Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 51

Search results for: postcolonial

51 Genre Hybridity and Postcolonialism in 'Chairil: The Voice of Indonesia's Decolonisation'

Authors: Jack Johnstone

Abstract:

This research presents postcolonial translation as an approach to eradicate traces of colonialism in former colonies. An example of demonstrating postcolonial translation in the Indonesian context is in Hasan Aspahani's Chairil, a biographical narrative and history book based on the personal life of a well-known Indonesian poet and writer, Chairil Anwar (1922-1949) in Dutch occupied Indonesia. This postcolonial translation approach has been applied in the first five chapters on his early years under Dutch colonization, in an attempt to show a postcolonialised TT. This approach aims to demonstrate the postcolonial refutation of the Dutch colonial language to convey the Indonesian setting to target readers. It is also designed to explicate the summary of the book as well as my attempt to apply postcolonial translation as a strategy to reject the Dutch colonial terms in this book. The data conveys 26 important examples of the ST and TT, in consideration of the chosen three factors of culture, forced-Europeanisation, and cross-genre between a biographical narrative and history under categories of Cultural Bound Objects, Politics and Place. However, the 10 selected examples will be analyzed in the Analysis Chapter, which are discussed at word, sentence, and paragraph level. As well, the translation strategies used, namely retention, substitution and specification on four main examples, on the methods utilized to achieve a postcolonialised translation that attempts to 1) examine the way the alteration of the TT can affect the message portrayed within the ST, 2) show the notion of disagreement between the Dutch colonizers and colonized Indonesians on their views on the way Indonesia should be governed and 3) present a translation that reverses the inequality between the superior colonials and inferior Indigenous Indonesians during the Dutch colonial era.

Keywords: Chairil, Dutch colonialism, Indonesia, postcolonial translation

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50 Edward Said and the Dislocation of the Exiled Self

Authors: Majed Alobudi

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Edward Said is considered among the most prominent figures in postcolonial theoretical studies and his work has largely influenced critical discussion for many decades. And in the globalized world of today where immigration and dislocation are intense and thoroughly discussed, Said`s views on these issues seem more relevant than ever. This paper will endeavor to bring together Said`s theoretical texts and other writings on immigration and exile in parallel. The aim is to try to find a better understanding of Said`s theories on dislocation and exile theoretically and personally. The combination of these two strands of narrative will eventually shed more light on self location in postcolonial theories and further the understanding of Said's theories and personal life narratives. The paper propose the difficulty dislocation poses in counter colonial narratives such as those written by Said. As an exile, the mission of defining the self and the other becomes obscure when place becomes impossible or prohibited. The clear result becomes a self which proclaims rather than inhabits reality, a treat Said criticized in colonial representation. The self becomes trapped between the worlds of distant reality of dislocation and the estranged world of exile. The outcome would reveal a more weakened attempt at defining the self and countering the postcolonial narrative. The reason for such confusion and contradiction is directly connected to place and dis-location. To summarize, the paper proposes to examine and investigate the implications exile and dislocation have inflected on Said as a prominent postcolonial figure and how that affects his theories and personal life. The outcome, it is argued, would be a vast and lasting effect which such colonial and postcolonial phenomenon have on personal and theoretical narratives written by Said.

Keywords: Edward Said, exile, postcolonialism, dislocation

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49 Women from the Margins: An Exploration of the African Women Marginalization in the South African Context from Postcolonial Feminist Perspective

Authors: Goodness Thandi Ntuli

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As one of the sub-Saharan African countries, South Africa has a majority of women living at the receiving end of all ferocious atrocities, afflictions and social ills such as utter poverty, unemployment, morbidity, sexual exploitation and abuse, gender-based and domestic violence. The response to these social ills that permeate the South African context like wildfire requires postcolonial feminism as a lens which needs to directly address this particular context. In the empirical study that was conducted among the Zulu people about Zulu young women in the South African context, it was found that a postcolonial young woman has a lot of social challenges that militate against her. In her struggle to liberate herself, there are layers of oppression that she has to deal with before attaining emancipation of any kind. These layers of oppression emanate from postcolonial effects on cultural norms that come with patriarchal issues, racial issues as the woman of colour and socio-economic issues as the poverty-stricken marginalised woman. Such layers also render marginalized women voiceless on many occasions, and hence the kind of feminism that needs to be applied in this context has to give them a voice, worth and human dignity that they deserve. From the postcolonial feminist perspective, this paper examines the condition of women from the margins and seeks the ways in which the layers of oppression could be disengaged. In the process of the severed layers of oppression, these women can be uplifted to becoming the women of worth, restored to life-giving dignity from the inferiority complex of racial discrimination and liberation from all forms of patriarchy and its upshots that keep them bound by gender inequality. This requires, in particular, postcolonial feminism that would find profound ways of reaching into the deep-seated socialization and internalization of every kind of prejudice against women. It is the kind of feminism that questions the status core even among those who consider themselves feminists. With the ruination of all postcolonial layers of oppression, women in the margins could find real emancipation that they have always longed for through feminism that will take into consideration their context. This calls for the rethinking of feminism in different contexts because the conditions of the oppressed woman of the South cannot be the same as the conditions of the woman who considers herself oppressed in the North.

Keywords: exploration, feminism, postcolonial, margins, South African, women

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48 Obioma's 'The Fishermen' and the Redefinition of African Postcolonial Narrative Tragedy

Authors: Ezechi Onyerionwu

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If there is a modern world literary culture that has so tremendously patronized the tragic mode, it has to be that of Africa, and this has been largely true to the extent that the African socio-historical process has been given strong projection by its literature and other art forms. From the three-century-long transatlantic slave trade which brutally translocated millions of Africans to the ‘outermost parts of the earth’, to the vicious partitioning of Africa among European powers and the subsequent imposition of colonial authority on a pulverized people, Africa has really been at the receiving end of the big negatives of global transactions. The African tale has largely been one long tragic narrative. However, the postcolonial African tragic saga has presented an interesting variety of forms and approaches, which have seen to the production of some of the most thought-provoking and acclaimed African novels of the late 20th and early 21st century. Some of the defining characteristics of the African tragic prose has been: the exploration of the many neocolonial implications of the African contemporary existence; the significance of the robust interplay between the essentially foreign, and the originally indigenous elements of the modern African society; and the implosive aftermaths of the individual modern African’s attempt to rationalize his position at the centre of a very complex society. Obioma’s incredible novel, The Fishermen, is in many ways, a classic of the African postcolonial narrative tragedy. The reasons for this bold categorization would occupy the present paper.

Keywords: African narrative tragedy, neocolonialism, postcolonial literature, twenty first century African literature

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47 Identifying the Faces of colonialism: An Analysis of Gender Inequalities in Economic Participation in Pakistan through Postcolonial Feminist Lens

Authors: Umbreen Salim, Anila Noor

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This paper analyses the influences and faces of colonialism in women’s participation in economic activity in postcolonial Pakistan, through postcolonial feminist economic lens. It is an attempt to probe the shifts in gender inequalities that have existed in three stages; pre-colonial, colonial, and postcolonial times in the Indo-Pak subcontinent. It delves into an inquiry of pre-colonial as it is imperative to understand the situation and context before colonisation in order to assess the deviations associated with its onset. Hence, in order to trace gender inequalities this paper analyses from Mughal Era (1526-1757) that existed before British colonisation, then, the gender inequalities that existed during British colonisation (1857- 1947) and the associated dynamics and changes in women’s vulnerabilities to participate in the economy are examined. Followed by, the postcolonial (1947 onwards) scenario of discriminations and oppressions faced by women. As part of the research methodology, primary and secondary data analysis was done. Analysis of secondary data including literary works and photographs was carried out, followed by primary data collection using ethnographic approaches and participatory tools to understand the presence of coloniality and gender inequalities embedded in the social structure through participant’s real-life stories. The data is analysed using feminist postcolonial analysis. Intersectionality has been a key tool of analysis as the paper delved into the gender inequalities through the class and caste lens briefly touching at religion. It is imperative to mention the significance of the study and very importantly the practical challenges as historical analysis of 18th and 19th century is involved. Most of the available work on history is produced by a) men and b) foreigners and mostly white authors. Since the historical analysis is mostly by men the gender analysis presented misses on many aspects of women’s issues and since the authors have been mostly white European gives it as Mohanty says, ‘under western eyes’ perspective. Whereas the edge of this paper is the authors’ deep attachment, belongingness as lived reality and work with women in Pakistan as postcolonial subjects, a better position to relate with the social reality and understand the phenomenon. The study brought some key results as gender inequalities existed before colonisation when women were hidden wheel of stable economy which was completely invisible. During the British colonisation, the vulnerabilities of women only increased and as compared to men their inferiority status further strengthened. Today, the postcolonial woman lives in deep-rooted effects of coloniality where she is divided in class and position within the class, and she has to face gender inequalities within household and in the market for economic participation. Gender inequalities have existed in pre-colonial, during colonisation and postcolonial times in Pakistan with varying dynamics, degrees and intensities for women whereby social class, caste and religion have been key factors defining the extent of discrimination and oppression. Colonialism may have physically ended but the coloniality remains and has its deep, broad and wide effects in increasing gender inequalities in women’s participation in the economy in Pakistan.

Keywords: colonialism, economic participation, gender inequalities, women

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46 A Multidimensional Analysis of English as a Medium of Instruction in Algerian Higher Education: Policy, Practices and Attitudes

Authors: Imene Medfouni

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In the context of postcolonial Algeria, language policy, language planning as well as language attitudes have recently stirred up contested debates in higher education system. This linguistic and politically-oriented conflict have constantly created a complex environment for learning. In the light of this observation, English language situates itself at the core of this debate with respects to its international status and potential influences. This presentation is based on ongoing research that aims to gain a better understanding of the introduction of English as a medium of instruction (EMI) in a postcolonial context, marked by multilingualism and language conflict. This research offers interesting insights to critically explore EMI from different perspectives: policy, practices, and attitudes. By means of methodological triangulation, this research integrates a mixed approach, whereby the sources of data triangulation will be elicited from the following methods: classroom observations, document analysis, focus groups, questionnaires and interviews. Preliminary findings suggest that English language might not replace French status in Algerian universities because of the latter strong presence and diffusion within Algerian linguistic landscape.

Keywords: English as a lingua franca, English as a medium of instruction, language policy and planning, multilingualism, postcolonial contexts, World Englishes

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45 Manifestation of Hybridity in Marie Jones’s "Stones in His Pockets"

Authors: Mahsa Mahjoub Laleh, Nasser Dasht Peyma

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This paper explores Marie Jones’s Stones in His Pockets in the light of the postcolonial notion of hybridity. The play is a tragicomedy about a small village in Ireland where many of the locales are extras in a Hollywood film. The actions of the play revolve around a local teenager named Sean who has been vilipended by a famous film star. The Sean character commits suicide by drowning himself with stones in his pockets. This paper explored how the attempts to gain cultural identity is manifested in Marie Jones’s play and how authority causes a change in the culture and destiny of people. Apparently, the play demonstrates that the political, economic and social realities directly affect people’s destiny and identity.

Keywords: cultural identity, hybridity, identity, postcolonial

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44 Literature as a Strategic Tool to Conscientise Africans: An Attempt by Postcolonial Writers and Critics to Reverse the Socio-Economics Imbalances of Colonialism

Authors: Lutendo Nendauni

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Colonialism breaks things, colonisers exploded native cultural solidarity, producing the spiritual confusion, psychic wounding, and economic exploitation of a new and dominated ‘other’. Colonialism as the cultural and economic exploitation began when the West defended in their seizure of foreign territories for the exploitation of its natural resources; this resulted in brutal socio-economic imbalances. The Western profited at the detriment of the weak Africa. However, colonialism has since passed, but the effects are still evident culturally, socially, and economically. This paper explored how postcolonial writers and critics attempt to reverse the socio-economic imbalances resulting from the fragmentation of colonialism, with a focus on the play 'I will Marry When I Want' by Ngugi wa Thiong’o and Ngugi wa Mirii, as a primary text. Using qualitative discourse-textual analysis as the research methodology, the researcher purposively extracts discourse segments from the text for analysis and interpretation. The findings reveal that Postcolonial critics and writers attempt to reverse the socio-economic effects of colonialism through various counter discourses; their literature is concerned with the destruction of colonised identity, the search for this identity, and its assertion. It is manifest in the text that writers offer corrective views about Africans; they stress that they write their literary texts to conscientise their fellow Africans. Postcolonial writers and critics argue that language is a carrier of culture and that the only way to break free from colonial influence is by not adopting a foreign language. They further through their poems, novels, plays, and music strategically shine the spotlight on the previously nameless and destitute people so that they can develop the human spirit’s desire to overcome defeat, socio-political deprivation, and isolation.

Keywords: colonialism, postcoloniality, critics, socio-economic imbalances

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43 A Postcolonial Feminist Exploration of Zulu Girl Child’s Position and Gender Dynamics in Religio-Cultural Context

Authors: G. T. Ntuli

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This paper critically examines the gender dynamics of a Zulu girl child in her religio-cultural context from the postcolonial feminist perspective. As one of the former colonized ethnic groups in the South African context, the Zulu tribe used to have particular and contextual religio-cultural ways of a girl’s upbringing. This included traditional and cultural norms that any member of the community could not infringe without serious repercussions from the community members. However, the postcolonial social position of a girl child within this community became ambiguous and unpredictable due to colonial changes that enhanced gender dynamics that propelled tribal communities into deeper patriarchal structures. In the empirical study conducted within the Zulu context, which investigated the retrieval of ubuntombi (virginity) as a Zulu cultural heritage, identity and sex education as a path to adulthood, it was found that a Zulu girl child’s social position is geared towards double oppression due to gender dynamics that she experiences in her lifetime. It is these gender dynamics that are examined in this paper from the postcolonial feminist perspective. These gender dynamics are at play from the birth of a girl child, developmental stage to puberty and marriage rituals. These rituals and religio-cultural practices are meant to shape and mold a ‘good woman’ in the Zulu cultural context but social gender inequality that elevates males over females propel women social status into life denying peripheral positions. Consequently, in the place of a ‘good woman’ in the communal view, an oppressed and dehumanized woman becomes the outcome of such gender dynamics, more often treated with contempt, despised and violated in many demeaning ways. These do not only leave women economically and socio-politically impoverished, but also having to face violence of all kinds such as domestic, emotional, sexual and gender-based violence that are increasingly becoming a scourge in some of the sub-Saharan African countries including South Africa. It is for this reason that this paper becomes significant, not only within the Zulu context where the research was conducted, but also in all the countries that practice and promote patriarchal tendencies in the name of religio-cultural practices. There is a need for a different outlook as to what it means to be a ‘good woman’ in the cultural context, because if the goodness of a woman is determined by life denying cultural practices, such practices need to be deconstructed and discarded.

Keywords: feminist, gender dynamics, postcolonial, religio-cultural, Zulu girl child

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42 A Desire to be ‘Recognizable and Reformed’: Natives’ Identity in Walcott’s “Dream on Monkey Mountain”

Authors: S. Khurram, N. Mubashar

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The paper examines, through the lens of Postcolonial Theory, how natives resist and react in Derrek Walcott’s “Dream on Monkey Mountain”. It aims at how natives, for being ‘recognized and reformed’, mimic and adapt the white’s ways of living. It also focuses how Walcott expresses natives’ reaction when they cannot construct their identity. Moreover, the paper exploits the Homi. K Bhaba’s concept of Mimicry and Berry’s concepts of Hybridity to explain Caribbean native’s plight. Furthermore, it bring forth Walcott’s deep insight into the psychology of the Caribbean natives. He digs deep into the colonial discourse to reconstruct post-colonial identity and he, as a post-colonial writer, does so by deconstructing colonial ideology of racism by resisting against it.

Keywords: postcolonial theory, mimicry, hybridity, reaction

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41 A Postcolonial View Analysis on the Structural Rationalism Influence in Indonesian Modern Architecture

Authors: Ryadi Adityavarman

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The study is an analysis by using the postcolonial theoretical lens on the search for a distinctive architectural identity by architect Maclaine Pont in Indonesia in the early twentieth century. Influenced by progressive architectural thinking and enlightened humanism at the time, Pont applied the fundamental principles of Structural Rationalism by using a creative combination of traditional Indonesian architectural typology and innovative structural application. The interpretive design strategy also celebrated creative use of local building materials with sensible tropical climate design response. Moreover, his holistic architectural scheme, including inclusion of local custom of building construction, represents the notion of Gesamkunstwerk. By using such hybrid strategy, Maclaine Pont intended to preserve the essential cultural identity and vernacular architecture of the indigenous. The study will chronologically investigate the evolution of Structural Rationalism architecture philosophy of Viollet-le-Duc to Hendrik Berlage’s influential design thinking in the Dutch modern architecture, and subsequently to the Maclaine Pont’s innovative design in Indonesia. Consequently, the morphology analysis on his exemplary design works of ITB campus (1923) and Pohsarang Church (1936) is to understand the evolutionary influence of Structural Rationalism theory. The postmodern analysis method is to highlight the validity of Pont’s idea in the contemporary Indonesian architecture within the culture of globalism era.

Keywords: Indonesian modern architecture, postcolonial, structural rationalism, critical regionalism

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40 A Foucauldian Analysis of Postcolonial Hybridity in a Kuwaiti Novel

Authors: Annette Louise Dupont

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Background and Introduction: Broadly defined, hybridity is a condition of racial and cultural ‘cross-pollination’ which arises as a result of contact between colonized and colonizer. It remains a highly contested concept in postcolonial studies as it is implicitly underpinned by colonial notions of ‘racial purity.’ While some postcolonial scholars argue that individuals exercise significant agency in the construction of their hybrid subjectivities, others underscore associated experiences of exclusion, marginalization, and alienation. Kuwait and the Philippines are among the most disparate of contemporary postcolonial states. While oil resources transformed the former British Mandate of Kuwait into one of the world’s richest countries, enduring poverty in the former US colony of the Philippines drives a global diaspora which produces multiple Filipino hybridities. Although more Filipinos work in the Arabian Gulf than in any other region of the world, scholarly and literary accounts of their experiences of hybridization in this region are relatively scarce when compared to those set in North America, Australia, Asia, and Europe. Study Aims and Significance: This paper aims to address this existing lacuna by investigating hybridity and other postcolonial themes in a novel by a Kuwaiti author which vividly portrays the lives of immigrants and citizens in Kuwait and which gives a rare voice and insight into the struggles of an Arab-Filipino and European-Filipina. Specifically, this paper explores the relationships between colonial discourses of ‘black’ and ‘white’ and postcolonial discourses pertaining to ‘brown’ Filipinos and ‘brown’ Arabs, in order to assess their impacts on the protagonists’ hybrid subjectivities. Methodology: Foucault’s notions of discourse not only provide a conceptual basis for analyzing the colonial ideology of Orientalism, but his theories related to the social exclusion of the ‘mad’ also elucidate the mechanisms by which power can operate to marginalize, alienate and subjectify the Other, therefore a Foucauldian lens is applied to the analysis of postcolonial themes and hybrid subjectivities portrayed in the novel. Findings: The study finds that Kuwaiti and Filipino discursive practices mirror those of former white colonialists and colonized black laborers and that these discursive practices combine with a former British colonial system of foreign labor sponsorship to create a form of governmentality in Kuwait which is based on exclusion and control. The novel’s rich social description and the reflections of the key protagonist and narrator suggest that such fiction has a significant role to play in highlighting the historical and cultural specificities of experiences of postcolonial hybridity in under-researched geographic, economic, social, and political settings. Whereas hybridity can appear abstract in scholarly accounts, the significance of literary accounts in which the lived experiences of hybrid protagonists are anchored to specific historical periods, places and discourses, is that contextual particularities are neither obscured nor dehistoricized. Conclusions: The application of Foucauldian theorizations of discourse, disciplinary, and biopower to the analysis of this Kuwaiti literary text serves to extend an understanding of the effects of contextually-specific discourses on hybrid Filipino subjectivities, as well as a knowledge of prevailing social dynamics in a little-researched postcolonial Arabian Gulf state.

Keywords: Filipino, Foucault, hybridity, Kuwait

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39 Postcolonialism and Feminist Dialogics: Re-Imaging Cultural Exclusion in the Nigerian Feminist Fiction

Authors: Muhammad Dahiru

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A contestable polemic in postcolonialism is the Western Universalist conception of the people of a vast continent such as Africa as homogenous. Quite often, the postcolonial African woman is seen as an entity in western cultural and literary feminist theorisations. The debate between the so-called western feminist scholarship and the postcolonial/third world feminists that began in the late 1980s focuses on this universalisation of women’s concerns as monolithic. This article argues that the universalising assumption that all women share similar concerns in not only Africa as a continent but even in Nigeria as a country is misleading because of cultural differences. The article is a dialogic reading of Nigerian literature arguing that there is no culturally normative perspective on Nigerian feminist fiction because of the multifaceted and multicultural concerns of women writers from the different cultural regions in the country. The article concludes that this can better be read and appreciated through the lens of M. M. Bakhtin’s theory of dialogism.

Keywords: cultural exclusion, dialogics, Nigerian feminist fiction, postcolonialism

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38 Enriching Post-Colonial Discourse: An Appraisal of Doms Pagliawan’s Fire Extinguisher

Authors: Robertgie L. Pianar

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Post-colonial theory, post-colonialism, or Poco is a recently established literary theory. Consequently, not many literary works, local and international, have been subjected to its criticism. To help intellectualize local literary texts, in particular, through post-colonial discourse, this qualitative inquiry unfolded. Textual analysis was employed to describe, analyse, and interpret Doms Pagliawan’s Fire Extinguisher, a regional work of literature, grounded on the postcolonial concepts of Edward Said’s Otherness, Homi Bhabha’s Unhomeliness or Paralysis, and Frantz Fanon’s Cultural Resistance. The in-depth reading affirmed that the story contains those postcolonial attributes, revealing the following; (A) the presence of the colonizer, who successfully established colonial control over the colonized, the other, was found; (B) through power superimposition, the colonized character was silenced or paralyzed; and, (C) forms of cultural resistance from the colonized character were shown but no matter how its character avoids ‘postcolonial acts’, the struggle just intensifies, hence inevitable. Pagliawan’s Fire Extinguisher is thus a post-colonial text realizer between two differing cultures, the colonizer and the other. Results of this study may substantiate classroom discussions, both undergraduate and graduate classes, specifically in Philippine and World literature, 21st Century literature, readings in New English literatures, and literary theory and criticism courses, scaffolding learners’ grasp of post-colonialism as a major literary theory drawing classic exemplifications from this regional work.

Keywords: cultural resistance, otherness, post-colonialism, textual analysis, unhomeliness/paralysis

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37 Deconstructing the Dialectics of Gender: An Analysis of Nigerian Igbo Women's Writing

Authors: R. Vidhya

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Nigeria, the seat of canonical literature in Africa, though widely acclaimed as the literary capital of the continent, it failed to produce women writers in its literary arena till the 1960s. Only after 1966, with the publication of the first novel by a women writer, Nigeria saw the emergence of women’s writing through which the world witnessed an upsurge in the sensitization of women’s issues in Africa. The Nigerian Igbo women’s writing threw light on gender discrimination in postcolonial Africa. Their works were instrumental in bringing a remarkable change in the perception of gender in a male dominated society. The social mindscape of the land which strongly believed that feminist ideologies could be highly detrimental to its patriarchal setup is slowly changed through the changing perspectives of gender. This paper aims to analyse the select works of Flora Nwapa, Buchi Emecheta and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie to deconstruct the dialectics of gender, which has been realised in the works of these women writers.

Keywords: gender discrimination, Igbo women's writings, postcolonial Africa, changing perspective

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36 Encounters with the Other Sisters of the Past: the Role of Colonial History and Memory in the Adjustment of the Postcolonial Female Identity

Authors: Fatiha Kaïd Berrahal, Nassima Kaïd, Djihad Affaf Selt

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The present paper is a comparative analysis of the Algerian writer Assia Djebar’s women of Algiers in Their Apartment (1982) and the Anglo-Egyptian Ahdaf Soueif’s The Map of Love (1999) foregrounded on the female protagonists’ painfully common colonial and patriarchal experiences, though in different geographical regions of North Africa. This study raises questions pertaining, first, to the emerging contemporary genre “Historiographic meta-fiction” in which the novels examined could be inscribed, then, the interplay of colonial history and personal memory that impinges on the development of the identity of the post-colonial female subject. As the novels alternate between the historical and the autobiographical, we currently seek to understand how it is pertinent and pressing for women to excavate the lost and occluded stories of the past for the adjustment of their present personal identities, which are undoubtedly an important part of the identity of a nation.

Keywords: postcolonial feminism, islamic feminism, memory, histoirographic metafiction

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35 Filmmaking with a Smartphone and National Cinema of Pakistan

Authors: Ahmad Bilal

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Digital and convergent media can be helpful in terms of acquiring film production skills and knowledge, and it has also reduced the cost of production. Thus, allowing filmmakers greater opportunities and access to the medium of film. Both these dimensions of new and convergent media have been challenging the established cinema of Pakistan, as traditionally, it has been controlled by the authorities through censorship policies. The use of the smartphone as a movie camera, editing machine, and a transmitter can further challenge the control in a postcolonial society. To explore the impact of new and convergent media on the art of filmmaking, a film 'Sohni Dharti: An untrue story' is produced. It is shot both on a smartphone and a Digital Single Lens Reflex Camera (DSLR), with almost zero budgets. It is distributed through Vimeo from Pakistan. This process reveals how the technologies that are available today, and the increased knowledge of film production that they bring, allow a more inclusive experience of the film production and distribution. At the same time, however, it also discloses the limitations that accompany new technologies within the context of a postcolonial society. This paper will investigate the role of technology to bring filmmaking at a level of pencil and paper.

Keywords: convergent media, filmmaking, smartphone, Pakistan

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34 The Family, Tradition and Change in Africa: The Perspective of Postcolonial African Fiction

Authors: Ayobami Kehinde

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The literary representations of the family, tradition and change in African literature offer an immense, and as yet little theorised area of literary scholarship. Therefore, this paper explores the nexus among the family, tradition and change in five purposively selected post-colonial African fiction: Chimamanda Adichie’s Purple Hibiscus, Wale Okediran’s Tenants of the House, J. M. Coetzee’s In the Heart of the Country, Tsitsi Dangrembga’s Nervous Condition and Meja Mwangi’s Striving for the Wind. The methodology centres on analysing, questioning, undermining and celebrating the family and its contemporary vicissitudes as depicted in the texts. This is with a view to exploring the postcolonial novel with references to concepts developed by major theorists in the field of postcolonial studies, including Frantz Fanon, Edward Said, Gayatri Spivak, Homi Bhabha, Kwame Appiah and Achille Mbembe. It is revealed that in spite of the fact that the family is a vital institution, the primary social unit in any community, an agent of acculturation and the first focus of development, independence and growth, the texts reflect a diversity of problems confronting the family unit in Africa. These include the multiple problems of disrupted family lives, enforced family separation, political and personal violence with the domestic environment. It is concluded that the post-colonial African novel is a quintessential weapon to analyse the continent, opening up to the reader the specific expressions and experiences of human lives and their wider contexts. Therefore, the post-colonial African novel is a primary socio-cultural indicator representing an immense variety of lived realities in the continent. The study, therefore, suggests a concerted concern with the preservation of traditional family structures and other related aspects, such as cultural values, spirituality, gender roles and mutual trust.

Keywords: family, African fiction, postcolonialism, African tradition, domestic dissonance

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33 A Conflict of Relations in Toni Morrison’s New World Fiction

Authors: Rajeswar Pal

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Toni Morrison’s novels belong to present day relations of Africans with the White peoples and tangible man-woman relations. Her literary criticism can be seen as a contribution to the debate over the revision of the canon that dominated much of the scholarship of the 1980s and 1990s. New Criticism began to give way to theories of cultural studies, feminist scholarship, postcolonial revisions and investigations of race and ethnicity. Morrison is concerned with the definition of the American literature whether it reflects an eternal, universal or transcending paradigm – a paradigm that separates it clearly and unequivocally Chicano or African-American or Asian-American or Native American literature. She sees evidence on an incursion of third world or so-called minority literature into a Eurocentric stronghold, which threatens power structures and leads to an upheaval of existing norms. We see women more aligned, cross-culturally, with nature; however, the very critical distinction is that within a white world, the alignment seems to lead towards individuation for women yet separation from white male culture, and within a black world the alignment leads towards individuation and connection to a ownership of a racial consciousness. Whether externally or internally, the characters of Morrison are marked with a sense of incompleteness and mutual conflict, which drives them towards some force of wholeness. Present study fucusses to elucidate and enunciate the man-woman relations and an individual cataclysmic conflict in their minds.

Keywords: tangible, postcolonial, ethnicity, paradigm, upheaval, alignment, elucidate, cataclysmic

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32 Women, Culture and Ambiguity: Postcolonial Feminist Critique of Lobola in African Culture and Society

Authors: Goodness Thandi Ntuli

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Some cultural aspects in the African context have a tendency of uplifting women while some thrust them into the worst denigration scenarios; hence African Women Theologians refer to culture as a ‘double edged sword. Through socialization and internalization of social norms, some women become custodians of life, denying aspects of the culture that are against them and hand them down to the next generation. This indirectly contributes to the perpetuation of patriarchal tendencies wherein women themselves uphold and endorse such tendencies to their own detriment. One of the findings of the empirical research study conducted among the Zulu young women in the South African context was that, on the one hand, lobola (the bride-price) is one of the cultural practices that contribute a great deal in the vilification of women. On the other hand, a woman whose lobola has been paid is highly esteemed in the cultural context not only by society at large but also by the implicated woman who takes pride in it. Consequently, lobola becomes an ambiguous cultural practice. Thus from the postcolonial feminist perspective, this paper examines and critiques lobola practice while also disclosing and exposing its deep seated cultural reinforcement that is life denying to women. The paper elucidates the original lobola as a cultural practice before colonization and how it became commercialized during colonial times. With commercialization in the modern world, lobola has completely lost its preliminary meaning and ceased to be a life-giving cultural practice, particularly for women. It turned out to be the worst cultural practice that demeans women to the extent that it becomes suicidal to women dignity because, in marriage, they become objects or property to the men who purchased them. Women objectification in marriage does not only leave them culturally trapped in what was perceived to be a good practice, but it also leads to women abuse and gender based or domestic violence. The research has indicated that this kind of violence is escalating and has become so pervasive in the South African context that the country is rated as one of the capital cities of violence against women in the world. Therefore, this paper demonstrates how cultural practices at times indirectly contribute to this national scourge that needs to be condemned, disparaged and rejected. Women in the African context where such cultural activities are still viewed as a norm are in desperate need for true liberation from such ambiguous cultural practices that leave them in the margins in spite of the earned social status they might have achieved.

Keywords: african, ambiguity, critique, culture, feminist, lobola, postcolonial, society

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31 Ubuntombi (Virginity) Among the Zulus: An Exploration of a Cultural Identity and Difference from a Postcolonial Feminist Perspective

Authors: Goodness Thandi Ntuli

Abstract:

The cultural practice of ubuntombi (virginity) among the Zulus is not easily understood from the outside of its cultural context. The empirical study that was conducted through the interviews and focus group discussions about the retrieval of ubuntombi as a cultural practice within the Zulu cultural community indicated that there is a particular cultural identity and difference that can be unearthed from this cultural practice. Being explored from the postcolonial feminist perspective, this cultural identity and difference is discerned in the way in which a Zulu young woman known as intombi (virgin) exercises her power and authority over her own sexuality. Taking full control of her own sexuality from the cultural viewpoint enables her not only to exercise her uniqueness in the midst of multiculturalism and pluralism but also to assert her cultural identity of being intombi. The assertion of the Zulu young woman’s cultural identity does not only empower her to stand on her life principles but also empowers her to lift herself up from the margins of the patriarchal society that otherwise would have kept her on the periphery. She views this as an opportunity for self-development and enhancement through educational opportunities that will enable her to secure a future with financial independence. The underlying belief is that once she has been educationally successful, she would secure a better job opportunity that will enable her to be self-sufficient and not to rely on any male provision for her sustenance. In this, she stands better chances of not being victimized by social patriarchal influences that generally keep women at the bottom of the socio-economic and political ladder. Consequently, ubuntombi (virginity) as a Zulu heritage and cultural identity becomes instrumental in the empowerment of the young women who choose this cultural practice as their adopted lifestyle. In addition, it is the kind of self-empowerment with the intrinsic motivation that works with the innate ability to resist any distraction from an individual’s set goals. It is thus concluded that this kind of motivation is a rare characteristic of the achievers in life. Once these young women adhere to their specified life principles, nothing can stop them from achieving the dreams of their hearts. This includes socio-economic autonomy that will ensure their liberation and emancipation as women in the midst of social and patriarchal challenges that militate against them in the hostile communities of their residence. Another hidden achievement would be to turn around the perception of being viewed as the “other”; instead, they will have to be viewed differently. Their difference lies in the turning around of the archaic kind of cultural practice into a modern tool of self-development and enhancement in contemporary society.

Keywords: cultural, difference, identity, postcolonial, ubuntombi, zulus

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30 From a Madwoman in the Attic to a Fairy Land: A Conversation with Antoinette in Jean Rhys's Wide Sargasso Sea

Authors: Prasenjit Panda

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Jean Rhys’s Wide Sargasso Sea, a prequel to Bronte’s Jane Eyre, explores the history of the other and gives voices to the people who were silenced and kept under the darkness of negation and denial for a long time. Jean Wide Sargasso Sea provides an alternative understanding of Charlotte Brontë’s mad Creole woman, i.e., Bertha Mason of Jane Eyre in the postcolonial context. Rhys transforms Charlotte Bronte’s Victorian romance into a realistic narrative. In doing so, she re-reads Bertha as Antoinette, the unspeakable figure of otherness, into an unnameable self, and creates a new stage for the inner self. She in the novel is no longer a lunatic heiress in Rochester’s attic rather in this novel she finds her fantasy, dream and most importantly, voice. Rhys peeps through the character of Antoinette through her fragmented memories, dreams, and identity. Antoinette’s identity is mutilated constantly in the conflicts between colonizers and colonized, male and female, black and white. We shall use postcolonial theories like Bhaba’s hybridity and third space as a methodology to reveal the dialectics of struggle of a doubly colonized woman.We shall see that Bertha Mason was neglected by Bronte because of her madness and was locked in the Rochester’s Attic, but here Rhys beautifully converts her madness as a language of Antoinette, a language for her protest, a language for her liberation, a language for her dreams. In this present paper, we shall try to show how Antoinette tries to free her soul and body from the clutches of her multiple existences, identity, and narratives.

Keywords: colonizer, dislocation, fragmented memories, identity, narratives

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29 Silencing in Urdu Resistance Literature: A Postcolonial Study of the Short Fiction Written between 1977 and 1988

Authors: Muhammad Sheeraz

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Literary responses to various forms of local and international oppressions can be found in all major Pakistani languages and their academic study is crucial to understand the local creative and critical mind. However, most of them have not yet received as much of scholarly attention as has the Anglophone Pakistani literature of this kind. One of the reasons for this indifference is that resistance literature is usually mistaken as incidental work produced in haste and thus not a serious subject or high art worthy of being considered critically. Literary criticism in the English language did not include this Urdu resistance literature because most of it has not yet been translated into English, and scholars proficient in Urdu and producing critical works in English have contented themselves to the critique of a few prominent writers of Urdu, for instance, Faiz Ahmad Faiz and Saadat Hassan Manto. While there is no denying the fact that they hold a significant position in Pakistani literature, the tradition of resistance is in no way limited to them. Bringing to the limelight other resistant voices from Urdu fiction, this qualitative research employs Barbara Harlow’s framework of postcolonial resistance literature to explore the strategy of silencing as used in twenty three short stories written between the military regime of Zia ul Haq (1977-1988) in Pakistan. The study shows that the writers of these Urdu short stories have not only recorded various tools of silencing employed by the oppressors but also represented various kinds of silences that were observed in the society. Moreover, they have also depicted how this silencing was dealt with by the writers and intellectual of the time. Thus, in the light of the analysis, it can be safely said that Urdu resistance literature notices, recounts, and theorizes silencing and silences within the local sociopolitical condition.

Keywords: resistance literature, Urdu short fiction, Zia ul Haq, postcolonialism

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28 Socio-Political Crisis in the North West and South West Regions of Cameroon and the Emergence of New Cultures

Authors: Doreen Mekunda

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This paper is built on the premise that the current socio-political crisis in the two restive regions of Cameroon, though enveloped with destructive and devastating trends (effects) on both property and human lives, is not without its strengths and merits. It is incontestable that many cultures, to a greater extent, are going to be destroyed as people forcibly move from war-stricken habitats to non-violent places. Many cultural potentials, traditional shrines, artifacts, art, and crafts, etc., are unknowingly or knowingly disfigured, and many other ugly things will, by the end of the crisis, affect the cultures of these two regions under siege and of the receiving population. A plethora of other problems like the persecution of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) for being displaced and blamed for increased crime rates and the existence of cultural and ethnic differences that produce both inter-tribal and interpersonal conflicts and conflicts between communities will abound. However, there is the emergence of rapid literature, and other forms of cultural productions, whether written or oral, is visible, thereby precipitating a rich cultural diversity due to the coming together of a variety of cultures of both the IDPs and the receiving populations, rapid urbanization, improvement of health-related issues, the rebirth of indigenous cultural practices, the development of social and lingua-cultural competences, dependence on alternative religions, faith and spirituality. Even financial and economic dependence, though a burden to others by IDPs, has its own merits as it improves the living standards of the IDPs. To be able to obtain plausible results, cultural materialism, which is a literary theory that hinges on the empirical study of socio-cultural systems within a materialist infrastructure-super-structure framework, is employed together with the postcolonial theory. Postcolonial theory because the study deals with postcolonial experiences/tenets of migration, hybridity, ethnicity, indignity, language, double consciousness, migration, center/margin binaries, and identity, amongst others. The study reveals that the involuntary movement of persons from their habitual homes brings about movement in cultures, thus, the emergence of new cultures. The movement of people who hold fast to their cultural heritage can only influence new forms of literature, the development of new communication competences, the rise of alternative religion, faith and spirituality, the re-emergence of customary and traditional legal systems that might have been abandoned for the new judicial systems, and above all the revitalization of traditional health care systems.

Keywords: alternative religion, emergence, socio-political crisis, spirituality, lingua-cultural competences

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27 Baring Witness, Bearing Withness: Paradoxes of Testimony in J.M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians

Authors: Alexandra Sweny

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This paper contends with the intersection between the act of witnessing and the act of reading in order to consider the relevance of literary testimony and fiction as tools for postcolonial readings of history. J. M. Coetzee's Waiting for the Barbarians elucidates what Primo Levi deems the 'paradoxical' task of testimony: that suffering can only be fully narrated by the sufferer themselves, whose voice and narrative capacity is often foreclosed by the very extent of their trauma. By examining the fictional Magistrate's position as both a reader and translator of history, this paper posits Waiting for the Barbarians as an ethical command against the appropriation of trauma.

Keywords: ethical criticism, limit-experience, postcolonialism, psychic trauma in literature, testimony

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26 Postcolonial Production and Transnational Circulation- A Critical Analysis of Kuwait's Contribution to Middle Eastern Cinema

Authors: Najat Alsheridah

Abstract:

Despite its major contribution to the production and distribution of film and cinema in the Middle East, the Kuwaiti film industry remains underresearched. Shortly after the discovery of oil in 1938, foreign filmmakers arrived to document the life and culture of Kuwaitis. The region's second cinema company, Cinescape, was established in the country in 1954, playing a significant role in the circulation of films in the Middle East. The industry has grown considerably, producing 37 films between 2010 and 2020, compared to 9 films in the first decade of the century and only three from 1970-2000. This research is one of the few attempts to provide a history of films in Kuwait as social practice, from its inception to the present day. A historical analysis of the Kuwaiti film industry presents significant challenges. Almost all of the early footage has been lost, and the filmmaking pioneers are no longer alive. This research uses interviews with contemporary directors, actors, and critics to reconstruct historical perspectives of film in Kuwait. In addition, this research uses a critical discourse analysis of industry texts, newspaper interviews, and government reports relating to film censorship and regulation. This materialist approach examines film as social practice, identifying the key social actors in the industry and examining its development in relation to the country's social, economic, and political situation. This research shows that the oil industry has both enabled and restricted the production and circulation of Kuwaiti film. Despite the colonial occupation, decades of regional conflict, and strict government censorship, the country's film industry has continued to contribute to the transnational circulation of stories representing the life and culture of Middle Eastern people. Moreover, the growing domestic film industry has replaced foreign filmmakers with new representations of Kuwaiti lived experience. A lack of government grants, film studies programs, and production infrastructure has contributed to the marginalization of the industry. However, this research provides original scholarly translations of Kuwaiti industry experts and an analysis of its history. This greater recognition by Middle Eastern film studies of Kuwait's contribution to social film history will help it continue growing.

Keywords: cinescape, kuwait, oil, postcolonial, transnational circulation, world cinema

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25 Biopolitics and Race in the Age of a Global Pandemic: Interactions and Transformations

Authors: Aistis ZekevicIus

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Biopolitical theory, which was first developed by Michel Foucault, takes into consideration the administration of life by implying a style of government based on the regulation of populations as its subject. The intensification of the #BlackLivesMatter movement and popular outcries against racial discrimination in the US health system have prompted us to reconsider the relationship between biopolitics and race in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on works by Foucault, Achille Mbembe and Nicholas Mirzoeff that transcend the boundaries of poststructuralism, critical theory and postcolonial studies, the paper suggests that the global pandemic has highlighted new aspects of the interplay between biopower and race by encouraging the search for scapegoats, deepening the structural racial inequality, and thus producing necropolitical regimes of exclusion.

Keywords: biopolitics, biopower, necropolitics, pandemic, race

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24 Narrating Irish Identity: Retrieving ‘Irishness’ in the Works of William Butler Yeats and Seamus Heaney

Authors: Rafik Massoudi

Abstract:

Irish identity continues to be discussed in various fields including social science, culture, literary humanities as well as political debates. In this context, Irishness had been usurped for a long time by the hegemonic power of the British Empire. That is why, Irish writers, in general, and Seamus Heaney along with William Butler Yeats, in particular, endeavored to retrieve this lost identity by shedding light on Irish history, folklore, communal traditions, landscape, indigenous people, language as well as culture. In this context, we may speak of a decolonizing attempt that allowed these writers to represent the autonomous Irish subjectivity by establishing an ethical relationship based on an extraordinary approach to the represented alterity. This article, indeed, places itself within the arena of postmodern, postcolonial discussions of the issue of identity and, particularly, of Irishness.

Keywords: identity, Irishess, narration, postcolonialism

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23 Comics as Third Space: An Analysis of the Continuous Negotiation of Identities in Postcolonial Philippines

Authors: Anna Camille V. Flores

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Comics in the Philippines has taken on many uses for the Filipino people. They have been sources of entertainment, education, and political and social commentaries. History has been witnessed to the rise and fall of Philippine comics but the 21st century is seeing a revival of the medium and the industry. It is within this context that an inquiry about Filipino identity is situated. Employing the analytical framework of postcolonialism, particularly Homi K. Bhabha’s concepts of Hybridity and the Third Space, this study analyzes three contemporary Philippine comics, Trese, Filipino Heroes League, and Dead Balagtas. The study was able to draw three themes that represent how Filipinos inhabit hybrid worlds and hybridized identities. First, the third space emerged through the use of hybrid worlds in the comics. Second, (re)imagined communities are established through the use of intertextual signifiers. Third, (re)negotiated identities are expressed through visual and narrative devices such as the use of Philippine mythology, historical and contemporary contexts, and language. In conclusion, comics can be considered as Third Space where these identities have the agency and opportunity to be expressed and represented.

Keywords: comics, hybridity and third space, Philippine comics, postcolonialism

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22 Documenting the Undocumented: Performing Counter-Narratives on Citizenship

Authors: Luis Pascasio

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In a time when murky debates on US immigration policy are polarizing a nation steeped in partisan and nativist politics, certain media texts are proposing to challenge the dominant ways in which immigrant discourses are shaped in political debates. The paper will examine how two media texts perform counter-hegemonic discourses against institutionalized concepts on citizenship. The article looks at Documented (2014), a documentary film, written and directed by Jose Antonio Vargas, a Pulitzer-winning journalist-turned-activist and a self-proclaimed undocumented immigrant; and DefineAmerican.com, an online media platform that articulates the convergence of multiple voices and discourses about post-industrial and post-semiotic citizenship. As sites of meaning production, the two media texts perform counter-narratives that inspire new forms of mediated social activism and postcolonial identities. The paper argues that a closer introspection of the media texts reveals emotional, thematic and ideological claims to an interrogation of a diasporic discourse on redefining the rules of inclusion and exclusion within the postmodern dialogic of citizenship.

Keywords: counter-narratives, documentary filmmaking, postmodern citizenship, diaspora media

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