Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: preschoolers

37 Designing a Motivated Tangible Multimedia System for Preschoolers

Authors: Kien Tsong Chau, Zarina Samsudin, Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan Yahaya

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The paper examined the capability of a prototype of a tangible multimedia system that was augmented with tangible objects in motivating young preschoolers in learning. Preschoolers’ learning behaviour is highly captivated and motivated by external physical stimuli. Hence, conventional multimedia which solely dependent on digital visual and auditory formats for knowledge delivery could potentially place them in inappropriate state of circumstances that are frustrating, boring, or worse, impede overall learning motivations. This paper begins by discussion with the objectives of the research, followed by research questions, hypotheses, ARCS model of motivation adopted in the process of macro-design, and the research instrumentation, Persuasive Multimedia Motivational Scale was deployed for measuring the level of motivation of subjects towards the experimental tangible multimedia. At the close, a succinct description of the findings of a relevant research is provided. In the research, a total of 248 preschoolers recruited from seven Malaysian kindergartens were examined. Analyses revealed that the tangible multimedia system improved preschoolers’ learning motivation significantly more than conventional multimedia. Overall, the findings led to the conclusion that the tangible multimedia system is a motivation conducive multimedia for preschoolers.

Keywords: tangible multimedia, preschoolers, multimedia, tangible objects

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36 Callous-Unemotional Traits in Preschoolers: Distinct Associations with Empathy Subcomponents

Authors: E. Stylianopoulou, A. K. Fanti

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Object: Children scoring high on Callous-Unemotional traits (CU traits) exhibit lack of empathy. More specifically, children scoring high on CU traits appear to exhibit deficits on affective empathy or deficits in other constructs. However, little is known about cognitive empathy, and it's relation with CU traits in preschoolers. Despite the fact that empathy is measurable at a very young age, relatively less study has focused on empathy in preschoolers than older children with CU traits. The present study examines the cognitive and affective empathy in preschoolers with CU traits. The aim was to examine the differences between cognitive and affective empathy in those individuals. Based on previous research in children with CU traits, it was hypothesized that preschoolers scoring high in CU traits will show deficits in both cognitive and affective empathy; however, more deficits will be detected in affective empathy rather than cognitive empathy. Method: The sample size was 209 children, of which 109 were male, and 100 were female between the ages of 3 and 7 (M=4.73, SD=0.71). From those participants, only 175 completed all the items. The Inventory of Callous-Unemotional traits was used to measure CU traits. Moreover, the Griffith Empathy Measure (GEM) Affective Scale and the Griffith Empathy Measure (GEM) Cognitive Scale was used to measure Affective and Cognitive empathy, respectively. Results: Linear Regression was applied to examine the preceding hypotheses. The results showed that generally, there was a moderate negative association between CU traits and empathy, which was significant. More specifically, it has been found that there was a significant and negative moderate relation between CU traits and cognitive empathy. Surprisingly, results indicated that there was no significant relation between CU traits and affective empathy. Conclusion: The current findings support that preschoolers show deficits in understanding others emotions, indicating a significant association between CU traits and cognitive empathy. However, such a relation was not found between CU traits and affective empathy. The current results raised the importance that there is a need for focusing more on cognitive empathy in preschoolers with CU traits, a component that seems to be underestimated till now.

Keywords: affective empathy, callous-unemotional traits, cognitive empathy, preschoolers

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
35 Parental Engagement with Their Preschoolers’ Cognitive Development Prior to Their Kindergarten Admission: Sharjah-Based Case Study

Authors: Nada Mohammad Eljeshi

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In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), preschoolers can enroll in kindergarten after completing four years old by August 31 of their admission year. This study aims to better understand how Sharjah-based parents’ engagement with preschoolers contributes to their phonological awareness, literacy development, and print knowledge before their kindergarten admission considering cognitive development is addressed in the UAE national child care standards. More specifically, it will discuss the importance of cognitive development activities to preschoolers, the rationale behind defining the admission age to kindergarten and compare and benchmark the policy to other countries. To achieve this study's objectives, an online survey was conducted and distributed. Respondents were asked 13 dichotomous questions related to activities that promote the preschooler’s linguistics literacy and cognitive development. The results suggested parents’ emphasis on phonological awareness, followed by developing their print knowledge. However, the majority of the surveyed parents did not engage in literacy development with their preschoolers. On this basis, it is clear parents’ awareness should occur by introducing various activities such as book reading, that there is a need to introduce and encourage parents to various activities such as reading a printed book and drawings to keep up with their children's cognitive development. The survey results suggested an emphasis on phonological awareness, followed by developing their print knowledge. However, the majority of the surveyed parents did not engage in literacy development with their preschoolers. On this basis, parental awareness of the importance of preschoolers' cognitive development should be developed and engage the parents in understanding their preschooler’s cognitive development before entering kindergarten.

Keywords: preschoolers, cognitive development, parental engagement, Sharjah-based case study

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34 Language Developmental Trends of Mandarin-Speaking Preschoolers in Beijing

Authors: Nga Yui Tong

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Mandarin, the official language of China, is based on the Beijing dialect and is spoken by more than one billion people from all over the world. To investigate the trends of Mandarin acquisition, 192 preschoolers are recruited by stratified random sampling. They are from 4 different districts in Beijing, 2 schools in each district, with 4 age groups, both genders, and 3 children in each stratum. The children are paired up to conduct semi-structured free play for 30 minutes. Their language output is videotaped, transcribed, and coded for the calculation of Mean Length of Utterance (MLU). Two-way ANOVA showed that the variation of MLU is significantly contributed by age, which is coherent to previous findings of other languages. This first large-scale study to investigate the developmental trend of Mandarin in young children in Beijing provides empirical evidence to the development of standards and curriculum planning for early Mandarin education. Interestingly, the gender effect in the study is insignificant, with boys showing a slightly higher MLU than girls across all age groups and settings, except the 4.5 years same-gender dyads. The societal factors in the Chinese context on parenting and gender bias are worth looking into.

Keywords: Beijing, language development, Mandarin, preschoolers

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33 A Study on 5-11 Year-Old Children's Level of Knowledge about Personal Safety and Protection from Social Dangers

Authors: Özden Kuşcu, Yağmur Kuşcu, Zeynep Çetintaş, S. Sunay Yildirim Doğru

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The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effect of the subjects “personal safety” and “protection from dangers” included in primary school curriculum on the students’ levels of knowledge about safety and protection from social dangers. The study group included 469 students between 5–11 years old with 231 preschoolers and 238 primary school students and their parents and teachers. Instruments used to collect data were “Personal Safety Interview Form” for children, “Parent Interview Form” and “Teacher Interview Form”. Forms included 15 open-ended questions about personal safety. The researchers collected the research data through one-on-one interviews with children. Results of the study revealed that preschoolers and 1st, 2nd, and 3rd graders did not know their home addresses and telephone numbers and their families were not aware of that. The study also showed that those who had this information were unsure as to who to share this information with. Accordingly, more should be done to increase the levels of knowledge of preschoolers and 1st, 2nd, and 3rd graders about personal safety and protection from dangers.

Keywords: security, social danger, elementary school, preschool

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32 Sleep Ecology, Sleep Regulation and Behavior Problems in Maltreated Preschoolers: A Scoping Review

Authors: Sabrina Servot, Annick St-Amand, Michel Rousseau, Valerie Simard, Evelyne Touchette

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Child maltreatment has a profound impact on children’s development. In its victims, internalizing and externalizing problems are highly prevalent, and sleep problems are common. Furthermore, the environment they live in is often disorganized, lacking routine and consistency. In non-maltreated children, several studies documented the important role of sleep regulation and sleep ecology. A poor sleep ecology (e.g., lack of sleep hygiene and bedtime routine, inappropriate sleeping location) may lead to sleep regulation problems (e.g., short sleep duration, nocturnal awakenings), and sleep regulation problems may increase the risk of behavior problems. Therefore, this scoping review aims to map evidence about sleep ecology and sleep regulation and the associations between sleep ecology, sleep regulation, and behavior problems in maltreated preschoolers. Literature from 1993 was searched in PsycInfo, Pubmed, Medline, Eric, and Proquest Dissertations and Theses. Articles and thesis were comprehensively reviewed based upon inclusion/exclusion criteria: 1) it concerns maltreated children aged 1-5 years, and 2) it addresses at least one of the following: sleep ecology, sleep regulation, and/or their associations with behavior problems in maltreated preschoolers. From the 650 studies screened, nine of them were included. Data were charted according to study characteristics, nature of variable documented, measures, analyses performed, and results of each study, then synthesized in a narrative summary. The main results show all included articles were quantitative. Foster children samples were used in four studies, children experienced different types of maltreatment in six studies, while one was specifically about sexually abused children. Regarding sleep ecology, only one study describing maltreated preschoolers’ sleep ecology was found, while seven studies documented sleep regulation. Among these seven studies, 17 different sleep variables (e.g., parasomnia, dyssomnia, total 24-h sleep duration) were used, each study documenting from one to nine of them. Actigraphic measures were employed in three studies, the others used parent-reported questionnaires or sleep diaries. Maltreated children’s sleep was described and/or compared to non-maltreated children’s sleep, or an intervention group, showing mild differences. As for associations between sleep regulation and behavior problems, five studies investigated it and performed correlational or linear regression analyses between sleep and behavior problems, revealing some significant associations. No study was found about associations between sleep ecology and sleep regulation, between sleep ecology and behavior problems, or between these three variables. In conclusion, literature about sleep ecology, sleep regulation, and their associations with behavior problems are far more scarce in maltreated preschoolers than in non-maltreated ones. At present, there is especially a paucity of research about sleep ecology and the association between sleep ecology and sleep regulation in maltreated preschoolers, while studies on non-maltreated children showed sleep ecology plays a major role in sleep regulation. In addition, as sleep regulation is measured in many different ways among the studies, it is difficult to compare their findings. Finally, it seems necessary that research fill these gaps, as recommendations could be made to clinicians working with maltreated preschoolers regarding the use of sleep ecology and sleep regulation as intervention tools.

Keywords: maltreated preschoolers, sleep ecology, sleep regulation, behavior problems

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31 COVID-19 Pandemic Influence on Toddlers and Preschoolers’ Screen Time

Authors: Juliana da Silva Cardoso, Cláudia Correia, Rita Gomes, Carolina Fraga, Inês Cascais, Sara Monteiro, Beatriz Teixeira, Sandra Ribeiro, Carolina Andrade, Cláudia Oliveira, Diana Gonzaga, Catarina Prior, Inês Vaz Matos

Abstract:

The average daily screen time (ST) has been increasing in children, even at young ages. This seems to be associated with a higher incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders, and as the time of exposure increases, the greater is the functional impact. This study aims to compare the daily ST of toddlers and preschoolers previously and during the COVID-19 pandemic. A questionnaire was applied by telephone to parents/caregivers of children between 1 and 5 years old, followed up at 4 primary care units belonging to the Group of Primary Health Care Centers of Western Porto, Portugal. 520 children were included: 52.9% male, mean age 39.4 ± 13.9 months. The mean age of first exposure to screens was 13.9 ± 8.0 months, and most of the children were exposed to more than one screen daily. Considering the WHO recommendations, before the COVID-19 pandemic, 385 (74.0%) and 408 (78.5%) children had excessive ST during the week and the weekend, respectively; during the lockdown, these values increased to 495 (95.2%) and 482 (92.7%). Maternal education and both the child's median age and the median age of first exposure to screens had a statistically significant association with excessive ST, with OR 0.2 (p = 0.03, CI 95% 0.07-0.86), OR 1.1 (p = 0.01, 95% CI 1.05-1.14) and OR 0.9 (p = 0.05, 95% CI 0. 87-0.98), respectively. Most children in this sample had a higher than recommended ST, which increased with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. These results are worrisome and point to the need for urgent intervention.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, preschoolers, screen time, toddlers

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30 Identifying Physiological Markers That Are Sensitive to Cognitive Load in Preschoolers

Authors: Priyashri Kamlesh Sridhar, Suranga Nanayakkara

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Current frameworks in assessment follow lesson delivery and rely heavily on test performance or teacher’s observations. This, however, neglects the underlying cognitive load during the learning process. Identifying the pivotal points when the load occurs helps design effective pedagogies and tools that respond to learners’ cognitive state. There has been limited research on quantifying cognitive load in preschoolers, real-time. In this study, we recorded electrodermal activity and heart rate variability (HRV) from 10 kindergarteners performing executive function tasks and Johnson Woodcock test of cognitive abilities. Preliminary findings suggest that there are indeed sensitive task-dependent markers in skin conductance (number of SCRs and average amplitude of SCRs) and HRV (mean heart rate and low frequency component) captured during the learning process.

Keywords: early childhood, learning, methodologies, pedagogies

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29 The Role of Authority's Testimony in Preschoolers' Ownership Judgment: A Study with Conflicting Cues Method

Authors: Zhanxing Li, Liqi Zhu

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Authorities often intervene in children’s property conflicts, which may affect young children’s ownership understanding. First possession is a typical rule of ownership judgment. We recruited Chinese preschoolers as subjects and investigated their ownership reasoning regarding first possession, by setting three conditions via a conflicting cues method, in which a third party (mother or peer friend)’s testimony was always opposite to the cue of first possession (authority/non-authority testimony condition), or only the cue of first possession was present (no testimony condition). In Study A, we examined forty-two 3- and 5-year olds’ attribution and justification of ownership. The results showed while 5-year olds gave more support for the first possessor as the owner across three conditions, 3-year olds’ choice for the first possessor had no difference from the non-first possessor in the authority testimony condition. Moreover, 3-year olds tended to justify by reference to what mother said in the authority testimony condition, 5-year olds consistently referred to the first possession in three conditions. In Study B, we added two ownership questions to quantify children’s ability of ownership reasoning with four age groups (n = 32 for the 3-year-olds, n = 33 for the 4-year-olds, n = 27 for the 5-year olds and n = 30 for the adults) to explore the developmental trajectory further. It revealed that while 5-year olds’ performances were similar to the adults’ and always judged the first possessor as owner in three conditions, 3- and 4-year olds’ performed at chance level in the authority testimony condition. The results imply that Chinese young preschooler’s ownership reasoning was susceptible to authority’s testimony. Family authority may play an important role in diluting children’s adherence to ownership principles, which will be helpful for children to learn to share with others.

Keywords: authority, ownership judgment, preschoolers, testimony

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28 A Computerized Tool for Predicting Future Reading Abilities in Pre-Readers Children

Authors: Stephanie Ducrot, Marie Vernet, Eve Meiss, Yves Chaix

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Learning to read is a key topic of debate today, both in terms of its implications on school failure and illiteracy and regarding what are the best teaching methods to develop. It is estimated today that four to six percent of school-age children suffer from specific developmental disorders that impair learning. The findings from people with dyslexia and typically developing readers suggest that the problems children experience in learning to read are related to the preliteracy skills that they bring with them from kindergarten. Most tools available to professionals are designed for the evaluation of child language problems. In comparison, there are very few tools for assessing the relations between visual skills and the process of learning to read. Recent literature reports that visual-motor skills and visual-spatial attention in preschoolers are important predictors of reading development — the main goal of this study aimed at improving screening for future reading difficulties in preschool children. We used a prospective, longitudinal approach where oculomotor processes (assessed with the DiagLECT test) were measured in pre-readers, and the impact of these skills on future reading development was explored. The dialect test specifically measures the online time taken to name numbers arranged irregularly in horizontal rows (horizontal time, HT), and the time taken to name numbers arranged in vertical columns (vertical time, VT). A total of 131 preschoolers took part in this study. At Time 0 (kindergarten), the mean VT, HT, errors were recorded. One year later, at Time 1, the reading level of the same children was evaluated. Firstly, this study allowed us to provide normative data for a standardized evaluation of the oculomotor skills in 5- and 6-year-old children. The data also revealed that 25% of our sample of preschoolers showed oculomotor impairments (without any clinical complaints). Finally, the results of this study assessed the validity of the DiagLECT test for predicting reading outcomes; the better a child's oculomotor skills are, the better his/her reading abilities will be.

Keywords: vision, attention, oculomotor processes, reading, preschoolers

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27 Etiquette Learning and Public Speaking: Early Etiquette Learning and Its Impact on Higher Education and Working Professionals

Authors: Simran Ballani

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The purpose of this paper is to call education professionals to implement etiquette and public speaking skills for preschoolers, primary, middle and higher school students. In this paper the author aims to present importance of etiquette learning and public speaking curriculum for preschoolers, reflect on experiences from implementation of the curriculum and discuss the effect of the said implementation on higher education/global job market. Author’s aim to introduce this curriculum was to provide children with innovative learning and all around development. This training of soft skills at kindergarten level can have a long term effect on their social behaviors which in turn can contribute to professional success once they are ready for campus recruitment/global job markets. Additionally, if preschoolers learn polite, appropriate behavior at early age, it will enable them to become more socially attentive and display good manners as an adult. It is easier to nurture these skills in a child rather than changing bad manners at adulthood. Preschool/Kindergarten education can provide the platform for children to learn these crucial soft skills irrespective of the ethnicity, economic or social background they come from. These skills developed at such early years can go a long way to shape them into better and confident individuals. Unfortunately, accessibility of the etiquette learning and public speaking skill education is not standardized in pre-primary or primary level and most of the time embedding into the kindergarten curriculum is next to nil. All young children should be provided with equal opportunity to learn these soft skills which are essential for finding their place in job market.

Keywords: Early Childhood Learning, , public speaking, , confidence building, , innovative learning

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26 A Case Study on Improving Language Skills of Preschoolers by Parent-Child Reading

Authors: Hoi Yan Lau

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In Hong Kong, most families have working parents, and the primary caregivers of young children are helpers. This leads to a lack of interaction and language expression in children’s home environment, which affects their language development. This study aims to explore the effectiveness of parent-child reading in improving young children’s language skills. A 4-year-old girl and her mother are recruited to a 3 months’ parent-child reading program. There is a total of 26 reading sessions which target to enhance the parent’s skill of parent-child reading and to assess the child’s language ability. At the same time, the child’s use of language in normal classroom settings is analyzed by anecdotal records. It is shown that the parent is able to use more and better guiding questions during parent-child reading after this program, which in turn leads to more and longer response of the child during the reading sessions. The child also has an increase in Mean Length of Utterance and has a higher frequency of using complete sentences when interacting with other classmates in the classroom. It is worthwhile to further investigate the inclusion of promoting parent-child reading to enhance children’s language development in preschool curriculum planning.

Keywords: Hong Kong, language skills, parent-child reading, preschoolers

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25 Analogical Reasoning on Preschoolers’ Linguistic Performance

Authors: Yenie Norambuena

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Analogical reasoning is a cognitive process that consists of structured comparisons of mental representations and scheme construction. Because of its heuristic function, it is ubiquitous in cognition and could play an important role in language development. The use of analogies is expressed early in children and this behavior is also reflected in language, suggesting a possible way to understand the complex links between thought and language. The current research examines factors of verbal and non-verbal reasoning that should be taken into consideration in the study of language development for their relations and predictive value. The study was conducted with 48 Chilean preschoolers (Spanish speakers) from 4 to 6-year-old. We assessed children’s verbal analogical reasoning, non-verbal analogical reasoning and linguistics skills (Listening Comprehension, Phonemic awareness, Alphabetic principle, Syllabification, Lexical repetition and Lexical decision). The results evidenced significant correlations between analogical reasoning factors and linguistic skills and they can predict linguistic performance mainly on oral comprehension, lexical decision and phonological skills. These findings suggest a fundamental interrelationship between analogical reasoning and linguistic performance on children’s and points to the need to consider this cognitive process in comprehensive theories of children's language development.

Keywords: verbal analogical reasoning, non-verbal analogical reasoning, linguistic skills, language development

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24 Science Process Skill and Interest Preschooler in Learning Early Science through Mobile Application

Authors: Seah Siok Peh, Hashimah Mohd Yunus, Nor Hashimah Hashim, Mariam Mohamad

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A country needs a workforce that encompasses knowledge, skilled labourers to generate innovation, productivity and being able to solve problems creatively via technology. Science education experts believe that the mastery of science skills help preschoolers to generate such knowledge on scientific concepts by providing constructive experiences. Science process skills are skills used by scientists to study or investigate a problem, issue, problem or phenomenon of science. In line with the skills used by scientists. The purpose of this study is to investigate the basic science process skill and interest in learning early science through mobile application. This study aimed to explore six spesific basic science process skills by the use of a mobile application as a learning support tool. The descriptive design also discusses on the extent of the use of mobile application in improving basic science process skill in young children. This study consists of six preschoolers and two preschool teachers from two different classes located in Perak, Malaysia. Techniques of data collection are inclusive of observations, interviews and document analysis. This study will be useful to provide information and give real phenomena to policy makers especially Ministry of education in Malaysia.

Keywords: science education, basic science process skill, interest, early science, mobile application

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23 Mediation Effect of Mindful Parenting on Parental Self Efficacy and Parent-Child Attachment in Hong Kong

Authors: Man Chung Chu

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In the dynamic family interaction, parental self-efficacy is connected with parent-child attachment. Parental self-efficacy and its corresponding behavior played an influential role in the lifespan development of the child. Recently, Mindful parenting is popularly addressed as it lightens parents’ awareness to their own thoughts feelings and behaviors by adapting a nonjudgmental attitude in the present moment being with the child. The effectiveness of mindful parent is considerably significant in enhancing parent-child relationship as well as family functioning. Parenting in early developmental stage is always challenging and essential for later growth, however, literature is rarely exploring the mediation of mindful parenting on the effect of parent self-efficacy on parent-child attachment in preschoolers’ families. The mediation effect of the research shed light on how mindful parenting should head, where parental self-efficacy training should be incorporated together with mindful family program in attempt to yield the best outcome in the family of young-aged children. Two hundred and eight (208) parents, of two to six years old children, were participated in the study and results supported the significance in the mediator effect of mindful parenting in both facets, i.e. Parent-focused - ‘Mindful Discipline’ and Child-focused – ‘Being in the moment with the child’ where parental self-efficacy is a significant predictor of mindful parenting. The implication of the result suggests that mindful parenting would be a therapeutic framework in promoting family functioning and child’s well-being, it would also be a ‘significant helping hand’ in maintaining continuous secure attachment relationship and growing their mindful children in a family.

Keywords: mediation effect, mindful parenting, parental self efficacy, parent-child attachment, preschoolers

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22 Numerical Board Game for Low-Income Preschoolers

Authors: Gozde Inal Kiziltepe, Ozgun Uyanik

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There is growing evidence that socioeconomic (SES)-related differences in mathematical knowledge primarily start in early childhood period. Preschoolers from low-income families are likely to perform substantially worse in mathematical knowledge than their counterparts from middle and higher income families. The differences are seen on a wide range of recognizing written numerals, counting, adding and subtracting, and comparing numerical magnitudes. Early differences in numerical knowledge have a permanent effect childrens’ mathematical knowledge in other grades. In this respect, analyzing the effect of number board game on the number knowledge of 48-60 month-old children from disadvantaged low-income families constitutes the main objective of the study. Participants were the 71 preschoolers from a childcare center which served low-income urban families. Children were randomly assigned to the number board condition or to the color board condition. The number board condition included 35 children and the color board game condition included 36 children. Both board games were 50 cm long and 30 cm high; had ‘The Great Race’ written across the top; and included 11 horizontally arranged, different colored squares of equal sizes with the leftmost square labeled ‘Start’. The numerical board had the numbers 1–10 in the rightmost 10 squares; the color board had different colors in those squares. A rabbit or a bear token were presented to children for selecting, and on each trial spun a spinner to determine whether the token would move one or two spaces. The number condition spinner had a ‘1’ half and a ‘2’ half; the color condition spinner had colors that matched the colors of the squares on the board. Children met one-on-one with an experimenter for four 15- to 20-min sessions within a 2-week period. In the first and fourth sessions, children were administered identical pretest and posttest measures of numerical knowledge. All children were presented three numerical tasks and one subtest presented in the following order: counting, numerical magnitude comparison, numerical identification and Count Objects – Circle Number Probe subtest of Early Numeracy Assessment. In addition, same numerical tasks and subtest were given as a follow-up test four weeks after the post-test administration. Findings obtained from the study; showed that there was a meaningful difference between scores of children who played a color board game in favor of children who played number board game.

Keywords: low income, numerical board game, numerical knowledge, preschool education

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21 A Foucauldian Analysis of Child Play: Case Study of a Preschool in the United States

Authors: Meng Wang

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Historically, young members (children) in the society have been oppressed by adults through direct violent acts. Direct violence was evident in rampant child labor and child maltreatment cases. After acknowledging the rights of children from the United Nations, it is believed in public that children have been protected against direct physical violence. Nevertheless, at present, this paper argues from Foucauldian and disability study standpoints that similar to the old times, children are oppressed objects in the context of child play, which is constructed by adults to substitute direct violence in regulating children. Particularly, this paper suggests that on the one hand, preschool play is a new way that adults adopt to oppress preschoolers and regulate the society as a whole; on the other hand, preschoolers are taught how to play as an acquired skill and master self-regulation through play. There is a line of contemporary research that centers on child play from social constructivism perspective. Yet, current teaching practices pertaining to child play including guided child play and free play, in fact, serve the interest of adults and society at large. By acknowledging and deconstructing the prevalence of 'evidence-based best practice' in early childhood education field within western society, reconstruction of child-adult power relation could be achieved and alternative truth could be found in early childhood education. To support the argument of this paper, an on-going observational case study is conducted in a preschool setting in the United States. Age range of children is 2.5 to 4 years old. Approximately 10 children (5 boys) are participating in this case study. Observation is conducted throughout the weekdays as children follow through the classroom routine with a lead and an assistant teacher. Classroom teachers are interviewed pertaining to their classroom management strategies. Preliminary research finding of this case study suggested that preschool teachers tended to utilize scenarios from preschoolers’ dramatic play to impart core cultural values to young children. These values were pre-determined by adults. In addition, if young children have failed to follow teachers' guidance in terms of playing in a correct way, children ran the risk of being excluded from the play scenario by peers and adults. Furthermore, this study tended to indicate that through child play, preschoolers are obliged to develop an internal violence system, that is self-regulation skill to regulate their own behavior; and if this internal system is unestablished based on various assessments by adults, then potentially there will be consequences of negative labeling and disabling toward young children intended by adults. In conclusion, this paper applies Foucauldian analysis into the context of child play. At present, within preschool, child play is not free as it seems to be. Young children are expected to perform cultural tasks through their play activities designed by adults. Adults utilize child play as technologies of governmentality to further predict and regulate future society at large.

Keywords: child play, developmentally appropriate practice, DAP, poststructuralism, technologies of governmentality

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20 Designing a Learning Table and Game Cards for Preschoolers for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) on Earthquake

Authors: Mehrnoosh Mirzaei

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Children are among the most vulnerable at the occurrence of natural disasters such as earthquakes. Most of the management and measures which are considered for both before and during an earthquake are neither suitable nor efficient for this age group and cannot be applied. On the other hand, due to their age, it is hard to educate and train children to learn and understand the concept of earthquake risk mitigation as matters like earthquake prevention and safe places during an earthquake are not easily perceived. To our knowledge, children’s awareness of such concepts via their own world with the help of games is the best training method in this case. In this article, the researcher has tried to consider the child an active element before and during the earthquake. With training, provided by adults before the incidence of an earthquake, the child has the ability to learn disaster risk reduction (DRR). The focus of this research is on learning risk reduction behavior and regarding children as an individual element. The information of this article has been gathered from library resources, observations and the drawings of 10 children aged 5 whose subject was their conceptual definition of an earthquake who were asked to illustrate their conceptual definition of an earthquake; the results of 20 questionnaires filled in by preschoolers along with information gathered by interviewing them. The design of the suitable educational game, appropriate for the needs of this age group, has been made based on the theory of design with help of the user and the priority of children’s learning needs. The final result is a package of a game which is comprised of a learning table and matching cards showing sign marks for safe and unsafe places which introduce the safe behaviors and safe locations before and during the earthquake. These educational games can be used both in group contexts in kindergartens and on an individual basis at home, and they help in earthquake risk reduction.

Keywords: disaster education, earthquake sign marks, learning table, matching card, risk reduction behavior

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19 The Cultural Adaptation of a Social and Emotional Learning Program for an Intervention in Saudi Arabia’s Preschools

Authors: Malak Alqaydhi

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A problem in the Saudi Arabia education system is that there is a lack of curriculum- based Social, emotional learning (SEL) teaching practices with the pedagogical concept of SEL yet to be practiced in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Furthermore, voices of teachers and parents have not been captured regarding the use of SEL, particularly in preschools. The importance of this research is to help determine, with the input of teachers and mothers of preschoolers, the efficacy of a culturally adapted SEL program. The purpose of this research is to determine the most appropriate SEL intervention method to appropriately apply in the cultural context of the Saudi preschool classroom setting. The study will use a mixed method exploratory sequential research design, applying qualitative and quantitative approaches including semi-structured interviews with teachers and parents of preschoolers and an experimental research approach. The research will proceed in four phases beginning with a series of interviews with Saudi preschool teachers and mothers, whose voices and perceptions will help guide the second phase of selection and adaptation of a suitable SEL preschool program. The third phase will be the implementation of the intervention by the researcher in the preschool classroom environment, which will be facilitated by the researcher’s cultural proficiency and practical experience in Saudi Arabia. The fourth and final phase will be an evaluation to assess the effectiveness of the trialled SEL among the preschool student participants. The significance of this research stems from its contribution to knowledge about SEL in culturally appropriate Saudi preschools and the opportunity to support initiatives for Saudi early childhood educators to consider implementing SEL programs. The findings from the study may be useful to inform the Saudi Ministry of Education and its curriculum designers about SEL programs, which could be beneficial to trial more widely in the Saudi preschool curriculum.

Keywords: social emotional learning, preschool children, saudi Arabia, child behavior

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18 Symbolic Play and Language: A Developmental Relationship

Authors: Sherri Franklin-Guy

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Play activities have long been utilized to support the development of expressive language in young children. More specifically, stages of symbolic play, or pretend play, have served as indicators of levels of cognitive development, the foundation of language. This presentation will examine the relationship between symbolic play and language development in toddlers and preschoolers. Implications for clinicians and educators will be discussed.

Keywords: cognition, language development, pretend play, symbolic play

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17 Emotional Characteristics of Preschoolers Due to Parameters of Family Interaction

Authors: Nadezda Sergunicheva, Victoria Vasilenko

Abstract:

The emotional sphere is one of the most important aspects of the child's development and significant factor in his psychological well-being. Present research aims to identify the relationships between emotional characteristics of preschoolers and parameters of family interaction: emotional interaction, parental styles, family adaptation, and cohesion. The study involved 40 people from Saint-Petersburg: 20 children (10 boys and 10 girls) from 5 to 6 years, Mage = 5 years 4 months and 20 mothers. Methods used were: Test 'Emotional identification' by E.Izotova, Empathy test by T. Gavrilova, Children's fears test by A. Zakharov, M. Panfilova, 'Parent-child emotional interaction questionnaire' by E. Zakharova, 'Analysis of family relationships questionnaire by E. Eidemiller and V. Yustitskis, Family Adaptation and Cohesion Scales (FACES III) by D. X. Olson, J. Portner, I. Lavi. Сorrelation analysis revealed that the higher index of underdevelopment of parental feelings, the lower the child’s ability to identify emotions (p < 0,05), but at the same time, the higher ability to understand emotional states (p < 0,01), as in the case of hypoprotection (p < 0,05). Two last correlations can be explained by compensatory mechanism. This is also confirmed by negative correlations between maternal educational uncertainty and child’s ability to understand emotional states and between indulgence and child’s ability to perceive emotional states (p < 0,05). The more pronounced the phobia of a child's loss, the higher egocentric nature of child’s empathy (p < 0,05). The child’s fears have the greatest number of relationships with the characteristics of family interaction. The more pronounced mother’s positive feelings in interaction, emotional support, acceptance of himself as a parent, desire for physical contact with child and the more adaptive the family system, the less the total number of child’s fears (p < 0,05). The more the mother's ability to perceive the child's state, positive feelings in interaction, emotional support (p < 0,01), unconditional acceptance of the child, acceptance of himself as a parent and the desire for physical contact (p < 0,05), the less the amount child’s spatial fears. Socially-mediated fears are associated with less pronounced mother's positive feelings in interaction, less emotional support and deficiency of demands, obligations (p < 0,05). Fears of animals and fairy-tale characters positively correlated with the excessive demands, obligations and excessive sanctions (p < 0,05). The more emotional support (p < 0,01), mother's ability to perceive the child's state, positive feelings in interaction, unconditional acceptance of the child, acceptance of himself as a parent (p < 0,05), the less the amount child’s fears of nightmares. This kind of fears is positively correlated with excessive demands, prohibitions (p < 0,05). The more adaptive the family system (p < 0,01), the higher family cohesion, mother's acceptance of himself as a parent and preference to childish traits (p < 0,05), the less fear of death. Thus, the children's fears have the closest relationships with the characteristics of family interaction. The severity of fears, especially spatial, is connected, first of all, with the emotional side of the mother-parent interaction. Fears of animals and fairy-tale characters are associated with some characteristics of the parental styles, connected with the rigor of mothers. Correlations of the emotional identification are contradictory and require further clarification. Research is supported by RFBR №18-013-00990.

Keywords: emotional characteristics, family interaction, fears, parental styles, preschoolers

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16 Parents' Perception on the Use of Mobile Technology by Young Children

Authors: Jason Gan

Abstract:

Technology has been around for many years, those that play a crucial part of our lives have evolved quick and fast, from televisions to computers and now mobile technology has also become a part of our lives. However in Singapore a nation with a strong reliance and following in technology, how are young children (0 to 8 years old) coping with these high technology equipment especially mobile technology and why and what are parents doing to manage this trend in the nation. This study aims to uncover some of the parents’ perception behind the use of mobile technology by their children.

Keywords: technology, preschoolers, ICT and Singapore, early childhood

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
15 Wally Feelings Test: Validity and Reliability Study

Authors: Gökhan Kayili, Ramazan Ari

Abstract:

In this research, it is aimed to be adapted Wally Feelings Test to Turkish children and performed the reliability and validity analysis of the test. The sampling of the research was composed of three to five year-old 699 Turkish preschoolers who are attending official and private nursery school. The schools selected with simple random sampling method by considering different socio economic conditions and different central district in Konya. In order to determine reliability of Wally Feelings Test, internal consistency coefficients (KR-20), split-half reliability and test- retest reliability analysis have been performed. During validation process construct validity, content/scope validity and concurrent/criterion validity were used. When validity and reliability of the test examined, it is seen that Wally Feelings Test is a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate three to five year old Turkish children’s understanding feeling skills.

Keywords: reliability, validity, wally feelings test, social sciences

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14 The Development of Speaking Using Folk Tales Based on Performance Activities for Early-Childhood Students

Authors: Ms Yaowaluck Ruampol

Abstract:

The research on the development of using folk tales based on performance activities aimed to (1) study the development of speaking skill for early-childhood students, (2) evaluate the development of speaking skill before and after speaking activities. Ten students of Kindergarten level 2, who have enrolled in the subject of the research for speaking development of semester 2 in 2013, were purposively selected as the research cohort. The research tools were lesson plans for speaking activities and pre-posttest for speaking development that were approved for content validity and reliability (IOC=.66-1.00,0.967). The research found that the development of speaking skill of the research samples before using performance activities on folk tales in developing speaking skill was in the normal high level. Additionally, the results revealed that the preschoolers after applying speaking skill on performance activities also imaginatively created their speaking skill.

Keywords: speaking development, folk tales, performance activities, communication engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
13 The Development of Speaking Using Folk Tales Based on Performance Activities for Early Childhood Student

Authors: Yaowaluck Ruampol, Suthakorn Wasupokin

Abstract:

The research on the development of speaking using folk tales based on performance activities aimed to (1) study the development of speaking skill for early- childhood students, and (2) evaluate the development of speaking skill before and after speaking activities. Ten students of Kindergarten level 2, who have enrolled in the subject of the research for speaking development of semester 2 in 2013 were purposively selected as the research cohort. The research tools were lesson plans for speaking activities and pre-post test for speaking development that were approved as content validity and reliability (IOC=.66-1.00,α=0.967). The research found that the development of speaking skill of the research samples before using performance activities on folk tales in developing speaking skill was in the normal high level. Additionally, the results appeared that the preschoolers after applying speaking skill on performance activities also imaginatively created their speaking skill.

Keywords: speaking development, folk tales, performance activities, early-childhood students

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
12 The Different Improvement of Numerical Magnitude and Spatial Representation of Numbers to Symbolic Approximate Arithmetic: A Training Study of Preschooler

Authors: Yu Liang, Wei Wei

Abstract:

Spatial representation of numbers and numerical magnitude are important for preschoolers’ mathematical ability. Mental number line, a typical index to measure numbers spatial representation, and numerical comparison are both related to arithmetic obviously. However, they seem to rely on different mechanisms and probably influence arithmetic through different mechanisms. In line with this idea, preschool children were trained with two tasks to investigate which one is more important for approximate arithmetic. The training of numerical processing and number line estimation were proved to be effective. They both improved the ability of approximate arithmetic. When the difficulty of approximate arithmetic was taken into account, the performance in number line training group was not significantly different among three levels. However, two harder levels achieved significance in numerical comparison training group. Thus, comparing spatial representation ability, symbolic approximation arithmetic relies more on numerical magnitude. Educational implications of the study were discussed.

Keywords: approximate arithmetic, mental number line, numerical magnitude, preschooler

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11 Effects of Bilingual Education in the Teaching and Learning Practices in the Continuous Improvement and Development of k12 Program

Authors: Miriam Sebastian

Abstract:

This research focused on the effects of bilingual education as medium of instruction to the academic performance of selected intermediate students of Miriam’s Academy of Valenzuela Inc. . An experimental design was used, with language of instruction as the independent variable and the different literacy skills as dependent variables. The sample consisted of experimental students comprises of 30 students were exposed to bilingual education (Filipino and English) . They were given pretests and were divided into three groups: Monolingual Filipino, Monolingual English, and Bilingual. They were taught different literacy skills for eight weeks and were then administered the posttests. Data was analyzed and evaluated in the light of the central processing and script-dependent hypotheses. Based on the data, it can be inferred that monolingual instruction in either Filipino or English had a stronger effect on the students’ literacy skills compared to bilingual instruction. Moreover, mother tongue-based instruction, as compared to second-language instruction, had stronger effect on the preschoolers’ literacy skills. Such results have implications not only for mother tongue-based (MTB) but also for English as a second language (ESL) instruction in the country

Keywords: bilingualism, effects, monolingual, function, multilingual, mother tongue

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
10 The Preparation and Effectiveness of Picture Book for Increasing Knowledge about Divorce

Authors: Denia Prameswari

Abstract:

The impacts of divorce are not only felt by parents but also by children. Preschool children are the most distressed while facing parental divorce. The negative impacts of divorce on children can be minimized when children had pervious knowledge about the event. One of the method to give knowledge about divorce to children is through picture book. Unfortunately, in Indonesia, researchers have not found picture books for preschoolers about divorce. This study aims to test the effectiveness of picture book in increasing knowledge of preschool children about divorce. Formulation of picture books in this study is based on three sources of information: (1) the study of literature, (2) analysis of picture books, and (3) need assessment. This picture book that have been prepared, then used to test its effectiveness for increasing knowledge of preschool children about divorce. The test was conducted using pre and post test on 5 participants. The statistical method used in this study is paired sample t-test. The purposive sampling method was used to select the participants. The participants for this study are preschool children with parents that is undergoing divorce proceedings. The result shows that picture books in this study significantly increase preschool children's knowledge about divorce. As an additional result, parents find it easier to explain divorce to their children using the picture book from this study. For further study, researcher can make another picture book about divorce for children at different age or to face another challenging situation in life.

Keywords: divorce, parent, picture book, preschool children

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9 Exploring 'Attachment Theory' in the Context of Early Childhood Education

Authors: Wendy Lee

Abstract:

From the mid-twentieth century onward, the notion of ‘attachment’ has been used to define the optimum relationship between young children and their carers; first applied to parents and young children and more recently with early childhood educators and children in their care. However, it is seldom, if ever, asked whether the notion of ‘attachment’ and more especially so-called Attachment Theory, as propounded by John Bowlby and others, provides a sound basis for conceptualising child-adult relationships in early years. Even if appropriate in the context of family, the use of the term raises a number of questions when used in early childhood education. Research has shown that our youngest children (infants) in early childhood centre based care settings, are given the utmost priority to build 'attachments' with their educators. But exactly when, how and why does this priority diminish - and should it (for preschoolers)? This presentation will elaborate on such issues and will argue that there is a need to reconceptualise and redefine how 'quality relationships' should be measured and implemented in the daily practices and pedagogical methods adopted by early childhood educators. Moreover, this presentation will include data collected from the empirical study conducted, that observed various early childhood educators and children in Australian early childhood centres. Lastly, the thoughts, feelings and desires of parents of children in early childhood centre-based care, regarding the term 'attachment' and 'quality relationships' will be shared in the hope that we can take one step closer in bridging the needs of families, children, early childhood centres, educators, and the wider community.

Keywords: attachment, early childhood education, pedagogy, relationships

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8 How Educational Settings Can Influence Development of Creativity through Play in Young Children

Authors: D. M. W. Munasinghe

Abstract:

This study focuses on how teachers view and use play to influence creativity in preschool children. Play is strongly featured in most of the discussions about creativity in young children. Hence, it was noted through direct observation that most preschool teachers are not concerned with promoting play to develop the child’s creativity. Therefore, this study attempts to investigate how the teachers use play, for the development of creativity in the preschool environment. The survey method was used as the research design and interviews, observations and document perusal were used as data collection methods. The sample consisted of 20 preschools from selected administrative divisions in the Colombo district. It was revealed that a majority of preschool teachers used folk games as a means of involving children in play. Teachers assume that this type of guided play will motivate the child learn new words, memorization and provide enjoyment. Eighty percent of the preschool teachers used the play equipment installed in the preschool premises to encourage children to get involved in activities calculated at promoting the physical development of the child. In 40% of the preschools visited it was noticed that when children were given their break they created their own forms of free play and enjoyed themselves thoroughly in the little time available to them. Also, about 20% of preschool teachers promoted imaginative play with their preschoolers. There was also the situation where the role of play was interpreted negatively by the teachers who assigned the children to copy letters and numerals during the time assigned for play. This has a negative impact on the child’s creativity. In conclusion, it was felt that the teachers do not make the best use of the opportunity available to use the child’s enthusiasm to stimulate creative actions his/her and that there is no suitable environment to develop creativity through play.

Keywords: creativity, preschool children, preschool environment, play method

Procedia PDF Downloads 304