Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4229

Search results for: executive function

4229 A Pilot Study on the Sensory Processing Difficulty Pattern Association between the Hot and Cold Executive Function Deficits in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Deficit Child

Authors: Sheng-Fen Fan, Sung-Hui Tseng

Abstract:

Attention deficit hyperactivity deficit (ADHD) child display diverse sensory processing difficulty behaviors. There is less evidence to figure out how the association between executive function and sensory deficit. To determine whether sensory deficit influence the executive functions, we examined sensory processing by SPM and try to indicate hot/cold executive function (EF) by BRIEF2, respectively. We found that the hot executive function deficit might associate with auditory processing in a variety of settings, and vestibular input to maintain balance and upright posture; the cold EF deficit might opposite to the hot EF deficit, the vestibular sensory modulation difficulty association with emotion shifting and emotional regulation. These results suggest that sensory processing might be another consideration factor to influence the higher cognitive control or emotional regulation of EF. Overall, this study indicates the distinction between hot and cold EF impairments with different sensory modulation problem. Moreover, for clinician, it needs more cautious consideration to conduct intervention with ADHD.

Keywords: hot executive function, cold executive function, sensory processing, ADHD

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
4228 Development a Fine Motor and Executive Function Assessment (FiM&EF) for Assessing School Aged Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD)

Authors: Negar Miri-Lavasani

Abstract:

Background: Children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show fine motor skills difficulties, and it is controversial whether this difficulty is based on problems in their fine motor skills or their executive function impairments. Objectives of Study: The Fine Motor and Executive Function assessment tool (FiM&EF) was developed to answer the question, ‘Do the fine motor skill deficits in children with ADHD come from their fine motor problems or is it caused by their executive function problems?’. This paper describes the development of a new assessment of Fine Motor and Executive Function (FiM &EF) needed by primary school students with ADHD aged 6-12 years with ADHD. Methods: A study on the content validity established through a survey of a panel of nine experts is explained in detail. Findings: Most the experts agreed such an assessment was needed and two items were deleted as a result of experts’ feedback. Relevance to Clinical Practice: Distinguishing the main reason of fine motor problem in these children could help the clinician for their therapy plans. Knowledge on the influence of executive functioning on fine motor ability in selected age children with ADHD would provide a clearer clinical picture of the fine motor capabilities and executive function for these children.

Keywords: children with ADHD, executive function, fine motor, test

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
4227 Utility of Executive Function Training in Typically Developing Adolescents and Special Populations: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Authors: Emily C. Shepard, Caroline Sweeney, Jessica Grimm, Sophie Jacobs, Lauren Thompson, Lisa L. Weyandt

Abstract:

Adolescence is a critical phase of development in which individuals are prone to more risky behavior while also facing potentially life-changing decisions. The balance of increased behavioral risk and responsibility indicates the importance of executive functioning ability. In recent years, executive function training has emerged as a technique to enhance this cognitive ability. The aim of the present systematic review was to discuss the reported efficacy of executive functioning training techniques among adolescents. After reviewing 3110 articles, a total of 24 articles were identified which examined the role of executive functioning training techniques among adolescents (age 10-19). Articles retrieved demonstrated points of comparison across psychiatric and medical diagnosis, location of training, and stage of adolescence. Typically developing samples, as well as those with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), conduct disorder, and physical health concerns were found, allowing for the comparison of the efficacy of techniques considering physical and psychological heterogeneity. Among typically developing adolescents, executive functioning training yielded nonsignificant or low effect size improvements in executive functioning, and in some cases executive functioning ability was decreased following the training. In special populations, including those with ADHD, (ASD), conduct disorder, and physical health concerns significant differences and larger effect sizes in executive functioning were seen following treatment, particularly among individuals with ADHD. Future research is needed to identify the long-term efficacy of these treatments, as well as their generalizability to real-world conditions.

Keywords: adolescence, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, executive function, executive function training, traumatic brain injury

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
4226 Transfigurative Changes of Governmental Responsibility

Authors: Ákos Cserny

Abstract:

The unequivocal increase of the area of operation of the executive power can happen with the appearance of new areas to be influenced and its integration in the power, or at the expense of the scopes of other organs with public authority. The extension of the executive can only be accepted within the framework of the rule of law if parallel with this process we get constitutional guarantees that the exercise of power is kept within constitutional framework. Failure to do so, however, may result in the lack, deficit of democracy and democratic sense, and may cause an overwhelming dominance of the executive power. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present executive power and responsibility in the context of different dimensions.

Keywords: confidence, constitution, executive power, liabiliy, parliamentarism

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
4225 Executive Deficits in Non-Clinical Hoarders

Authors: Thomas Heffernan, Nick Neave, Colin Hamilton, Gill Case

Abstract:

Hoarding is the acquisition of and failure to discard possessions, leading to excessive clutter and significant psychological/emotional distress. From a cognitive-behavioural approach, excessive hoarding arises from information-processing deficits, as well as from problems with emotional attachment to possessions and beliefs about the nature of possessions. In terms of information processing, hoarders have shown deficits in executive functions, including working memory, planning, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility. However, this previous research is often confounded by co-morbid factors such as anxiety, depression, or obsessive-compulsive disorder. The current study adopted a cognitive-behavioural approach, specifically assessing executive deficits and working memory in a non-clinical sample of hoarders, compared with non-hoarders. In this study, a non-clinical sample of 40 hoarders and 73 non-hoarders (defined by The Savings Inventory-Revised) completed the Adult Executive Functioning Inventory, which measures working memory and inhibition, Dysexecutive Questionnaire-Revised, which measures general executive function and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, which measures mood. The participant sample was made up of unpaid young adult volunteers who were undergraduate students and who completed the questionnaires on a university campus. The results revealed that, after observing no differences between hoarders and non-hoarders on age, sex, and mood, hoarders reported significantly more deficits in inhibitory control and general executive function when compared with non-hoarders. There was no between-group difference on general working memory. This suggests that non-clinical hoarders have a specific difficulty with inhibition-control, which enables you to resist repeated, unwanted urges. This might explain the hoarder’s inability to resist urges to buy and keep items that are no longer of any practical use. These deficits may be underpinned by general executive function deficiencies.

Keywords: hoarding, memory, executive, deficits

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
4224 The Effects of Cardiovascular Risk on Age-Related Cognitive Decline in Healthy Older Adults

Authors: A. Badran, M. Hollocks, H. Markus

Abstract:

Background: Common risk factors for cardiovascular disease are associated with age-related cognitive decline. There has been much interest in treating modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in the hope of reducing cognitive decline. However, there is currently no validated neuropsychological test to assess the subclinical cognitive effects of vascular risk. The Brief Memory and Executive Test (BMET) is a clinical screening tool, which was originally designed to be sensitive and specific to Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI), an impairment characterised by decline in frontally-mediated cognitive functions (e.g. Executive Function and Processing Speed). Objective: To cross-sectionally assess the validity of the BMET as a measure of the subclinical effects of vascular risk on cognition, in an otherwise healthy elderly cohort. Methods: Data from 346 participants (57 ± 10 years) without major neurological or psychiatric disorders were included in this study, gathered as part of a previous multicentre validation study for the BMET. Framingham Vascular Age was used as a surrogate measure of vascular risk, incorporating several established risk factors. Principal Components Analysis of the subtests was used to produce common constructs: an index for Memory and another for Executive Function/Processing Speed. Univariate General Linear models were used to relate Vascular Age to performance on Executive Function/Processing Speed and Memory subtests of the BMET, adjusting for Age, Premorbid Intelligence and Ethnicity. Results: Adverse vascular risk was associated with poorer performance on both the Memory and Executive Function/Processing Speed indices, adjusted for Age, Premorbid Intelligence and Ethnicity (p=0.011 and p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Performance on the BMET reflects the subclinical effects of vascular risk on cognition, in age-related cognitive decline. Vascular risk is associated with decline in both Executive Function/Processing Speed and Memory groups of subtests. Future studies are needed to explore whether treating vascular risk factors can effectively reduce age-related cognitive decline.

Keywords: age-related cognitive decline, vascular cognitive impairment, subclinical cerebrovascular disease, cognitive aging

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
4223 A Game-Based Methodology to Discriminate Executive Function – a Pilot Study With Institutionalized Elderly People

Authors: Marlene Rosa, Susana Lopes

Abstract:

There are few studies that explore the potential of board games as a performance measure, despite it can be an interesting strategy in the context of frailty populations. In fact, board games are immersive strategies than can inhibit the pressure of being evaluated. This study aimed to test the ability of gamed-base strategies to assess executive function in elderly population. Sixteen old participants were included: 10 with affected executive functions (G1 – 85.30±6.00 yrs old; 10 male); 6 with executive functions with non-clinical important modifications (G2 - 76.30±5.19 yrs old; 6 male). Executive tests were assessed using the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), which is a quick-applicable cognitive screening test (score<12 means impairment). The board game used in this study was the TATI Hand Game, specifically for training rhythmic coordination of the upper limbs with multiple cognitive stimuli. This game features 1 table grid, 1 set of Single Game cards (to play with one hand); Double Game cards (to play simultaneously with two hands); 1 dice to plan Single Game mode; cards to plan the Double Game mode; 1 bell; 2 cups. Each participant played 3 single game cards, and the following data were collected: (i) variability in time during board game challenges (SD); (ii) number of errors; (iii) execution speed (sec). G1 demonstrated: high variability in execution time during board game challenges (G1 – 13.0s vs G2- 0.5s); a higher number of errors (1.40 vs 0.67); higher execution velocity (607.80s vs 281.83s). These results demonstrated the potential of implementing board games as a functional assessment strategy in geriatric care. Future studies might include larger samples and statistical methodologies to find cut-off values for impairment in executive functions during performance in TATI game.

Keywords: board game, aging, executive function, evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
4222 The Relationship between Hot and Cool Executive Function and Theory of Mind in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Stella Tsermentseli, Claire P. Monks

Abstract:

Executive function (EF) refers to a set of future-oriented and goal-directed cognitive skills that are crucial for problem solving and social behaviour, as well as the ability to organise oneself. It has been suggested that EF could be conceptualised as two distinct but interrelated constructs, one emotional (hot) and one cognitive (cool), as it facilitates both affective and cognitive regulation. Cool EF has been found to be strongly related to Theory of Mind (ToM) that is the ability to infer mental states, but research has not taken into account the association between hot EF and ToM in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to date. The present study investigates the associations between both hot and cool EF and ToM in school-aged children with ASD. This cross-sectional study assesses 79 school-aged children with ASD (7-15 years) and 91 controls matched for age and IQ, on tasks tapping cool EF (working memory, inhibition, planning), hot EF (effective decision making, delay discounting), and ToM (emotional understanding and false/no false belief). Significant group differences in each EF measure support a global executive dysfunction in ASD. Strong associations between hot EF and ToM in ASD are reported for the first time (i.e. ToM emotional understanding and delay discounting). These findings highlight that hot EF also makes a unique contribution to the developmental profile of ASD. Considering the role of both hot and cool EF in association with ToM in individuals with ASD may aid in gaining a greater understanding not just of how these complex multifaceted cognitive abilities relate to one another, but their joint role in the distinct developmental pathway followed in ASD.

Keywords: ASD, executive function, school age, theory of mind

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
4221 Neurocognitive and Executive Function in Cocaine Addicted Females

Authors: Gwendolyn Royal-Smith

Abstract:

Cocaine ranks as one of the world’s most addictive and commonly abused stimulant drugs. Recent evidence indicates that the abuse of cocaine has risen so quickly among females that this group now accounts for about 40 percent of all users in the United States. Neuropsychological studies have demonstrated that specific neural activation patterns carry higher risks for neurocognitive and executive function in cocaine addicted females thereby increasing their vulnerability for poorer treatment outcomes and more frequent post-treatment relapse when compared to males. This study examined secondary data with a convenience sample of 164 cocaine addicted male and females to assess neurocognitive and executive function. The principal objective of this study was to assess whether individual performance on the Stroop Word Color Task is predictive of treatment success by gender. A second objective of the study evaluated whether individual performance employing neurocognitive measures including the Stroop Word-Color task, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RALVT), the Iowa Gambling Task, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WISCT), the total score from the Barratte Impulsiveness Scale (Version 11) (BIS-11) and the total score from the Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale (FrSBE) test demonstrated differences in neurocognitive and executive function performance by gender. Logistic regression models were employed utilizing a covariate adjusted model application. Initial analyses of the Stroop Word color tasks indicated significant differences in the performance of males and females, with females experiencing more challenges in derived interference reaction time and associate recall ability. In early testing including the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RALVT), the number of advantageous vs disadvantageous cards from the Iowa Gambling Task, the number of perseverance errors from the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WISCT), the total score from the Barratte Impulsiveness Scale (Version 11) (BIS-11) and the total score from the Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale, results were mixed with women scoring lower in multiple indicators in both neurocognitive and executive function.

Keywords: cocaine addiction, gender, neuropsychology, neurocognitive, executive function

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
4220 A Review on Using Executive Function to Understand the Limited Efficacy of Weight-Loss Interventions

Authors: H. Soltani, Kevin Laugero

Abstract:

Obesity is becoming an increasingly critical issue in the United States due to the steady and substantial increase in prevalence over the last 30 years. Existing interventions have been able to help participants achieve short-term weight loss, but have failed to show long-term results. The complex nature of behavioral change remains one of the most difficult barriers in promoting sustainable weight-loss in overweight individuals. Research suggests that the 'intention-behavior gap' can be explained by a person’s ability to regulate higher-order thinking, or Executive Function (EF). A review of 63 research articles was completed in fall of 2017 to identify the role of EF in regulating eating behavior and to identify whether there is a potential for improving dietary quality by enhancing EF. Results showed that poor EF is positively associated with obesogenic behavior, namely increased consumption of highly palatable foods, eating in the absence of hunger, high saturated fat intake and low fruit and vegetable consumption. Recent research has indicated that interventions targeting an improvement in EF can be successful in helping promote healthy behaviors. Furthermore, interventions of longer duration have a more lasting and versatile effect on weight loss and maintenance. This may present an opportunity for the increasingly ubiquitous use of mobile application technology.

Keywords: eating behavior, executive function, nutrition, obesity, weight-loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
4219 The Influence of Remuneration Committees, Directors' Shareholding and Institutional Ownership on the Remuneration of Directors in the Large Listed Companies in South Africa

Authors: Henriette Scholtz

Abstract:

Excessive executive directors’ remuneration remains a major concern for many stakeholders and are some of the factors to blame for the recent global financial crisis. The objective of this study was to examine whether certain firm characteristics are an effective way of protecting shareholders’ interests with respect to executive directors’ remuneration. To achieve this, an ordinary least squares model was used to test the relationship between the remuneration of executive directors and a number of firm and corporate governance characteristics to determine whether these characteristics have an influence on executive directors’ remuneration of large listed companies in South Africa. It was found that corporate governance reforms relating to institutional ownership, shareholder voting on the remuneration policy and the number of remuneration committee meetings acts as an effective governance tool to protect shareholder’s interests with regard to executive remuneration. There is no evidence that the number of non-executive directors on the remuneration committee has an influence on the executive directors’ remuneration.

Keywords: executive directors’ remuneration, agency theory, corporate governance, remuneration committee, directors’ shareholding, institutional ownership

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
4218 A Single Country Comparative Contextual Description Study of the Executive Authorities in Austria

Authors: Meryl Abigail Lucasan

Abstract:

The purpose of this research paper is to present a Single Country Comparative Contextual Description Study of the Executive Authorities in Austria, focusing with the Federal President, Cabinet members (Federal Chancellor, the Vice-Chancellor and the other Federal Ministers) and the State Government. In this paper, the roles and powers of the executive authorities of Austria will be enumerated and explained; and the behavior of the executive authorities of Austria will be described in detail. In addition, the researcher will provide a survey that was answered by an Austrian citizen through electronic mail to gain more concrete information about the current political condition in Austria. Based on research, Austria has a remarkable political stability. This paper will develop a conceptual framework or a sample paradigm to represent the political system in Austria, focusing on its states and Executive Authorities in achieving political stability.

Keywords: Austrian politics, executive branch of the government, federal government, political stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
4217 Cognition and Communication Disorders Effect on Death Penalty Cases

Authors: Shameka Stanford

Abstract:

This presentation will discuss how cognitive and communication disorders in the areas of executive functioning, receptive and expressive language can impact the problem-solving and decision making of individuals with such impairments. More specifically, this presentation will discuss approaches the legal defense team of capital case lawyers can add to their experience when servicing individuals who have a history of educational decline, special education, and limited intervention and treatment. The objective of the research is to explore and identify the correlations between impaired executive function skills and decision making and competency for individuals facing death penalty charges. To conduct this research, experimental design, randomized sampling, qualitative analysis was employed. This research contributes to the legal and criminal justice system related to how they view, defend, and characterize, and judge individuals with documented cognitive and communication disorders who are eligible for capital case charges. More importantly, this research contributes to the increased ability of death penalty lawyers to successfully defend clients with a history of academic difficulty, special education, and documented disorders that impact educational progress and academic success.

Keywords: cognitive impairments, communication disorders, death penalty, executive function

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
4216 The Impact of Cognition and Communication on the Defense of Capital Murder Cases

Authors: Shameka Stanford

Abstract:

This presentation will discuss how cognitive and communication disorders in the areas of executive functioning, receptive and expressive language can impact the problem-solving and decision making of individuals with such impairments. More specifically, this presentation will discuss approaches the legal defense team of capital case lawyers can add to their experience when servicing individuals who have a history of educational decline, special education, and limited intervention and treatment. The objective of the research is to explore and identify the correlations between impaired executive function skills and decision making and competency for individuals facing death penalty charges. To conduct this research, experimental design, randomized sampling, qualitative analysis was employed. This research contributes to the legal and criminal justice system related to how they view, defend, and characterize, and judge individuals with documented cognitive and communication disorders who are eligible for capital case charges. More importantly, this research contributes to the increased ability of death penalty lawyers to successfully defend clients with a history of academic difficulty, special education, and documented disorders that impact educational progress and academic success.

Keywords: communication disorders, cognitive disorders, capital murder, death penalty, executive function

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
4215 Computerized Cognitive Training and Psychological Resiliency among Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

Authors: Verd Shomrom, Gilat Trabelsi

Abstract:

The goal of the study was to examine the effects of Computerized Cognitive Training (CCT) with and without cognitive mediation on Executive Function (EF) (planning and self- regulation) and on psychological resiliency among adolescents with Attention Deficits Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) with or without Learning Disabilities (LD). Adolescents diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder and / or Learning Disabilities have multidimensional impairments that result from neurological damage. This work explored the possibility of influencing cognitive aspects in the field of Executive Functions (specifically: patterns of planning and self-regulation) among adolescents with a diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorder and / or Learning Disabilities who study for a 10-12 grades. 46 adolescents with ADHD and/or with LD were randomly applied to experimental and control groups. All the participants were tested (BRC- research version, Resiliency quaternaries) before and after the intervention: mediated/ non-mediated Computerized Cognitive Training (MINDRI). The results indicated significant effects of cognitive modification in the experimental group, between pre and post Phases, in comparison to control group, especially in self- regulation (BRC- research version, Resiliency quaternaries), and on process analysis of Computerized Cognitive Training (MINDRI). The main conclusion was that even short- term mediation synchronized with CCT could greatly enhance the performance of executive functions demands. Theoretical implications for the positive effects of MLE in combination with CCT indicate the ability for cognitive change. The practical implication is the awareness and understanding of efficient intervention processes to enhance EF, learning awareness, resiliency and self-esteem of adolescents in their academic and daily routine.

Keywords: attention deficits hyperactive disorder, computerized cognitive training, executive function, mediated learning experience, learning disabilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
4214 Relative Composition of Executive Compensation Packages, Corporate Governance and Financial Reporting Quality

Authors: Philemon Rakoto

Abstract:

Most executive compensation packages consist of four major components: base fixed salary, annual and long-term non-equity incentive plans, share-based and option-based awards and pension value. According to agency theory, the relative composition of executive compensation packages is one of the mechanisms that firms use to align the interests of executives and shareholders in order to mitigate agency costs. This paper tests the effect of the relative composition of executive compensation packages on financial reporting quality. Financial reporting quality is measured by the value relevance of accounting earnings. Corporate governance is a moderating variable in the model. Using data from Canadian firms composing S&P/TSX index of the year 2013 and governance scores based on Board Games, the analysis shows that, only for firms with good governance, there is an optimal level of the proportion of executive equity-based compensation in relation to total compensation that enhances the quality of financial reporting.

Keywords: Canada, corporate governance, executive compensation packages, financial reporting quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
4213 Executive Function and Attention Control in Bilingual and Monolingual Children: A Systematic Review

Authors: Zihan Geng, L. Quentin Dixon

Abstract:

It has been proposed that early bilingual experience confers a number of advantages in the development of executive control mechanisms. Although the literature provides empirical evidence for bilingual benefits, some studies also reported null or mixed results. To make sense of these contradictory findings, the current review synthesize recent empirical studies investigating bilingual effects on children’s executive function and attention control. The publication time of the studies included in the review ranges from 2010 to 2017. The key searching terms are bilingual, bilingualism, children, executive control, executive function, and attention. The key terms were combined within each of the following databases: ERIC (EBSCO), Education Source, PsycINFO, and Social Science Citation Index. Studies involving both children and adults were also included but the analysis was based on the data generated only by the children group. The initial search yielded 137 distinct articles. Twenty-eight studies from 27 articles with a total of 3367 participants were finally included based on the selection criteria. The selective studies were then coded in terms of (a) the setting (i.e., the country where the data was collected), (b) the participants (i.e., age and languages), (c) sample size (i.e., the number of children in each group), (d) cognitive outcomes measured, (e) data collection instruments (i.e., cognitive tasks and tests), and (f) statistic analysis models (e.g., t-test, ANOVA). The results show that the majority of the studies were undertaken in western countries, mainly in the U.S., Canada, and the UK. A variety of languages such as Arabic, French, Dutch, Welsh, German, Spanish, Korean, and Cantonese were involved. In relation to cognitive outcomes, the studies examined children’s overall planning and problem-solving abilities, inhibition, cognitive complexity, working memory (WM), and sustained and selective attention. The results indicate that though bilingualism is associated with several cognitive benefits, the advantages seem to be weak, at least, for children. Additionally, the nature of the cognitive measures was found to greatly moderate the results. No significant differences are observed between bilinguals and monolinguals in overall planning and problem-solving ability, indicating that there is no bilingual benefit in the cooperation of executive function components at an early age. In terms of inhibition, the mixed results suggest that bilingual children, especially young children, may have better conceptual inhibition measured in conflict tasks, but not better response inhibition measured by delay tasks. Further, bilingual children showed better inhibitory control to bivalent displays, which resembles the process of maintaining two language systems. The null results were obtained for both cognitive complexity and WM, suggesting no bilingual advantage in these two cognitive components. Finally, findings on children’s attention system associate bilingualism with heightened attention control. Together, these findings support the hypothesis of cognitive benefits for bilingual children. Nevertheless, whether these advantages are observable appears to highly depend on the cognitive assessments. Therefore, future research should be more specific about the cognitive outcomes (e.g., the type of inhibition) and should report the validity of the cognitive measures consistently.

Keywords: attention, bilingual advantage, children, executive function

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
4212 Impact of Six-Minute Walk or Rest Break during Extended GamePlay on Executive Function in First Person Shooter Esport Players

Authors: Joanne DiFrancisco-Donoghue, Seth E. Jenny, Peter C. Douris, Sophia Ahmad, Kyle Yuen, Hillary Gan, Kenney Abraham, Amber Sousa

Abstract:

Background: Guidelines for the maintenance of health of esports players and the cognitive changes that accompany competitive gaming are understudied. Executive functioning is an important cognitive skill for an esports player. The relationship between executive functions and physical exercise has been well established. However, the effects of prolonged sitting regardless of physical activity level have not been established. Prolonged uninterrupted sitting reduces cerebral blood flow. Reduced cerebral blood flow is associated with lower cognitive function and fatigue. This decrease in cerebral blood flow has been shown to be offset by frequent and short walking breaks. These short breaks can be as little as 2 minutes at the 30-minute mark and 6 minutes following 60 minutes of prolonged sitting. The rationale is the increase in blood flow and the positive effects this has on metabolic responses. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate executive function changes following 6-minute bouts of walking and complete rest mid-session, compared to no break, during prolonged gameplay in competitive first-person shooter (FPS) esports players. Methods: This study was conducted virtually due to the Covid-19 pandemic and was approved by the New York Institute of Technology IRB. Twelve competitive FPS participants signed written consent to participate in this randomized pilot study. All participants held a gold ranking or higher. Participants were asked to play for 2 hours on three separate days. Outcome measures to test executive function included the Color Stroop and the Tower of London tests which were administered online each day prior to gaming and at the completion of gaming. All participants completed the tests prior to testing for familiarization. One day of testing consisted of a 6-minute walk break after 60-75 minutes of play. The Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) was recorded. The participant continued to play for another 60-75 minutes and completed the tests again. Another day the participants repeated the same methods replacing the 6-minute walk with lying down and resting for 6 minutes. On the last day, the participant played continuously with no break for 2 hours and repeated the outcome tests pre and post-play. A Latin square was used to randomize the treatment order. Results: Using descriptive statistics, the largest change in mean reaction time incorrect congruent pre to post play was seen following the 6-minute walk (662.0 (609.6) ms pre to 602.8 (539.2) ms post), followed by the 6-minute rest group (681.7(618.1) ms pre to 666.3 (607.9) ms post), and with minimal change in the continuous group (594.0(534.1) ms pre to 589.6(552.9) ms post). The mean solution time was fastest in the resting condition (7774.6(6302.8)ms), followed by the walk condition (7929.4 (5992.8)ms), with the continuous condition being slowest (9337.3(7228.7)ms). the continuous group 9337.3(7228.7) ms; 7929.4 (5992.8 ) ms 774.6(6302.8) ms. Conclusion: Short walking breaks improve blood flow and reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism during prolonged sitting. This pilot study demonstrated that a low intensity 6 -minute walk break, following 60 minutes of play, may also improve executive function in FPS gamers.

Keywords: executive function, FPS, physical activity, prolonged sitting

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
4211 Execution Time Optimization of Workflow Network with Activity Lead-Time

Authors: Xiaoping Qiu, Binci You, Yue Hu

Abstract:

The executive time of the workflow network has an important effect on the efficiency of the business process. In this paper, the activity executive time is divided into the service time and the waiting time, then the lead time can be extracted from the waiting time. The executive time formulas of the three basic structures in the workflow network are deduced based on the activity lead time. Taken the process of e-commerce logistics as an example, insert appropriate lead time for key activities by using Petri net, and the executive time optimization model is built to minimize the waiting time with the time-cost constraints. Then the solution program-using VC++6.0 is compiled to get the optimal solution, which reduces the waiting time of key activities in the workflow, and verifies the role of lead time in the timeliness of e-commerce logistics.

Keywords: electronic business, execution time, lead time, optimization model, petri net, time workflow network

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
4210 Corporate Governance of Enterprise IT: Research Study on IT Governance Maturity

Authors: Mario Spremic

Abstract:

Despite the financial crisis and ongoing need for cost cutting, companies all around the world heavily invest in information systems (IS) and underlying information technology (IT). Information systems (IS) play very important role in modern business organizations supporting its organizational efficiency or, under certain circumstances, fostering business model innovation and change. IS can influence organization competitiveness in two ways: supporting operational efficiency (IS as a main infrastructure for the current business), or differentiating business through business model innovation and business process change. In either way, IS becomes very important to the business and needs to be aligned with strategic objectives in order to justify massive investments. A number of studies showed that investments in IS and underlying IT resulted in added business value if they are truly connected with strategic business objectives. In that sense proliferation of governance of enterprise IT helps companies manage, or rather, governs IS as a primary business function with executive management involved in making a decision about IS and IT. The quality of IT governance is rising with the large number of decisions about IS made by executive management, not IT departments. The more executive management is engaged in making a decision about IS and IT, the IT governance is of better quality. In this paper, the practice of governing the enterprise IT will be investigated on a sample of the largest 100 Croatian companies. Research questions posed here will reveal if there are some formal IT governance mechanisms, are there any differences in perceived role of IS and IT between CIOs (Chief Information Officers) and CEOs (Chief Executive Officers) of the sampled companies and what are the mechanisms to govern massive investment in enterprise IT.

Keywords: IT governance, governance of enterprise IT, information system auditing, operational efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
4209 Overview of the Public Service Executive Training System in Hungary

Authors: Csilla Paksi-Petró

Abstract:

The Hungarian national public administration training system providing continuous, lifelong further training to some ten thousand executives in public administration was launched in 2014, adding skills and competency development to the previous training solutions, which had a mainly legal and professional approach. The executive training system is being continuously developed since tackling the existing qualitative, and quantitative challenges calls for the introduction of novel, innovative solutions. With a gap-filling character, this study presents, in brief, the last eight years of system of executive training in public administration, supported by the outcomes of the author's empirical research, makes suggestions for the possible directions of its further development. Through this article, the reader may obtain an overview of the current Hungarian civil service further training system, its institution system, the method of its application, its target groups, its results, and its development prospects. By reading the article, the reader will get acquainted with the good practices of the Hungarian civil service further training system.

Keywords: coaching, e-learning, executive development, further-training

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
4208 The Role of Executive Functions and Emotional Intelligence in Leadership: A Neuropsychological Perspective

Authors: Chrysovalanto Sofia Karatosidi, Dimitra Iordanoglou

Abstract:

The overlap of leadership skills with personality traits, beliefs, values, and the integration of cognitive abilities, analytical and critical thinking skills into leadership competencies raises the need to segregate further and investigate them. Hence, the domains of cognitive functions that contribute to leadership effectiveness should also be identified. Organizational cognitive neuroscience and neuroleadership can shed light on the study of these critical leadership skills. As the first part of our research, this pilot study aims to explore the relationships between higher-order cognitive functions (executive functions), trait emotional intelligence (EI), personality, and general cognitive ability in leadership. Twenty-six graduate and postgraduate students were assessed on neuropsychological tests that measure important aspects of executive functions (EF) and completed self-reported questionnaires about trait EI, personality, leadership styles, and leadership effectiveness. Specifically, we examined four core EF—fluency (phonemic and semantic), information updating and monitoring, working memory, and inhibition of prepotent responses. Leadership effectiveness was positively associated with phonemic fluency (PF), which involves mental flexibility, in turn, an increasingly important ability for future leaders in this rapidly changing world. Transformational leadership was positively associated with trait EI, extraversion, and openness to experience, a result that is following previous findings. The relationship between specific EF constructs and leadership effectiveness emphasizes the role of higher-order cognitive functions in the field of leadership as an individual difference. EF brings a new perspective into leadership literature by providing a direct, non-invasive, scientifically-valid connection between brain function and leadership behavior.

Keywords: cognitive neuroscience, emotional intelligence, executive functions, leadership

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
4207 Cross-sectional Developmental Trajectories of Executive Function and Relations to Theory of Mind in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Evdokia Tagkouli, Vassiliki Ntre, Artemios Pehlivanidis, Stella Tsermentseli, Gerasimos Kolaitis, Katerina Papanikolaou

Abstract:

Executive Function (EF) is a set of goal-directed cognitive skills essentially needed in problem-solving and social behavior. Developmental EF research has indicated that EF emerges early in life and marks dramatic changes before the age of 5. Research evidence has suggested that it may continue to develop up to adolescence as well, following the development of the prefrontal cortex. Over the last decade, research evidence has suggested distinguished domains of cool and hot EF, but traditionally the development of EF in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been examined mainly with tasks that address the “cool” cognitive aspects of EF. Thus, very little is known about the development of “hot” affective EF processes and whether the cross-sectional developmental pathways of cool and hot EF present similarities in ASD. Cool EF has also been proven to have a strong correlation with Theory of Mind (ToM) in young and middle childhood in typical development and in ASD, but information about the relationship of hot EF to ToM skills is minimal. The present study’s objective was to explore the age-related changes of cool and hot EF in ASD participants from middle childhood to adolescence, as well as their relationship to ToM. This study employed an approach of cross-sectional developmental trajectories to investigate patterns of cool and hot EF relative to chronological age within ASD. Eighty-two participants between 7 and 16 years of age were recruited to undertake measures that assessed cool EF (working memory, cognitive flexibility, planning & inhibition), hot EF (affective decision making & delay discounting) and ToM (false belief and mental state/emotion recognition). Results demonstrated that trajectories of all cool EF presented age-related changes in ASD (improvements with age). With regards to hot EF, affective decision-making presented age-related changes, but for delay discounting, there were no statistically significant changes found across younger and older ASD participants. ToM was correlated only to cool EF. Theoretical implications are discussed as the investigation of the cross-sectional developmental trajectories of the broader EF (cool and hot domains) may contribute to better defining cognitive phenotypes in ASD. These findings highlight the need to examine developmental trajectories of both hot and cool EF in research and clinical practice as they may aid in enhancing diagnosis or better-informed intervention programs.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, developmental trajectories, executive function, theory of mind

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
4206 Separation of Powers and Judicial Review vis-a-vis Judicial Overreach in South Africa: A Critical Analysis

Authors: Linda Muswaka

Abstract:

The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 ranks the Constitution as the Supreme law of the Republic. Law or conduct, inconsistent with the provisions of the Constitution is invalid to the extent of the inconsistency. The Constitution binds all persons and legislative, executive and judicial organs of the State at all levels of government. The Constitution embodies a Bill of Rights and expressly allows for judicial review. The introduction of a chapter of rights requires the judiciary to examine the decisions of the legislature and the executive. In a situation where these conflicts with the Bill of Rights, the judiciary have the constitutional power to overrule such decisions. In exercising its adjudicatory and interpretative powers, the judiciary sometimes arrives at unpopular decisions and accusations of judicial overreach are made. A problem, therefore, emerges on the issue of the separation of powers and judicial review. This paper proposes to, through the South African perspective, investigate the application of the doctrine of separation of powers and judicial review. In this regard, the qualitative method of research will be employed. The reason is that it is best suited to this type of study which entails a critical analysis of legal issues. The following findings are made: (i) a complete separation of powers is not possible. This is because some overlapping of the functions of the three branches of state are unavoidable; (ii) the powers vested in the judiciary does not make it more powerful than the executive and the legislature; (iii) interference by the judiciary in matters concerning other branches is not automatically, judicial overreach; and (iv) if both the executive and legislative organs of government adhere to their constitutional obligations there would be a decrease in the need for judicial interference through court adjudication. The researcher concludes by submitting that the judiciary should not derogate from their constitutionally mandated function of judicial review. The rationale being that that if the values contained in the Constitution are not scrupulously observed and their precepts not carried out conscientiously, the result will be a constitutional crisis of great magnitude.

Keywords: constitution, judicial review, judicial overreach, separation of powers

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
4205 Enhancing Critical Thinking through a Virtual Learning Environment

Authors: Diana Meeks

Abstract:

The use of a virtual learning environment (VLE), via the Second Life Platform has been a positive experience to enhance critical thinking, for executive graduate nursing practicum students. Due to the interest of faculty and students, the opportunity to immerse students via a virtual learning environment to enhance critical thinking related to the nurse executive role was explored. The College of Nursing realized the potential to enhance critical thinking and incorporated the Second Life, virtual learning environment platform into their graduate nursing program within their executive practicum course. The results from students and faculty regarding this experience have been positive. Students state the VLE platform has enhanced their critical thinking and interaction with peers. To date, course refinement incorporating a Second Life, virtual learning environment for the nurse executive practicum students continues. As a result, a designated subject matter expert has been designated for this course. The development and incorporation of the VLE approach will be presented.

Keywords: nursing, virtual learning environment, critical thinking, VLE

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
4204 The Implementation of Secton Method for Finding the Root of Interpolation Function

Authors: Nur Rokhman

Abstract:

A mathematical function gives relationship between the variables composing the function. Interpolation can be viewed as a process of finding mathematical function which goes through some specified points. There are many interpolation methods, namely: Lagrange method, Newton method, Spline method etc. For some specific condition, such as, big amount of interpolation points, the interpolation function can not be written explicitly. This such function consist of computational steps. The solution of equations involving the interpolation function is a problem of solution of non linear equation. Newton method will not work on the interpolation function, for the derivative of the interpolation function cannot be written explicitly. This paper shows the use of Secton method to determine the numerical solution of the function involving the interpolation function. The experiment shows the fact that Secton method works better than Newton method in finding the root of Lagrange interpolation function.

Keywords: Secton method, interpolation, non linear function, numerical solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
4203 Chronic Cognitive Impacts of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury during Aging

Authors: Camille Charlebois-Plante, Marie-Ève Bourassa, Gaelle Dumel, Meriem Sabir, Louis De Beaumont

Abstract:

To the extent of our knowledge, there has been little interest in the chronic effects of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) on cognition during normal aging. This is rather surprising considering the impacts on daily and social functioning. In addition, sustaining a mTBI during late adulthood may increase the effect of normal biological aging in individuals who consider themselves normal and healthy. The objective of this study was to characterize the persistent neuropsychological repercussions of mTBI sustained during late adulthood, on average 12 months prior to testing. To this end, 35 mTBI patients and 42 controls between the ages of 50 and 69 completed an exhaustive neuropsychological assessment lasting three hours. All mTBI patients were asymptomatic and all participants had a score ≥ 27 at the MoCA. The evaluation consisted of 20 standardized neuropsychological tests measuring memory, attention, executive and language functions, as well as information processing speed. Performance on tests of visual (Brief Visuospatial Memory Test Revised) and verbal memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and WMS-IV Logical Memory subtest), lexical access (Boston Naming Test) and response inhibition (Stroop) revealed to be significantly lower in the mTBI group. These findings suggest that a mTBI sustained during late adulthood induces lasting effects on cognitive function. Episodic memory and executive functions seem to be particularly vulnerable to enduring mTBI effects.

Keywords: cognitive function, late adulthood, mild traumatic brain injury, neuropsychology

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
4202 An Examination of the Powers of the Executive to Continued Detention of Suspects in Disobedience to Court Orders

Authors: Chukwuemeka Castro Nwabuzor

Abstract:

The 2015 Administration of Criminal Justice Act in Nigeria clearly sets out conditions for bail for felonies, lesser offenses and capital offenses. Even where the conditions for bail are met, granting an application for bail is not automatic as it is subject to the discretion of the court. Where the court, however, grants bail to an accused, the detaining authority which usually is the executive arm of government is bound to comply with the order of the court. This paper discusses the constitutionality of the continued detention of criminal suspects in disobedience to an order of the court and in the absence of an appeal. Particularly, the paper looks at the rights to personal liberty, the dignity of the human person and also the presumption of innocence which remains one of the crucial pillars of our criminal jurisprudence. The paper analyses the reasons posed by the executive for the continued detention of a suspect including State security and security of the suspect and questions whether the reasons are reasonable justifiable in a constitutional democratic society and whether they breach the principles of separation of powers. The paper concludes that the continued detention criminal of suspects in disobedience to court orders constitutes contempt of court and dishonours the principles of separation of powers enshrined in the Nigerian Constitution. This paper makes a strong case for the donation of more enforceable powers to the judiciary particularly with regards to the granting of compensation orders against the executive and ensuring compliance by the executive to bail orders.

Keywords: breach of fundamental rights, contempt of court, discretion of court, right to bail, separation of powers

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
4201 Executive Function Assessment with Aboriginal Australians

Authors: T. Keiller, E. Hindman, P. Hassmen, K. Radford, L. Lavrencic

Abstract:

Background: Psychosocial disadvantage is associated with impaired cognitive abilities, with executive functioning (EF) abilities particularly vulnerable. EF abilities strongly predict general daily functioning, educational and career prospects, and health choices. A reliable and valid assessment of EF is important to support appropriate care and intervention strategies. However, evidence-based EF assessment tools for use with Aboriginal Australians are limited. Aim and Method: This research aims to develop and validate a culturally appropriate EF tool for use with indigenous Australians. To this end, Study One aims to review current literature examining the benefits and disadvantages of current EF assessment tools for use with Indigenous Australians. Study Two aims to collate expert opinion on the strengths and weaknesses of various current EF assessment tools for use with Indigenous Australians using Delphi methodology with experienced psychologists (n = 10). The initial two studies will inform the development of a culturally appropriate assessment tool. Study Three aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of the tool with an Indigenous sample living in the New South Wales Mid-North Coast. The study aims to quantify the predictive validity of this tool via comparison to functionality predictors and neuropsychological assessment scores. Study Four aims to collect qualitative data surrounding the feasibility and acceptability of the tool among indigenous Australians and health professionals. Expected Results: Findings from this research are likely to inform cognitive assessment practices and tool selection for health professionals conducting cognitive assessments with Indigenous Australians. Improved assessment of EF will inform appropriate care and intervention strategies for individuals with EF deficits.

Keywords: aboriginal Australians, assessment tool, cognition, executive functioning

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
4200 Authority and Function of Administrative Organs According to the Constitution: A Construction of Democracy in the Administrative Law of Indonesia

Authors: Andhika Danesjvara, Nur Widyastanti

Abstract:

The constitution regulates the forms, types, and powers of sState organs in a government. The powers of the organs are then regulated in more detail in the legislation. One of these organs is a government organ, headed by a president or by another name that serves as the main organizer of government. The laws and regulations will govern how the organs of government shall exercise their authority and functions. In a modern state, the function of enacting laws or called executive power does not exercise the functions of government alone, but there are other organs that help the government run the country. These organs are often called government agencies, government accelerating bodies, independent regulatory bodies, commissions, councils or other similar names. The legislation also limits the power of officials within the organs to keep from abusing its authority. The main question in this paper is whether organs are the implementation of a democratic country, or as a form of compromise with the power of stakeholders. It becomes important to see how the administrative organs perform their functions. The administrative organs that are bound by government procedures work in the public service; therefore the next question is how far the function of public service is appropriate and not contradictory to the constitution.

Keywords: administrative organs, constitution, democracy, government

Procedia PDF Downloads 138