Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5366

Search results for: music education

5366 Realization Mode and Theory for Extensible Music Cognition Education: Taking Children's Music Education as an Example

Authors: Yumeng He

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to establish the “extenics” of children music education, the “extenics” thought and methods are introduced into the children music education field. Discussions are made from the perspective of children music education on how to generate new music cognitive from music cognitive, how to generate new music education from music education and how to generate music learning from music learning. The research methods including the extensibility of music art, extensibility of music education, extensibility of music capability and extensibility of music learning. Results of this study indicate that the thought and research methods of children’s extended music education not only have developed the “extenics” concept and ideological methods, meanwhile, the brand-new thought and innovative research perspective have been employed in discussing the children music education. As indicated in research, the children’s extended music education has extended the horizon of children music education, and has endowed the children music education field with a new thought and research method.

Keywords: comprehensive evaluations, extension thought, extension cognition music education, extensibility

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5365 A Correlation Analysis of an Effective Music Education with Students’ Mathematical Performance

Authors: Yoon Suh Song

Abstract:

Though music education can broaden one’s capacity for mathematical performance, many countries lag behind in music education. Little empirical evidence is found to identify the connection between math and music. Therefore, this research was set out to explore what music-related variables are associated with mathematical performance. The result of our analysis is as follows: A Pearson's Correlation analysis revealed that PISA math score is strongly correlated with students' Intelligence Quotient (IQ). This lays the foundation for further research as to what factors in students’ IQ lead to a better performance in math.

Keywords: music education, mathematical performance, education, IQ

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5364 Lines for a Different Approach in Music Education: A Review of the Concept of Musicality

Authors: Emmanuel Carlos De Mata Castrejón

Abstract:

Music education has shown to be connected to many areas of sciences and arts, it has also been associated with several facets of human life. The many aspects around the study of music and education, make very difficult for the music educator to find a way through, even though there are lots of methods of teaching music to young children, they are different between one another and so are the students. For the music to help improve children’s development, it is necessary for the children to explore their musicality as they explore their creativity; it must be a challenging, playful, and enjoyable activity. The purpose of this investigation is to focus the music education not in the music, nor the teaching, but the children to be guided through their own musicality. The first approach to this kind of music education comes from the Active learning methods during the nineteenth century, most of which are still used around the world, sometimes with modifications to fit a certain place or type of students. This approach on children’s musicality requires some knowledge of music, pedagogy, and developmental psychology at least, but more important than the theory or the method used for music education, the focus should be on developing the student’s musicality, considering the complexity of this concept. To get this, it is needed, indeed, far more research in the topic, so this is a call for collaborative research and for interdisciplinary teams to emerge. This is a review of authors and methods in music education trying to trace a line pointing to transdisciplinary work and pursuing the development of children’s musicality.

Keywords: children, methods, music education, musicality

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5363 Orchestra Course Outcomes in Terms of Values Education

Authors: Z. Kurtaslan, H. Hakan Okay, E. Can Dönmez, I. Kuçukdoğan

Abstract:

Music education aims to bring up individuals most appropriately and to advanced levels as a balanced whole physically, cognitively, affectively, and kinesthetically while making a major contribution to the physical and spiritual development of the individual. The most crucial aim of music education, an influential education medium per se, is to make music be loved; yet, among its educational aims are concepts such as affinity, friendship, goodness, philanthropy, responsibility, and respect all extremely crucial bringing up individuals as a balanced whole. One of the most essential assets of the music education is the training of making music together, solidifying musical knowledge and enabling the acquisition of cooperation. This habit requires internalization of values like responsibility, patience, cooperativeness, respect, self-control, friendship, and fairness. If musicians lack these values, the ensemble will become after some certain time a cacophony. In this qualitative research, the attitudes of music teacher candidates in orchestra/chamber music classes will be examined in terms of values.

Keywords: education, music, orchestra/chamber music, values

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5362 Role of Music Education as a Pillar in Sustainable Development of India

Authors: Rohit Rutka

Abstract:

The aim of the present paper is to reveal the importance of music as an indispensable aspect in education of art, with regard to every single culture which serves as indisputable support to sustainable development in India. Indian system of education is one of the oldest systems of the world. Both secular and sacred education was handed over systematically by formalizing the system of education. We have found significant growth in the system of education in our country since ancient times. It is a veritable avenue which enables societies to transmit music and musical skills from one generation to the upcoming ones. The research is based on a comprehensive literature review on the impact of music to sustainable development. This paper contextualized that music education is imperative to Sustainable Development, to the adult. It is a vital force of self-expression, communication and empowerment economically, in growing children, involvement in music education will promote their creative ability, thereby contribute to the full development of intellectual capacities, apt emotional development that gives the right values and feelings to various events and happenings, music helps to develop skills, innate and instinctive talent in human being and recommend that the informal music teaching should be incorporated into school system so as to transmit and preserve the cultural music and that the study of music should be made compulsory at all levels of the Indian educational system.

Keywords: sustainable development, music education, culture, music as a pillar to sustainable development

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5361 Incorporating Popular Nigerian Music into the School Curriculum: A Potential for National Development

Authors: David O. A. Ogunrinade

Abstract:

The significance of education to the growth and development of man is imperative. The Nigerian education philosophy and national objectives are geared towards self-realization, social, cultural, and economic, just to mention a few. The acquisition of skills and abilities, both mental and physical, for individual to live and contribute to the development of society should be of major importance to a functional education curriculum. This study specifically set out to examine the momentous potentials of popular music as a veritable tool to be properly incorporated into the curriculum of music education in Nigeria. This will equip the learners to be self-reliant and contribute to the national economy. Interviews with exponents of Nigerian popular music and the stakeholders in the music industry, as well as audio-visual materials were employed to elicit information. Findings reveal that there are lots of potentials and dexterities in popular music that can enable Nigerian music graduates to contribute their own quota to the national development of the nation, as well as being useful to themselves. If the Nigerian society is not to be plagued by a breed of unemployable youths who could not raise the economic productivity of the country, it is deemed pertinent that the music curriculum as one of the vocational education needs to be reviewed to incorporate popular music, as well as to reflect more of the Nigerian cultural heritage.

Keywords: popular music, music curriculum, music in schools, popular music prospect

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5360 Research on the Teaching Quality Evaluation of China’s Network Music Education APP

Authors: Guangzhuang Yu, Chun-Chu Liu

Abstract:

With the advent of the Internet era in recent years, social music education has gradually shifted from the original entity education mode to the mode of entity plus network teaching. No matter for school music education, professional music education or social music education, the teaching quality is the most important evaluation index. Regarding the research on teaching quality evaluation, scholars at home and abroad have contributed a lot of research results on the basis of multiple methods and evaluation subjects. However, to our best knowledge the complete evaluation model for the virtual teaching interaction mode of the emerging network music education Application (APP) has not been established. This research firstly found out the basic dimensions that accord with the teaching quality required by the three parties, constructing the quality evaluation index system; and then, on the basis of expounding the connotation of each index, it determined the weight of each index by using method of fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, providing ideas and methods for scientific, objective and comprehensive evaluation of the teaching quality of network education APP.

Keywords: network music education APP, teaching quality evaluation, index and connotation

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5359 Music for Peace, a Model for Socialization

Authors: Mina Fenercioglu

Abstract:

This study discusses a Turkish music education model similar to El Sistema. The Music for Peace (Baris icin Muzik) program, founded in 2005 by an idealist humanitarian in Istanbul, started as a pilot project with accordion and then with flute in ensembles at the Ulubatlı Hasan Primary School where mostly underprivileged children attend. The program gives complimentary music lessons particularly to deprived children, who at the beginning were prone to crime. With music education, the attitudes of the children turn to a positive aspect. The aim of this initiative provides social and cultural awareness, which serves the same mission as the world known El Sistema. In 2009, the Music for Peace project received Deutsche Bank Urban Age Award, which is a prize presented to enterprises that improve the quality of life in urban environment. Since 2010, the Music for Peace continues the symphonic music education at its own place. In 2011, Music for Peace gained foundation status, and started to accept donations as musical instruments for children who attend the courses. On July 2013, IKSV (Istanbul Culture and Arts Foundation) became the institutional partner of Music for Peace Foundation and in June 2014, the foundation signed up to join El Sistema’s global program. Now in 2015, the foundation has three ensembles: the Music for Peace Orchestra, which consists of two orchestras practicing and performing in different levels; the Music for Peace Chorus, which has joined Istanbul International Polyphonic Choruses Festival; and the recently established Music for Peace Brass Ensemble.

Keywords: El Sistema, music education, music for peace, socialization

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5358 Music Training as an Innovative Approach to the Treatment of Language Disabilities

Authors: Jonathan Bolduc

Abstract:

Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of music training approaches to help children with language disabilities. Because music is closely associated with a number of cognitive functions, including language, it has been hypothesized that musical skills transfer to other domains. Research suggests that music training strengthens basic auditory processing skills in dyslexic children and may ameliorate phonological deficits. Furthermore, music instruction has the particular advantage of being non-literacy-based, thus removing the frustrations that can be associated with reading and writing activities among children with specific learning disabilities. In this study, we assessed the effect of implementing an intensive music program on the development of language skills (phonological and reading) in 4- to 9-year-old children. Seventeen children (N=17) participated in the study. The experiment took place over 6 weeks in a controlled environment. Eighteen lessons of 40 minutes were offered during this period by two music specialists. The Dalcroze, Orff, and Kodaly approaches were used. A series of qualitative measures were implemented to document the contribution of music training to this population. Currently, the data is being analyzed. The first results show that learning music seems to significantly improve verbal memory. We already know that language disabilities are considered one of the main causes of school dropout as well as later professional and social failure. We aim to corroborate that an integrated music education program can provide children with language disabilities with the same opportunities to develop and succeed in school as their classmates. Scientifically, the results will contribute to advance the knowledge by identifying the more effective music education strategies to improve the overall development of children worldwide.

Keywords: music education, music, art education, language diasabilities

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5357 Effects of Synchronous Music in Gymnastics' Motor Skill Performance among Undergraduate Female Students in Physical Education College

Authors: Sanaa Ali Ahmed Alrashid

Abstract:

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of synchronous music in gymnastics' motor skill performance among undergraduate female students in physical education college at Basra University. The researcher used an experimental design. 20 female students of physical education divided equally into two groups, (10)experimental group with music, (10) control group without music. All participants complete 8 weeks in testing. Data analysis based on T-test shows a significant difference at (α = 0.05) in all skills level between experimental and control groups in favor of the experimental group. Results of this study contribute to developing the role of synchronous music in improving gymnastic skills performance.

Keywords: performance, motor skill, music, synchronous

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5356 Role of Music in the Mainstream Educational Curriculum: A Study in the Light of Noble Laureate Rabindranath Tagore's Educational Philosophy

Authors: Tripti Watwe

Abstract:

Music or art of any country is its national heritage and represents the cultural personality of that region. Noble Laureate Rabindranath Tagore through his international educational endeavour called ‘Visva-Bharati’ established this concept that music can very much be a part of the mainstream education of a country because the purpose of both music and education is to bring in transformation in an individual. An individual with musical veins is more focused and meditative towards his or her goal in life. That is why in Tagore’s Visva-Bharati, one can observe even the brightest brains from various fields of economics, science, social sciences or literature equally verbal and efficient in Rabindra songs which the poet created under his own name.Tagore established this phenomenon that music if made a part of education and life, brings in profound transformation in the character and over-all personality of a person giving better and responsible citizens to a nation. It is expected that this hypothesis that music and education can be a nectarine combination can be established and proved with the help of various recorded observations containing Tagore’s educational philosophy, his experiments in his own institution ‘Visva-Bharati’ and through recorded research materials which have been gathered during the author’s field work in Visva-Bharati.

Keywords: Rabindranath Tagore, Visva-Bharati, education, music, philosophy

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5355 Music Aptitude and School Readiness in Indonesian Children

Authors: Diella Gracia Martauli

Abstract:

This study investigated the relationship between music aptitude and school readiness in Indonesian children. Music aptitude is described as children’s music potential, whereas school readiness is defined as a condition in which a child is deemed ready to enter the formal education system. This study presents a hypothesis that music aptitude is correlated with school readiness. This is a correlational research study of 17 children aged 5-6 years old (M = 6.10, SD = 0.33) who were enrolled in a kindergarten school in Jakarta, Indonesia. Music aptitude scores were obtained from Primary Measures of Music Audiation, whereas School readiness scores were obtained from Bracken School Readiness Assessment Third Edition. The analysis of the data was performed using Pearson Correlation. The result found no correlation between music aptitude and school readiness (r = 0.196, p = 0.452). Discussions regarding the results, perspective from the measures and cultures are presented. Further study is recommended to establish links between music aptitude and school readiness.

Keywords: BSRA, music aptitude, PMMA, school readiness

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5354 Innovative Approaches to Integrating the Bulgarian Folklore

Authors: Violeta Kostadinova, Emilia Tsankova

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to explore and analyze the integration of the younger generation with Bulgarian folklore through various innovative forms, methods and approaches. A survey was conducted among students to evaluate its success. The results prove the relevance of the problem as well and the necessity of innovation to keep the national and promotion of Bulgarian folklore. Innovation in music education is a good way to create positive motivation and raise interest in folk art, which is especially pronounced when the folk songs have contemporary arrangement. Modern interpretation of Bulgarian folk music makes the music more approachable to young people and makes it more likely that folk music will become an integral part of our modern culture. The research would help the implementation of appropriate innovations for more effective training and upgrading for music students in all middle and high schools in the country.

Keywords: Bulgarian folklore, innovative forms, methods and approaches, motivation, music education

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5353 Getting Out of the Box: Tangible Music Production in the Age of Virtual Technological Abundance

Authors: Tim Nikolsky

Abstract:

This paper seeks to explore the different ways in which music producers choose to embrace various levels of technology based on musical values, objectives, affordability, access and workflow benefits. Current digital audio production workflow is questioned. Engineers and music producers of today are increasingly divorced from the tangibility of music production. Making music no longer requires you to reach over and turn a knob. Ideas of authenticity in music production are being redefined. Calculations from the mathematical algorithm with the pretty pictures are increasingly being chosen over hardware containing transformers and tubes. Are mouse clicks and movements equivalent or inferior to the master brush strokes we are seeking to conjure? We are making audio production decisions visually by constantly looking at a screen rather than listening. Have we compromised our music objectives and values by removing the ‘hands-on’ nature of music making? DAW interfaces are making our musical decisions for us not necessarily in our best interests. Technological innovation has presented opportunities as well as challenges for education. What do music production students actually need to learn in a formalised education environment, and to what extent do they need to know it? In this brave new world of omnipresent music creation tools, do we still need tangibility in music production? Interviews with prominent Australian music producers that work in a variety of fields will be featured in this paper, and will provide insight in answering these questions and move towards developing an understanding how tangibility can be rediscovered in the next generation of music production.

Keywords: analogue, digital, digital audio workstation, music production, plugins, tangibility, technology, workflow

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5352 Musical Diversity: The Differences between Public and Private Kindergartens in China

Authors: Kunyu Yan

Abstract:

Early childhood music education plays a significant role in an individual’s growth. Music can help children understand themselves and relate to others, and make connections between family, school, and society. In recent years, with the development of early childhood education in China, an increasing number of kindergartens have been established, and many of them pay more attention to music education. This research has two main aims. One is to discover how and why music is used in both public and private kindergartens. The second aim is to make recommendations for widening the use of music in kindergartens. In order to achieve these aims, the research uses two main methods. Firstly, it considers the historical background and cultural context of early childhood education in China; and secondly, it uses an approach that compares public and private kindergartens. In this research, six kindergartens were chosen from Qingdao city in Shandong Province as case studies, including 3 public kindergartens and 3 private kindergartens. This research was based on using three types of data collection methods: observation, semi-structured interviews with teachers, and questionnaires with parents. Participant and non-participant observational methods were used and included in daily routines at the kindergartens in order to experience the situation of music education first-hand. Interviews were associated with teachers’ views of teaching and learning music, the perceptions of the music context, and their strategies of using music. Lastly, the questionnaire was designed to obtain the views of current music education from the children’s parents in the respective kindergartens. The results are shown with three main themes: (1) distinct characteristics of public kindergartens (e.g., similar equipment, low tuition fee, qualified teachers, etc); (2) distinct characteristics of private kindergartens (e.g., various tuition fees, own teaching system, trained teachers, etc); and (3) differences between public and private kindergartens (e.g., funding, requirements for teachers, parents’ demands, etc). According to the results, we can see that the main purpose of using music in China is to develop the musical ability of children, and teachers focus on musical learning, such as singing in tune and playing instruments. However, as revealed in this research, there are many other uses and functions of music in these educational settings, including music used for non-musical learning (e.g., counting, learning language, etc.) or in supporting social routines.

Keywords: differences between private and public school, early childhood education, music education, uses and functions of music

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5351 Using Music in the Classroom to Help Syrian Refugees Deal with Post-War Trauma

Authors: Vartan Agopian

Abstract:

Millions of Syrian families have been displaced since the beginning of the Syrian war, and the negative effects of post-war trauma have shown detrimental effects on the mental health of refugee children. While educational strategies have focused on vocational training and academic achievement, little has been done to include music in the school curriculum to help these children improve their mental health. The literature of music education and psychology, on the other hand, shows the positive effects of music on traumatized children, especially when it comes to dealing with stress. This paper presents a brief literature review of trauma, music therapy, and music in the classroom, after having introduced the Syrian war and refugee situation. Furthermore, the paper highlights the benefits of using music with traumatized children from the literature and offers strategies for teachers (such as singing, playing an instrument, songwriting, and others) to include music in their classrooms to help Syrian refugee children deal with post-war trauma.

Keywords: children, music, refugees, Syria, war

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5350 Music Educators for Peace: Synchronizing Music and Pedagogical Experiences to Re-Build Social Fabric in Colombia's Post-Conflict

Authors: Julian Dario Castro Cifuentes

Abstract:

In Colombia, the armed conflict has lasted for more than sixty years bringing poverty, internal displacement of people, deaths from both government and insurgent forces and other violence-related problems that has damaged its social fabric. In 2016, the peace process between the Colombian government and the FARC rebels brought the possibility of ending this war and a new set of challenges to Colombian society in order to achieve pacific coexistence and reconciliation. In this scenario, there have been different efforts from diverse social actors in order to build peace and reconciliation mainly within the victims of the armed conflict. In the case of music, there have been multiple programs for social transformation through music and pedagogical experiences. Nevertheless, the need to strengthen this initiative by giving ‘peace building oriented’ pedagogical tools to the musicians that lead this experiences and understanding which aspects make this practices ‘musically meaningful’, has been recognized. For this reason, the purpose of this study is to discuss the convergences and divergences of music, and educational experiences applied to peacebuilding in the context of Colombia’s post-conflict. In this research, the hermeneutic phenomenology paradigm is applied in a case study of a peace building music education experience in the department of Nariño, Colombia articulated with the program ‘Manos a la Paz’. Two particular experiences, one on musical practice and another on music education are taken as a unit of analysis to understand its essence and structure in order to find ways to articulate efforts in peace building actions from music. This study shows how the existent gap between music experience and its subjacent pedagogical knowledge, can be reduced through deconstruction of the music and pedagogical experience. The ‘Manos a la Paz’ program showed how a peace building approach to music education can make major contributions to Pacific Coexistence and Reconciliation in Colombia’s Post-Conflict.

Keywords: music education, music for peace, music pedagogy, peace building, social fabric

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5349 Motivational Qualities of and Flow State Responses to Participant-Selected Music and Researcher-Selected Music

Authors: Nurul A. Hamzah, Tony Morris, Dan Van Der Westhuizen

Abstract:

Music listening can potentially promote the achievement of flow state during exercise. Selecting music for exercise should consider the motivational factors-internal factors (music tempo and musicality) and external factors (cultural impact and association). This study was a cross-over study which was designed to examine the motivational qualities of music (participant-selected music and researcher-selected music) and flow state responses during exercise accompanying with music. 17 healthy participants (M=30.2, SD=6.3 years old) were among low physical activity individuals. Participants completed two separate sessions of 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise (40-60% of Heart Rate Reserve) while listening to music. Half the participants at random were assigned to exercise with participant-selected music first, and half were assigned to exercise with researcher-selected music first. Parameters including flow state responses (Flow State Scale-2) and motivational music rating (Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2) were administered immediately after the exercise. Results from this study showed that there were no significant differences for both flow state t(32)=0.00, p>0.05 and motivational music rating t(32)= .393, p>0.05 between exercise with participant-selected music and exercise with researcher-selected music. Listening to music either participant or researcher selected music could promote flow experience during exercise when music is perceived as motivational. Music tempo and music preference are factors that could influence individuals to enjoy exercise and improve the exercise performance.

Keywords: motivational music, flow state, researcher-selected music, participant-selected music

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5348 Wearable Music: Generation of Costumes from Music and Generative Art and Wearing Them by 3-Way Projectors

Authors: Noriki Amano

Abstract:

The final goal of this study is to create another way in which people enjoy music through the performance of 'Wearable Music'. Concretely speaking, we generate colorful costumes in real- time from music and to realize their dressing by projecting them to a person. For this purpose, we propose three methods in this study. First, a method of giving color to music in a three-dimensionally way. Second, a method of generating images of costumes from music. Third, a method of wearing the images of music. In particular, this study stands out from other related work in that we generate images of unique costumes from music and realize to wear them. In this study, we use the technique of generative arts to generate images of unique costumes and project the images to the fog generated around a person from 3-way using projectors. From this study, we can get how to enjoy music as 'wearable'. Furthermore, we are also able to have the prospect of unconventional entertainment based on the fusion between music and costumes.

Keywords: entertainment computing, costumes, music, generative programming

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5347 The Conservatoire Crisis: An Exploration into the Lived Experiences of Conservatoire Graduates

Authors: Scott Caizley

Abstract:

Widening participation amongst state schooled and British and Minority Ethnic (BME) students in UK conservatoires throughout the past years has persisted to remain at an all time low despite major efforts to increase access for those from underrepresented backgrounds. In the academic year of 2017/18, two of the UK’s leading music conservatoires recruited less state school students than Oxbridge. Whilst conservatories face further public stigmatisation and heavy financial penalties for failing to meet government benchmarks; there appears to be a more costly outcome to this crisis. This of course, is the lack of sociocultural diversity, which is perpetuated both within the conservatoire sector and the classical music industry. This research investigates the lived experiences of former state-schooled students who attended a UK music conservatoire. Given the participant’s underrepresented status, the research seeks to answer whether or not the students are fitting in or standing out within the conservatoire environment. The research will explore the findings through a Bourdieusian contextual framework with hope of generating a wealth of new practises to the field of Higher Music Education. It is through illuminating the underrepresented voices within these elite spaces, which could aid future research and policy to help tackle the diversity dilemma and give classical music the social and cultural renewal it so desperately needs.

Keywords: classical music, lived experiences, higher music education, Bourdieusian

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5346 Non-fungible Token (NFT) - Used in the Music Industry for Independent Artists without a Music Recording Label

Authors: Bartholomew Badar

Abstract:

An NFT is a digital certificate with rights to own an asset, including various valuable digital goods such as art pieces, music items, collectibles, etc. The market for NFTs started developing in 2017 and has lately seen increased growth as crypto-currencies and the blockchain market continue to gain popularity. This study aims to understand potential uses for NFTs concerning the music industry and record labels. Independent artists struggle to distribute and sell their music without the help of a record label. The NFT marketplace could be a great tool to eliminate this problem. The research objective is to identify possibilities for independent artists to own their music rights and share value with an audience. We see a trend of new-school music artists trying to enter the music NFT market by creating visualizers, beats, cover art, etc. To analyze various existing music NFT assets and determine whether or not independent artists could monetize their music without a record label is the main focus of this scholarly paper.

Keywords: blockchain, crypto-currency, music, artist, NFT

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5345 Effect of Acoustical Performance Detection and Evaluation in Music Practice Rooms on Teaching

Authors: Hsu-Hui Cheng, Peng-Chian Chen, Shu-Yuan Chang, Jie-Ying Zhang

Abstract:

Activities in the music practice rooms range from playing, listening, rehearsing to music performing. The good room acoustics in a music practice room enables a music teacher to teach more effectively subtle concepts such as intonation, articulation, balance, dynamics and tone production. A poor acoustical environment would deeply affect the development of basic musical skills of music students. Practicing in the music practice room is an essential daily activity for music students; consequently, music practice rooms are very important facilities in a music school or department. The purpose of this survey is to measure and analyze the acoustic condition of piano practice rooms at the department of music in Zhaoqing University and accordingly apply a more effective teaching method to music students. The volume of the music practice room is approximately 25 m³, and it has existing curtains and some wood hole sound-absorbing panels. When all small music practice rooms are in constant use for teaching, it was found that the values of the background noise at 45, 46, 42, 46, 45 dB(A) in the small music practice room ( the doors and windows were close), respectively. The noise levels in the small music practice room to higher than standard levels (35dB(A)).

Keywords: acoustical performance, music practice room, noise level, piano room

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5344 Music Note Detection and Dictionary Generation from Music Sheet Using Image Processing Techniques

Authors: Muhammad Ammar, Talha Ali, Abdul Basit, Bakhtawar Rajput, Zobia Sohail

Abstract:

Music note detection is an area of study for the past few years and has its own influence in music file generation from sheet music. We proposed a method to detect music notes on sheet music using basic thresholding and blob detection. Subsequently, we created a notes dictionary using a semi-supervised learning approach. After notes detection, for each test image, the new symbols are added to the dictionary. This makes the notes detection semi-automatic. The experiments are done on images from a dataset and also on the captured images. The developed approach showed almost 100% accuracy on the dataset images, whereas varying results have been seen on captured images.

Keywords: music note, sheet music, optical music recognition, blob detection, thresholding, dictionary generation

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5343 The Role of Student Culture in Beginning Music Teachers’ Instruction in Urban School Settings

Authors: Kiana Williams

Abstract:

The purpose of this case study was to examine beginning music teachers’ perspectives of cultural relevance in relation to music instruction in urban school settings within a large Southwestern city. Research questions focused on the role of student culture in beginning music teachers’ instruction. Data were collected based on Seidman’s (2013) three interview series, consisting of audio recordings from two semi-structured individual interviews for each participant, a 15-20-minute video recording from each participant teaching in their classroom, and an audio recording of one focus group interview. Participants included three beginning music teachers currently employed in urban schools in a major metropolitan city in the Southern United States. In this study, a teacher was considered a beginning teacher if they had zero to three years of experience teaching music in urban school settings. The results revealed three broad themes related to connectivity and relatability, concerts, and differentiated instruction. Implications for current music educators as well as music teacher educators in higher education are included in this study. Further research should consider examining the effect of culturally relevant pedagogy on student retention in urban school music programs.

Keywords: culture, instruction, music, pedagogy, teacher, urban

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5342 Using Music: An Effective Medium of Teaching Vocabulary in ESL Classroom

Authors: Takwa Jahan

Abstract:

Music can be used in ESL classroom to create a learning environment. As literature abounds with positive statements, music can be used as a vehicle for second language acquisition. Music can be applied as an instrument to help second language learners to acquire vocabulary, grammar, spelling and other four skills and to expand cultural knowledge. Vocabulary learning is perceived boring by learners. As listening to music and singing songs are enjoyable to students, it can be used effectively to acquire vocabulary in second language. This paper reports a study to find out how music exhilarates vocabulary acquisition as the learners stay relaxed and thus learning becomes more enjoyable. For conducting my research two groups of fifty students- music and non-music group were formed. Data were collected through class observation, test, questionnaires, and interview. The finding shows that music group acquired much amount of vocabulary than the non-music group. They enjoyed vocabulary learning activities based on listening songs.

Keywords: effective instrument, ESL classroom, music, relax environment, vocabulary learning

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5341 Feminine Gender Identity in Nigerian Music Education: Trends, Challenges and Prospects

Authors: Julius Oluwayomi Oluwadamilare, Michael Olutayo Olatunji

Abstract:

In the African traditional societies, women have always played the role of a teacher, albeit informally. This is evident in the upbringing of their babies. As mothers, they also serve as the first teachers to teach their wards lessons through day-to-day activities. Furthermore, women always play the role of a musician during naming ceremonies, in the singing of lullabies, during initiation rites of adolescent boys and girls into adulthood, and in preparing their children especially daughters (and sons) for marriage. They also perform this role during religious and cultural activities, chieftaincy title/coronation ceremonies, singing of dirges during funeral ceremonies, and so forth. This traditional role of the African/Nigerian women puts them at a vantage point to contribute maximally to the teaching and learning of music at every level of education. The need for more women in the field of music education in Nigeria cannot be overemphasized. Today, gender equality is a major discourse in most countries of the world, Nigeria inclusive. Statistical data in the field of education and music education reveal the high ratio of male teachers/lecturers over their female counterparts in Nigerian tertiary institutions. The percentage is put at 80% Male and a distant 20% Female! This paper, therefore, examines feminine gender in Nigerian music education by tracing the involvement of women in musical practice from the pre-colonial to the post-colonial periods. The study employed both primary and secondary sources of data collection. The primary source included interviews conducted with 19 music lecturers from 8 purposively selected tertiary institutions from 4 geo-political zones of Nigeria. In addition, observation method was employed in the selected institutions. The results show, inter alia, that though there is a remarkable improvement in the rate of admission of female students into the music programme of Nigerian tertiary institutions, there is still an imbalance in the job placement in these institutions especially in the Colleges of Education which is the main focus of this research. Religious and socio-cultural factors are highly traceable to this development. This paper recommends the need for more female music teachers to be employed in the Nigerian tertiary institutions in line with the provisions stated in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

Keywords: gender, education, music, women

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5340 Manodharmam: A Scientific Methodology for Improvisation and Cognition in Carnatic Music

Authors: Raghavi Janaswamy, Saraswathi K. Vasudev

Abstract:

Music is ubiquitous in human lives. Ever since the fetus hears the sound inside the mother’s womb and later upon birth, the baby experiences alluring sounds, the curiosity of learning emanates and evokes exploration. Music is an education than mere entertainment. The intricate balance between music, education, and entertainment has well been recognized by the scientific community and is being explored as a viable tool to understand and improve human cognition. There are seven basic swaras (notes) Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Da, and Ni in the Carnatic music system that are analogous to C, D, E, F, G, A, and B of the western system. The Carnatic music builds on the conscious use of microtones, gamakams (oscillation), and rendering styles that evolved over centuries and established its stance. The complex but erudite raga system has been designed with elaborate experiments on srutis (musical sounds) and human perception abilities. In parallel, ‘rasa’- the emotions evoked by certain srutis and hence the ragas been solidified along with the power of language in combination with the musical sounds. The Carnatic music branches out as Kalpita sangeetam (pre-composed music) and Manodharma sangeetam (improvised music). This article explores the Manodharma sangeetam and its subdivisions such as raga alapana, swara kalpana, neraval, and ragam-tanam-pallavi (RTP). The intrinsic mathematical strategies in it’s practice methods toward improvising the music have been explored in detail with concert examples. The techniques on swara weaving for swara kalpana rendering and methods on the alapana development are also discussed at length with an emphasis on the impact on the human cognitive abilities. The articulation of the outlined conscious practice methods not only helps to leave a long-lasting melodic impression on the listeners but also onsets cognitive developments.

Keywords: Carnatic, Manodharmam, music cognition, Alapana

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5339 Predictive Relationship between Motivation Strategies and Musical Creativity of Secondary School Music Students

Authors: Lucy Lugo Mawang

Abstract:

Educational Psychologists have highlighted the significance of creativity in education. Likewise, a fundamental objective of music education concern the development of students’ musical creativity potential. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between motivation strategies and musical creativity, and establish the prediction equation of musical creativity. The study used purposive sampling and census to select 201 fourth-form music students (139 females/ 62 males), mainly from public secondary schools in Kenya. The mean age of participants was 17.24 years (SD = .78). Framed upon self- determination theory and the dichotomous model of achievement motivation, the study adopted an ex post facto research design. A self-report measure, the Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R) was used in data collection for the independent variable. Musical creativity was based on a creative music composition task and measured by the Consensual Musical Creativity Assessment Scale (CMCAS). Data collected in two separate sessions within an interval of one month. The questionnaire was administered in the first session, lasting approximately 20 minutes. The second session was for notation of participants’ creative composition. The results indicated a positive correlation r(199) = .39, p ˂ .01 between musical creativity and intrinsic music motivation. Conversely, negative correlation r(199) = -.19, p < .01 was observed between musical creativity and extrinsic music motivation. The equation for predicting musical creativity from music motivation strategies was significant F(2, 198) = 20.8, p < .01, with R2 = .17. Motivation strategies accounted for approximately (17%) of the variance in participants’ musical creativity. Intrinsic music motivation had the highest significant predictive value (β = .38, p ˂ .01) on musical creativity. In the exploratory analysis, a significant mean difference t(118) = 4.59, p ˂ .01 in musical creativity for intrinsic and extrinsic music motivation was observed in favour of intrinsically motivated participants. Further, a significant gender difference t(93.47) = 4.31, p ˂ .01 in musical creativity was observed, with male participants scoring higher than females. However, there was no significant difference in participants’ musical creativity based on age. The study recommended that music educators should strive to enhance intrinsic music motivation among students. Specifically, schools should create conducive environments and have interventions for the development of intrinsic music motivation since it is the most facilitative motivation strategy in predicting musical creativity.

Keywords: extrinsic music motivation, intrinsic music motivation, musical creativity, music composition

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5338 A Semiotic Approach to the Construction of Classical Identity in Indian Classical Music Videos

Authors: Jayakrishnan Narayanan, Sengamalam Periyasamy Dhanavel

Abstract:

Indian classical (Karnatik) music videos across various media platforms have followed an audio-visual pattern that conforms to its socio-cultural and quasi-religious identity. The present paper analyzes the semiotic variations between ‘pure Karnatik music videos’ and ‘independent/contemporary-collaborative music videos’ posted on social media by young professional Karnatik musicians. The paper analyzes these media texts by comparing their various structural sememes namely, the title, artists, music, narrative schemata, visuals, lighting, sound, and costumes. The paper argues that the pure Karnatik music videos are marked by the presence of certain recurring mythological or third level signifiers and that these signifiers and codes are marked by their conspicuous absence in the independent music videos produced by the same musicians. While the music and the musical instruments used in both these sets of music videos remain similar, the meaning that is abducted by the beholder in each case is entirely different. The paper also attempts to study the identity conflicts that are projected through these music videos and the extent to which the cultural connotations of Karnatik music govern the production of its music videos.

Keywords: abduction, identity, media semiotics, music video

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5337 Research and Innovations in Music Teacher Training Programme in Hungary

Authors: Monika Benedek

Abstract:

Improvisation is an integral part of music education programmes worldwide since teachers recognize that improvisation helps to broaden stylistic knowledge, develops creativity and various musical skills, in particular, aural skills, and also motivates to learn music theory. In Hungary, where Kodály concept is a core element of music teacher education, improvisation has been relatively neglected subject in both primary school and classical music school curricula. Therefore, improvisation was an important theme of a one-year-long research project carried out at the Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest. The project aimed to develop the music teacher training programme, and among others, focused on testing how improvisation could be used as a teaching tool to improve students’ musical reading and writing skills and creative musical skills. Teacher-researchers first tested various teaching approaches of improvisation with numerous teaching modules in music lessons at public schools and music schools. Data were collected from videos of lessons and from teachers’ reflective notes. After analysing data and developing teaching modules, all modules were tested again in a pilot course in 30 contact lessons for music teachers. Teachers gave written feedback of the pilot programme, tested two modules by their choice in their own teaching and wrote reflecting comments about their experiences in applying teaching modules of improvisation. The overall results indicated that improvisation could be an innovative approach to teaching various musical subjects, in particular, solfege, music theory, and instrument, either in individual or in group instruction. Improvisation, especially with the application of relative solmisation and singing, appeared to have been a beneficial tool to develop various musicianship skills of students and teachers, in particular, the aural, musical reading and writing skills, and creative musical skills. Furthermore, improvisation seemed to have been a motivating teaching tool to learn music theory by creating a bridge between various musical styles. This paper reports on the results of the research project.

Keywords: improvisation, Kodály concept, music school, public school, teacher training

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