Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 61

Search results for: psychotherapy

61 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Combined Psychiatric and Psychotherapeutic Care versus Psychotherapy Alone in the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Cancer Patients

Authors: Nathen A. Spitz, Dennis Martin Kivlighan III, Arwa Aburizik


Background and Purpose: Presently, there is a paucity of naturalistic studies that directly compare the effectiveness of psychotherapy versus concurrent psychotherapy and psychiatric care for the treatment of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. Informed by previous clinical trials examining the efficacy of concurrent approaches, this study sought to test the hypothesis that a combined approach would result in the greatest reduction of depression and anxiety symptoms. Methods: Data for this study consisted of 433 adult cancer patients, with 252 receiving only psychotherapy and 181 receiving concurrent psychotherapy and psychiatric care at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. Longitudinal PHQ9 and GAD7 data were analyzed between both groups using latent growth curve analyses. Results: After controlling for treatment length and provider effects, results indicated that concurrent care was more effective than psychotherapy alone for depressive symptoms (γ₁₂ = -0.12, p = .037). Specifically, the simple slope for concurrent care was -0.25 (p = .022), and the simple slope for psychotherapy alone was -0.13 (p = .006), suggesting that patients receiving concurrent care experienced a greater reduction in depressive symptoms compared to patients receiving psychotherapy alone. In contrast, there were no significant differences between psychotherapy alone and concurrent psychotherapy and psychiatric care in the reduction of anxious symptoms. Conclusions: Overall, as both psychotherapy and psychiatric care may address unique aspects of mental health conditions, in addition to potentially providing synergetic support to each other, a combinatorial approach to mental healthcare for cancer patients may improve outcomes.

Keywords: psychiatry, psychology, psycho-oncology, combined care, psychotherapy, behavioral psychology

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60 The Effect of Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy on Eating Disorder Symptom and Fear of Negative Evaluation of Lorestan University Female Students

Authors: S. Gholamrezaei, M. Mehrabizade Honarmand, Y. Zargar


Introduction: This research was designed to assess the effect of group Interpersonal Psychotherapy on eating disorder symptom and fear of negative evaluation of Lorestan University female students. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 641 female students were randomly selected from various faculties of Lorestan University. Eating disorders symptoms and fear of negative evaluation were assessed by the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Leary (FNES-B). Data were analyzed by SPSS software (multivariate analyze tests were used). Results: Interpersonal Psychotherapy can improve the eating disorder symptoms and reduce the fear of negative evaluation in girl students of group control in compare with control group. Conclusion: Interpersonal psychotherapy can be effective for eating disorder symptoms, and fear of negative evaluation among female students. Thus, it is suggested that this kind of psychotherapy was used for other psychological disease.

Keywords: interpersonal psychotherapy, eating disorder, fear of negative evaluation, students

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59 Using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and Mini Mental State Examination-2 in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Case Studies

Authors: Cornelia-Eugenia Munteanu


From a psychological perspective, psychopathology is the area of clinical psychology that has at its core psychological assessment and psychotherapy. In day-to-day clinical practice, psychodiagnosis and psychotherapy are used independently, according to their intended purpose and their specific methods of application. The paper explores how the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and Mini Mental State Examination-2 (MMSE-2) psychological tools contribute to enhancing the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral psychotherapy (CBT). This combined approach, psychotherapy in conjunction with assessment of personality and cognitive functions, is illustrated by two cases, a severe depressive episode with psychotic symptoms and a mixed anxiety-depressive disorder. The order in which CBT, MMPI-2, and MMSE-2 were used in the diagnostic and therapeutic process was determined by the particularities of each case. In the first case, the sequence started with psychotherapy, followed by the administration of blue form MMSE-2, MMPI-2, and red form MMSE-2. In the second case, the cognitive screening with blue form MMSE-2 led to a personality assessment using MMPI-2, followed by red form MMSE-2; reapplication of the MMPI-2 due to the invalidation of the first profile, and finally, psychotherapy. The MMPI-2 protocols gathered useful information that directed the steps of therapeutic intervention: a detailed symptom picture of potentially self-destructive thoughts and behaviors otherwise undetected during the interview. The memory loss and poor concentration were confirmed by MMSE-2 cognitive screening. This combined approach, psychotherapy with psychological assessment, aligns with the trend of adaptation of the psychological services to the everyday life of contemporary man and paves the way for deepening and developing the field.

Keywords: assessment, cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, MMPI-2, MMSE-2, psychopathology

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58 An Evaluation of a Psychotherapeutic Service for Engineering Students: The Role of Race, Gender and Language

Authors: Nazeema Ahmed


Mental health in higher education has received increasing attention over the past few decades. The high academic demands of the engineering degree, coupled with students’ mental health challenges, have led to higher education institutions offering psychotherapeutic services to students. This paper discusses an evaluation of the psychotherapy service at the University of Cape Town. The aim was to determine (i) the efficacy of the service; and (ii) the impact of race, gender, and language of the therapist on the students’ therapeutic process. An online survey was sent to 109 students who attended psychotherapy. The majority expressed favorable experiences of psychotherapy, with reports of increased capacity to engage with their academic work. Most students did not experience the gender, race, or language of the psychologists to be barriers to their therapy. The findings point to a need for ongoing psychological support for students.

Keywords: psychotherapy, efficacy, engineering, education

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57 The Analysis of One Million Reddit Confessions Corpus: The Use of Emotive Verbs and First Person Singular Pronoun as Linguistic Psychotherapy Features

Authors: Natalia Wojarnik


The paper aims to present the analysis of a Reddit confessions corpus. The interpretation focuses on the use of emotional language, in particular emotive verbs, in the context of personal pronouns. The analysis of the linguistic properties answers the question of what the Reddit users confess about and who is the subject of confessions. The study reveals that the specific language patterns used in Reddit confessions reflect the language of depression and the language used by patients during different stages of their psychotherapy sessions. The paper concludes that Reddit users are more willing to confess about their own experiences, not rarely very private and intimate, extensively using the first person singular pronoun I. It indicates that the Reddit users use the language of depression and the language used by psychotherapy patients. The language they use is very emotionally impacted and includes many emotive verbs such as want, feel, need, hate, love. This finding in Reddit confessions correlates with the extensive use of stative affective verbs in the first stages of the psychotherapy sessions. Lastly, the paper refers to the positive and negative lexicon and helps determine how online posts can serve as a depression detector and “talking cure” for the users.

Keywords: confessions, emotional language, emotive verbs, pronouns, first person pronoun, language of depression, depression detection, psychotherapy language

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56 When Talk Is the Cure for the Morning After: Talking Therapy in Conor Mcpherson’s Dublin Carol and Shining City

Authors: Maha Hamoud Alatawi


Drawing on the work of John McLeod and Ariel Watson, this paper explains the relationship between narrative and psychotherapy in two plays by the Irish playwright Conor McPherson. Dublin Carol presents John’s chequered past through his reminiscences of alcohol addiction and Shining City tells the story of John who is haunted by the ghost of his wife, recently died in a car accident, and who seeks the help of Ian, a therapist. At first, the significance of storytelling as an integral part of Irish culture is highlighted. Such a tradition features prominently in contemporary Irish drama. The paper concludes that it is the power of narrative and its therapeutic impact and not the act of psychotherapy and treatment which brings signs of change to characters’ lives.

Keywords: Conor McPherson, drama, psychotherapy, storytelling

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55 A Case Study of An Artist Diagnosed with Schizophrenia-Using the Graphic Rorschach (Digital version) “GRD”

Authors: Maiko Kiyohara, Toshiki Ito


In this study, we used a psychotherapy process for patient with dissociative disorder and the graphic Rorschach (Digital version) (GRD). A dissociative disorder is a type of dissociation characterized by multiple alternating personalities (also called alternate identity or another identity). "dissociation" is a state in which consciousness, memory, thinking, emotion, perception, behavior, body image, and so on are divided and experienced. Dissociation symptoms, such as lack of memory, are seen, and the repetition of blanks in daily events causes serious problems in life. Although the pathological mechanism of dissociation has not yet been fully elucidated, it is said that it is caused by childhood abuse or shocking trauma. In case of Japan, no reliable data has been reported on the number of patients and prevalence of dissociative disorders, no drug is compatible with dissociation symptoms, and no clear treatment has been established. GRD is a method that the author revised in 2017 to a Graphic Rorschach, which is a special technique for subjects to draw language responses when enforce Rorschach. GRD reduces the burden on both the subject and the examiner, reduces the complexity of organizing data, improves the simplicity of organizing data, and improves the accuracy of interpretation by introducing a tablet computer during the drawing reaction. We are conducting research for the purpose. The patient in this case is a woman in her 50s, and has multiple personalities since childhood. At present, there are about 10 personalities whose main personality is just grasped. The patients is raising her junior high school sons as single parent, but personal changes often occur at home, which makes the home environment inferior and economically oppressive, and has severely hindered daily life. In psychotherapy, while a personality different from the main personality has appeared, I have also conducted psychotherapy with her son. In this case, the psychotherapy process and the GRD were performed to understand the personality characteristics, and the possibility of therapeutic significance to personality integration is reported.

Keywords: GRD, dissociative disorder, a case study of psychotherapy process, dissociation

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54 Similarities and Differences between Psychotherapy, Coaching Psychology and Coaching

Authors: Ole Michael Spaten


This article presents similarities and differences between psychotherapy, coaching psychology and coaching, and hence discusses boundaries between these diverse fields of practice. The point of departure will be prevailing arguments and descriptions in the scientific community, and it shows both commonalities and major differences in relation to the application in daily practice. The results (the similarities and differences) are presented and discussed in the light of scientific research and different theoretical perspectives, including both classic and recent scholars. Some of the main differences presented are; the clinical/non-clinical perspective and the educational differences, including the different criteria and demands which professionals working in these three different professions, should undergo to obtain their certification. Further, one of the main similarities is presented: the importance of the relationship between the therapist/coach and the client/coachee. The goal and task oriented focus are also presented as a similarity between the three intervention forms – at least to some extent. Finally, some central concepts from the fields are presented in a table for a proposal of distinctions and interfaces. It is concluded that a comprehensive education in combination with an understanding of the differences and similarities between the three intervention forms is of significant importance for the professional working in either of the fields. Future studies should, however, include additional research on the similarities and differences and how to continue the educational progress in all three disciplines.

Keywords: boundaries, coaching, coaching psychology, interface, psychotherapy

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53 A Measurement Instrument to Determine Curricula Competency of Licensure Track Graduate Psychotherapy Programs in the United States

Authors: Laith F. Gulli, Nicole M. Mallory


We developed a novel measurement instrument to assess Knowledge of Educational Programs in Professional Psychotherapy Programs (KEP-PPP or KEP-Triple P) within the United States. The instrument was designed by a Panel of Experts (PoE) that consisted of Licensed Psychotherapists and Medical Care Providers. Licensure track psychotherapy programs are listed in the databases of the Commission on Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education (COAMFTE); American Psychological Association (APA); Council on Social Work Education (CSWE); and the Council for Accreditation of Counseling & Related Educational Programs (CACREP). A complete list of psychotherapy programs can be obtained from these professional databases, selecting search fields of (All Programs) in (All States). Each program has a Web link that electronically and directly connects to the institutional program, which can be researched using the KEP-Triple P. The 29-item KEP Triple P was designed to consist of six categorical fields; Institutional Type: Degree: Educational Delivery: Accreditation: Coursework Competency: and Special Program Considerations. The KEP-Triple P was designed to determine whether a specific course(s) is offered in licensure track psychotherapy programs. The KEP-Triple P is designed to be modified to assess any part or the entire curriculum of licensure graduate programs. We utilized the KEP-Triple P instrument to study whether a graduate course in Addictions was offered in Marriage and Family Therapy (MFT) programs. Marriage and Family Therapists are likely to commonly encounter patients with Addiction(s) due to the broad treatment scope providing psychotherapy services to individuals, couples and families of all age groups. Our study of 124 MFT programs which concluded at the end of 2016 found that we were able to assess 61 % of programs (N = 76) since 27 % (N = 34) of programs were inaccessible due to broken Web links. From the total of all MFT programs 11 % (N = 14) did not have a published curriculum on their Institutional Web site. From the sample study, we found that 66 % (N = 50) of curricula did not offer a course in Addiction Treatment and that 34 % (N =26) of curricula did require a mandatory course in Addiction Treatment. From our study sample, we determined that 15 % (N = 11) of MFT doctorate programs did not require an Addictions Treatment course and that 1 % (N = 1) did require such a course. We found that 99 % of our study sample offered a Campus based program and 1 % offered a hybrid program with both online and residential components. From the total sample studied, we determined that 84 % of programs would be able to obtain reaccreditation within a five-year period. We recommend that MFT programs initiate procedures to revise curricula to include a required course in Addiction Treatment prior to their next accreditation cycle, to improve the escalating addiction crisis in the United States. This disparity in MFT curricula raises serious ethical and legal consideration for national and Federal stakeholders as well as for patients seeking a competently trained psychotherapist.

Keywords: addiction, competency, curriculum, psychotherapy

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52 Experiencing the Shattered: Managing Countertransference Experiences with Anorexia Patients in Psychotherapy

Authors: M. Card


Working with anorexia patients can be a challenging experience for mental and health care professionals. The reasons for not wanting to work with this patient population stems from the numerous concerns surrounding the patient’s health – physically and mentally. Many health care professionals reported having strong negative feelings, such as; anger, hopelessness and helplessness when working with anorexia patients. These feelings often impaired their judgement to treatment and affected how they related to the patient. This research focused on psychotherapists who preferred to work with anorexia patients; what countertransference feelings were evoked in them during sessions with patients and most importantly, how they managed the feelings. The research used interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) as the theoretical framework and data analysis method. Semi-structured interviews were used with ten experienced psychotherapists to obtain their countertransference experiences with anorexia patients and how they manage it. There were three main themes discovered; (1) the use of supervision, (2) their own personal therapy and finally (3) experience and evolution. The research unearthed that experienced psychotherapists also experienced strong countertransference feelings towards their patients; some positive and some negative. However, these feelings could actually be interpreted as co-transference with their anorexia patients. The psychotherapists were able to own their part in the evocative unconscious nature of a relational therapeutic space, where their personal issues may be entangled in their anorexia patient’s symptomatology.

Keywords: anorexia nervosa, countertransference, co-transference, psychotherapy, relational psychotherapy

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51 Short-Term Physiological Evaluation of Augmented Reality System for Thanatophobia Psychotherapy

Authors: Kais Siala, Mohamed Kharrat, Mohamed Abid


Exposure therapies encourage patients to gradually begin facing their painful memories of the trauma in order to reduce fear and anxiety. In this context, virtual reality techniques are widely used for treatment of different kinds of phobia. The particular case of fear of death phobia (thanataphobia) is addressed in this paper. For this purpose, we propose to make a simulation of Near Death Experience (NDE) using augmented reality techniques. We propose in particular to simulate the Out-of-Body experience (OBE) which is the first step of a Near-Death-Experience (NDE). In this paper, we present technical aspects of this simulation as well as short-term impact in terms of physiological measures. The non-linear Poincéré plot is used to describe the difference in Heart Rate Variability between In-Body and Out-Of-Body conditions.

Keywords: Out-of-Body simulation, physiological measure, augmented reality, phobia psychotherapy, HRV, Poincaré plot

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50 Interprofessional School-Based Mental Health Services for Rural Adolescents in South Australia

Authors: Garreth Kestell, Lukah Dykes, Danielle Zerk, Kyla Trewartha, Rhianon Marshall, Elena Rudnik


Adolescent mental health is an international priority and the impact of innovative service models must be evaluated. Secondary school-based mental health services (SBMHS) involving private general practitioners and psychologists are a model of care being trialed in South Australia. Measures of depression, anxiety, and stress are routinely collected throughout psychotherapy sessions. This research set out to quantify the impact of psychotherapy for rural adolescents in a school setting and explore the importance of session frequency. Methods: Demographics, session date and DASS21 scores from students (n=65) seen in 2016 by three psychologists working at the SBMHS were recorded. Students were aged 13-18 years (M=15.43, SD= 1.24), mostly female (F=51, M=14), attended between 1 and 23 sessions with a median of 6 sessions (MAD 5.93) in one-year. The treating psychologist collected self-administered DASS21 scores. A mixed model analysis was used with age, sex, treating psychologist, months from first session, and session number as fixed effects, with response variables of DASS depression, anxiety, and stress scores. Results: 71.5% were classified as having extreme or severe anxiety and half had extreme or severe depression and/or stress scores. On average males had a greater increase in DASS scores over time but males attending more sessions benefited most from therapy. Discussion: Psychologists are treating rural adolescents in schools for severe anxiety, depression, and stress. This pilot study indicates that a predictive model combining demographics, session frequency, and DASS scores may help identify who is most likely to benefit from individual psychotherapy. Variations in DAS scores of individuals over time indicate the need for the collection of information such as living situation and exposure to alcohol. A larger sample size and additional data are currently being collected to allow for a more robust analysis.

Keywords: adolescent health, psychotherapy, school based mental health services, DAS21

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49 Examining the Relations among Autobiographical Memory Recall Types, Quality of Descriptions, and Emotional Arousal in Psychotherapy for Depression

Authors: Jinny Hong, Jeanne C. Watson


Three types of autobiographical memory recall -specific, episodic, and generic- were examined in relation to the quality of descriptions and in-session levels of emotional arousal. Correlational analyses and general estimating equation were conducted to test the relationships between 1) quality of descriptions and type of memory, 2) type of memory and emotional arousal, and 3) quality of descriptions and emotional arousal. The data was transcripts drawn from an archival randomized-control study comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy and emotion-focused therapy in a 16-week treatment for depression. Autobiographical memory recall segments were identified and sorted into three categories: specific, episodic, and generic. Quality of descriptions of these segments was then operationalized and measured using the Referential Activity Scale, and each memory segment was rated on four dimensions: concreteness, specificity, clarity, and overall imagery. Clients’ level of emotional arousal for each recall was measured using the Client’s Expression Emotion Scale. Contrary to the predictions, generic memories are associated with higher emotional arousal ratings and descriptive language ratings compared to specific memories. However, a positive relationship emerged between the quality of descriptions and expressed emotional arousal, indicating that the quality of descriptions in which memories are described in sessions is more important than the type of memory recalled in predicting clients’ level of emotional arousal. The results from this study provide a clearer understanding of the role of memory recall types and use of language in activating emotional arousal in psychotherapy sessions in a depressed sample.

Keywords: autobiographical memory recall, emotional arousal, psychotherapy for depression, quality of descriptions, referential activity

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48 Uncloaking Priceless Pieces of Evidence: Psychotherapy with an Older New Zealand Man; Contributions to Understanding Hidden Historical Phenomena and the Trans-Generation Transmission of Silent and Un-Witnessed Trauma

Authors: Joanne M. Emmens


This paper makes use of the case notes of a single psychoanalytically informed psychotherapy of a now 72-year-old man over a four-year period to explore the potential of qualitative data to be incorporated into a research methodology that can contribute theory and knowledge to the wider professional community involved in mental health care. The clinical material arising out of any psychoanalysis provides a potentially rich source of clinical data that could contribute valuably to our historical understanding of both individual and societal traumata. As psychoanalysis is primarily an investigation, it is argued that clinical case material is a rich source of qualitative data which has relevance for sociological and historical understandings and that it can potentially aluminate important ‘gaps’ and collective blind spots that manifest unconsciously and are a contributing factor in the transmission of trauma, silently across generations. By attending to this case material the hope is to illustrate the value of using a psychoanalytic centred methodology. It is argued that the study of individual defences and the manner in which they come into consciousness, allows an insight into group defences and the unconscious forces that contribute to the silencing or un-noticing of important sources (or originators) of mental suffering.

Keywords: dream furniture (Bion) and psychotic functioning, reverie, screen memories, selected fact

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47 Conceptual Synthesis as a Platform for Psychotherapy Integration: The Case of Transference and Overgeneralization

Authors: Merav Rabinovich


Background: Psychoanalytic and cognitive therapy attend problems from a different point of view. At the recent decade the integrating movement gaining momentum. However only little has been studied regarding the theoretical interrelationship among these therapy approaches. Method: 33 transference case-studies that were published in peer-reviewed academic journals were coded by Luborsky's Core Conflictual Relationship Theme (CCRT) method (components of wish, response from other – real or imaginal - and the response of self). CCRT analysis was conducted through tailor-made method, a valid tool to identify transference patterns. Rabinovich and Kacen's (2010, 2013) Relationship Between Categories (RBC) method was used to analyze the relationship among these transference patterns with cognitive and behavior components appearing at those psychoanalytic case-studies. Result: 30 of 33 cases (90%) were found to connect the transference themes with cognitive overgeneralization. In these cases, overgeneralizations were organized around Luborsky's transference themes of response from other and response of self. Additionally, overgeneralization was found to be an antithesis of the wish component, and the tension between them found to be linked with powerful behavioral and emotional reactions. Conclusion: The findings indicate that thinking distortions of overgeneralization (cognitive therapy) are the actual expressions of transference patterns. These findings point to a theoretical junction, a platform for clinical integration. Awareness to this junction can help therapists to promote well psychotherapy outcomes relying on the accumulative wisdom of the different therapies.

Keywords: transference, overgeneralization, theoretical integration, case-study metasynthesis, CCRT method, RBC method

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46 Spiritual Warriors: Christian Testimony and Psychotherapy in Ritual Abuse Memoir

Authors: Jocelyn Cohen


This paper identifies a powerful synchronicity of two traditions of life-story writing in the autobiographies of ritual abuse (RA) survivors, the Christian conversion narrative and the memoir of healing from childhood sexual trauma. Using methodologies from literary studies, history, and psychology, a close reading of three RA memoirs sheds light on a taboo and deeply suspect form of violence. Treatment of RA survivors and the unique role of psychotherapists, in particular, deserve far greater attention from multi-disciplinary scholars. Each story reflects salient characteristics of the Christian conversion narrative, a genre which originated in the US in the early 19th century with the serendipitous confluence of the simultaneous emergence of print culture and the basic structures of evangelicalism during the Second Great Awakening. The impulse of writing is thus to give testimony against the sin they witnessed and endured as young children during ritual violence perpetrated within the church. Importantly, RA is seen as an inherent if obscure aspect of Christian discourse itself, not in opposition to it, and not as an aberration. In RA's memoir, healing comes in part from the Christian narrative praxis of personal redemption, framed as prevailing in a war between good and evil. In other words, storytelling itself affects the healing, much as it does by means of each writer’s 'talking cure,' in the relationship with a psychotherapist who guides her through a repair of the life-story through the excavation of traumatic memories and their integration into the writer’s psyche. Integrating literary techniques into the psychotherapeutic relationship, therapists leverage the deep linguistic structures that clients possess as a resource to aid in their healing.

Keywords: memoir, psychotherapy, religion, trauma

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45 The Effects of Supportive Care Interventions with Psychotherapeutic and Exercise Approaches on Depressive Symptoms Among Patients with Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Chia-Chen Hsieh, Fei-Hsiu Hsiao


Objective: To examine the effects of supportive care interventions on depressive symptoms in patients with lung cancer. Methods: The databases of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid EMBASE, PubMed, and Chinese Electronic Periodical Services (CEPS) were searched from their inception until September 2015. We included the studies with randomized controlled trial design that compared standard care with supportive care interventions using psychotherapeutic or exercises approach. The standardized mean differences (SMD) (Cohen’s d) were calculated to estimate the treatment effects. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used for quality assessment and subgroup analysis was conducted to identify possible sources of heterogeneity. Results: A total of 1472 patients with lung cancer were identified. Compared with standard care, the overall effects of all supportive care interventions significantly reduced depressive symptoms (SMD = -0.74 with 95% CI = -1.07 to -0.41), and the effect was maintained at the 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks of follow-up. Either psychotherapy combined with psychoeducation or exercise alone produced significant improvements in depressive symptoms, while psychoeducation alone did not. The greater improvements in depressive symptoms occurred in lung cancer patients with severe depressive symptoms at baseline, total duration of interventions of less than ten weeks, and intervention provided through face-to-face delivery. Conclusions: Psychotherapy combined with psychoeducation can help patients manage the causes of depressive symptoms, including both symptom distress and psychological trauma due to lung cancer. Exercise can target the impaired respiratory function that is a cause of depressive symptoms in lung cancer patients.

Keywords: supportive care intervention, depressive symptoms, lung cancer, meta-analysis

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44 Dream Work: Examining the Effectiveness of Dream Interpretation in Gaining Psychological Insight into Young Adults in Korea

Authors: Ahn Christine Myunghee, Sim Wonjin, Cho Kristina, Ahn Mira, Hong Yeju, Kwok Jihae, Lim Sooyeon, Park Hansol


With a sharp increase in the prevalence rate for mental health issues in Korea, there is a need for specific and effective intervention strategies in counseling and psychotherapy for use with Korean clients. With the cultural emphasis on restraining emotional expression and not disclosing personal and familial problems to outsiders, clients often find it difficult to discuss their emotional issues even to therapists. Exploring a client’s internal psychological processes bypassing this culture-specific mode of therapeutic communication often becomes a challenge in the therapeutic setting. Given this socio-cultural context, the purpose of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of using dream work to individuals in Korea. The current study conducted one 60-90 minute dream session and analyzed the dream content of 39 Korean young adults to evaluate the effectiveness of the Hill dream model in accessing the intra-psychic materials, determining essential emotional themes, and learning how the individuals interpreted the contents of their dreams. The transcribed data, which included a total of 39 sessions from 39 volunteer university students, were analyzed by the Consensus Qualitative Research (CQR) approach in terms of domains and core ideas. Self-report measures on Dream Salience, Gains from Dream Interpretations and the Session Evaluation Scale were administered before and after each of their dream sessions. The results indicated that dream work appears to be an effective way to understand unconscious motivations, thoughts, and feelings related to a person’s sense of self, and also how these people relate to other people. Current findings need to be replicated with clients referred for counseling and psychotherapy to determine if the dream work is an appropriate and useful intervention in counseling settings. Limitations of the current study and suggestions for future follow-ups are included in the discussion.

Keywords: dream work, dream interpretation, Korean, young adults, CQR

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43 Eclectic Therapy in Approach to Clients’ Problems and Application of Multiple Intelligence Theory

Authors: Mohamed Sharof Mostafa, Atefeh Ahmadi


Most of traditional single modality psychotherapy and counselling approaches to clients’ problems are based on the application of one therapy in all sessions. Modern developments in these sciences focus on eclectic and integrative interventions to consider all dimensions of an issue and all characteristics of the clients. This paper presents and overview eclectic therapy and its pros and cons. In addition, multiple intelligence theory and its application in eclectic therapy approaches are mentioned.

Keywords: eclectic therapy, client, multiple intelligence theory, dimensions

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42 The Impact of Self-Regulation Couple Therapy on Cognitive Emotion Regulation and Emotional Abuse in Turbulent Couples

Authors: M. Kargar., S. A. Kimiaei, A. Mashhadie


This paper is a quasi-experimental study investigating the effect of self-regulation couple therapy on cognitive emotion regulation and emotional abuse in turbulent couples. Of the couples consulting the counseling and psychotherapy centers of Social Welfare and Education Office of Mashahd, ten couples were randomly selected through a stratified sampling method and were equally assigned to experimental and waiting list control groups. After completing the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire (CERQ) and emotional abuse scale (EAS), the results showed that self-regulation couple therapy can increase the participants’ adaptive cognitive emotion self-regulation strategies, reduce their maladaptive cognitive emotion self-regulation, and decrease their emotional abuse.

Keywords: self-regulation couple therapy, cognitive emotion regulation, emotional abuse

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41 Active Imagination: The Effective Factor in the Practice of Psychotherapy

Authors: Sonia Regina Lyra


The desire for unequivocal clarity is understandable, but this can make one forget that things of the soul are experiential processes, or transformations, which should never be designated unilaterally if it is not wanted to transform something that moves, a living thing, into something static. Among the so-called ‘things of the soul’ there are especially spontaneous fantasies, that emerge during the processes, as a result from the use of the active imagination technique, for when fantasy is not forced, violated, or subjugated by an illegitimate, intellectually preconceived idea, then it is a legitimate and authentic product of the unconscious mind. This is how one can gain access to unadulterated information about everything that transcends the conscious mind. However, it is vital to discern between ego and non-ego, because this principle will result in a release of energy and a renewal of life, which will come to have meaning. This study will deal with the active imagination as a knowledge that depends on the individual experience of the therapist because the patient will be taken just to reach where the unconscious of the therapist was assimilated to his own conscience. In this way, the therapist becomes the method itself, being his personality, a fundamental part of an effective factor.

Keywords: active imagination, effective factor, synchronicity, symptom

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40 Effect of Self-Compassion Techniques for Individuals with Depression: A Pilot Study

Authors: Piyanud Chompookard


This research aims to study the effect of self-compassion techniques for individuals with depression (A pilot study). A quasi-experimental research with pretest-posttest is used to design this work. The research includes 30 participants, divided into the experimental group (ten samples) and the control group (twenty samples). The experimental group received a self-compassion techniques with an appropriate treatment for a total six times. The control group received an appropriate treatment. The measurement of this study using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Thai version). There are significant differences in levels of depression after received a self-compassion techniques with an appropriate treatment (p<.01). And there are significant differences in levels of depression between the experimental group and the control group (p<.01).

Keywords: depression, self compassion techniques, psychotherapy, pilot study

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39 Systems Contextual Integrated Model for Clinical Psychology and Social Work

Authors: Raymond C. Hawkins II, Catherine A. Hawkins


The System Contextual Integrated Model (SCIM), developed as a trans-theoretical framework for selecting measures for psychotherapy process and outcome, is reformulated for behavioral health applications. The SCIM “healing cycle” is an allostatic hedonic affective-cognitive right-hemisphere–left-hemisphere coordinated process involving positive alliesthesia that mitigates traumatic pain and generates psychological flexibility. The SCIM “trauma cycle” is an allostatic overload alliesthesia opponent process with long-lasting pathology sequelae. The social ecological context moderates the “healing cycle” and the “trauma cycle.” Repeated evocation of the “healing cycle” in a therapeutic relationship can gradually relieve trauma sequelae. The SCIM is applied to pain, obese binge eating, and substance use disorders.

Keywords: allostasis, alliesthesia, opponent process, behavioral health, assessment

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38 Reminiscence Therapy for Alzheimer’s Disease Restrained on Logistic Regression Based Linear Bootstrap Aggregating

Authors: P. S. Jagadeesh Kumar, Mingmin Pan, Xianpei Li, Yanmin Yuan, Tracy Lin Huan


Researchers are doing enchanting research into the inherited features of Alzheimer’s disease and probable consistent therapies. In Alzheimer’s, memories are extinct in reverse order; memories formed lately are more transitory than those from formerly. Reminiscence therapy includes the conversation of past actions, trials and knowledges with another individual or set of people, frequently with the help of perceptible reminders such as photos, household and other acquainted matters from the past, music and collection of tapes. In this manuscript, the competence of reminiscence therapy for Alzheimer’s disease is measured using logistic regression based linear bootstrap aggregating. Logistic regression is used to envisage the experiential features of the patient’s memory through various therapies. Linear bootstrap aggregating shows better stability and accuracy of reminiscence therapy used in statistical classification and regression of memories related to validation therapy, supportive psychotherapy, sensory integration and simulated presence therapy.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, linear bootstrap aggregating, logistic regression, reminiscence therapy

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37 The Effect of Cognitive Restructuring and Assertive Training on Improvement of Sexual Behavior of Secondary School Adolescents in Nigeria

Authors: Azu Kalu Oko, Ugboaku Nwanpka


The study investigated the effect of cognitive restructuring and assertive training on improvement of sexual behavior of secondary school adolescents in Nigeria. To guide the study, three research questions and four hypothesis were formulated. The study featured a 2X3 factorial design with a sample of 48 male and female students selected by random sampling using a table of random sample numbers. The three groups are assertive training, cognitive restructuring and control group. The study identified adolescents with deviant sexual behavior using Students Sexual Behavior Inventory (S.S.B.I.) as the research instrument. Ancova and T- Test statistic were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that: I. Assertive Training and Cognitive Restructuring significantly improved sexual behavior of subjects at post test when compared with the control group. II. The treatment gains made by the two techniques were sustained at one month follow-up interval. III. Cognitive restructuring was more effective than assertiveness training in the improvement of the sexual behavior of students. Implication for education, psychotherapy and counseling were highlighted.

Keywords: cognitive restructuring, assertiveness training, adolescents, sexual behavior

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36 A Brief Narrative Intervention to Improve Well-being and Relational Ethics in Couples: A Mixed-Method Case Study

Authors: Kevser Cakmak, Adrián Montesano, Lourdes Artigas, Marta Salla, Clara Mateu


The main objective of this research is to explore the relational letter writing technique as an intervention in couple therapy for reconnecting couples with their values and ethical preferences. This is a recently developed therapeutic tool within the framework of Narrative Therapy that consists of two interviews and a letter writing task, in which a meta-conversation between the relationship itself, the couple members, and the therapists is fostered. Although this specific therapeutic technique can be used within the therapy process, in this case study, it is used as a brief stand-alone narrative intervention for a middle age heterosexual couple breast cancer survivor. Couple’s relational and personal wellbeing was monitored before, during, and after the intervention by means of the dyadic adjustment and the clinical outcomes in routine evaluation-outcome measure, respectively. The couple showed a significant improvement after the intervention in both levels. The content of the letter writing exercises was qualitatively analysed to explore the reconstruction of their ethical values. Results from both methods are integrated in order to get an in-depth perspective of the newly developed tool. The potential of the letter writing technique as stand-alone and as adjunct brief intervention is discussed.

Keywords: couple therapy, narrative therapy, psychotherapy tool, relational letter writing

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35 Vietnamese Indigenous Healing’s Implication for Vietnamese Women Counseling in Korea

Authors: Youngsub Oh, Youngsoon Kim


As the second largest group among international marriages in Korea, Vietnamese married immigrant women have been exposed to psychological crisis like divorce and family violence. The purpose of this study is to understand how to counsel those women from the perspective of indigenous healing as their own psychological problem-solving way. To this end, this study reviewed Vietnamese cultural literatures on their mentality as well as Vietnamese medical literatures on indigenous healing. The research results are as follows: First, cultural foundations that have formed Vietnamese mentality are Confucian value system, reserved communication, and religious pluralism. These cultural backgrounds play an important role in understanding their own therapeutic tradition. Second, Vietnamese indigenous healing considers cause of mental disease as a collapse of balance between mind and body and environment. Thus, indigenous treatment deals with psychological problems through a recovery of the balance from the holistic perspective. In fact, indigenous healing has been actively practiced in everyday place as well as hospital until today. The implications of Vietnamese indigenous healing for multicultural counseling in Korea are as follows: First, Korean counselors need to interactively understand their own assumptions on indigenous healing as well as counselees’ own assumptions. Second, a variety of psychological intervention strategies can be drawn from Vietnamese indigenous healing. Third, indigenous healing needs to be integrated with modern techniques of counseling and psychotherapy, as both treatments are not mutually exclusive but complementary.

Keywords: indigenous healing, Korea, multicultural counseling, Vietnamese married immigrant women

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34 Understanding Lacan’s ‘Name of the Father’ Concept, the Original Introject, and Personality Functioning

Authors: Chloe T. Cohen, Sarah Johnson


Psychoanalytic literature has traditionally focused on the theoretical explanations of psychological phenomena rather than empirical research to support those ideas. Many clinicians assume a lack of empirical verification of the theories that underpin psychoanalytic treatment disqualifies psychoanalytic psychotherapy as an effective clinical technique. One such theory is Lacan’s ‘Name of the Father’, which extended Freud’s idea of the importance of a successful resolution of the Oedipal problem, situating it even earlier in psychological development. Lacan posited that the Name of the Father construct (establishing psychological structure and preventing psychosis) was best represented in language use, metaphor, and linguistic structure. However, no study to date has empirically examined the Name of the Father construct. The current study attempts to measure Lacan’s ‘Name of the Father’ construct through linguistic structure and metaphor use and to compare it with Freud’s ‘original introject’. We will then investigate whether they relate to adult personality functioning (measured using the Rorschach Inkblot Test). We aim to contribute to the empirical study of psychoanalytic concepts by operationalizing and validating the Name of the Father empirically. We also aim to examine the relationship of the Name of the Father construct to Freud’s concept of the original introject and to adult pathology. We hypothesize that measures of the original introject will mediate the pathway between linguistic indicators of Lacan’s Name of the Father construct and personality functioning.

Keywords: Lacan, Name of the Father, original introject, personality functioning, psychoanalysis

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33 Schizophrenia in Childhood and Adolescence: Research Topics and Applied Methodology

Authors: Jhonas Geraldo Peixoto Flauzino, Pedro Pompeo Boechat Araujo, Alexia Allis Rocha Lima, Giovanna Biângulo Lacerda Chaves, Victor Ryan Ferrão Chaves


Schizophrenia is characterized as a set of psychiatric signs and symptoms (syndrome) that commonly erupt in the stages of adolescence or early adulthood, being recognized as one of the most serious diseases, as it causes important problems during the life of the patient. carrier - both in mental health and in physical health and in social life. Objectives: This is an integrative literature review that aimed to verify what has been produced of scientific knowledge in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry regarding schizophrenia in these stages of life, correlated to the most discussed themes and methodologies of choice for the preparation of studies. Methods: Articles were selected from the following databases: Virtual Health Library and CAPES Journal Portal, published in the last five years; and on Google Scholar, published in 2021, totaling 62 works, searched in September 2021. Results: The studies focus mainly on diagnosis through the DSM-V (25.8%), on drug treatment (25.8%) and in psychotherapy (24.2%), most of them in the literature review format: integrative (27.4%) and systematic (24.2%). Conclusion: The themes and study methods are redundant, and do not cover in depth the immense aspects that encompass Schizophrenia in Childhood and Adolescence, giving attention to the disease in a general way or focusing on the adult patient.

Keywords: schizophrenia, mental health, childhood, adolescence

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32 Breast Cancer as a Response to Distress in Women with or without a History of Precancerous Breast Disease

Authors: Viacheslav Sushko, Viktor Sushko


Pre-cancerous breast diseases are pathological changes that precede the appearance of adenocarcinoma. The most common benign breast disease is mastopathy. We examined the life and disease history of 114 women aged 58-69 who were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the breast at different stages of development. They filled out the Reeder Scale to determine the level of stress. The results of the study revealed that 62 of them had mastopathy at the age of 30-45 years old. These women refused surgical treatment for mastopathy. Five to six years before their diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the mammary gland, 84 women had experienced severe stress (death of a beloved close relative, torture accompanied by rape, prolonged stay in extreme conditions (under bombardment and bombardment). In the assessment of data from completed Reeder scales, 114 women had a high level of mental stress, with a score from 1-1.72. The 84 women who suffered from severe stress showed overeating or a significant decrease in food intake, insomnia, apathy, increased irritability and restlessness, loss of interest in sexual relationships, forgetfulness, difficulty in performing routine work, prolonged uncontrollable headaches, unexplained fatigue, heart pain, reduced capacity for work. In conclusion, it is important to provide psychotherapy for breast cancer patients as the diagnosis, and the different stages of treatment are very stressful. It is also advisable to see a psychiatrist at an early stage and prevent distress and treat precancerous breast disease.

Keywords: breast cancer, distress, mastopathy, severe stress

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