinked HA-tyr was assessed. Using potentiometry, the electrical conductivity of photo-crosslinked HA-tyr was assessed and compared to that of native spinal cord tissue as a function of frequency. In conclusion, we have developed a biocompatible hydrogel that can be used for photolithographic 3D printing to fabricate tissue engineered constructs for neural tissue regeneration applications.

Keywords: 3D printing, hyaluronic acid, photolithography, spinal cord injury

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4 Development of Biodegradable Wound Healing Patch of Curcumin

Authors: Abhay Asthana, Shally Toshkhani, Gyati Shilakari

Abstract:

The objective of the present research work is to develop a topical biodegradable dermal patch based formulation to aid accelerated wound healing. It is always better for patient compliance to be able to reduce the frequency of dressings with improved drug delivery and overall therapeutic efficacy. In present study optimized formulation using biodegradable components was obtained evaluating polymers and excipients (HPMC K4M, Ethylcellulose, Povidone, Polyethylene glycol and Gelatin) to impart significant folding endurance, elasticity, and strength. Molten gelatin was used to get a mixture using ethylene glycol. Chitosan dissolved in acidic medium was mixed with stirring to Gelatin mixture. With continued stirring to the mixture Curcumin was added with the aid of DCM and Methanol in an optimized ratio of 60:40 to get homogenous dispersion. Polymers were dispersed with stirring in the final formulation. The mixture was sonicated casted to get the film form. All steps were carried out under strict aseptic conditions. The final formulation was a thin uniformly smooth textured film with dark brown-yellow color. The film was found to have folding endurance was around 20 to 21 times without a crack in an optimized formulation at RT (23°C). The drug content was in range 96 to 102% and it passed the content uniform test. The final moisture content of the optimized formulation film was NMT 9.0%. The films passed stability study conducted at refrigerated conditions (4±0.2°C) and at room temperature (23 ± 2°C) for 30 days. Further, the drug content and texture remained undisturbed with stability study conducted at RT 23±2°C for 45 and 90 days. Percentage cumulative drug release was found to be 80% in 12h and matched the biodegradation rate as tested in vivo with correlation factor R2>0.9. In in vivo study administration of one dose in equivalent quantity per 2 days was applied topically. The data demonstrated a significant improvement with percentage wound contraction in contrast to control and plain drug respectively in given period. The film based formulation developed shows promising results in terms of stability and in vivo performance.

Keywords: wound healing, biodegradable, polymers, patch

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3 Polymeric Sustained Biodegradable Patch Formulation for Wound Healing

Authors: Abhay Asthana, Gyati Shilakari Asthana

Abstract:

It’s the patient compliance and stability in combination with controlled drug delivery and biocompatibility that forms the core feature in present research and development of sustained biodegradable patch formulation intended for wound healing. The aim was to impart sustained degradation, sterile formulation, significant folding endurance, elasticity, biodegradability, bio-acceptability and strength. The optimized formulation was developed using component including polymers including Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, Ethylcellulose, and Gelatin, and Citric Acid PEG Citric acid (CPEGC) triblock dendrimers and active Curcumin. Polymeric mixture dissolved in geometric order in suitable medium through continuous stirring under ambient conditions. With continued stirring Curcumin was added with aid of DCM and Methanol in optimized ratio to get homogenous dispersion. The dispersion was sonicated with optimum frequency and for given time and later casted to form a patch form. All steps were carried out under under strict aseptic conditions. The formulations obtained in the acceptable working range were decided based on thickness, uniformity of drug content, smooth texture and flexibility and brittleness. The patch kept on stability using butter paper in sterile pack displayed folding endurance in range of 20 to 23 times without any evidence of crack in an optimized formulation at room temperature (RT) (24 ± 2°C). The patch displayed acceptable parameters after stability study conducted in refrigerated conditions (8±0.2°C) and at RT (24 ± 2°C) upto 90 days. Further, no significant changes were observed in critical parameters such as elasticity, biodegradability, drug release and drug content during stability study conducted at RT 24±2°C for 45 and 90 days. The drug content was in range 95 to 102%, moisture content didn’t exceeded 19.2% and patch passed the content uniformity test. Percentage cumulative drug release was found to be 80% in 12h and matched the biodegradation rate as drug release with correlation factor R2>0.9. The biodegradable patch based formulation developed shows promising results in terms of stability and release profiles.

Keywords: sustained biodegradation, wound healing, polymers, stability

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2 Identification of Suitable Sites for Rainwater Harvesting in Salt Water Intruded Area by Using Geospatial Techniques in Jafrabad, Amreli District, India

Authors: Pandurang Balwant, Ashutosh Mishra, Jyothi V., Abhay Soni, Padmakar C., Rafat Quamar, Ramesh J.

Abstract:

The sea water intrusion in the coastal aquifers has become one of the major environmental concerns. Although, it is a natural phenomenon but, it can be induced with anthropogenic activities like excessive exploitation of groundwater, seacoast mining, etc. The geological and hydrogeological conditions including groundwater heads and groundwater pumping pattern in the coastal areas also influence the magnitude of seawater intrusion. However, this problem can be remediated by taking some preventive measures like rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge. The present study is an attempt to identify suitable sites for rainwater harvesting in salt intrusion affected area near coastal aquifer of Jafrabad town, Amreli district, Gujrat, India. The physico-chemical water quality results show that out of 25 groundwater samples collected from the study area most of samples were found to contain high concentration of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with major fractions of Na and Cl ions. The Cl/HCO3 ratio was also found greater than 1 which indicates the salt water contamination in the study area. The geophysical survey was conducted at nine sites within the study area to explore the extent of contamination of sea water. From the inverted resistivity sections, low resistivity zone (<3 Ohm m) associated with seawater contamination were demarcated in North block pit and south block pit of NCJW mines, Mitiyala village Lotpur and Lunsapur village at the depth of 33 m, 12 m, 40 m, 37 m, 24 m respectively. Geospatial techniques in combination of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) considering hydrogeological factors, geographical features, drainage pattern, water quality and geophysical results for the study area were exploited to identify potential zones for the Rainwater Harvesting. Rainwater harvesting suitability model was developed in ArcGIS 10.1 software and Rainwater harvesting suitability map for the study area was generated. AHP in combination of the weighted overlay analysis is an appropriate method to identify rainwater harvesting potential zones. The suitability map can be further utilized as a guidance map for the development of rainwater harvesting infrastructures in the study area for either artificial groundwater recharge facilities or for direct use of harvested rainwater.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, groundwater quality, rainwater harvesting, seawater intrusion

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1 Formulation and Characterization of Antimicrobial Herbal Mouthwash from Some Herbal Extracts for Treatment of Periodontal Diseases

Authors: Reenu Yadav, Abhay Asthana, S. K. Yadav

Abstract:

Purpose: The aim of the present work was to develop an oral gel for brushing with an antimicrobial activity which will cure/protect from various periodontal diseases such as periodontitis, gingivitis, and pyorrhea. Methods: Plant materials procured from local suppliers, extracted and standardized. Screening of antimicrobial activity was carried out with the help of disk diffusion method. The gel was formulated by dried extracts of Beautea monosperma and Cordia obliquus. Gels were evaluated on various parameters and standardization of the formulation was performed. The release of drugs was studied in pH 6.8 using a mastication device.Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride method, and stability studies were performed (40°C and RH 75% ± 5% for 90 days) to assess the effect of temperature and humidity on the concentration of phenolic and flavonoid contents. The results of accelerated stability conditions were compared with that of samples kept at controlled conditions (RT). The control samples were kept at room temperature (25°C, 35% RH for 180 days). Results: Results are encouraging; extracts possess significant antimicrobial activity at very low concentration (15µg/disc, 20µg/disc and 15 µg/ disc) on oral pathogenic bacteria. The formulation has optimal characteristics, as well as has a pleasant appearance, fragrance, texture, and taste, is highly acceptable by the volunteers. The diffusion coefficient values ranged from 0.6655 to 0.9164. Since the R values of korsmayer papas were close to 1, Drug release from formulation follows matrix diffusion kinetics. Hence, diffusion was the mechanism of the drug release. Formulation follows non-Fickian transport mechanism. Most Formulations released 50 % of their contents within 25-30 minutes. Results obtained from the accelerated stability studies are indicative of a slight reduction in flavonoids and phenolic contents with time on long time storage. When measured degradation under ambient conditions, degradation was significantly lower than in accelerated stability study. Conclusion: Plant extracts possess compounds with antimicrobial properties can be used as. Developed formulation will cure/protect from various periodontal diseases. Further development and evaluations oral gel including the isolated compounds on the commercial scale and their clinical and toxicological studies are the future challenges.

Keywords: herbal gel, dental care, ambient conditions, commercial scale

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