Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2426

Search results for: symbolic play

2426 Symbolic Play and Language: A Developmental Relationship

Authors: Sherri Franklin-Guy

Abstract:

Play activities have long been utilized to support the development of expressive language in young children. More specifically, stages of symbolic play, or pretend play, have served as indicators of levels of cognitive development, the foundation of language. This presentation will examine the relationship between symbolic play and language development in toddlers and preschoolers. Implications for clinicians and educators will be discussed.

Keywords: cognition, language development, pretend play, symbolic play

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2425 Play-Based Approaches to Stimulate Language

Authors: Sherri Franklin-Guy

Abstract:

The emergence of language in young children has been well-documented and play-based activities that support its continued development have been utilized in the clinic-based setting. Speech-language pathologists have long used such activities to stimulate the production of language in children with speech and language disorders via modeling and elicitation tasks. This presentation will examine the importance of play in the development of language in young children, including social and pragmatic communication. Implications for clinicians and educators will be discussed.

Keywords: language development, language stimulation, play-based activities, symbolic play

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2424 Drama, a Microcosm of Life Experiences: An Analysis of Symbolic Order and Social Relationships in Olu Obafemi’s Play

Authors: Victor Ademulegun Arijeniwa

Abstract:

This is a sociolinguistic study of Olu Obafemi’s Naira Has No Gender as a microcosm of life experiences. The paper assesses how Olu Obafemi’s use of language in the dramatic world serves as both social relationships and symbolic order of communicative roadmap that are capable of yielding well expressed and richly articulated sociolinguistic implications. Being the interface between language and social institutions, sociolinguistics and its application is highly utilitarian in linguistics analysis, especially where the language of a text appears to be deeply tensed, such as found in dramatic texts. The aim of this paper has been (i) to assess the symbolic orderly presentation of form in Olu Obafemi’Naira Has No Gender; (ii) to find out the linguistic elements and textual organization that represent social relationships in Olu Obafemi’s Naira Has No Gender. Using qualitative research design in data generation with insights from John Gumperz Interactional Sociolinguistics Theory with particular reference to contextualization cues and miscommunication, the paper identifies the implication of the dramatic discourse on society.

Keywords: sociolinguistics, Microcosm, contextualisation, miscommunication variable, identity, symbolic order

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2423 The Development of Space-Time and Space-Number Associations: The Role of Non-Symbolic vs. Symbolic Representations

Authors: Letizia Maria Drammis, Maria Antonella Brandimonte

Abstract:

The idea that people use space representations to think about time and number received support from several lines of research. However, how these representations develop in children and then shape space-time and space-number mappings is still a debated issue. In the present study, 40 children (20 pre-schoolers and 20 elementary-school children) performed 4 main tasks, which required the use of more concrete (non-symbolic) or more abstract (symbolic) space-time and space-number associations. In the non-symbolic conditions, children were required to order pictures of everyday-life events occurring in a specific temporal order (Temporal sequences) and of quantities varying in numerosity (Numerical sequences). In the symbolic conditions, they were asked to perform the typical time-to-position and number-to-position tasks by mapping time-related words and numbers onto lines. Results showed that children performed reliably better in the non-symbolic Time conditions than the symbolic Time conditions, independently of age, whereas only pre-schoolers performed worse in the Number-to-position task (symbolic) as compared to the Numerical sequence (non-symbolic) task. In addition, only older children mapped time-related words onto space following the typical left-right orientation, pre-schoolers’ performance being somewhat mixed. In contrast, mapping numbers onto space showed a clear left-right orientation, independently of age. Overall, these results indicate a cross-domain difference in the way younger and older children process time and number, with time-related tasks being more difficult than number-related tasks only when space-time tasks require symbolic representations.

Keywords: space-time associations, space-number associations, orientation, children

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2422 Motherhood Practices and Symbolic Capital: A Study of Teen Mothers in Northeastern Thailand

Authors: Ampai Muensit, Maniemai Thongyou, Patcharin Lapanun

Abstract:

Teen mothers have been viewed as ‘a powerless’ facing numerous pressures including poverty, immaturity of motherhood, and especially social blame.This paper argues that, to endure as an agent, they keep struggling to overcome all difficulties in their everyday life by using certain symbols to negotiate the situations they encounter, and to obtain a social position without surrendering to the dominating socio-cultural structure. Guided by Bourdieu’s theory of practice, this study looks at how teen mothers use symbolic capital in their motherhood practices. Although motherhood practices can be found in different contexts with various types of capital utilization, this paper focuses on the use of symbolic capitals in teen mothers’ practices within the contexts of the community. The study employs a qualitative methodology; data was collected from 12 informants through life history, in-depth interview, observation and the content analytical method was employed for data analysis. The findings show that child and motherhood were key symbolic capitals in motherhood practices. Employing such capitals teen mothers can achieve an acceptance from community – particularly from the new community. These symbolic capitals were the important sources of teen mothers’ power to turn the tide by changing their status – from “the powerless” to be “the agent”. The use of symbolic capitals also related to habitus of teen mothers in better compromising for an appropriate social position.

Keywords: teen mother, motherhood practice, symbolic capital, community

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2421 Teachers’ Involvement in their Designed Play Activities in a Chinese Context

Authors: Shu-Chen Wu

Abstract:

This paper will present a study by the author which investigates Chinese teachers’ perspectives on learning at play and their teaching activities in the designed play activities. It asks the question of how Chinese teachers understand learning at play and how they design play activities in the classroom. Six kindergarten teachers in Hong Kong were invited to select and record exemplary play episodes which contain the largest amount of learning elements in their own classrooms. Applying video-stimulated interview, eight teachers in two focus groups were interviewed to elicit their perspectives on designing play activity and their teaching activities. The findings reveal that Chinese teachers have a very structured representation of learning at play, and the phenomenon of uniformity of teachers’ act was found. The contributions of which are important and useful for professional practices and curricular policies.

Keywords: learning at play, teacher involvement, video-stimulated interview, uniformity

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2420 Dissimilarity-Based Coloring for Symbolic and Multivariate Data Visualization

Authors: K. Umbleja, M. Ichino, H. Yaguchi

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a coloring method for multivariate data visualization by using parallel coordinates based on dissimilarity and tree structure information gathered during hierarchical clustering. The proposed method is an extension for proximity-based coloring that suffers from a few undesired side effects if hierarchical tree structure is not balanced tree. We describe the algorithm by assigning colors based on dissimilarity information, show the application of proposed method on three commonly used datasets, and compare the results with proximity-based coloring. We found our proposed method to be especially beneficial for symbolic data visualization where many individual objects have already been aggregated into a single symbolic object.

Keywords: data visualization, dissimilarity-based coloring, proximity-based coloring, symbolic data

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2419 Dissimilarity Measure for General Histogram Data and Its Application to Hierarchical Clustering

Authors: K. Umbleja, M. Ichino

Abstract:

Symbolic data mining has been developed to analyze data in very large datasets. It is also useful in cases when entry specific details should remain hidden. Symbolic data mining is quickly gaining popularity as datasets in need of analyzing are becoming ever larger. One type of such symbolic data is a histogram, which enables to save huge amounts of information into a single variable with high-level of granularity. Other types of symbolic data can also be described in histograms, therefore making histogram a very important and general symbolic data type - a method developed for histograms - can also be applied to other types of symbolic data. Due to its complex structure, analyzing histograms is complicated. This paper proposes a method, which allows to compare two histogram-valued variables and therefore find a dissimilarity between two histograms. Proposed method uses the Ichino-Yaguchi dissimilarity measure for mixed feature-type data analysis as a base and develops a dissimilarity measure specifically for histogram data, which allows to compare histograms with different number of bins and bin widths (so called general histogram). Proposed dissimilarity measure is then used as a measure for clustering. Furthermore, linkage method based on weighted averages is proposed with the concept of cluster compactness to measure the quality of clustering. The method is then validated with application on real datasets. As a result, the proposed dissimilarity measure is found producing adequate and comparable results with general histograms without the loss of detail or need to transform the data.

Keywords: dissimilarity measure, hierarchical clustering, histograms, symbolic data analysis

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2418 Symbolic Computation on Variable-Coefficient Non-Linear Dispersive Wave Equations

Authors: Edris Rawashdeh, I. Abu-Falahah, H. M. Jaradat

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The variable-coefficient non-linear dispersive wave equation is investigated with the aid of symbolic computation. By virtue of a newly developed simplified bilinear method, multi-soliton solutions for such an equation have been derived. Effects of the inhomogeneities of media and nonuniformities of boundaries, depicted by the variable coefficients, on the soliton behavior are discussed with the aid of the characteristic curve method and graphical analysis.

Keywords: dispersive wave equations, multiple soliton solution, Hirota Bilinear Method, symbolic computation

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2417 Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Equations in 2D by Finite Difference Method

Authors: N. Fusun Oyman Serteller

Abstract:

In this paper, the techniques to solve time dependent electromagnetic wave propagation equations based on the Finite Difference Method (FDM) are proposed by comparing the results with Finite Element Method (FEM) in 2D while discussing some special simulation examples.  Here, 2D dynamical wave equations for lossy media, even with a constant source, are discussed for establishing symbolic manipulation of wave propagation problems. The main objective of this contribution is to introduce a comparative study of two suitable numerical methods and to show that both methods can be applied effectively and efficiently to all types of wave propagation problems, both linear and nonlinear cases, by using symbolic computation. However, the results show that the FDM is more appropriate for solving the nonlinear cases in the symbolic solution. Furthermore, some specific complex domain examples of the comparison of electromagnetic waves equations are considered. Calculations are performed through Mathematica software by making some useful contribution to the programme and leveraging symbolic evaluations of FEM and FDM.

Keywords: finite difference method, finite element method, linear-nonlinear PDEs, symbolic computation, wave propagation equations

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2416 The Role of Ideophones: Phonological and Morphological Characteristics in Literature

Authors: Cristina Bahón Arnaiz

Abstract:

Many Asian languages, such as Korean and Japanese, are well-known for their wide use of sound symbolic words or ideophones. This is a very particular characteristic which enriches its lexicon hugely. Ideophones are a class of sound symbolic words that utilize sound symbolism to express aspects, states, emotions, or conditions that can be experienced through the senses, such as shape, color, smell, action or movement. Ideophones have very particular characteristics in terms of sound symbolism and morphology, which distinguish them from other words. The phonological characteristics of ideophones are vowel ablaut or vowel gradation and consonant mutation. In the case of Korean, there are light vowels and dark vowels. Depending on the type of vowel that is used, the meaning will slightly change. Consonant mutation, also known as consonant ablaut, contributes to the level of intensity, emphasis, and volume of an expression. In addition to these phonological characteristics, there is one main morphological singularity, which is reduplication and it carries the meaning of continuity, repetition, intensity, emphasis, and plurality. All these characteristics play an important role in both linguistics and literature as they enhance the meaning of what is trying to be expressed with incredible semantic detail, expressiveness, and rhythm. The following study will analyze the ideophones used in a single paragraph of a Korean novel, which add incredible yet subtle detail to the meaning of the words, and advance the expressiveness and rhythm of the text. The results from analyzing one paragraph from a novel, after presenting the phonological and morphological characteristics of Korean ideophones, will evidence the important role that ideophones play in literature. 

Keywords: ideophones, mimetic words, phonomimes, phenomimes, psychomimes, sound symbolism

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2415 A Co-Constructed Picture of Chinese Teachers' Conceptions of Learning at Play

Authors: Shu-Chen Wu

Abstract:

This qualitative study investigated Chinese teachers’ perspectives on learning at play. Six kindergarten teachers were interviewed to obtain their understanding of learning at play. Exemplary play episodes from their classrooms were selected with the assistance of the participating teachers. Four three-minute videos containing the largest amount of learning elements based on the teachers’ views were selected for analysis. Applying video-stimulated interviews, the selected video clips were shown to eight teachers in two focus groups to elicit their perspectives on learning at play. The findings revealed that Chinese teachers have a very structured representation of learning at play, which should contribute to the development of professional practices and curricular policies.

Keywords: learning at play, teachers’ perspectives, co-constructed views, video-stimulated interviews

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2414 The Applications and Effects of the Career Courses of Taiwanese College Students with LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY®

Authors: Payling Harn

Abstract:

LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® is a kind of facilitated workshop of thinking and problem-solving approach. Participants built symbolic and metaphorical brick models in response to tasks given by the facilitator and presented these models to other participants. LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® applied the positive psychological mechanism of Flow and positive emotions to help participants perceiving self-experience and unknown fact and increasing the happiness of life by building bricks and narrating story. At present, LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® is often utilized for facilitating professional identity and strategy development to assist workers in career development. The researcher desires to apply LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® to the career courses of college students in order to promote their career ability. This study aimed to use the facilitative method of LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® to develop the career courses of college students, then explore the effects of Taiwanese college students' positive and negative emotions, career adaptabilities, and career sense of hope by LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® career courses. The researcher regarded strength as the core concept and use the facilitative mode of LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® to develop the 8 weeks’ career courses, which including ‘emotion of college life’ ‘career highlights’, ‘career strengths’, ‘professional identity’, ‘business model’, ‘career coping’, ‘strength guiding principles’, ‘career visions’,’ career hope’, etc. The researcher will adopt problem-oriented teaching method to give tasks which according to the weekly theme, use the facilitative mode of LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® to guide participants to respond tasks by building bricks. Then participants will conduct group discussions, reports, and writing reflection journals weekly. Participants will be 24 second-grade college students. They will attend LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® career courses for 2 hours a week. The researcher used’ ‘Career Adaptability Scale’ and ‘Career Hope Scale’ to conduct pre-test and post-test. The time points of implementation testing will be one week before courses starting, one day after courses ending respectively. Then the researcher will adopt repeated measures one-way ANOVA for analyzing data. The results revealed that the participants significantly presented immediate positive effect in career adaptability and career hope. The researcher hopes to construct the mode of LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® career courses by this study and to make a substantial contribution to the future career teaching and researches of LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY®.

Keywords: LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY®, career courses, strength, positive and negative affect, career hope

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2413 Role of Symbolism in the Journey towards Spirituality: A Case Study of Mosque Architecture in Bahrain

Authors: Ayesha Agha Shah

Abstract:

The purpose of a mosque or a place of worship is to build a spiritual relation with God. If the sense of spirituality is not achieved, then sacred architecture appears to be lacking depth. Form and space play a significant role to enhance the architectural quality to impart a divine feel to a place. To achieve this divine feeling, form and space, and unity of opposites, either abstract or symbolic can be employed. It is challenging to imbue the emptiness of a space with qualitative experience. Mosque architecture mostly entails traditional forms and design typology. This approach for Muslim worship produces distinct landmarks in the urban neighborhoods of Muslim societies, while creating a great sense of spirituality. The universal symbolic characters in the mosque architecture had prototype geometrical forms for a long time in history. However, modern mosques have deviated from this approach to employ different built elements and symbolism, which are often hard to be identified as related to mosques or even as Islamic. This research aims to explore the sense of spirituality in modern mosques and questions whether the modification of geometrical features produce spirituality in the same manner. The research also seeks to investigate the role of ‘geometry’ in the modern mosque architecture. The research employs the analytical study of some modern mosque examples in the Kingdom of Bahrain, reflecting on the geometry and symbolism adopted in the new mosque architecture design. It buttresses the analysis by the engagement of people’s perceptions derived using a survey of opinions. The research expects to see the significance of geometrical architectural elements in the mosque designs. It will find answers to the questions such as; what is the role of the form of the mosque, interior spaces and the effect of the modified symbolic features in the modern mosque design? How can the symbolic geometry, forms and spaces of a mosque invite a believer to leave the worldly environment behind and move towards spirituality?

Keywords: geometry, mosque architecture, spirituality, symbolism

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2412 Psychoanalytic Understanding of the Autistic Self

Authors: Aastha Chaudhry

Abstract:

This continuous structuring of the ego through the developmental ages, starting with the body, has been understood through various perspectives from the object-relations world. Klein, Ogden, Winnicott to name a few, have been masters at helping mark a trajectory for the self to come to fruition. However, what constitutes those states, those relational structures, the dynamics of transference and the concept of inner objects has been more or less left unexplored in the psychoanalytic developmental theory. In this paper, through the help of a case study, Ogden’s ideas of an autistic contagious position and Kleinian theory of object relations is proposed to visualize a lens that helps to understand the relationship of the autistic self and body and allows us to take a look at object relations through countertransference. With the help of case vignettes, an understanding of experience is seen as dominated in the autistic contagious position with the help of defensive structuring that is not only self-fulfilling and sensorial oriented, but is also a pre symbolic mode of relating to the other. The aim of this clinical, experiential study is to better understand the self-body and the self-other relationships, or the absence thereof, in the autistic world and states. The goal of the study was to find such a relationship between play, body, structuring of experience and an autistic self in these individuals through that. Aim being that psychotherapy is brought to fore in the world of autism. The method was case study with one on one intervention, that was psychodynamically informed and play therapy based. Some of the findings after a year of work with these individuals were that: in the absence of a shared vocabulary, communication in two contrasting individuals happens primarily through the assistance of the body. Somatic countertransference, for instance, is how one can be with someone in a therapeutic relationship – and with autistic adolescents it is a further complicated relationship. With a mind somewhere in infanthood, and body experiencing adulthood, it becomes a challenge for the therapist to meet the client where they are. With pre-verbal states, play becomes such a potential space where two individuals could meet – a safe ground for forces to be contained. Play, then, becomes a mode of communication with such a population.

Keywords: autism, psychoanalytic, play, self

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2411 How Educational Settings Can Influence Development of Creativity through Play in Young Children

Authors: D. M. W. Munasinghe

Abstract:

This study focuses on how teachers view and use play to influence creativity in preschool children. Play is strongly featured in most of the discussions about creativity in young children. Hence, it was noted through direct observation that most preschool teachers are not concerned with promoting play to develop the child’s creativity. Therefore, this study attempts to investigate how the teachers use play, for the development of creativity in the preschool environment. The survey method was used as the research design and interviews, observations and document perusal were used as data collection methods. The sample consisted of 20 preschools from selected administrative divisions in the Colombo district. It was revealed that a majority of preschool teachers used folk games as a means of involving children in play. Teachers assume that this type of guided play will motivate the child learn new words, memorization and provide enjoyment. Eighty percent of the preschool teachers used the play equipment installed in the preschool premises to encourage children to get involved in activities calculated at promoting the physical development of the child. In 40% of the preschools visited it was noticed that when children were given their break they created their own forms of free play and enjoyed themselves thoroughly in the little time available to them. Also, about 20% of preschool teachers promoted imaginative play with their preschoolers. There was also the situation where the role of play was interpreted negatively by the teachers who assigned the children to copy letters and numerals during the time assigned for play. This has a negative impact on the child’s creativity. In conclusion, it was felt that the teachers do not make the best use of the opportunity available to use the child’s enthusiasm to stimulate creative actions his/her and that there is no suitable environment to develop creativity through play.

Keywords: creativity, preschool children, preschool environment, play method

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2410 The Effectiveness of Using Video Modeling Procedures on the ipad to Teach Play Skills Children with ASD

Authors: Esra Orum Cattik

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This study evaluated the effects of using video modeling procedures on the iPad to teach play skills to children with autism spectrum disorders. A male student with autism spectrum disorders participated in this study. A multiple baseline-across-skills single-subject design was used to evaluate the effects of using video modeling procedures on the iPad. During baseline, no prompts were presented to participants. In the intervention phase, the teacher gave video model on iPad to the first skill and asked play with toys for him. When the first play skill completed the second play skill began intervention. This procedure continued till all three play skill completed intervention. Finally, the participant learned all three play skills to use video modeling presented on the iPad. Based upon findings of this study, suggestions have been made to future researches.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, play, play skills, video modeling, single subject design

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2409 Learning to Play in South Africa

Authors: Thelma Mort

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Currently, in South African schools, under the fast-paced and content-heavy CAPS curriculum, the notion of play is being lost in the foundation phase. Even in Grade R, aimed at improving the quality of education, there is a focus on mathematical literacy, language, and life skills (DoE, 2001). This is largely due to the dichotomizing of play and learning. And although the play is meant to be the primary means of achieving these skills, it somehow loses its playfulness in the face of early academic pressure. Student teachers similarly have not been trained to use play in the early years of schooling. This action research study shares findings from the “Learn to Play” intervention in teacher training at one university in which student teachers were given substantial training in types of play, the ways they could use and promote play, and the changing roles of teachers in play-based learning. Using observation focus group interviews, reflections, student teacher engagement in learning communities, and Theories of Change, the study measures the changes made by the intervention in student teachers’ approaches and attitudes to play in the classroom. Key findings were that the student teachers learned new skills, had better relationships with pupils, and became more confident in their foundation phase settings.

Keywords: action research, foundation phase, South Africa, student teacher training

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2408 Saudi Teachers’ Perceptions of Rough and Tumble Play in Early Learning

Authors: Rana Alghamdi

Abstract:

This study explored teachers’ perceptions of rough-and-tumble (R&T) play in early childhood education in Saudi Arabia. The literature on rough-and-tumble play in Saudi Arabia is limited in scope, and more research is needed to explore teachers’ perceptions on this type of play for early learners. The pertinent literature reveals that R&T play, which includes running, jumping, fighting, wrestling, chasing, pulling, pushing, and climbing, among other rough playful activities, can positively impact learning and development across psychosocial, emotional, and cognitive domains. Teachers’ understanding of R & T play is key, and the attitudes of Saudi early childhood teachers who are responsible for implementing curriculum-based play have not been fully researched. Four early childhood teachers from an urban Saudi preschool participated in the study. The data collected in this study were interpreted through a sociocultural lens. Data sources included in-depth interviews, photo-elicitation interviews, and participant-generated drawings. Three overarching themes emerged: teachers’ concerns about rough-and-tumble play, teachers’ perceptions about the benefits of rough-and-tumble play, and teachers’ expression of gender roles in R & T play as contextualized within Saudi culture. Saudi teachers’ perceptions are discussed in detail, and implications of the findings and recommendations for future research are put forth.

Keywords: rough and tumble play, gender, culture, early childhood, Saudi Arabia

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2407 The Process of Sanctification: A Bourdieusian Approach to the Declension of Power in New England Puritan Clergy

Authors: W. Scott Jackson

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This paper explains the declension of Puritan clerical power following the Great Migration up until when Massachusetts lost its charter in 1684. Historian Perry Miller argued that an overall declension in Puritan culture occurred during this period. However, that notion has been dispelled. There is a resurging field exploring declension in areas outside of Miller’s scope of Puritan culture. I determine that colonial New England existed as a functional theocracy by using Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of symbolic capital to explain clerical power through symbolic and religious misdirection and conversion. I explore civil and economic power struggles in colonial New England during the decades following the Great Migration to establish that Puritan culture did not largely decline. Instead, it was the Puritan clergy’s power that waned during this period.

Keywords: Bourdieu, Historical Sociology, Symbolic Capital, Puritan

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2406 Interactive Shadow Play Animation System

Authors: Bo Wan, Xiu Wen, Lingling An, Xiaoling Ding

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The paper describes a Chinese shadow play animation system based on Kinect. Users, without any professional training, can personally manipulate the shadow characters to finish a shadow play performance by their body actions and get a shadow play video through giving the record command to our system if they want. In our system, Kinect is responsible for capturing human movement and voice commands data. Gesture recognition module is used to control the change of the shadow play scenes. After packaging the data from Kinect and the recognition result from gesture recognition module, VRPN transmits them to the server-side. At last, the server-side uses the information to control the motion of shadow characters and video recording. This system not only achieves human-computer interaction, but also realizes the interaction between people. It brings an entertaining experience to users and easy to operate for all ages. Even more important is that the application background of Chinese shadow play embodies the protection of the art of shadow play animation.

Keywords: hadow play animation, Kinect, gesture recognition, VRPN, HCI

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2405 Symbolic Partial Differential Equations Analysis Using Mathematica

Authors: Davit Shahnazaryan, Diogo Gomes, Mher Safaryan

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Many symbolic computations and manipulations required in the analysis of partial differential equations (PDE) or systems of PDEs are tedious and error-prone. These computations arise when determining conservation laws, entropies or integral identities, which are essential tools for the study of PDEs. Here, we discuss a new Mathematica package for the symbolic analysis of PDEs that automate multiple tasks, saving time and effort. Methodologies: During the research, we have used concepts of linear algebra and partial differential equations. We have been working on creating algorithms based on theoretical mathematics to find results mentioned below. Major Findings: Our package provides the following functionalities; finding symmetry group of different PDE systems, generation of polynomials invariant with respect to different symmetry groups; simplification of integral quantities by integration by parts and null Lagrangian cleaning, computing general forms of expressions by integration by parts; finding equivalent forms of an integral expression that are simpler or more symmetric form; determining necessary and sufficient conditions on the coefficients for the positivity of a given symbolic expression. Conclusion: Using this package, we can simplify integral identities, find conserved and dissipated quantities of time-dependent PDE or system of PDEs. Some examples in the theory of mean-field games and semiconductor equations are discussed.

Keywords: partial differential equations, symbolic computation, conserved and dissipated quantities, mathematica

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2404 Case Study: The Impact of Creative Play on Children's Bilingualism

Authors: Mingxi Xiao

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This case study focused on a bilingual child named Emma and her play. Emma was a four-year-old girl born in Australia while her parents were both Chinese. Emma could speak fluent English, while her Mandarin was not as good as her spoken English. With the research question to figure out whether creative play had an impact on children’s bilingualism, this case study mainly used the anecdotes method to observe Emma’s play and this report presented five observations of Emma, describing detailed information about her play and recording her language use. Based on Emma’s interests and daily activities, this case study chose her creative play for observation, which incorporates a whole range of activities from dancing to drawing, as well as playing instruments. From the five observations, it could be seen that Emma often mixed languages to help her express her meaning. It could be seen that Emma made an effort to use her bilingualism in her creative play. In other words, play encouraged Emma to use the two languages. In conclusion, the observations with Emma showed that although her Mandarin was not good enough, she displayed confidence in speaking both languages and had gradually shifted from mixing languages to code-switching. Recommendations were provided to support Emma’s bilingual abilities for further development in the end.

Keywords: bilingual, case study, code-switching, creative play, early childhood

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2403 Profiling of Mother Child Behaviors during Free Play: A South Indian Scenario

Authors: Jayashree S. Bhat, Megha Mohan

Abstract:

Play is any activity spontaneously chosen, inherently motivated, and personally directed. There is a wide range of literature and research supporting the concept of play in promoting healthy development in young children. Modern children are experiencing nurture that has more structure and adult involvement than previous generations and free, unstructured, and child directed play is under peril. Play behaviors serve as a reflection of a child’s cultural and ethnic background and can be an index of a child’s development. The influence and impact of culture in children’s play is diverse. The culturally variable dimensions of play includes the choice of objects, the involvement of specific play partners, the amount of child initiations of social pretend play with caregivers along with its the components, and sequences and specific themes involved during play. India is a country well known for its cultural diversity. In this study, a cross sectional study design with convenient sampling was adopted. The mother child free play interaction was video clipped at their residence among typically developing children between 12 to 24 months in an urban city from South India. It was ascertained that all the children were first born and mothers were unemployed belonging to middle socioeconomic status. The video clippings were coded and analysed using SPSS software version 17. The results revealed interesting behaviors demonstrated by the mother as well as the child during the play interaction. The results high light the need for focusing on the play behaviors of children during their developmental assessment, especially so for children with challenges.

Keywords: culture, free play, interaction, typically developing

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2402 American Slavery and the Consciousness of Play

Authors: Janaka B. Lewis

Abstract:

“Narratives of Slavery and the Culture of Play” examines how play is discussed in early African American literature by both men and women to illustrate ways that they negotiated the hierarchy and oppression of enslavement. Reading narratives categorized as “slave narratives,” including those written by Frederick Douglass, Harriet Jacobs, and Olaudah Equiano, through the lens of play theory offers an illuminated analysis of the significance of play culture in these texts. It then reads late nineteenth-century play culture (or absence thereof) portrayed in literature as a lens for more contemporary African American oral and literary culture. These discussions of social constructions through literature bridge analyses of African American-authored texts and create a larger conversation about print media as a tool of activism and resistance. This essay also contributes to a larger body of analysis of nineteenth-century African American culture through literature.

Keywords: childhood, slavery, consciousness of play, 19th century African American culture

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2401 The Musical Imagination: Re-Imagining a Sound Education through Musical Boundary Play

Authors: Michael J. Cutler

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This paper presents what musical boundary play can look like when beginning music learners work with professional musicians with an emphasis on composition. Music education can be re-imagined through the lenses of boundary objects and boundary play by engaging non-professional musicians in collaborative sound creation, improvisation and composition along with professional musicians. To the author’s best knowledge, no similar study exists on boundary objects and boundary play in music education. The literature reviewed for this paper explores the epistemological perspectives connected to music education and situates musical boundary play as an alternative approach to the more prevalent paradigms of music education in K-12 settings. A qualitative multiple-case study design was chosen to seek an in-depth understanding of the role of boundary objects and musical boundary play. The constant comparative method was utilized in analyzing and interpreting the data resulting in the development of effective, transferable theory. The study gathered relevant data using audio and video recordings of musical boundary play, artifacts, interviews, and observations. Findings from this study offer insight into the development of a more inclusive music education and yield a pedagogical framework for music education based on musical boundary play. Through the facilitation of musical boundary play, it is possible for music learners to experience musical sound creation, improvisation and composition in the same way an instrumentalist or vocalist would without the acquisition of complex component operations required to play a traditional instrument or sing in a proficient manner.

Keywords: boundary play, boundary objects, music education, music pedagogy, musical boundary play

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2400 Come Play with Me: An Exploration of Rough-and-Tumble Play Interactions in Australian Families

Authors: Erin Louise Robinson, Emily Elsa Freeman

Abstract:

Rough-and-tumble play (RTP) is a physical and competitive type of play that parents engage in with their children. While past research has reported RTP to be the preferred play type for western fathers, the frequency of these interactions in Australian families have not been explored. With parental perceptions of play importance playing a major role in the frequency of activity engagement, the present study investigated how perceptions and parent gender impact on RTP play frequency. By utilising child gender in our approach, we also examined the historical trend of boys receiving more physical play interactions with their parents. Three hundred and seventy-nine respondents completed the study with their 0–10-year-old children. The results indicated that, in line with past research, parents engaged more frequently in RTP with their sons than their daughters. While, both mothers and fathers participated in RTP with their children, fathers perceived RTP to be of greater important to their child’s development than mothers did. Moreover, supporting previous findings, this more positive perception of the play was related to greater frequency of RTP in these father-child dyads. Although RTP literature remains heavily focussed on fathers, the fact that mothers are engaging in these interactions as well, establishes the need to explore maternal influences in future research.

Keywords: parenting, play, child development, family, Australia

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2399 Analysis of Delivery of Quad Play Services

Authors: Rahul Malhotra, Anurag Sharma

Abstract:

Fiber based access networks can deliver performance that can support the increasing demands for high speed connections. One of the new technologies that have emerged in recent years is Passive Optical Networks. This paper is targeted to show the simultaneous delivery of triple play service (data, voice, and video). The comparative investigation and suitability of various data rates is presented. It is demonstrated that as we increase the data rate, number of users to be accommodated decreases due to increase in bit error rate.

Keywords: FTTH, quad play, play service, access networks, data rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
2398 Working Memory in Children: The Relationship with Father-Child Rough-and-Tumble Play

Authors: Robinson, E. L., Freeman, E. E.

Abstract:

Over the last few decades, the social movement of involved fatherhood has stimulated a research focus on fathers, leading to an increase in the body of evidence into the paternal contributions to child development. Past research has suggested that rough-and-tumble play, which involves wrestling, chasing and tumbling, is the preferred play type of western fathers. This type of play remains underutilized and underrepresented in child developmental research as it’s perceived to be dangerous or too aggressive. The limited research available has shown a relationship between high quality rough-and-tumble play interactions, lower childhood aggression and improved child emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to examine father-child rough-and-tumble play and assess the impact on cognitive development in children aged 4-7 years. Father-child dyads completed a 10-minute rough-and-tumble play interaction, which consisted of 2 games, at the University of Newcastle. Children then completed the Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence - Fourth Edition Australian and New Zealand Standardized Edition (WPPSI-IV A&NZ). Fathers reported on their involvement in various caregiving activities and on their child’s development. Analyses revealed that fathers-child play quality was positively related to working memory outcomes in children. Furthermore, the amount of rough-and-tumble play father and child did together on a regular basis was also related to working memory outcomes. While father-child play interactions remain an understudied area of research, this study outlines the importance of examining the paternal play role in children’s cognitive development.

Keywords: children, development, father, executive function

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2397 Gender: Schooling and Social Condition’s Women in Brazil

Authors: Simone Tamires Vieira

Abstract:

This paper aims to investigate the history of women's schooling in Brazil and to reflect on the condition and social space of women today. Therefore, the following question arises as a research problem: how does the history of the school in/exclusion of women in Brazil relate to the occupations occupied today? As for the objectives, we seek to collect data on the education of women and girls in Brazil, analyze some institutionalized educational legislation and policies, reflect on issues of opportunity and deprivation in order to problematize the female condition through the review of qualitative literature. The results showed that gender and symbolic violence are powerful categories to analyze this theme since the trajectories, choices, and opportunities given to women are permeated by veiled mechanisms perpetuated by a structurally patriarchal society, focused on the interests of the elite, which denies diversity to maintain its status. The aim of this research is to contribute to reflections on the potential of dialogical action, as it highlights the forces that act and permeate the trajectories of women to empower current and future generations.

Keywords: gender, school in/exclusion symbolic violence, women, symbolic violence, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 75