Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1279

Search results for: gesture recognition

1279 Static and Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using Convolutional Neural Network Models

Authors: Keyi Wang


Similar to the touchscreen, hand gesture based human-computer interaction (HCI) is a technology that could allow people to perform a variety of tasks faster and more conveniently. This paper proposes a training method of an image-based hand gesture image and video clip recognition system using a CNN (Convolutional Neural Network) with a dataset. A dataset containing 6 hand gesture images is used to train a 2D CNN model. ~98% accuracy is achieved. Furthermore, a 3D CNN model is trained on a dataset containing 4 hand gesture video clips resulting in ~83% accuracy. It is demonstrated that a Cozmo robot loaded with pre-trained models is able to recognize static and dynamic hand gestures.

Keywords: deep learning, hand gesture recognition, computer vision, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
1278 Hand Detection and Recognition for Malay Sign Language

Authors: Mohd Noah A. Rahman, Afzaal H. Seyal, Norhafilah Bara


Developing a software application using an interface with computers and peripheral devices using gestures of human body such as hand movements keeps growing in interest. A review on this hand gesture detection and recognition based on computer vision technique remains a very challenging task. This is to provide more natural, innovative and sophisticated way of non-verbal communication, such as sign language, in human computer interaction. Nevertheless, this paper explores hand detection and hand gesture recognition applying a vision based approach. The hand detection and recognition used skin color spaces such as HSV and YCrCb are applied. However, there are limitations that are needed to be considered. Almost all of skin color space models are sensitive to quickly changing or mixed lighting circumstances. There are certain restrictions in order for the hand recognition to give better results such as the distance of user’s hand to the webcam and the posture and size of the hand.

Keywords: hand detection, hand gesture, hand recognition, sign language

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1277 Automatic Detection of Suicidal Behaviors Using an RGB-D Camera: Azure Kinect

Authors: Maha Jazouli


Suicide is one of the most important causes of death in the prison environment, both in Canada and internationally. Rates of attempts of suicide and self-harm have been on the rise in recent years, with hangings being the most frequent method resorted to. The objective of this article is to propose a method to automatically detect in real time suicidal behaviors. We present a gesture recognition system that consists of three modules: model-based movement tracking, feature extraction, and gesture recognition using machine learning algorithms (MLA). Our proposed system gives us satisfactory results. This smart video surveillance system can help assist staff responsible for the safety and health of inmates by alerting them when suicidal behavior is detected, which helps reduce mortality rates and save lives.

Keywords: suicide detection, Kinect azure, RGB-D camera, SVM, machine learning, gesture recognition

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1276 Hand Gesture Recognition for Sign Language: A New Higher Order Fuzzy HMM Approach

Authors: Saad M. Darwish, Magda M. Madbouly, Murad B. Khorsheed


Sign Languages (SL) are the most accomplished forms of gestural communication. Therefore, their automatic analysis is a real challenge, which is interestingly implied to their lexical and syntactic organization levels. Hidden Markov models (HMM’s) have been used prominently and successfully in speech recognition and, more recently, in handwriting recognition. Consequently, they seem ideal for visual recognition of complex, structured hand gestures such as are found in sign language. In this paper, several results concerning static hand gesture recognition using an algorithm based on Type-2 Fuzzy HMM (T2FHMM) are presented. The features used as observables in the training as well as in the recognition phases are based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). SVD is an extension of Eigen decomposition to suit non-square matrices to reduce multi attribute hand gesture data to feature vectors. SVD optimally exposes the geometric structure of a matrix. In our approach, we replace the basic HMM arithmetic operators by some adequate Type-2 fuzzy operators that permits us to relax the additive constraint of probability measures. Therefore, T2FHMMs are able to handle both random and fuzzy uncertainties existing universally in the sequential data. Experimental results show that T2FHMMs can effectively handle noise and dialect uncertainties in hand signals besides a better classification performance than the classical HMMs. The recognition rate of the proposed system is 100% for uniform hand images and 86.21% for cluttered hand images.

Keywords: hand gesture recognition, hand detection, type-2 fuzzy logic, hidden Markov Model

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1275 Hand Gestures Based Emotion Identification Using Flex Sensors

Authors: S. Ali, R. Yunus, A. Arif, Y. Ayaz, M. Baber Sial, R. Asif, N. Naseer, M. Jawad Khan


In this study, we have proposed a gesture to emotion recognition method using flex sensors mounted on metacarpophalangeal joints. The flex sensors are fixed in a wearable glove. The data from the glove are sent to PC using Wi-Fi. Four gestures: finger pointing, thumbs up, fist open and fist close are performed by five subjects. Each gesture is categorized into sad, happy, and excited class based on the velocity and acceleration of the hand gesture. Seventeen inspectors observed the emotions and hand gestures of the five subjects. The emotional state based on the investigators assessment and acquired movement speed data is compared. Overall, we achieved 77% accurate results. Therefore, the proposed design can be used for emotional state detection applications.

Keywords: emotion identification, emotion models, gesture recognition, user perception

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
1274 CONDUCTHOME: Gesture Interface Control of Home Automation Boxes

Authors: J. Branstett, V. Gagneux, A. Leleu, B. Levadoux, J. Pascale


This paper presents the interface CONDUCTHOME which controls home automation systems with a Leap Motion using ‘invariant gesture protocols’. The function of this interface is to simplify the interaction of the user with its environment. A hardware part allows the Leap Motion to be carried around the house. A software part interacts with the home automation box and displays the useful information for the user. An objective of this work is the development a natural/invariant/simple gesture control interface to help elder people/people with disabilities.

Keywords: automation, ergonomics, gesture recognition, interoperability

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
1273 Hand Gesture Recognition Interface Based on IR Camera

Authors: Yang-Keun Ahn, Kwang-Soon Choi, Young-Choong Park, Kwang-Mo Jung


Vision based user interfaces to control TVs and PCs have the advantage of being able to perform natural control without being limited to a specific device. Accordingly, various studies on hand gesture recognition using RGB cameras or depth cameras have been conducted. However, such cameras have the disadvantage of lacking in accuracy or the construction cost being large. The proposed method uses a low cost IR camera to accurately differentiate between the hand and the background. Also, complicated learning and template matching methodologies are not used, and the correlation between the fingertips extracted through curvatures is utilized to recognize Click and Move gestures.

Keywords: recognition, hand gestures, infrared camera, RGB cameras

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
1272 Vision-Based Hand Segmentation Techniques for Human-Computer Interaction

Authors: M. Jebali, M. Jemni


This work is the part of vision based hand gesture recognition system for Natural Human Computer Interface. Hand tracking and segmentation are the primary steps for any hand gesture recognition system. The aim of this paper is to develop robust and efficient hand segmentation algorithm such as an input to another system which attempt to bring the HCI performance nearby the human-human interaction, by modeling an intelligent sign language recognition system based on prediction in the context of dialogue between the system (avatar) and the interlocutor. For the purpose of hand segmentation, an overcoming occlusion approach has been proposed for superior results for detection of hand from an image.

Keywords: HCI, sign language recognition, object tracking, hand segmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
1271 Interactive Shadow Play Animation System

Authors: Bo Wan, Xiu Wen, Lingling An, Xiaoling Ding


The paper describes a Chinese shadow play animation system based on Kinect. Users, without any professional training, can personally manipulate the shadow characters to finish a shadow play performance by their body actions and get a shadow play video through giving the record command to our system if they want. In our system, Kinect is responsible for capturing human movement and voice commands data. Gesture recognition module is used to control the change of the shadow play scenes. After packaging the data from Kinect and the recognition result from gesture recognition module, VRPN transmits them to the server-side. At last, the server-side uses the information to control the motion of shadow characters and video recording. This system not only achieves human-computer interaction, but also realizes the interaction between people. It brings an entertaining experience to users and easy to operate for all ages. Even more important is that the application background of Chinese shadow play embodies the protection of the art of shadow play animation.

Keywords: hadow play animation, Kinect, gesture recognition, VRPN, HCI

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1270 Visualization-Based Feature Extraction for Classification in Real-Time Interaction

Authors: Ágoston Nagy


This paper introduces a method of using unsupervised machine learning to visualize the feature space of a dataset in 2D, in order to find most characteristic segments in the set. After dimension reduction, users can select clusters by manual drawing. Selected clusters are recorded into a data model that is used for later predictions, based on realtime data. Predictions are made with supervised learning, using Gesture Recognition Toolkit. The paper introduces two example applications: a semantic audio organizer for analyzing incoming sounds, and a gesture database organizer where gestural data (recorded by a Leap motion) is visualized for further manipulation.

Keywords: gesture recognition, machine learning, real-time interaction, visualization

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1269 Hand Gesture Detection via EmguCV Canny Pruning

Authors: N. N. Mosola, S. J. Molete, L. S. Masoebe, M. Letsae


Hand gesture recognition is a technique used to locate, detect, and recognize a hand gesture. Detection and recognition are concepts of Artificial Intelligence (AI). AI concepts are applicable in Human Computer Interaction (HCI), Expert systems (ES), etc. Hand gesture recognition can be used in sign language interpretation. Sign language is a visual communication tool. This tool is used mostly by deaf societies and those with speech disorder. Communication barriers exist when societies with speech disorder interact with others. This research aims to build a hand recognition system for Lesotho’s Sesotho and English language interpretation. The system will help to bridge the communication problems encountered by the mentioned societies. The system has various processing modules. The modules consist of a hand detection engine, image processing engine, feature extraction, and sign recognition. Detection is a process of identifying an object. The proposed system uses Canny pruning Haar and Haarcascade detection algorithms. Canny pruning implements the Canny edge detection. This is an optimal image processing algorithm. It is used to detect edges of an object. The system employs a skin detection algorithm. The skin detection performs background subtraction, computes the convex hull, and the centroid to assist in the detection process. Recognition is a process of gesture classification. Template matching classifies each hand gesture in real-time. The system was tested using various experiments. The results obtained show that time, distance, and light are factors that affect the rate of detection and ultimately recognition. Detection rate is directly proportional to the distance of the hand from the camera. Different lighting conditions were considered. The more the light intensity, the faster the detection rate. Based on the results obtained from this research, the applied methodologies are efficient and provide a plausible solution towards a light-weight, inexpensive system which can be used for sign language interpretation.

Keywords: canny pruning, hand recognition, machine learning, skin tracking

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1268 Patient-Friendly Hand Gesture Recognition Using AI

Authors: K. Prabhu, K. Dinesh, M. Ranjani, M. Suhitha


During the tough times of covid, those people who were hospitalized found it difficult to always convey what they wanted to or needed to the attendee. Sometimes the attendees might also not be there. In that case, the patients can use simple hand gestures to control electrical appliances (like its set it for a zero watts bulb)and three other gestures for voice note intimation. In this AI-based hand recognition project, NodeMCU is used for the control action of the relay, and it is connected to the firebase for storing the value in the cloud and is interfaced with the python code via raspberry pi. For three hand gestures, a voice clip is added for intimation to the attendee. This is done with the help of Google’s text to speech and the inbuilt audio file option in the raspberry pi 4. All the five gestures will be detected when shown with their hands via the webcam, which is placed for gesture detection. The personal computer is used for displaying the gestures and for running the code in the raspberry pi imager.

Keywords: nodeMCU, AI technology, gesture, patient

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1267 Users’ Preferences for Map Navigation Gestures

Authors: Y. Y. Pang, N. A. Ismail


The map is a powerful and convenient tool in helping us to navigate to different places, but the use of indirect devices often makes its usage cumbersome. This study intends to propose a new map navigation dialogue that uses hand gesture. A set of dialogue was developed from users’ perspective to provide users complete freedom for panning, zooming, rotate, and find direction operations. A participatory design experiment was involved here where one hand gesture and two hand gesture dialogues had been analysed in the forms of hand gestures to develop a set of usable dialogues. The major finding was that users prefer one-hand gesture compared to two-hand gesture in map navigation.

Keywords: hand gesture, map navigation, participatory design, intuitive interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
1266 Facial Expression Phoenix (FePh): An Annotated Sequenced Dataset for Facial and Emotion-Specified Expressions in Sign Language

Authors: Marie Alaghband, Niloofar Yousefi, Ivan Garibay


Facial expressions are important parts of both gesture and sign language recognition systems. Despite the recent advances in both fields, annotated facial expression datasets in the context of sign language are still scarce resources. In this manuscript, we introduce an annotated sequenced facial expression dataset in the context of sign language, comprising over 3000 facial images extracted from the daily news and weather forecast of the public tv-station PHOENIX. Unlike the majority of currently existing facial expression datasets, FePh provides sequenced semi-blurry facial images with different head poses, orientations, and movements. In addition, in the majority of images, identities are mouthing the words, which makes the data more challenging. To annotate this dataset we consider primary, secondary, and tertiary dyads of seven basic emotions of "sad", "surprise", "fear", "angry", "neutral", "disgust", and "happy". We also considered the "None" class if the image’s facial expression could not be described by any of the aforementioned emotions. Although we provide FePh as a facial expression dataset of signers in sign language, it has a wider application in gesture recognition and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) systems.

Keywords: annotated facial expression dataset, gesture recognition, sequenced facial expression dataset, sign language recognition

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1265 Real-Time Gesture Recognition System Using Microsoft Kinect

Authors: Ankita Wadhawan, Parteek Kumar, Umesh Kumar


Gesture is any body movement that expresses some attitude or any sentiment. Gestures as a sign language are used by deaf people for conveying messages which helps in eliminating the communication barrier between deaf people and normal persons. Nowadays, everybody is using mobile phone and computer as a very important gadget in their life. But there are some physically challenged people who are blind/deaf and the use of mobile phone or computer like device is very difficult for them. So, there is an immense need of a system which works on body gesture or sign language as input. In this research, Microsoft Kinect Sensor, SDK V2 and Hidden Markov Toolkit (HTK) are used to recognize the object, motion of object and human body joints through Touch less NUI (Natural User Interface) in real-time. The depth data collected from Microsoft Kinect has been used to recognize gestures of Indian Sign Language (ISL). The recorded clips are analyzed using depth, IR and skeletal data at different angles and positions. The proposed system has an average accuracy of 85%. The developed Touch less NUI provides an interface to recognize gestures and controls the cursor and click operation in computer just by waving hand gesture. This research will help deaf people to make use of mobile phones, computers and socialize among other persons in the society.

Keywords: gesture recognition, Indian sign language, Microsoft Kinect, natural user interface, sign language

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1264 A Novel Combined Finger Counting and Finite State Machine Technique for ASL Translation Using Kinect

Authors: Rania Ahmed Kadry Abdel Gawad Birry, Mohamed El-Habrouk


This paper presents a brief survey of the techniques used for sign language recognition along with the types of sensors used to perform the task. It presents a modified method for identification of an isolated sign language gesture using Microsoft Kinect with the OpenNI framework. It presents the way of extracting robust features from the depth image provided by Microsoft Kinect and the OpenNI interface and to use them in creating a robust and accurate gesture recognition system, for the purpose of ASL translation. The Prime Sense’s Natural Interaction Technology for End-user - NITE™ - was also used in the C++ implementation of the system. The algorithm presents a simple finger counting algorithm for static signs as well as directional Finite State Machine (FSM) description of the hand motion in order to help in translating a sign language gesture. This includes both letters and numbers performed by a user, which in-turn may be used as an input for voice pronunciation systems.

Keywords: American sign language, finger counting, hand tracking, Microsoft Kinect

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1263 Hand Motion Trajectory Analysis for Dynamic Hand Gestures Used in Indian Sign Language

Authors: Daleesha M. Viswanathan, Sumam Mary Idicula


Dynamic hand gestures are an intrinsic component in sign language communication. Extracting spatial temporal features of the hand gesture trajectory plays an important role in a dynamic gesture recognition system. Finding a discrete feature descriptor for the motion trajectory based on the orientation feature is the main concern of this paper. Kalman filter algorithm and Hidden Markov Models (HMM) models are incorporated with this recognition system for hand trajectory tracking and for spatial temporal classification, respectively.

Keywords: orientation features, discrete feature vector, HMM., Indian sign language

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1262 Stereotypical Motor Movement Recognition Using Microsoft Kinect with Artificial Neural Network

Authors: M. Jazouli, S. Elhoufi, A. Majda, A. Zarghili, R. Aalouane


Autism spectrum disorder is a complex developmental disability. It is defined by a certain set of behaviors. Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) frequently engage in stereotyped and repetitive motor movements. The objective of this article is to propose a method to automatically detect this unusual behavior. Our study provides a clinical tool which facilitates for doctors the diagnosis of ASD. We focus on automatic identification of five repetitive gestures among autistic children in real time: body rocking, hand flapping, fingers flapping, hand on the face and hands behind back. In this paper, we present a gesture recognition system for children with autism, which consists of three modules: model-based movement tracking, feature extraction, and gesture recognition using artificial neural network (ANN). The first one uses the Microsoft Kinect sensor, the second one chooses points of interest from the 3D skeleton to characterize the gestures, and the last one proposes a neural connectionist model to perform the supervised classification of data. The experimental results show that our system can achieve above 93.3% recognition rate.

Keywords: ASD, artificial neural network, kinect, stereotypical motor movements

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1261 Development of a Computer Vision System for the Blind and Visually Impaired Person

Authors: Rodrigo C. Belleza, Jr., Roselyn A. Maaño, Karl Patrick E. Camota, Darwin Kim Q. Bulawan


Eyes are an essential and conspicuous organ of the human body. Human eyes are outward and inward portals of the body that allows to see the outside world and provides glimpses into ones inner thoughts and feelings. Inevitable blindness and visual impairments may result from eye-related disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means. The study emphasizes innovative tools that will serve as an aid to the blind and visually impaired (VI) individuals. The researchers fabricated a prototype that utilizes the Microsoft Kinect for Windows and Arduino microcontroller board. The prototype facilitates advanced gesture recognition, voice recognition, obstacle detection and indoor environment navigation. Open Computer Vision (OpenCV) performs image analysis, and gesture tracking to transform Kinect data to the desired output. A computer vision technology device provides greater accessibility for those with vision impairments.

Keywords: algorithms, blind, computer vision, embedded systems, image analysis

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1260 Human Gesture Recognition for Real-Time Control of Humanoid Robot

Authors: S. Aswath, Chinmaya Krishna Tilak, Amal Suresh, Ganesh Udupa


There are technologies to control a humanoid robot in many ways. But the use of Electromyogram (EMG) electrodes has its own importance in setting up the control system. The EMG based control system helps to control robotic devices with more fidelity and precision. In this paper, development of an electromyogram based interface for human gesture recognition for the control of a humanoid robot is presented. To recognize control signs in the gestures, a single channel EMG sensor is positioned on the muscles of the human body. Instead of using a remote control unit, the humanoid robot is controlled by various gestures performed by the human. The EMG electrodes attached to the muscles generates an analog signal due to the effect of nerve impulses generated on moving muscles of the human being. The analog signals taken up from the muscles are supplied to a differential muscle sensor that processes the given signal to generate a signal suitable for the microcontroller to get the control over a humanoid robot. The signal from the differential muscle sensor is converted to a digital form using the ADC of the microcontroller and outputs its decision to the CM-530 humanoid robot controller through a Zigbee wireless interface. The output decision of the CM-530 processor is sent to a motor driver in order to control the servo motors in required direction for human like actions. This method for gaining control of a humanoid robot could be used for performing actions with more accuracy and ease. In addition, a study has been conducted to investigate the controllability and ease of use of the interface and the employed gestures.

Keywords: electromyogram, gesture, muscle sensor, humanoid robot, microcontroller, Zigbee

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1259 Hand Gesture Interpretation Using Sensing Glove Integrated with Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Aqsa Ali, Aleem Mushtaq, Attaullah Memon, Monna


In this paper, we present a low cost design for a smart glove that can perform sign language recognition to assist the speech impaired people. Specifically, we have designed and developed an Assistive Hand Gesture Interpreter that recognizes hand movements relevant to the American Sign Language (ASL) and translates them into text for display on a Thin-Film-Transistor Liquid Crystal Display (TFT LCD) screen as well as synthetic speech. Linear Bayes Classifiers and Multilayer Neural Networks have been used to classify 11 feature vectors obtained from the sensors on the glove into one of the 27 ASL alphabets and a predefined gesture for space. Three types of features are used; bending using six bend sensors, orientation in three dimensions using accelerometers and contacts at vital points using contact sensors. To gauge the performance of the presented design, the training database was prepared using five volunteers. The accuracy of the current version on the prepared dataset was found to be up to 99.3% for target user. The solution combines electronics, e-textile technology, sensor technology, embedded system and machine learning techniques to build a low cost wearable glove that is scrupulous, elegant and portable.

Keywords: American sign language, assistive hand gesture interpreter, human-machine interface, machine learning, sensing glove

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1258 Information Retrieval from Internet Using Hand Gestures

Authors: Aniket S. Joshi, Aditya R. Mane, Arjun Tukaram


In the 21st century, in the era of e-world, people are continuously getting updated by daily information such as weather conditions, news, stock exchange market updates, new projects, cricket updates, sports and other such applications. In the busy situation, they want this information on the little use of keyboard, time. Today in order to get such information user have to repeat same mouse and keyboard actions which includes time and inconvenience. In India due to rural background many people are not much familiar about the use of computer and internet also. Also in small clinics, small offices, and hotels and in the airport there should be a system which retrieves daily information with the minimum use of keyboard and mouse actions. We plan to design application based project that can easily retrieve information with minimum use of keyboard and mouse actions and make our task more convenient and easier. This can be possible with an image processing application which takes real time hand gestures which will get matched by system and retrieve information. Once selected the functions with hand gestures, the system will report action information to user. In this project we use real time hand gesture movements to select required option which is stored on the screen in the form of RSS Feeds. Gesture will select the required option and the information will be popped and we got the information. A real time hand gesture makes the application handier and easier to use.

Keywords: hand detection, hand tracking, hand gesture recognition, HSV color model, Blob detection

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1257 Proposed Solutions Based on Affective Computing

Authors: Diego Adrian Cardenas Jorge, Gerardo Mirando Guisado, Alfredo Barrientos Padilla


A system based on Affective Computing can detect and interpret human information like voice, facial expressions and body movement to detect emotions and execute a corresponding response. This data is important due to the fact that a person can communicate more effectively with emotions than can be possible with words. This information can be processed through technological components like Facial Recognition, Gait Recognition or Gesture Recognition. As of now, solutions proposed using this technology only consider one component at a given moment. This research investigation proposes two solutions based on Affective Computing taking into account more than one component for emotion detection. The proposals reflect the levels of dependency between hardware devices and software, as well as the interaction process between the system and the user which implies the development of scenarios where both proposals will be put to the test in a live environment. Both solutions are to be developed in code by software engineers to prove the feasibility. To validate the impact on society and business interest, interviews with stakeholders are conducted with an investment mind set where each solution is labeled on a scale of 1 through 5, being one a minimum possible investment and 5 the maximum.

Keywords: affective computing, emotions, emotion detection, face recognition, gait recognition

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1256 An Efficient Motion Recognition System Based on LMA Technique and a Discrete Hidden Markov Model

Authors: Insaf Ajili, Malik Mallem, Jean-Yves Didier


Human motion recognition has been extensively increased in recent years due to its importance in a wide range of applications, such as human-computer interaction, intelligent surveillance, augmented reality, content-based video compression and retrieval, etc. However, it is still regarded as a challenging task especially in realistic scenarios. It can be seen as a general machine learning problem which requires an effective human motion representation and an efficient learning method. In this work, we introduce a descriptor based on Laban Movement Analysis technique, a formal and universal language for human movement, to capture both quantitative and qualitative aspects of movement. We use Discrete Hidden Markov Model (DHMM) for training and classification motions. We improve the classification algorithm by proposing two DHMMs for each motion class to process the motion sequence in two different directions, forward and backward. Such modification allows avoiding the misclassification that can happen when recognizing similar motions. Two experiments are conducted. In the first one, we evaluate our method on a public dataset, the Microsoft Research Cambridge-12 Kinect gesture data set (MSRC-12) which is a widely used dataset for evaluating action/gesture recognition methods. In the second experiment, we build a dataset composed of 10 gestures(Introduce yourself, waving, Dance, move, turn left, turn right, stop, sit down, increase velocity, decrease velocity) performed by 20 persons. The evaluation of the system includes testing the efficiency of our descriptor vector based on LMA with basic DHMM method and comparing the recognition results of the modified DHMM with the original one. Experiment results demonstrate that our method outperforms most of existing methods that used the MSRC-12 dataset, and a near perfect classification rate in our dataset.

Keywords: human motion recognition, motion representation, Laban Movement Analysis, Discrete Hidden Markov Model

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1255 A Holographic Infotainment System for Connected and Driverless Cars: An Exploratory Study of Gesture Based Interaction

Authors: Nicholas Lambert, Seungyeon Ryu, Mehmet Mulla, Albert Kim


In this paper, an interactive in-car interface called HoloDash is presented. It is intended to provide information and infotainment in both autonomous vehicles and ‘connected cars’, vehicles equipped with Internet access via cellular services. The research focuses on the development of interactive avatars for this system and its gesture-based control system. This is a case study for the development of a possible human-centred means of presenting a connected or autonomous vehicle’s On-Board Diagnostics through a projected ‘holographic’ infotainment system. This system is termed a Holographic Human Vehicle Interface (HHIV), as it utilises a dashboard projection unit and gesture detection. The research also examines the suitability for gestures in an automotive environment, given that it might be used in both driver-controlled and driverless vehicles. Using Human Centred Design methods, questions were posed to test subjects and preferences discovered in terms of the gesture interface and the user experience for passengers within the vehicle. These affirm the benefits of this mode of visual communication for both connected and driverless cars.

Keywords: gesture, holographic interface, human-computer interaction, user-centered design

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1254 Evaluation of Gesture-Based Password: User Behavioral Features Using Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Lakshmidevi Sreeramareddy, Komalpreet Kaur, Nane Pothier


Graphical-based passwords have existed for decades. Their major advantage is that they are easier to remember than an alphanumeric password. However, their disadvantage (especially recognition-based passwords) is the smaller password space, making them more vulnerable to brute force attacks. Graphical passwords are also highly susceptible to the shoulder-surfing effect. The gesture-based password method that we developed is a grid-free, template-free method. In this study, we evaluated the gesture-based passwords for usability and vulnerability. The results of the study are significant. We developed a gesture-based password application for data collection. Two modes of data collection were used: Creation mode and Replication mode. In creation mode (Session 1), users were asked to create six different passwords and reenter each password five times. In replication mode, users saw a password image created by some other user for a fixed duration of time. Three different duration timers, such as 5 seconds (Session 2), 10 seconds (Session 3), and 15 seconds (Session 4), were used to mimic the shoulder-surfing attack. After the timer expired, the password image was removed, and users were asked to replicate the password. There were 74, 57, 50, and 44 users participated in Session 1, Session 2, Session 3, and Session 4 respectfully. In this study, the machine learning algorithms have been applied to determine whether the person is a genuine user or an imposter based on the password entered. Five different machine learning algorithms were deployed to compare the performance in user authentication: namely, Decision Trees, Linear Discriminant Analysis, Naive Bayes Classifier, Support Vector Machines (SVMs) with Gaussian Radial Basis Kernel function, and K-Nearest Neighbor. Gesture-based password features vary from one entry to the next. It is difficult to distinguish between a creator and an intruder for authentication. For each password entered by the user, four features were extracted: password score, password length, password speed, and password size. All four features were normalized before being fed to a classifier. Three different classifiers were trained using data from all four sessions. Classifiers A, B, and C were trained and tested using data from the password creation session and the password replication with a timer of 5 seconds, 10 seconds, and 15 seconds, respectively. The classification accuracies for Classifier A using five ML algorithms are 72.5%, 71.3%, 71.9%, 74.4%, and 72.9%, respectively. The classification accuracies for Classifier B using five ML algorithms are 69.7%, 67.9%, 70.2%, 73.8%, and 71.2%, respectively. The classification accuracies for Classifier C using five ML algorithms are 68.1%, 64.9%, 68.4%, 71.5%, and 69.8%, respectively. SVMs with Gaussian Radial Basis Kernel outperform other ML algorithms for gesture-based password authentication. Results confirm that the shorter the duration of the shoulder-surfing attack, the higher the authentication accuracy. In conclusion, behavioral features extracted from the gesture-based passwords lead to less vulnerable user authentication.

Keywords: authentication, gesture-based passwords, machine learning algorithms, shoulder-surfing attacks, usability

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1253 Handwriting Recognition of Gurmukhi Script: A Survey of Online and Offline Techniques

Authors: Ravneet Kaur


Character recognition is a very interesting area of pattern recognition. From past few decades, an intensive research on character recognition for Roman, Chinese, and Japanese and Indian scripts have been reported. In this paper, a review of Handwritten Character Recognition work on Indian Script Gurmukhi is being highlighted. Most of the published papers were summarized, various methodologies were analysed and their results are reported.

Keywords: Gurmukhi character recognition, online, offline, HCR survey

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1252 OCR/ICR Text Recognition Using ABBYY FineReader as an Example Text

Authors: A. R. Bagirzade, A. Sh. Najafova, S. M. Yessirkepova, E. S. Albert


This article describes a text recognition method based on Optical Character Recognition (OCR). The features of the OCR method were examined using the ABBYY FineReader program. It describes automatic text recognition in images. OCR is necessary because optical input devices can only transmit raster graphics as a result. Text recognition describes the task of recognizing letters shown as such, to identify and assign them an assigned numerical value in accordance with the usual text encoding (ASCII, Unicode). The peculiarity of this study conducted by the authors using the example of the ABBYY FineReader, was confirmed and shown in practice, the improvement of digital text recognition platforms developed by Electronic Publication.

Keywords: ABBYY FineReader system, algorithm symbol recognition, OCR/ICR techniques, recognition technologies

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1251 Hand Motion and Gesture Control of Laboratory Test Equipment Using the Leap Motion Controller

Authors: Ian A. Grout


In this paper, the design and development of a system to provide hand motion and gesture control of laboratory test equipment is considered and discussed. The Leap Motion controller is used to provide an input to control a laboratory power supply as part of an electronic circuit experiment. By suitable hand motions and gestures, control of the power supply is provided remotely and without the need to physically touch the equipment used. As such, it provides an alternative manner in which to control electronic equipment via a PC and is considered here within the field of human computer interaction (HCI).

Keywords: control, hand gesture, human computer interaction, test equipment

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1250 An Improved OCR Algorithm on Appearance Recognition of Electronic Components Based on Self-adaptation of Multifont Template

Authors: Zhu-Qing Jia, Tao Lin, Tong Zhou


The recognition method of Optical Character Recognition has been expensively utilized, while it is rare to be employed specifically in recognition of electronic components. This paper suggests a high-effective algorithm on appearance identification of integrated circuit components based on the existing methods of character recognition, and analyze the pros and cons.

Keywords: optical character recognition, fuzzy page identification, mutual correlation matrix, confidence self-adaptation

Procedia PDF Downloads 414