Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9341

Search results for: physical characteristics

9341 Physicochemical Characteristics of Rice Starch Chainat 1 Variety by Physical Modification

Authors: Orose Rugchati, Sarawut Wattanawongpitak


The Chainat 1 variety (CN1) of rice, which generally has high amylose starch, is distributed in the lower part of Northern Thailand. CN1 rice starch can be used in both food and non-food products. In this research, the CN1 rice starch from the wet-milling process was prepared by Pre-Gelatinization (Heat-Moisture Treatments, HMT) under different conditions: percentage of moisture contents (20% and 30%) and duration time in minutes (0, 30, 60, and 90) at a specific temperature 110°C. The physicochemical characteristics of CN1 rice starch modification, such as amylose content, viscosity, swelling, and solubility property, were evaluated and compared with native CN1 rice starch. The results showed that modification CN1 rice starch tends to have some characteristics better than native starch. The appearance color and starch granule of modified CN1 by HMT have more effective characteristics than native starch when increased duration time. The duration time and moisture content are significant factors to the CN1 starch characteristic by HMT. Moreover, physical modification of CN1 starch by HMT can be described as a modified rice starch providing in many applications and the advantage of biodegradability development.

Keywords: physicochemical characteristics, physical modification, pre-gelatinization, Heat-Moisture Treatments, rice starch, Chainat 1 variety (CN1)

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9340 Discrimination during a Resume Audit: The Impact of Job Context in Hiring

Authors: Alexandra Roy


Building on literature on cognitive matching and social categorization and using the correspondence testing method, we test the interaction effect of person characteristics (Gender with physical attractiveness) and job context (client contact, industry status, coworker contact). As expected, while findings show a strong impact of gender with beauty on hiring chances, job context characteristics have also a significant overall effect of this hiring outcome. Moreover, the rate of positive responses varies according some of the recruiter’s characteristics. Results are robust to various sensitivity checks. Implications of the results, limitations of the study, and directions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: correspondence testing, discrimination, hiring, physical attractiveness

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9339 Comparison of Numerical Results of Lambda Wing under Different Turbulence Models and Wall Y+

Authors: Hsien Hao Teng


This study uses numerical simulation to analyze the aerodynamic characteristics of the 53-degree Lambda wing with a sweep angle and mainly discusses the numerical simulation results and physical characteristics of the wall y+. Use the commercial software Fluent to execute Mach number 0.15; when the angle of attack attitude is between 0 degrees and 27 degrees, the physical characteristics of the overall aerodynamic force are analyzed, especially when the fluid separation and vortex structure changes are discussed under the condition of high angle of attack, it will affect The instability of pitching moment. In the numerical calculation, the use of wall y+ and turbulence model will affect the prediction of vortex generation and the difference in structure. The analysis results are compared with experimental data to discuss the trend of the aerodynamic characteristics of the Lambda wing.

Keywords: lambda wing, wall function, turbulence model, computational fluid dynamics

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9338 Physical Characteristics of Locally Composts Produced in Saudi Arabia and the Need for Regulations

Authors: Ahmad Al-Turki


Composting is the suitable way of recycling organic waste for agricultural application and environment protection. In Saudi Arabia, several composting facilities are available and producing high quantity of composts. The aim of this study is to evaluate the physical characteristics of composts manufactured in Saudi Arabia and acquire a comprehensive image of its quality through the comparative with international standards of compost quality such as CCQC and PAS-100. In the present study different locally produced compost were identified and most of the producing factories were visited during the manufacturing of composts. Representative samples of different compost production stage were collected and Physical characteristics were determined, which included moisture content, bulk density, percentage of sand and the size of distribution of the compost particles. Results showed wide variations in all parameters investigated. Results of the study indicated generally that there is a wide variation in the physical characteristics of the types of compost under study. The initial moister contents in composts were generally low, it was less than 60% in most samples and not sufficient for microbial activities for biodegradation in 96% of the 96% of the types of compost and this will impede the decomposition of organic materials. The initial bulk density values ranged from 117 gL-1 to 1110.0 gL-1, while the final apparent bulk density ranged from 340.0 gL-1 to 1000gL-1 and about 45.4 % did not meet the ideal bulk density value. Sand percents in composts were between 3.3 % and 12.5%. This study has confirmed the need for a standard specification for compost manufactured in Saudi Arabia for agricultural use based on international standards for compost and soil characteristics and climatic conditions in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: compost, maturity, Saudi Arabia, organic material

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9337 Characteristics of Rectus Femoris and Physical Performance Between Adults and Elderly

Authors: Sudarat Apibantaweesakul, Poonyanat Nualon, Piyasiri Ngamsangiam, Vinitha Puengtanom, Plaiwan Suttanon


The rectus femoris (RF) is important as a biomarker for physical disability and capacity related to age decline. Sarcopenia in elderly people is typically defined with essential criteria of low muscle mass, low muscle strength, and poor physical performance. Characteristics of muscle ultrasound image provide the qualitative and quantitative features of muscle, including muscle thickness (MT), cross-sectional area (CSA), echo intensity (EI) for early diagnosis of sarcopenia. Understanding the coverage of RF morphological characteristics and physical performance from young adults to older people may gain a better understanding of degenerative change. The present study aimed to examine RF characteristics and physical performance changes induced by the advanced age. The study employed a cross-sectional design. A total of 45 healthy participants were recruited to the study (30 adults and 15 elderly). The RF morphological characteristics, including MT, CSA, and EI, were measured using a B-mode ultrasonographic apparatus (Toshiba, Xario 100 MX EDITION). Physical performances, including knee extension strength (KES), five times sit to stand test (FTSST), and timed up and go test (TUG) also assessed. Then statistical analyses for correlation analyses and comparisons among groups were performed. Body height, RF size (thickness and cross-sectional area), and KES were negatively correlated with age. While EI, FTSST, and TUG were positively correlated with age. Body mass showed a positive association with RF size (MT and CSA) and KES. The correlation between MT and CSA was found in RF. Additionally, MT and CSA were negatively correlated with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), EI, FTSST, and TUG, while positive correlations between RF size and KES were found. For comparison results, there were significant differences of body height; RF morphological characteristics (including normalized MT and CSA, and EI); normalized KES; and physical performance (FTSST, and TUG) between young adults and elderly. These parameters were found to be significantly decreased in the elderly than young adults except EI. Age-related RF morphological features and physical performances could represent the degenerative changes in the elderly. These findings supported that body mass is a crucial body dimension parameter for the normalization of RF size and its strength. Moreover, subcutaneous adipose tissue should be considered for declining RF size with Increasing age. These could help for monitoring health and performance as well as for emphasizing the related RF exercise in the elderly.

Keywords: aging, echo intensity, physical performance, ultrasonography

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9336 Mechanical and Physical Properties of Various Types of Dental Floss

Authors: Supanitayanon Lalita, Dechkunakorn Surachai, Anuwongnukroh Niwat, Srikhirin Toemsak, Roongrujimek Pitchaya, Tua-Ngam Peerapong


Objective: To compare maximum load, percentage of elongation, physical characteristics of 4 types of dental floss: (1) Thai Silk Floss (silk, waxed), (2) Oral B® Essential Floss (nylon, waxed), (3) Experimental Floss Xu (nylon, unwaxed), (4) Experimental Floss Xw (nylon, waxed). Materials & method: Four types of floss were tested (n=30) with a Universal Testing Machine (Instron®). Each sample (30 cm long, 5 cm segment) was fixed, and pulled apart with load cell of 100 N and a test speed of 100 mm/min. Physical characteristics were investigated by digital microscope under 2.5×10 magnification, and scanning electron microscope under 1×100 and 5×100 magnification. The size of the filaments was measured in micron (μm) and the fineness were measured in Denier. Statistical analysis: For mechanical properties, the maximum load and the percentage of elongation were presented as mean ± SD. The distribution of the data was calculated by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. One-way ANOVA and multiple comparison (Tukey HSD) were used to analyze the differences among the groups with the level of a statistical difference at p < 0.05. Results: The maximum load of Floss Xu, Floss Xw, Oral B and Thai Silk were 47.39, 46.46, 25.38, and 23.70 N, respectively. The percentage of elongation of Oral B, Floss Xw, Floss Xu and Thai Silk were 72.43, 44.62, 31.25, and 16.44%, respectively. All 4 types of dental floss showed statistically differences in both the maximum load and percentage of elongation at p < 0.05, except for maximum load between Floss Xw and Floss Xu that showed no statistically significant difference. Physical characteristics of Thai silk revealed the most disintegrated, the smallest, and the least fine filaments. Conclusion: Floss Xu had the highest maximum load. Oral B had the highest percentage of elongation. Wax coating on Floss X increased the elongation but had no significant effect on the maximum load. The physical characteristics of Thai Silk resulted in the lowest mechanical properties values.

Keywords: dental floss, maximum load, mechanical property, percentage of elongation, physical property

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9335 An Empirical Approach to NO2 Gas Sensing Properties of Carbon Films Fabricated by Arc Discharge Methane Decomposition Technique

Authors: Elnaz Akbari, Zolkafle Buntat


Today, the use of carbon-based materials such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, etc. in various applications is being extensively studied by researchers in the field. One of such applications is using them in gas sensors. While analytical investigations on the physical and chemical properties of carbon nanomaterials are the focal points in the studies, the need for experimental measurements on various physical characteristics of these materials is deeply felt. In this work, a set of experiments has been conducted using arc discharge Methane decomposition attempting to obtain carbonaceous materials (C-strands) formed between graphite electrodes. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the fabricated C-strands have been investigated in the presence and absence of two different gases, NO2 and CO2. The results reveal that the current passing through the carbon films increases when the concentrations of gases are increased from 200 to 800 ppm. This phenomenon is a result of conductance changes and can be employed in sensing applications such as gas sensors.

Keywords: carbonaceous materials, gas sensing, methane arc discharge decomposition, I-V characteristics

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9334 Formulation of Sun Screen Cream and Sun Protecting Factor Activity from Standardized–Partition Compound of Mahkota Dewa Leaf (Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl.)

Authors: Abdul Karim Zulkarnain, Marchaban, Subagus Wahyono, Ratna Asmah Susidarti


Mahkota Dewa contains phalerin which has activity as sun screen. In this study, 13 formulations of cream oil in water (o/w) were prepared and tested for their physical characteristics. The physical characteristics were then used for determining the optimum formula. This study aimed to explore the physical stability of optimized formulation of cream, its sun protecting factor (SPF) values using in vitro and in vivo tests. The optimum formula of o/w cream were prepared based on Simplex Lattice Design (LSD) method using software Design Expert®. The formulation of o/w cream were varied based on the proportion of cetyl alcohol, mineral oil and tween 80. The difference of physical characteristic of optimum and predicted formula was tested using t-test with significant level of 95%. The optimum formula of o/w cream was the formula which consists of cetyl alcohol 9.71%, mineral oil, 29%, and tween 80 3.29. Based on t-test, there was no significant difference of physical characteristics of optimum and predicted formulation. Viscosity, spread power, adhesive power, and separation volume ratio of o/w at week 0-4 were relatively stable. The o/w creams were relatively stable at extreme temperature. The o/w creams from mahkota dewa, phalerin, and benzophenone have SPF values of 21.32, 33.12, and 42.49, respectively. The formulas did not irritate the skin based on in vivo test.

Keywords: cream, stability, In vitro, In vivo

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9333 Characterization of Copper Slag and Jarofix Waste Materials for Road Construction

Authors: V. K. Arora, V. G. Havanagi, A. K. Sinha


Copper slag and Jarofix are waste materials, generated during the manufacture of copper and zinc respectively, which have potential for utility in embankment and road construction. Accordingly, a research project was carried out to study the characteristics of copper slag and Jarofix to utilize in the construction of road. In this study, copper slag and Jarofix were collected from Tuticorin, State of Tamil Nadu and Hindustan Zinc Ltd., Chittorgarh, Rajasthan state, India respectively. These materials were investigated for their physical, chemical, and geotechnical characteristics. The materials were collected from the disposal area and laboratory investigations were carried out to study its feasibility for use in the construction of embankment and sub grade layers of road pavement. This paper presents the results of physical, chemical and geotechnical characteristics of copper slag and Jarofix. It was concluded that copper slag and Jarofix may be utilized in the construction of road.

Keywords: copper slag, Jarofix waste, material, road construction

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9332 Physical Characteristics of Cookies Enriched with Microencapsulated Cherry Pomace Extract

Authors: Jovana Petrović, Ivana Lončarević, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Biljana Pajin, Danica Zarić


Pomace, a by-product from fruit processing industry is the potential source of valuable bioactive. Cookies are popular, ready to eat and low price foods; therefore, enrichment of these products is of great importance. In this work, bioactive compounds extracted from cherry pomace, encapsulated in soy and whey proteins, have been incorporated in cookies, replacing 10 (SP10 and WP10) and 15% of wheat flour (SP15 and WP15). Cookie geometry (diameter (D), thickness (T) and spread ratio (D/T)), cookie weight, cookie hardness and cookie surface colour were measured. Sensory characteristics are also examined. The results show that encapsulated cherry pomace bioactives have positively influenced the cookie mass. Diameter, redness (a* value) and cookie hardness increased. Sensory evaluation of cookies, revealed that up to 15% substitution of wheat flour with WP encapsulate produced acceptable cookies similar to the control (100% wheat flour) cookies.

Keywords: cherry pomace, polyphenols, microencapsulation, cookies, physical characteristics

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9331 Preparation of Corn Flour Based Extruded Product and Evaluate Its Physical Characteristics

Authors: C. S. Saini


The composite flour blend consisting of corn, pearl millet, black gram and wheat bran in the ratio of 80:5:10:5 was taken to prepare the extruded product and their effect on physical properties of extrudate was studied. The extrusion process was conducted in laboratory by using twin screw extruder. The physical characteristics evaluated include lateral expansion, bulk density, water absorption index, water solubility index, rehydration ratio and moisture retention. The Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was used to decide the level of processing variables i.e. feed moisture content (%), screw speed (rpm), and barrel temperature (oC) for the experiment. The data obtained after extrusion process were analyzed by using response surface methodology. A second order polynomial model for the dependent variables was established to fit the experimental data. The numerical optimization studies resulted in 127°C of barrel temperature, 246 rpm of screw speed, and 14.5% of feed moisture as optimum variables to produce acceptable extruded product. The responses predicted by the software for the optimum process condition resulted in lateral expansion 126 %, bulk density 0.28 g/cm3, water absorption index 4.10 g/g, water solubility index 39.90 %, rehydration ratio 544 % and moisture retention 11.90 % with 75 % desirability.

Keywords: black gram, corn flour, extrusion, physical characteristics

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9330 The Effect of Core Training on Physical Fitness Characteristics in Male Volleyball Players

Authors: Sibel Karacaoglu, Fatma Ç. Kayapinar


The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of the core training program on physical fitness characteristics and body composition in male volleyball players. 26 male university volleyball team players aged between 19 to 24 years who had no health problems and injury participated in the study. Subjects were divided into training (TG) and control groups (CG) as randomly. Data from twenty-one players who completed all training sessions were used for statistical analysis (TG,n=11; CG,n=10). A core training program was applied to the training group three days a week for 10 weeks. On the other hand, the control group did not receive any training. Before and after the 10-week training program, pre- and post-testing comprised of body composition measurements (weight, BMI, bioelectrical impedance analysis) and physical fitness measurements including flexibility (sit and reach test), muscle strength (back, leg and grip strength by dynamometer), muscle endurance (sit-ups and push-ups tests), power (one-legged jump and vertical jump tests), speed (20m sprint, 30m sprint) and balance tests (one-legged standing test) were performed. Changes of pre- and post- test values of the groups were determined by using dependent t test. According to the statistical analysis of data, no significant difference was found in terms of body composition in the both groups for pre- and post- test values. In the training group, all physical fitness measurements improved significantly after core training program (p<0.05) except 30m speed and handgrip strength (p>0.05). On the hand, only 20m speed test values improved after post-test period (p<0.05), but the other physical fitness tests values did not differ (p>0.05) between pre- and post- test measurement in the control group. The results of the study suggest that the core training program has positive effect on physical fitness characteristics in male volleyball players.

Keywords: body composition, core training, physical fitness, volleyball

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9329 The Impact of Vocal and Physical Attractiveness on the Employment Interview

Authors: Alexandra Roy


This research examines how physical and vocal attractiveness affect impressions of an applicant and whether these impressions are affected by gender or job type. Findings, based on two samples, indicate that individuals with less attractiveness voice and physical appearance were viewed as less suitable job applicants and as possessing more negative characteristics than those others. These negative impressions were pervasive and unaffected by either applicant gender or job type. Specifically, we found that job candidates with an attractive voice or physique were perceived as more extroverted, less agreeable, less conscientious, less trustworthy less competent, less sociable and less recruitable. Results are robust to various sensitivity checks.

Keywords: discrimination, nonverbal, hiring, attractiveness

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9328 Iterative Panel RC Extraction for Capacitive Touchscreen

Authors: Chae Hoon Park, Jong Kang Park, Jong Tae Kim


Electrical characteristics of capacitive touchscreen need to be accurately analyzed to result in better performance for multi-channel capacitance sensing. In this paper, we extracted the panel resistances and capacitances of the touchscreen by comparing measurement data and model data. By employing a lumped RC model for driver-to-receiver paths in touchscreen, we estimated resistance and capacitance values according to the physical lengths of channel paths which are proportional to the RC model. As a result, we obtained the model having 95.54% accuracy of the measurement data.

Keywords: electrical characteristics of capacitive touchscreen, iterative extraction, lumped RC model, physical lengths of channel paths

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9327 The Synergistic Effects of Using Silicon and Selenium on Fruiting of Zaghloul Date Palm (Phoenix dectylifera L.)

Authors: M. R. Gad El- Kareem, A. M. K. Abdel Aal, A. Y. Mohamed


During 2011 and 2012 seasons, Zaghloul date palms received four sprays of silicon (Si) at 0.05 to 0.1% and selenium (Se) at 0.01 to 0.02%. Growths, nutritional status, yield as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits in response to application of silicon and selenium were investigated. Single and combined applications of silicon at 0.05 to 0.1% and selenium at 0.01 to 0.02% was very effective in enhancing the leaf area, total chlorophylls, percentages of N, P, and K in the leaves, yield, bunch weight as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits in relative to the check treatment. Silicon was superior to selenium in this respect. Combined application was favourable than using each alone in this connection. Treating Zaghloul date palms four times with a mixture of silicon at 0.05% + selenium at 0.01% resulted in an economical yield and producing better fruit quality.

Keywords: date palms, Zaghloul, silicon, selenium, leaf area

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9326 Mechanical Characterization and Impact Study on the Environment of Raw Sediments and Sediments Dehydrated by Addition of Polymer

Authors: A. Kasmi, N. E. Abriak, M. Benzerzour, I. Shahrour


Large volumes of river sediments are dredged each year in Europe in order to maintain harbour activities and prevent floods. The management of this sediment has become increasingly complex. Several European projects were implemented to find environmentally sound solutions for these materials. The main objective of this study is to show the ability of river sediment to be used in road. Since sediments contain a high amount of water, then a dehydrating treatment by addition of the flocculation aid has been used. Firstly, a lot of physical characteristics are measured and discussed for a better identification of the raw sediment and this dehydrated sediment by addition the flocculation aid. The identified parameters are, for example, the initial water content, the density, the organic matter content, the grain size distribution, the liquid limit and plastic limit and geotechnical parameters. The environmental impacts of the used material were evaluated. The results obtained show that there is a slight change on the physical-chemical and geotechnical characteristics of sediment after dehydration by the addition of polymer. However, these sediments cannot be used in road construction.

Keywords: rive sediment, dehydration, flocculation aid or polymer, characteristics, treatments, valorisation, road construction

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9325 Effect of Different Flours on the Physical and Sensorial Characteristics of Meatballs

Authors: Elif Aykin Dincer, Ozlem Kilic, Busra F. Bilgic, Mustafa Erbas


Stale breads and rusk flour are used traditionally in meatballs produced in Turkey as a structure enhancer. This study researches the possibilities of using retrograded wheat flour in the meatball production and compares the physical and sensorial characteristics of these meatballs with stale bread (traditional) and rusk (commercial) used meatballs. The cooking loss of meatballs produced with using retrograded flour was similar to that of commercial meatballs. These meatballs have an advantage with respect to cooking loss compared to traditional meatballs. Doses of retrograded flour from 5% to 20% led to a significant decrease in cooking loss, from 21.95% to 6.19%, and in the diameter of meatballs, from 18.60% to 12.74%, but to an increase in the thickness of meatballs, from 28.82% to 41.39%, respectively, compared to the control (0%). The springiness of the traditional meatballs was significantly higher than that of the other meatballs. This might have been due to the bread crumbs having a naturally springy structure. Moreover, the addition of retrograded flour in the meatballs significantly (P<0.05) affected the hardness, springiness and cohesiveness of the meatballs with respect to textural properties. In conclusion, it is considered that the use of 10% retrograded flour is ideal to improve the sensorial values of meatballs and the properties of their structure.

Keywords: cooking loss, flour, hardness, meatball, sensorial characteristics

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9324 Basic Properties of a Fundamental Particle: Behavioral-Physical and Visual Methods for the Study of Fundamental Particle

Authors: Shukran M. Dadayev


To author's best knowledge, in this paper, the Basic Properties and Research methods of a Fundamental Particle is studied for the first time. That's to say, Fundamental Particle has not been discovered in the Nature yet. Because Fundamental Particle consists of specific Physical, Geometrical and Internal bases. Geometrical and Internal characteristics that are considered significant for the elementary and fundamental particles aren’t basic properties, characteristics or criteria of a Fundamental Particle. Of course, completely new Physical and Visual experimental methods of Quantum mechanics and Behavioral-Physical investigations of Particles are needed to study and discover the Fundamental Particle. These are new Physical, Visual and Behavioral-Physical experimental methods for describing and discovering the Fundamental Particle in the Nature and Microworld. Fundamental Particle consists of the same Energy-Mass-Motion system and a symmetry of Energy-Mass-Motion. Fundamental Particle supplies each of the elementary particles with the same Energy-Mass-Motion system at the same time and regulates each of the particles. Fundamental Particle gives Energy, Mass and Motion to each particles at the same time, each of the Particles consists of acquired Energy-Mass-Motion system and symmetry. Energy, Mass, Motion given by the Fundamental Particle to the particles are Symmetrical Equivalent and they remain in their primary shapes in all cases. Fundamental Particle gives Energy-Mass-Motion system and symmetry consisting of different measures and functions to each of the particles. The Motion given by the Fundamental Particle to the particles is Gravitation, Gravitational Interaction not only gives Motion, but also cause Motion by attracting. All Substances, Fields and Cosmic objects consist of Energy-Mass-Motion. The Field also includes specific Mass. They are always Energetic, Massive and Active. Fundamental Particle establishes the bases of the Nature. Supplement and Regulating of all the particles existing in the Nature belongs to Fundamental Particle.

Keywords: basic properties of a fundamental particle, behavioral-physical and visual methods, energy-mass-motion system and symmetrical equivalence, fundamental particle

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9323 Characteristics of Nanosilica-Geopolymer Nanocomposites and Mixing Effect

Authors: H. Assaedi, F. U. A. Shaikh, I. M. Low


This paper presents the effects of mixing procedures on mechanical properties of flyash-based geopolymer matrices containing nanosilica (NS) at 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% by wt.. Comparison is made with conventional mechanical dry-mixing of NS with flyash and wet-mixing of NS in alkaline solutions. Physical and mechanical properties are investigated using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Results show that generally the addition of NS particles enhanced the microstructure and improved flexural and compressive strengths of geopolymer nanocomposites. However, samples prepared using dry-mixing approach demonstrate better physical and mechanical properties than wet-mixing of NS.

Keywords: geopolymer, nano-silica, dry mixing, wet mixing, physical properties, mechanical properties

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9322 Assessment of Physical Characteristics of Maize (Zea Mays) Stored in Metallic Silos

Authors: B. A. Alabadan, E. S. Ajayi, C. A. Okolo


The storage losses recorded globally in maize (Zea mays) especially in the developing countries is worrisome. Certain degenerating changes in the physical characteristics (PC) of the grain occur due to the interaction between the stored maize and the immediate environment especially during long storage period. There has been tremendous reduction in the storage losses since the evolution of metallic silos. This study was carried out to assess the physical quality attributes of maize stored in 2500 MT and 1 MT metallic silos for a period of eight months. The PC evaluated includes percentage moisture content MC, insect damage ID, foreign matters FM, hectolitre weight HC, mould M and germinability VG. The evaluation of data obtained was done using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 20) for windows evaluation version to determine significant levels and trend of deterioration (P < 0.05) for all the values obtained using Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Duncan’s multivariate test. The result shows that the PC are significant with duration of storage at (P < 0.05) except MI and FM that are significant at (P > 0.05) irrespective of the size of the metallic silos. The average mean deviation for physical properties from the control in respect to duration of storage are as follows: MC 10.0 ±0.00%, HC 72.9 ± 0.44% ID 0.29 ± 0.00%, BG 0.55±0.05%, MI 0.00 ± 0.65%, FM 0.80± 0.20%, VG 100 ± 0.03%. The variables that were found to be significant (p < 0.05) with the position of grain in the bulk are VG, MI and ID while others are insignificant at (p > 0.05). Variables were all significant (p < 0.05) with the duration of storage with (0.00) significant levels, irrespective of the size of the metallic silos, but were insignificant with the position of the grain in the bulk (p > 0.05). From the results, it can be concluded that there is a slight decrease of the following variables, with time, HC, MC, and V, probably due to weather fluctuations and grain respiration, while FM, BG, ID and M were found to increase slightly probably due to insect activity in the bigger silos and loss of moisture. The size of metallic silos has no remarkable influence on the PC of stored maize (Zea mays). Germinability was found to be better with the 1 MT silos probably due to its hermetic nature. Smaller size metallic silos are preferred for storage of seeds but bigger silos largely depend on the position of the grains in the bulk.

Keywords: maize, storage, silo, physical characteristics

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9321 The Development of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness in China from Reviewing Their Studies from the Journal of China Sports Science

Authors: Dong Zhan


China sports science is the core periodical of scientific research in the field of sports in China at present. It is the first academic periodical ranked in China. The author has studied the characteristics and trends of articles on sports medicine and physical fitness published in the journal since it founded. Now, the articles on sports medicine and physical fitness published in the Journal of Sports Science from 2013 to 2017 are reviewed. The results show that 1) The characteristics of previous sports medicine articles showed that there were more articles on the basis of sports medicine than that on the application. The research on animal experiments was far more than that on the human body. Moreover, the trend was getting worse and worse as time goes on. But in the past five years, there had been a marked improvement. The basic/application has been improved from 2.1/1 to 1.3/1. This shows that sports medicine researchers have been paid more attention to the application research in sports medicine. 2) There are few articles on sports injury, because the state put the sports injury specialty into the medical colleges, and the research scope of sports research institutes does not include sports injury. It cannot meet the need for the development of sports medicine, and it should change sooner or later. 3) In the past, researchers’ effort was on athletes' physical health, not on ordinary people. Now, there is a great change, they not only research on the sportsmen’s health but also research on the health of the ordinary people. 4) Researchers mainly studied on the young people’s physical fitness in the past; now, it has been greatly improved. Researchers study on the physical health of the elderly, especially those over the age of 60. Numbers of paper researching on the young were much more than those on the old. In the past 10 years, the ratio of number of paper researching on the young to the old people was (young/old) 16.6/1, while in the past 5 years, this ratio was 6.3/1. However, this is not enough. China has a large population and needs to focus on promoting the health of the people. Conclusion: It is important to pay more attention to the application research on sports medicine and on the physical fitness, and it is also important to make a research on physical health of the elderly.

Keywords: sports medicine, people's health, the young, the old

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9320 River Bank Erosion Studies: A Review on Investigation Approaches and Governing Factors

Authors: Azlinda Saadon


This paper provides detail review on river bank erosion studies with respect to their processes, methods of measurements and factors governing river bank erosion. Bank erosion processes are commonly associated with river changes initiation and development, through width adjustment and planform evolution. It consists of two main types of erosion processes; basal erosion due to fluvial hydraulic force and bank failure under the influence of gravity. Most studies had only focused on one factor rather than integrating both factors. Evidences of previous works have shown integration between both processes of fluvial hydraulic force and bank failure. Bank failure is often treated as probabilistic phenomenon without having physical characteristics and the geotechnical aspects of the bank. This review summarizes the findings of previous investigators with respect to measurement techniques and prediction rates of river bank erosion through field investigation, physical model and numerical model approaches. Factors governing river bank erosion considering physical characteristics of fluvial erosion are defined.

Keywords: river bank erosion, bank erosion, dimensional analysis, geotechnical aspects

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
9319 The Physical and Physiological Profile of Professional Muay Thai Boxers

Authors: Lucy Horrobin, Rebecca Fores


Background: Muay Thai is an increasingly popular combat sport worldwide. Further academic research in the sport will contribute to its professional development. This research sought to produce normative data in relation to the physical and physiological characteristics of professional Muay Thai boxers, as, currently no such data exists. The ultimate aim being to inform appropriate training programs and to facilitate coaching. Methods: N = 9 professional, adult, male Muay Thai boxers were assessed for the following anthropometric, physical and physiological characteristics, using validated methods of assessment: body fat, hamstring flexibility, maximal dynamic upper body strength, lower limb peak power, upper body muscular endurance and aerobic capacity. Raw data scores were analysed for mean, range and SD and where applicable were expressed relative to body mass (BM). Results: Results showed similar characteristics to those found in other combat sports. Low percentages of body fat (mean±SD) 8.54 ± 1.16 allow for optimal power to weight ratios. Highly developed aerobic capacity (mean ±SD) 61.56 ± 5.13 facilitate recovery and power maintenance throughout bouts. Lower limb peak power output values of (mean ± SD) 12.60 ± 2.09 W/kg indicate that Muay Thai boxers are amongst the most powerful of combat sport athletes. However, maximal dynamic upper body strength scores of (mean±SD) 1.14 kg/kg ± 0.18 were in only the 60th percentile of normative data for the general population and muscular endurance scores (mean±SD) 31.55 ± 11.95 and flexibility scores (mean±SD) 19.55 ± 11.89 cm expressed wide standard deviation. These results might suggest that these characteristics are insignificant in Muay Thai or under-developed, perhaps due to deficient training programs. Implications: This research provides the first normative data of physical and physiological characteristics of Muay Thai boxers. The findings of this study would aid trainers and coaches when designing effective evidence-based training programs. Furthermore, it provides a foundation for further research relating to physiology in Muay Thai. Areas of further study could be determining the physiological demands of a full rules bout and the effects of evidence-based training programs on performance.

Keywords: fitness testing, Muay Thai, physiology, strength and conditioning

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9318 The Role of Strategic Metals in Cr-Al-Pt-V Composition of Protective Bond Coats

Authors: A. M. Pashayev, A. S. Samedov, T. B. Usubaliyev, N. Sh. Yusifov


Different types of coating technologies are widely used for gas turbine blades. Thermal barrier coatings, consisting of ceramic top coat, thermally grown oxide and a metallic bond coat are used in applications for thermal protection of hot section components in gas turbine engines. Operational characteristics and longevity of high-temperature turbine blades substantially depend on a right choice of composition of the protective thermal barrier coatings. At a choice of composition of a coating and content of the basic elements it is necessary to consider following factors, as minimum distinctions of coefficients of thermal expansions of elements, level of working temperatures and composition of the oxidizing environment, defining the conditions for the formation of protective layers, intensity of diffusive processes and degradation speed of protective properties of elements, extent of influence on the fatigue durability of details during operation, using of elements with high characteristics of thermal stability and satisfactory resilience of gas corrosion, density, hardness, thermal conduction and other physical characteristics. Forecasting and a choice of a thermal barrier coating composition, all above factors at the same time cannot be considered, as some of these characteristics are defined by experimental studies. The implemented studies and investigations show that one of the main failures of coatings used on gas turbine blades is related to not fully taking the physical-chemical features of elements into consideration during the determination of the composition of alloys. It leads to the formation of more difficult spatial structure, composition which also changes chaotically in some interval of concentration that doesn't promote thermal and structural firmness of a coating. For the purpose of increasing the thermal and structural resistant of gas turbine blade coatings is offered a new approach to forecasting of composition on the basis of analysis of physical-chemical characteristics of alloys taking into account the size factor, electron configuration, type of crystal lattices and Darken-Gurry method. As a result, of calculations and experimental investigations is offered the new four-component metallic bond coat on the basis of chrome for the gas turbine blades.

Keywords: gas turbine blades, thermal barrier coating, metallic bond coat, strategic metals, physical-chemical features

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9317 Mimicking of Various ECM Tangible Cues for the Manipulation of Hepatocellular Behaviours

Authors: S. A. Abdellatef, A. Taniguchi, Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki


The alterations in the physicochemical characteristics of bio-materials are renowned for their impact in cellular behaviors. Surface chemistry and substratum topography are separately considered as mutable characteristics with deep impact on the overall cell behaviors. In our recent work, we examined the manipulation of the physical cues on hepatic cellular behaviors. We have proven that the geometrical or dimensional characteristics of nano features are essential for the optimum hepatocellular functions. While here, the collective impact of both physical and chemical cues on hepatocellular behaviors was investigated. On which RGD peptide was immobilized on a TiO2 nano pattern that imitates the hierarchically extend collagen nano fibrillar structures. The hepatocytes morphological and functional changes induced by simultaneously combining the diversified cues were investigated. TiO2 substrates that integrate nano topography with the adhesive peptide motif (RGD) had showed an increase in the hepatocellular functionality to the maximum extent. While a significant enhancement in expression of these liver specific markers on RGD coated surfaces were observed compared to uncoated substrates regardless of topography. Consequently in depth understanding of the relationship between various kind of cues and hepatocytes behaviors would be a paving step in the application of tissue engineering and bio reactor technology.

Keywords: biomaterial, tiO2, hepG2, RGD

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9316 Properties of Concrete with Wood Ashes in Construction Engineering

Authors: Piotr-Robert Lazik, Lena Teichmann, Harald Garrecht


Many concrete technologists are looking for a solution to replace fly ashes as a component that occurs as a major component of many types of concrete. The importance of such a component is clear -it saves cement and reduces the amount of CO₂ in the atmosphere that occurs during cement production. For example, the amount of cement in ultrahigh strength concrete (UHPC) is approximately 700-800 kg/m³ in normal concrete up to 350 kg/m³. For this reason, it is easy to follow that the use of components like fly ashes or wood ashes protect the environment. The newest investigations carried out at the University of Stuttgart have clearly shown that the use of wood ashes with appropriate pre-treatment in concrete has a positive effect. German-wide, there are hundreds of tons of wood ashes, which can be used in a wide range of construction materials. The strengths of the concrete with different types of cement and with wood ashes have given the same or, in some cases, better results than those with the use of fly ashes. There are many areas in building construction, where the clays of wood ashes can be used as a by-product. This does not only require a strength test but also, for example, an examination of structural-physical parameters. Especially the heat and moisture characteristics have an important role in times of energy-efficient construction. These are therefore determined and then compared with the characteristics of the concretes with fly ashes. The University of Stuttgart has decided to investigate the buildings' physical properties of different types of concrete with wood ashes to find their application in construction. After the examination of the buildings' physical properties in combination with strength tests, it is possible to determine in which field of civil engineering, this type of concrete can be used.

Keywords: fly ashes, wood ashes, structural-physical parameters, UHPC

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9315 Entrepreneurs’ Perceptions of the Economic, Social and Physical Impacts of Tourism

Authors: Oktay Emir


The objective of this study is to determine how entrepreneurs perceive the economic, social and physical impacts of tourism. The study was conducted in the city of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey, which is rich in thermal tourism resources and investments. A survey was used as the data collection method, and the questionnaire was applied to 472 entrepreneurs. A simple random sampling method was used to identify the sample. Independent sampling t-tests and ANOVA tests were used to analyse the data obtained. Additionally, some statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were found based on the participants’ demographic characteristics regarding their opinions about the social, economic and physical impacts of tourism activities.

Keywords: tourism, perception, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurs, structural equation modelling

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9314 Nanoparticle Emission Characteristics during Methane Pyrolysis in a Laminar Premixed Flame

Authors: Mohammad Javad Afroughi, Farjad Falahati, Larry W. Kostiuk, Jason S. Olfert


This study investigates the physical characteristics of nanoparticles generated during pyrolysis of methane in hot products of a premixed propane-air flame. An inverted burner is designed to provide a laminar premixed propane-air flame (35 SLPM) then introduce methane co-flow to be pyrolyzed within a closed cylindrical chamber (20 cm in diameter and 68 cm in length). The formed products are discharged through an exhaust with a sampling branch to measure emission characteristics. Carbon particles are sampled with a preheated nitrogen dilution system, and the size distribution of particles formed by pyrolysis is measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Dilution ratio is calculated using simultaneously measured CO2 concentrations in the exhaust products and diluted samples. Results show that particle size distribution (PSD) is strongly affected by dilution ratio and preheating temperature. PSD becomes unstable at high dilution ratios (typically above 700 times) and/or low preheating temperatures (below 40° C). At a suitable dilution ratio of 55 and preheating temperature up to 70° C, the median diameter of PSD increases from 20 to 220 nm following the introduction of 0.5 SLPM of methane to the propane-air premixed flame. Furthermore, with pyrolysis of methane, total particle number concentration and estimated total mass concentration of particles in the size range of 14 to 700 nm, increase from 1.12 to 3.90 *107 cm-3 and from 0.11 to 154 µg L-1, respectively.

Keywords: laminar premixed flame, methane pyrolysis, nanoparticle physical characteristics, particle mass concentration, particle number concentration, particle size distribution (PSD)

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9313 Progressive Changes in Physico-Chemical Constituent of Rainwater: A Case Study at Oyoko, a Rural Community in Ghana

Authors: J. O. Yeboah, K Aboraa, K. Kodom


The chemical and physical characteristics of rainwater harvested from a typical rooftop were progressively studied. The samples of rainwater collected were analyzed for pH, major ion concentrations, TDS, turbidity, conductivity. All the physicochemical constituents fell within the WHO guideline limits at some points as rainfall progresses except the pH. All the components of rainwater quality measured during the study showed higher concentrations during the early stages of rainfall and reduce as time progresses. There was a downward trend in terms of pH as rain progressed, with 18% of the samples recording pH below the WHO limit of 6.5-8.0. It was observed that iron concentration was above the WHO threshold value of 0.3 mg/l on occasions of heavy rains. The results revealed that most of physicochemical characteristics of rainwater samples were generally below the WHO threshold, as such, the rainwater characteristics showed satisfactory conditions in terms of physicochemical constituents.

Keywords: conductivity, pH, physicochemical, rainwater quality, TDS

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9312 Physical-Mechanical Characteristics of Monocrystalline Si1-xGex(X 0,02) Solid Solutions

Authors: I. Kurashvili, A. Sichinava, G. Bokuchava, G. Darsavelidze


Si-Ge solid solutions (bulk poly- and monocrystalline samples, thin films) are characterized by high perspectives for application in semiconductor devices, in particular, optoelectronics and microelectronics. In this light complex studying of structural state of the defects and structural-sensitive physical properties of Si-Ge solid solutions depending on the contents of Si and Ge components is very important. Present work deals with the investigations of microstructure, electrophysical characteristics, microhardness, internal friction and shear modulus of Si1-xGex(x≤0,02) bulk monocrystals conducted at a room temperatures. Si-Ge bulk crystals were obtained by Czochralski method in [111] crystallographic direction. Investigated monocrystalline Si-Ge samples are characterized by p-type conductivity and carriers concentration 5.1014-1.1015cm-3, dislocation density 5.103-1.104cm-2, microhardness according to Vickers method 900-1200 Kg/mm2. Investigate samples are characterized with 0,5x0,5x(10-15) mm3 sizes, oriented along [111] direction at torsion oscillations ≈1Hz, multistage changing of internal friction and shear modulus has been revealed in an interval of strain amplitude of 10-5-5.10-3. Critical values of strain amplitude have been determined at which hysteretic changes of inelastic characteristics and microplasticity are observed. The critical strain amplitude and elasticity limit values are also determined. Tendency to decrease of dynamic mechanical characteristics is shown with increasing Ge content in Si-Ge solid solutions. Observed changes are discussed from the point of view of interaction of various dislocations with point defects and their complexes in a real structure of Si-Ge solid solutions.

Keywords: Microhardness, internal friction, shear modulus, Monocrystalline

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