Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 427

Search results for: Australia

427 Home Education in the Australian Context

Authors: Abeer Karaali


This paper will seek to clarify important key terms such as home schooling and home education as well as the legalities attached to such terms. It will reflect on the recent proposed changes to terminology in NSW, Australia. The various pedagogical approaches to home education will be explored including their prominence in the Australian context. There is a strong focus on literature from Australia. The historical background of home education in Australia will be explained as well as the difference between distance education and home education. The statistics related to home education in Australia will be explored in the scope and compared to the US. The future of home education in Australia will be discussed.

Keywords: alternative education, e-learning, home education, home schooling, online resources, technology

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426 Comparison of E-Waste Management in Switzerland and in Australia: A Qualitative Content Analysis

Authors: Md Tasbirul Islam, Pablo Dias, Nazmul Huda


E-waste/Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams across the globe. This paper aims to compare the e-waste management system in Switzerland and Australia in terms of four features - legislative initiatives, disposal practice, collection and financial mechanisms. The qualitative content analysis is employed as a research method in the study. Data were collected from various published academic research papers, industry reports, and web sources. In addition, a questionnaire survey is conducted in Australia to understand the public awareness and opinions on the features. The results of the study provide valuable insights to policymakers in Australia developing better e-waste management system in conjunction with the public consensus, and the state-of-the-art operational strategies currently being practiced in Switzerland.

Keywords: E-waste management, WEEE, awareness, pro-environmental behavior, Australia, Switzerland

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425 Combating Islamophobia in Australia: An Analysis of Six Legal and Holistic Strategies to Help Address Discrimination towards Muslims

Authors: F. Zamani Ashni, P. Gerber


In today's religious and political climate, Muslims find themselves the focus of much attention, often in the form of discrimination and vilification. There is a widely held belief that Islam and terrorism are inextricably intertwined. An anti-Muslim narrative has been shaping policy around the world for some time now. This study, which focuses on the experience of Muslims in Australia, provides guidance on legislative and other steps that can be taken by Australia to help address Islamophobia. This study provides a doctrinal analysis of the state, territory, and federal anti-discrimination laws in Australia. Using principles of statutory interpretation along aside an analysis of relevant jurisprudence, this study concludes that Australian anti-discrimination laws are ill-equipped to address modern-day Islamophobia. The study also finds that laws alone are insufficient to combat Islamophobia, and a more holistic approach is required. Six strategies are identified, which can, in combination, help to successfully respond to Islamophobia. In addition to legislative initiatives, combating Islamophobia requires Australia to promote inclusive human rights education, fair media coverage, strong leadership, integration of the Islamic community, and comprehensive documentation of anti-Muslim attacks.

Keywords: Australia, discrimination, Islamophobia, Muslim

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424 Two Different Learning Environments: Arabic International Students Coping with the Australian Learning System

Authors: H. van Rensburg, B. Adcock, B. Al Mansouri


This paper discusses the impact of pedagogical and learning differences on Arabic international students’ (AIS) learning when they come to study in Australia. It describes the difference in teaching and learning methods between the students’ home countries in the Arabic world and Australia. There are many research papers that discuss the general experiences of international students in the western learning systems, including Australia. However, there is little research conducted specifically about AIS learning in Australia. Therefore, the data was collected through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with AIS who are learning at an Australian regional university in Queensland. For that reason, this paper contributes to fill a gap by reporting on the learning experiences of AIS in Australia and, more specifically, on the AIS’ pedagogical experiences. Not only discussing the learning experiences of AIS, but also discussing the cultural adaptation using the Oberg’s cultural adaptation model. This paper suggests some learning strategies that may benefit AIS and academic lecturers when teaching students from a completely different culture and language.

Keywords: arabic international students, cultural adaption, learning differences, learning systems

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423 The New Far-Right: The Social Construction of Hatred against the Contemporary Islamic Community in Multicultural Australia

Authors: Angel Adams


In Australia, the contemporary social construction of hatred against the Islamic community was facilitated through the mainstream media. Australian public figures who have depicted Muslims and Islam not only as potential terrorists but also as incompatible with the country’s values and identities have helped to increase the level of fear against the Islamic community, leading sympathetic far-right movements to shift discussions towards anti-Islamic and anti-Muslim rhetoric. Political opportunities combined with a socially constructed narrative of fear of the ‘other’, introduced during the White Australia Policy of 1901, has allowed extreme and radical far-right movements to justify hate against the contemporary Australian Islamic community. This study aims to answer the following question: How does Australia’s founding provide a fertile environment to the spread of hatred against the contemporary Islamic community? The paper demonstrates that a forged social construct of grievances concerning the Islamic community in Australia has led to a surge in supply of far-right activism to combat what has become a perceived ‘national threat’. In essence, Australia’s history of a fear of the ‘other’ brings challenges to a multicultural society, and can potentially lead to a more unstable socio-political environment where abuse and violence are normalized and more likely to develop. Furthermore, the paper aims to bring a more nuanced understanding of what is considered ‘new far-right’ discourses with shared anti-Islam and anti-Muslim agendas in Australia. The political opportunity structures theory was the mechanism used to determine how new forms of far-right groups have become more mainstream in Australia. Previous studies on far-right groups in Australia have relied on qualitative data, but further empirical research in this area is sorely needed. Above all, this paper clarifies how hatred against minorities can have a negative impact on wider communities and allow a global narrative of ‘us’ versus ‘them’ to erupt from the fringes of society in Australia.

Keywords: Australia, Islamophobia, far-right, nationalism, political opportunity structures, political violence, social construction

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422 From the Himalayas to Australia: A Review of the Literature on Teaching and Learning with Nepalese Students in the Higher Education Sector

Authors: Sangeeta Rai


International education is Australia’s third largest export with significant revenue flowing to the economy in all state and territory jurisdictions. International students make significant economic, social and cultural contributions to all communities in which they are studying and often working. Among these international students are those from Nepal, who continue to seek Australian higher education in increasing numbers. This paper reports on findings from a literature review that highlights the gap in knowledge of the pedagogical issues that may need addressing in teaching Nepalese students in the higher education sector in Australia. Nepalese students bring to their studies a rich culture shaped by their country’s turbulent political and poor economic conditions. These factors may further contribute to their endeavors to seek education abroad to better themselves and their situation. This cohort of students faces various challenges undertaking their studies in Australia that may be due to factors including language, learning styles and engagement with peers. Hence, this paper highlights the importance of these students on Australian shores and forms the basis for further study on the issues and challenges that they face and those that need to be addressed by Australian educators.

Keywords: Nepalese students in Australia, challenges and coping mechanisms of Nepalese students, international students in Australia, socio-cultural background of Nepalese students

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421 The Wage Differential between Migrant and Native Workers in Australia: Decomposition Approach

Authors: Sabrina Tabassum


Using Census Data for Housing and Population of Australia 2001, 2006, 2011, and 2016, this paper shows the existence of wage differences between natives and immigrants in Australia. Addressing the heterogeneous nature of immigrants, this study group the immigrants in three broad categories- migrants from English speaking countries and migrants from India and China. Migrants from English speaking countries and India earn more than the natives per week, whereas migrants from China earn far less than the natives per week. Oaxaca decomposition suggests that major part of this differential is unexplained. Using the occupational segregation concept and Brown decomposition, this study indicates that migrants from India and China would have been earned more than the natives if they had the same occupation distribution as natives due to their individual characteristics. Within occupation, wage differences are more prominent than inter-occupation wage differences for immigrants from China and India.

Keywords: Australia, labour, migration, wage

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420 A Qualitative Examination of Childfreedom and Childlessness: The Life Experiences of Non-Parents in Australia

Authors: B. Harman, E. Gringart, C. Harms


There is evidence that increasing numbers of adults of child-bearing age in Australia do not have children. While there has been research into the life experiences of non-parents, one of the issues is that the differences between people who choose not to have children – the childfree – and people who cannot have children – the childless – are not clearly defined. The qualitative research reported here adopted an interpretative phenomenological approach to examine the life experiences of non-parents. Potential participants from Australia were invited to complete an online survey describing their experiences of life without children. An examination of the data from 229 participants (188 female, 41 male) revealed that they defined their non-parent status as either childfree or childless. There are, however, five sub-categories of child freedom identified by the participants, whereas previous research has not recognized such distinctions. The variance in the definition of child freedom is important because it may be related to the life journey as a non-parent. The current paper will firstly discuss the different groups of childfree and childless people. Secondly, it will examine the life experiences and journeys of non-parents in light of how the participants defined themselves. From a social psychological perspective, the current research is important as it highlights the socially held stereotypes and the stigma experienced by non-parents in Australia.

Keywords: Australia, childfree, childless, non-parents, qualitative, social psychology

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419 Afghan Women’s Definitions, Perceptions and Experience of Domestic Violence, a Qualitative Study with Afghan Women in Australia

Authors: Rojan Afrouz


The main aim of this study is understanding Afghan women’s perception of domestic violence and their experience of abuse by their family members. The voice of Afghan women has not been heard much particularly in Australia. Their families and communities have silenced some of them in the name of family honour and reputation, and others have not had the opportunity to talk about the issue. Although domestic violence is an issue in every country, research suggests that this is more likely to be considered acceptable behaviour in Afghanistan than elsewhere. Given the high public visibility of initiatives which aim to tackle domestic violence in Australia, it is entirely possible that Afghan women’s perceptions and beliefs about domestic violence will have changed since their arrival in this country. Thus, their understandings, perceptions and their experience of domestic violence have been investigated to improve the Afghan women’s situation in Australia. Methods: This qualitative study has been conducted among Afghan women who have lived in Australia less than ten years. Semi-structured interviews either face to face or by phone have been used to collect data for this study. The interviews have been audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Nvivo software has been used for data analysis. Findings: Participants’ definitions of domestic violence vary. They defined domestic violence in relation to their educational levels, their personal life and experience of domestic violence. Some women tended to change the definitions to be more relevant to their own life and experience. Many women had the knowledge of different domestic violence acts that have been distinguished as violent acts in Australia or other western countries. Some of the participants stated that they had the experience of domestic violence from their partner or one of the family members. Those who have been abused, their experiences were diverse and had been perpetrated by different family members. Majority of participants revealed the story of other women in their family and community that have been abused. Conclusion: Moving to Australia helped women to be aware of the issues and recognising that they are in the abusive relationships. However, intersecting multiple identities in a complex system of oppression, domination or discrimination makes the experience of domestic violence more complicated among Afghan community in Australia that cannot be addressed easily.

Keywords: domestic violence, intersectionality, immigration, afghan women

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418 The Sustainable Governance of Aquifer Injection Using Treated Coal Seam Gas Water in Queensland, Australia: Lessons for Integrated Water Resource Management

Authors: Jacqui Robertson


The sustainable governance of groundwater is of the utmost importance in an arid country like Australia. Groundwater has been relied on by our agricultural and pastoral communities since the State was settled by European colonialists. Nevertheless, the rapid establishment of a coal seam gas (CSG) industry in Queensland, Australia, has had extensive impacts on the pre-existing groundwater users. Managed aquifer recharge of important aquifers in Queensland, Australia, using treated coal seam gas produced water has been used to reduce the impacts of CSG development in Queensland Australia. However, the process has not been widely adopted. Negative environmental outcomes are now acknowledged as not only engineering, scientific or technical problems to be solved but also the result of governance failures. An analysis of the regulatory context for aquifer injection using treated CSG water in Queensland, Australia, using Ostrom’s Common Pool Resource (CPR) theory and a ‘heat map’ designed by the author, highlights the importance of governance arrangements. The analysis reveals the costs and benefits for relevant stakeholders of artificial recharge of groundwater resources in this context. The research also reveals missed opportunities to further active management of the aquifer and resolve existing conflicts between users. The research illustrates the importance of strategically and holistically evaluating innovations in technology that impact water resources to reveal incentives that impact resource user behaviors. The paper presents a proactive step that can be adapted to support integrated water resource management and sustainable groundwater development.

Keywords: managed aquifer recharge, groundwater regulation, common-pool resources, integrated water resource management, Australia

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417 Third generation Greek identities

Authors: Panayiota Romios


Greek diaspora communities with their specific cultural identity are found throughout the world and exist on a continuum of redefinition and renewal. This paper investigates Greek migration to Australia, followed by a discussion of findings from a qualitative study of sixteen third generation Greek Australians conducted by the author in Melbourne, Australia, in 2021. The Greek-born population in Australia increased from 15,000 in 1930 to well over 300,000 by 1970. Over the next decades, first-generation Greek migrants successfully sustain a Greek identity that promotes difference within Australia. Their Australian-born children, while constructing Greek Australian hybrid identities through an encounter with difference, integrate successfully into Australian society and maintain strong connections to Greece. This study explores the third generation Greek Australian identities, the children of the second generation, and their having horizontal and vertical orientations, where the former designates transgression of borders and space and the latter is connected to the movement across time. This approach is particularly interesting in the context of Greek Australian migrant and diasporic experience as hybridity understood as movement and translocation can offer new perspectives on migrant identities in multi-and transcultural worlds.

Keywords: diaspora, migration, hybridity, ethnicty

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416 The Development of Asset Valuation Techniques for Government Business Enterprises in Australia

Authors: Malcolm Abbott, Angela Tan-Kantoor


The purpose of this paper is to look at the varieties of ways in which regulators have undertaken asset valuations in Australia of government business enterprises as part of utility regulation. Regulation of the monopoly elements, through use of a building block approach, led to a need to estimate regulated asset bases. This development has had an influence on the manner in which Australian companies (both government and privately owned ones) have valued assets for the purpose of financial reporting. As the regulators in Australia did not always use a consistent approach it had meant that a variety of ways have been used to value the assets of government owned enterprises, and meant a varied impact on asset valuation more generally.

Keywords: sset valuation, regulation, government business enterprises

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415 The Impact of Australia's Skilled Migrant Selection System: A Case Study of Japanese Skilled Migrants and Their Families

Authors: Iori Hamada


Australia's skilled migrant selection system is constantly changing its target skills and criteria according to the labour market demands. The government's intention to employ this highly selective market-driven selection system is to better target the skills needed in the economy, enable skilled migrants to be employed in industries that have the highest need, and consequently boost the economy and population. However, migration scholars have called this intention into question, arguing that the system is not making the best use of skilled migrants. This paper investigates the impact of recent reforms in Australian skilled migration system on skilled migrants' employment and related life conditions. Drawing on semi-structured qualitative interviews with Japanese skilled migrants in Australia, it argues that Australia’s skilled migrant selection system guarantees neither skilled migrants' employment nor successful transfer of their skills to the labour market. The findings show that Japanese skilled migrants are often unemployed or under-employed, although they intend to achieve upward occupational mobility. The interview data also reveal that male unemployment or under-employment status prompts some Japanese men to leave Australia and find a job that better matches their skills and qualifications in a new destination. Further, it finds that Japanese male skilled migrants who experience downward occupational mobility tend to continue to take a primary breadwinner role, which affects the distribution of paid and unpaid work within their families. There is a growing body of research investigating skilled migrants’ downward career mobility. However, little has been written on skilled Japanese migrants. Further, the work-family intersection is a 'hot public policy topic' in Australia and elsewhere. Yet, the existing studies focus almost exclusively on non-migrant families. This calls attention to the urgency of assessing the work-family lives of skilled migrants. This study fills these gaps, presenting additional insight into Japanese skilled migrants’ work and family in and beyond Australia.

Keywords: Australia, employment, family, Japanese skilled migrants

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414 Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Western Australia from 2015 until 2020

Authors: Kumaressan Ragunathan, Arisudhan Anantharachagan


Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the subtype of diabetes that has been rapidly increasing in numbers in Australia. The annual percentage of GDM has increased more than 50 percent in the last decade. According to Diabetes Australia, more than five hundred thousand women in Australia will be diagnosed with GDM. Globally, the prevalence of GDM ranges from single-digit to more than 45%. The prevalence of GDM has increased significantly last five years after the introduction of new diagnostic criteria. Hence, we have decided to investigate the trend in GDM prevalence in a tertiary maternity unit at Western Australia and compare it to national prevalence. Data is derived from STORK Perinatal Database which has been used by Maternity services in Western Australia to populate information on pregnancy and labour. We have selected data from 2015 until 2020, which includes 17508 women. Among 17508 women, 3850 women were diagnosed with GDM. In 2015, we had a total of 2213 deliveries with 345 of them were complicated by GDM. GDM prevalence was 15.6% compared to the Australian national prevalence of 12%. In 2016, total deliveries increased to 2759 with 590 of were with GDM. GDM prevalence was 21.4% compared to the Australian national prevalence of 12%. In 2017, total deliveries further increased to 3049 with 675 with GDM. GDM prevalence was 22.1%, with an Australian national prevalence of 13%. In 2018, total deliveries continued to increase, with numbers reaching 3231 with 749 with GDM. GDM prevalence was 23.2%, with an Australian National prevalence of 14%. In 2019, total deliveries were 3110, with 712 complicated by GDM. GDM prevalence was 22.9%, with Australian national prevalence 14%. In 2020, total deliveries 3146 with 819 complicated by GDM. GDM prevalence increased to 26% and we were unable to compare this to national standard as national prevalence has not been released. Among 3890 women with GDM, 2482 (64%) of them required insulin. Apart from that, a total 1642(42%) from the GDM group were delivered via the Caesarean section. 2121 (55%) women with GDM required induction of labour. Overall, we demonstrated an increase in the prevalence of GDM in our unit from 2015 until 2020. Our prevalence is also higher compared to national prevalence. This could be contributed by the increasing number of obesity and in addition, our unit accepts referrals of women with a body mass index (BMI) of more than 40. Hence, further studies are required to look at other risk factors like ethnicity, socio-economic status, health literacy and age, which could contribute to this high prevalence.

Keywords: gestational diabetes mellitus, prevalence, Western Australia, Australia

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413 A Comparative Synopsis of the Enforcement of Market Abuse Prohibition in Australia and South Africa

Authors: Howard Chitimira


In Australia, the market abuse prohibition is generally well accepted by the investing and non-investing public as well as by the government. This co-operative and co-ordinated approach on the part of all the relevant stakeholders has to date given rise to an increased awareness and commendable combating of market abuse activities in the Australian corporations, companies, and securities markets. It is against this background that this article seeks to comparatively explore the general enforcement approaches that are employed to combat market abuse (insider trading and market manipulation) activity in Australia and South Africa. In relation to this, the role of selected enforcement authorities and possible enforcement methods which may be learnt from both the Australian and South African experiences will be isolated where necessary for consideration by such authorities, especially, in the South African market abuse regulatory framework.

Keywords: insider trading, market abuse, market manipulation, regulation

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412 Impact of Coal Mining on River Sediment Quality in the Sydney Basin, Australia

Authors: A. Ali, V. Strezov, P. Davies, I. Wright, T. Kan


The environmental impacts arising from mining activities affect the air, water, and soil quality. Impacts may result in unexpected and adverse environmental outcomes. This study reports on the impact of coal production on sediment in Sydney region of Australia. The sediment samples upstream and downstream from the discharge points from three mines were taken, and 80 parameters were tested. The results were assessed against sediment quality based on presence of metals. The study revealed the increment of metal content in the sediment downstream of the reference locations. In many cases, the sediment was above the Australia and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council and international sediment quality guidelines value (SQGV). The major outliers to the guidelines were nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn).

Keywords: coal mine, environmental impact, produced water, sediment quality guidelines value (SQGV)

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411 Associations between Polymorphism of Growth Hormone Gene on Milk Production, Fat and Protein Content in Friesian Holstein Cattle

Authors: Tety Hartatik, Dian Kurniawati, Adiarto


The aim of the research was to determine the associations between polymorphism of the bovine growth hormone (GH) gene (Leu/Val, L/V) and milk production of Friesian Holstein Cattle. A total of 62 cows which consist of two Friesian Holstein groups (cattle from New Zealand are 19 heads and cattle from Australia are 43 heads). We perform the PCR and RFLP method for analyzing the genotype of the target gene GH 211 bp in the part of intron 4 and exon 5 of GH gene. The frequencies of genotypes LL were higher than genotype LV. The number of genotype LL in New Zealand and Australia groups are 84% and 79%, respectively. The number of genotype LV in New Zealand and Australia groups are 16% and 21%, respectively. The association between Leu/Val polymorphism on milk production, fat and protein content in both groups does not show the significant effect. However base on the groups (cows from New Zealand compare with those from Australia) show the significant effect on fat and protein content.

Keywords: Friesian Holstein, fat content, growth hormone gene, milk production, PCR-RLFP, protein content

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410 Parental Negative Emotional States, Parenting Style and Child Emotional and Behavioural Problems: Australia-Indonesia Cross-Cultural Study

Authors: Yulina E. Riany, Divna Haslam, Matthew Sanders


This cross-cultural study aims to compare the level of parental depression and stress, parenting style use, and child emotional and behavioural problems between parents in Australia as an example of a Western country and parents in Indonesia as an example of Asian culture. A series of hierarchical regressions were undertaken to determine two models examining the factors that predict child problems residing in Australia (Model 1) and in Indonesia (Model 2). The online survey was completed by 179 parents in Australia and 448 parents in Indonesia. Results indicated that Australian parents reported higher levels of depression, authoritative parenting and higher levels of child misbehaviours compared to Indonesian parents. In comparison, Indonesian parents reported higher authoritarian parenting. Analyses performed to examine Model 1 and 2 revealed that parental negative emotional states and parenting style predicted child emotional and behavioural problems in both countries.

Keywords: cross-cutural study, parental stress, parenting, child misbehaviour

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409 Family, Neighbourhood and Psychosocial Environmental Factors and Their Association with Asthma in Australia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: K. M. Shahunja, Peter D. Sly, Tahmina Begum, Tuhin Biswas, Abdullah Mamun


Background: Various associations between different environmental exposures and asthma have been reported in different countries and populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between family, neighbourhood, and psychosocial environmental factors and asthma in Australia by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: We analysed the primary research studies conducted in Australia across multiple databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus, and published between 2000 and 2020. The reviews and analyses focused on the overall association of different environmental exposures with the development or exacerbation of asthma symptoms or asthma-related hospital visits. Quality-effect meta-analysis was done to estimate the pooled odds ratio for different environmental exposures for asthma symptoms. Findings: Among the 4,799 unique published articles found, 46 were included here for systematic review and 28 for meta-analysis. Our review found that psychosocial factors, including low socioeconomic condition, maternal depression, mental stress, ethnicity, and discrimination, are associated with asthma symptoms. Pooled analysis was conducted on family and neighbourhood environmental factors and revealed that environmental tobacco smoking (ETS) (OR 1·69, 95% CI 1·19–2.38), synthetic bedding (OR 1·91, 95% CI 1·48–2·47) and gas heaters (OR 1·40, 95% CI 1·12–1·76) had significant overall associations with asthma-symptoms in Australia. Conclusion: Although the studies were heterogeneous, both systematic review and meta-analysis found several psychosocial and family environmental exposures to be significantly associated with asthma symptoms. Further study to identify their causal relationship and modification may reduce asthma symptoms in the Australian population.

Keywords: asthma, Australia, environment, systematic review

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408 Australian Multiculturalism in Refugee Education

Authors: N. Coskun


Australia has received over 840,000 refugees since its establishment as a federation. Despite the long history of refugee intake, Australia appears to have prolonged problems in refugee education such as academic and social isolations of refugee background students (RBS), the discriminations towards RBS and the high number of RBS drop-outs. This paper examines the place of RBS in educational policies, which can help to identify the problems and set a foundation for solutions. This paper investigates the educational provisions for RBS in three stages. First, the paper identifies the needs of RBS through a comprehensive literature review, using the framework of Bronfenbrenner’s bio-ecological model. Second, the study explores the place of these needs in Australian national and state educational policies which are informed by multiculturalism. The findings conclude that social, academic and psychological needs of RBS hardly find a place in multicultural educational policies. The students and their specific needs are mostly invisible and are placed under a general category of newly arrived immigrants who learn English as a second language. Third, the study explores the possible reasons for the overlook on RBS and their needs with examining the general socio-political context surrounding refugees in Australia. The overall findings suggest that Australian multiculturalism policy in education are inadequate to address RBS' social, academic and psychological needs due to the disadvantaging socio-political context where refugees are placed.

Keywords: Australia, bio-ecological model, multiculturalism, refugee education

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407 Federalism, a System of Government: Comparative Study of Australia and Canada

Authors: Rana Tajammal Rashid


Federalism is a political system in which government power and responsibility are divided between a federal legislature and units of the state or provincial legislatures. This system provides the structure for the states having large territory and through that can manage the state affairs and administration easily. Many of the largest countries in the world are federations, like; The United States, Canada, India, Pakistan South Africa, Argentina, and Australia. Every large democratic nation has a federal system of government. This study will explore the feature and good governance of two developed countries Canada and Australia. This study will be helpful to the developing countries like Pakistan, India which have a federal form of structure to run the affairs of the state. In the federal system of Pakistan there are lot of issues and conflicts with the provinces with a comparative study of these two developed countries, i.e., Australia and Canada, our policy and decision maker political actors will understand in which way a state will successfully manage the issues related to federalism. This study will also provide the help to the students of comparative politics that how to analysis the different political system of the developed countries of the world.

Keywords: federalism, features of federalism, types of federalism, history of federalism, Australian federalism, Canadian federalism, federalism developments, executives, federal and provincial autonomy legislative, judicial

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406 An Intergenerational Study of Iranian Migrant Families in Australia: Exploring Language, Identity, and Acculturation

Authors: Alireza Fard Kashani


This study reports on the experiences and attitudes of six Iranian migrant families, from two groups of asylum seekers and skilled workers, with regard to their language, identity, and acculturation in Australia. The participants included first generation parents and 1.5-generation adolescents, who had lived in Australia for a minimum of three years. For this investigation, Mendoza’s (1984, 2016) acculturation model, as well as poststructuralist views of identity, were employed. The semi-structured interview results have highlighted that Iranian parents and adolescents face low degrees of intergenerational conflicts in most domains of their acculturation. However, the structural and lawful patterns in Australia have caused some internal conflicts for the parents, especially fathers (e.g., their power status within the family or their children’s freedom). Furthermore, while most participants reported ‘cultural eclecticism’ as their preferred acculturation orientation, female participants seemed to be more eclectic than their male counterparts who showed inclination towards keeping more aspects of their home culture. This finding, however, highlights a meaningful effort on the part of husbands that in order to make their married lives continue well in Australia they need to re-consider the traditional male-dominated customs they used to have in Iran. As for identity, not only the parents but also the adolescents proudly identified themselves as Persians. In addition, with respect to linguistic behaviour, almost all adolescents showed enthusiasm to retain the Persian language at home to be able to maintain contacts with their relatives and friends in Iran and to enjoy many other benefits the language may offer them in the future.

Keywords: acculturation, asylum seekers, identity, intergenerational conflicts, language, skilled workers, 1.5 generation

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405 The Greek Diaspora in Australia: Identity and Transnational Identity

Authors: Panayiota Romios


As the use of 'diaspora' has proliferated in the last decade, its meaning has been stretched in various directions. Current diaspora frames of identity representation do not adequately capture the complexities of everyday lived experiences of transnational individuals and groups. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative research project conducted in Melbourne, Australia with second generation Greek Australians. It analyses the forms of intercultural identities of the second generation Greek Australians returning to Australia post-2008, after living in Greece for an extended period of time. The discussion highlights key characteristics in relation to diaspora-homeland ties, seeking to denaturalise the commonplace assumptions and imaginations about the cultures and identities of Greek Australian diaspora communities and probe the relevance of identity markers such a country of origin, nationality, ethnicity, ethnic origin, language and mother tongue. The definition of diaspora experienced in this transnational lexicon is interestingly quite distinct from original articulations and also from others returning ‘home’.

Keywords: diaspora, identity, migration, displacement

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404 An Exploration of Australian Teacher Training Programs in an Indonesian Context

Authors: Yayan Rahayani


Transnational Education (TNE) encompasses mobile and diverse student cohorts, a complex array of educational programs, and a range of providers that serve students across countries in a multicultural setting. In Australia, education is the fourth largest industry that contributes to economic prosperity, and Australia relies heavily on international students to support it. There is a concern that TNE in Australia is limited by a lack of understanding regarding cultural sensitivity towards international students. This research will contribute to the theories of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy (CRP) by incorporating religion as a dimension of culture. This study will also investigate TNE practices provided for educators from culturally diverse backgrounds. The focus of this paper will examine TNE programs in Australia with a focus on Indonesian teachers to examine the extent that they are supported culturally and religiously within the programs. The study an ethnographically-informed case study approach using in-depth interviews. The preliminary results of the study highlight the lack of focus given to the local context of participants. Whilst programs may take into consideration the religious and cultural needs of the participants, the pedagogical focus of the content does not address the local and specific contexts of the participants who will return to Indonesia to teach.

Keywords: culturally responsive pedagogy, professional development, teacher training, transnational education

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403 Spatial Temporal Rainfall Trends in Australia

Authors: Bright E. Owusu, Nittaya McNeil


Rainfall is one of the most essential quantities in meteorology and hydrology. It has important impacts on people’s daily life and excess or inadequate of it could bring tremendous losses in economy and cause fatalities. Population increase around the globe tends to have a corresponding increase in settlement and industrialization. Some countries are affected by flood and drought occasionally due to climate change, which disrupt most of the daily activities. Knowledge of trends in spatial and temporal rainfall variability and their physical explanations would be beneficial in climate change assessment and to determine erosivity. This study describes the spatial-temporal variability of daily rainfall in Australia and their corresponding long-term trend during 1950-2013. The spatial patterns were investigated by using exploratory factor analysis and the long term trend in rainfall time series were determined by linear regression, Mann-Kendall rank statistics and the Sen’s slope test. The exploratory factor analysis explained most of the variations in the data and grouped Australia into eight distinct rainfall regions with different rainfall patterns. Significant increasing trends in annual rainfall were observed in the northern regions of Australia. However, the northeastern part was the wettest of all the eight rainfall regions.

Keywords: climate change, explanatory factor analysis, Mann-Kendall and Sen’s slope test, rainfall.

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402 Learning Environments in the Early Years: A Case Study of an Early Childhood Centre in Australia

Authors: Mingxi Xiao


Children’s experiences in the early years build and shape the brain. The early years learning environment plays a significantly important role in children’s development. A well-constructed environment will facilitate children’s physical and mental well-being. This case study used an early learning centre in Australia called SDN Hurstville as an example, describing the learning environment in the centre, as well as analyzing the functions of the affordances. In addition, this report talks about the sustainability of learning in the centre, and how the environment supports cultural diversity and indigenous learning. The early years for children are significant. Different elements in the early childhood centre should work together to help children develop better. This case study found that the natural environment and the artificial environment are both critical to children; only when they work together can children have better development in physical and mental well-being and have a sense of belonging when playing and learning in the centre.

Keywords: early childhood center, early childhood education, learning environment, Australia

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401 Chinese on the Move: Residential Mobility and Evolution of People's Republic of China-Born Migrants in Australia

Authors: Siqin Wang, Jonathan Corcoran, Yan Liu, Thomas Sigler


Australia is a quintessentially immigrant nation with 28 percent of its residents being foreign-born. By 2011, People’s Republic of China (PRC) overtook the United Kingdom to become the largest source country in Australia. Significantly, the profile of PRC-born migrants has changed to mirror broader global shifts towards high-skilled labour, education-related, and investment-focussed migration, all of which reflect an increasing trend in the mobility of wealthy and/or educated cohorts. Together, these coalesce to form a more complex pattern of migrant settlement –both spatially and socio-economically. This paper focuses on the PRC-born migration, redresses these lacunae, with regard to the settlement outcomes of PRC migrants to Australia, with a particular focus on spatial evolution and residential mobility at both the metropolitan and national scales. By drawing on Census Data and migration Micro Datasets, the aim of this paper is to examine the shifting dynamics of PRC-born migrants in Australian capital cities to unveil their socioeconomic characteristics, residential patterns and change of spatial concentrations during their transition into the new host society. This paper finds out three general patterns in the residential evolution of PRC-born migrants depending on the size of capital cities where they settle down, as well as the association of socio-economic characters with the formation of enclaves. It also examines the residential mobility across states and cities from 2001 to 2011 indicating the rising status of median-size Australian capital cities for receiving PRC-born migrants. The paper concludes with a discussion of evidences for policy formation, facilitates the effective transition of PRC-born populations into the mainstream of host society and enhances social harmony to help Australia become a more successful multicultural nation.

Keywords: Australia, Chinese migrants, residential mobility, spatial evolution

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400 Spatiotemporal Patterns of Pruritic Skin and Ear Diseases in Dogs in Australia from 2008-2018

Authors: Sara Horsman, Catriona Croton, Erika Meler, Deirdre Mikkelsen, Ricardo Soares Magalhães, Justine Gibson


Canine pruritic skin and ear diseases are a common reason for attending veterinary practices in Australia. Data on the incidence of canine pruritic skin and ear diseases and how it varies across different demographic groups, geographically and temporally across Australia, is not presently available. In this study, 10-years of electronic patient records from dogs with pruritic skin and ear diseases admitted to primary practice in Australia were used to investigate demographic and spatiotemporal differences in incidence throughout Australia. Electronic patient records of dogs with pruritic skin and ear diseases attending general veterinary practices from 2008 to 2017 recorded in the VetCompass Australia database were used. Demographic data for each canine patient included age, sex, breed group, neuter status, client or veterinary clinic postcode and consultation date. Any consultations with a ≥6 months period between consultations were classified as a new case. The annual incidence risk of pruritic skin and ear disease per Australian State and Territory were estimated for each postcode to visualize spatiotemporal trends. Geographical clustering of incidence risk at the postcode level was quantified for each individual State and Territory using Moran’s I and Local Indicators of Spatial Autocorrelation statistics. The final data for analysis included 113,794 consultations from a total of 82,790 dogs presenting to 138 Australian veterinary general practices with pruritic skin and ear diseases from 2008 to 2017. Over the 10 years, dogs aged 4-7 years represented the highest number of consultations (36.3%; 41,297/113,794) throughout Australia and per State and Territory. The population was higher for males (52.6%; 59,890/113,794) than females (47.3%; 53,817/113,794) and unknown sex (0.1%; 87/113,794) over the 10 years. Neutered dogs represented 84% (95,637/113,794) of consultations and Toys (23.9%; 27,266/113,794) and Terriers (23.6%; 26,895/113,794) were the highest represented breed groups over the 10 years. There were yearly variations for age, sex and breed groups per State and Territory. The incidence risk per 100,000 dogs was highest over the 10 years for Queensland (5,252 cases per 100,000 dogs), followed by the Australian Capital Territory (2,881 cases per 100,000 dogs), Victoria (2,789 cases per 100,000 dogs), New South Wales (1,908 cases per 100,000 dogs), South Australia (1,843 cases per 100,000 dogs), and Western Australia (188 cases per 100,000 dogs). The incidence risk per 100,000 dogs varied per year and per State and Territory. Although, throughout Australia, 2014 (311 cases per 100,000 dogs) had the highest incidence risk, whereas 2013 (228 cases per 100,000 dogs) represented the lowest incidence risk. Additionally, there were differences in the significant geographical hot-spots (i.e., postcodes with a high incidence risk of dogs with pruritic skin and ear diseases) for all States over the 10 years. This study demonstrates that the incidence of dogs with pruritic skin and ear diseases varies greatly throughout Australia and that certain dog demographics were overrepresented in the descriptive analysis. Temporal changes in hot-spot postcodes may indicate the presence of environmental factors likely to increase the risk of dogs experiencing pruritic skin and ear diseases.

Keywords: canine pruritic skin and ear diseases, spatial distribution, temporal patterns, canine demographics

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399 The Impact of Bilateral Investment Treaties on Health-Related Intellectual Property Rights in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Australia

Authors: Abdulrahman Fahim M. Alsulami


This paper is dedicated to a detailed investigation of the interaction between the agreement on trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) and bilateral investment treaties (BITs) in the regulation of health-related intellectual property rights in Australia and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The chosen research object is complex and requires a thorough examination of a set of factors influencing the problem under investigation. At the moment, to the author’s best knowledge’ there is no academic research that would conceptualize and critically compare the regulation of health-related intellectual property rights in these two countries. While there is a substantial amount of information in the literature on certain aspects of the problem, the existing knowledge about certain aspects of the health-related regulatory frameworks in Australia and Saudi Arabia barely explains in detail the specifics of the ways in which the TRIPS agreement interacts with (BITs) in the regulation of health-related intellectual property rights. Therefore, this paper will address an evident research gap by studying an intriguing yet under-researched problem. The paper comprises five subsections. The first subsection provides an overview of the investment climate in Saudi Arabia and Australia with an emphasis on the health care industry. It will cover political, economic, and social factors influencing the investment climate in these countries, the systems of intellectual property rights protection, recent patterns relevant to the investment climate’s development, and key characteristics of the investment climate in the health care industry. The second subsection analyses BITs in Saudi Arabia and Australia in light of the countries’ responsibilities under the TRIPS Agreement. The third subsection provides a critical examination of the interaction between the TRIPS Agreement and BITs in Saudi Arabia on the basis of data collected and analyzed in previous subsections. It will investigate key discrepancies concerning the regulation of health-related intellectual property rights in Saudi Arabia and Australia from the position of BITs’ interaction with the TRIPS Agreement and explore the existing procedures for clarifying priorities between them in regulating health-related intellectual property rights. The fourth subsection of the paper provides recommendations concerning the transformation of BITS into a TRIPS+ dimension in regulating health-related intellectual property rights in Saudi Arabia and Australia. The final subsection provides a summary of differences between the Australian and Saudi BITs from the perspective of the regulation of health-related intellectual property rights under the TRIPS agreement and bilateral investment treaties.

Keywords: Australia, bilateral investment treaties, IP law, public health sector, Saudi Arabia

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398 Making Meaning, Authenticity, and Redefining a Future in Former Refugees and Asylum Seekers Detained in Australia

Authors: Lynne McCormack, Andrew Digges


Since 2013, the Australian government has enforced mandatory detention of anyone arriving in Australia without a valid visa, including those subsequently identified as a refugee or seeking asylum. While consistent with the increased use of immigration detention internationally, Australia’s use of offshore processing facilities both during and subsequent to refugee status determination processing has until recently remained a unique feature of Australia’s program of deterrence. The commonplace detention of refugees and asylum seekers following displacement is a significant and independent source of trauma and a contributory factor in adverse psychological outcomes. Officially, these individuals have no prospect of resettlement in Australia, are barred from applying for substantive visas, and are frequently and indefinitely detained in closed facilities such as immigration detention centres, or alternative places of detention, including hotels. It is also important to note that the limited access to Australia’s immigration detention population made available to researchers often means that data available for secondary analysis may be incomplete or delayed in its release. Further, studies into the lived experience of refugees and asylum seekers are typically cross-sectional and convenience sampled, employing a variety of designs and research methodologies that limit comparability and focused on the immediacy of the individual’s experience. Consequently, how former detainees make sense of their experience, redefine their future trajectory upon release, and recover a sense of authenticity and purpose, is unknown. As such, the present study sought the positive and negative subjective interpretations of 6 participants in Australia regarding their lived experiences as refugees and asylum seekers within Australia’s immigration detention system and its impact on their future sense of self. It made use of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), a qualitative research methodology that is interested in how individuals make sense of, and ascribe meaning to, their unique lived experiences of phenomena. Underpinned by phenomenology, hermeneutics, and critical realism, this idiographic study aimed to explore both positive and negative subjective interpretations of former refugees and asylum seekers held in detention in Australia. It sought to understand how they make sense of their experiences, how detention has impacted their overall journey as displaced persons, and how they have moved forward in the aftermath of protracted detention in Australia. Examining the unique lived experiences of previously detained refugees and asylum seekers may inform the future development of theoretical models of posttraumatic growth among this vulnerable population, thereby informing the delivery of future mental health and resettlement services.

Keywords: mandatory detention, refugee, asylum seeker, authenticity, Interpretative phenomenological analysis

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