Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 679

Search results for: compliance

679 A Survey on Taxpayer's Compliance in Prospect Theory Structure Using Hierarchical Bayesian Approach

Authors: Sahar Dehghan, Yeganeh Mousavi Jahromi, Ghahraman Abdoli


Since tax revenues are one of the most important sources of government revenue, it is essential to consider increasing taxpayers' compliance. One of the factors that can affect the taxpayers' compliance is the structure of the crimes and incentives envisaged in the tax law. In this research, by using the 'prospect theory', the effects of changes in the rate of crimes and the tax incentive in the direct tax law on the taxpayer’s compliance behavior have been investigated. To determine the preferences and preferences of taxpayer’s in the business sector and their degree of sensitivity to fines and incentives, a questionnaire with mixed gamble structure is designed. Estimated results using the Hierarchical Bayesian method indicate that the taxpayer’s that have been tested in this study are more sensitive to the incentives in the direct tax law, and the tax administration can use this to increase the level of collected tax and increase the level of compliance.

Keywords: tax compliance, prospect theory, value function, mixed gamble

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678 Process of Role Taking: Sacred Compliance and Religious Assurance in Islamic Banks

Authors: Y. Karbhari, A. Benamraoui, A. Fahmi Sheikh Hassan


The study applies role theory to investigate the quality of the compliance review in Malaysia, which is perceived to have the most advanced Islamic banking governance framework in the Islamic world. Drawing from the questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews, our study reveals the existence of a well-established structure for compliance reviews which is found to be regulatory driven and contingent upon the level of commercial activity of individual Islamic bank’s. However, the compliance review process was found to be ceremonial and inadequately undertaken by some SBs with greater prominence placed on its advisory role. In particular, the study provides evidence of a lack of understanding on accounting issues when undertaking the compliance review. Problems in communication between SBs, board of directors and management were also reported to exist. Our findings raise concern over the quality and thus the credibility of the religious compliance assurance communicated in Islamic Banks annual reports.

Keywords: Islamic banks, religious compliance, Sharia board assurance, role theory

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677 Cultural Aspects of Tax Compliance of Medium Size Enterprises in South Africa

Authors: Oludele A. Akinboade


The paper discusses cultural aspects of tax compliance of medium size companies (MEs) in South Africa to enhance tax compliance. A survey of 641 companies in eight provinces was made. Racial identities of ME owners are not significant in explaining differences in tax registration compliance. Black ownership of MEs is negatively and highly significantly correlated with pay as you earn compliance. The opposite is found in favour of Asian ME owners. White ownership of MEs is negative and weakly (10%) significantly correlated with company income tax compliance while the opposite is found in favour of Asian ownership. Race is negative and highly significant in explaining White owned MEs value added tax compliance behaviour. The opposite is found in favour of Asian ME owners. Black ownership of MEs is negatively and weakly significantly(10%) associated with timely submission of tax returns.

Keywords: tax compliance, cultural diversity, medium size companies, South Africa

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676 Board Characteristics, Audit Committee Characteristics, and the Level of Bahraini Corporate Compliance with Mandatory IFRS Disclosure Requirements

Authors: Omar Juhmani


This paper examines the relation between internal corporate governance and the level of corporate compliance with mandatory IFRS disclosure requirements. The internal corporate governance is measured by board and audit committee characteristics. Using data from Bahrain Stock Exchange, the results show that board independence is positively and significantly associated with level of compliance with IFRS disclosure requirements. This suggests that internal corporate governance mechanisms are effective in the financial reporting practices by increasing the level of compliance with IFRS disclosures. Also, the results of the regression analyses indicate that two of the control variables; company size and audit firm size are significantly positively associated with the level of corporate compliance with mandatory IFRS disclosure requirements in Bahrain.

Keywords: Bahrain, board and audit committee characteristics, compliance, disclosure, IFRS

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675 A Framework for Systemically Understanding and Increasing Compliance with Water Regulation in Time Limited and Uncertain Contexts

Authors: Luisa Perez-Mujica


Traditionally, non-compliance in water regulation has been understood to be attributable to lack of information or knowledge of regulations. In other words, it is confusing behavioural change and education with communication or regulations. However, compliance is a complex response to water regulation factors including 1) knowledge and understanding of regulations; 2) perception that resources are overregulated; 3) presence of regulatory officers in the field; 4) accurate communication of what is being protected; 5) time lag between behavioral change projects and observation of outcomes and 6) how success of behavioral change is measured and evaluated. This paper presents a framework for designing education and behavioral change projects by understanding non-compliance in terms of the interaction of its factors, including a process for prioritizing projects, actions, evaluation and monitoring of outcomes. By taking a systemic approach to compliance, a more directed type of actions can be efficiently identified and prioritized, preventing the reactive nature of education and behavioral change projects.

Keywords: water regulation, compliance, behaviour change, systems thinking

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674 Constraints on IRS Control: An Alternative Approach to Tax Gap Analysis

Authors: J. T. Manhire


A tax authority wants to take actions it knows will foster the greatest degree of voluntary taxpayer compliance to reduce the “tax gap.” This paper suggests that even if a tax authority could attain a state of complete knowledge, there are constraints on whether and to what extent such actions would result in reducing the macro-level tax gap. These limits are not merely a consequence of finite agency resources. They are inherent in the system itself. To show that this is one possible interpretation of the tax gap data, the paper formulates known results in a different way by analyzing tax compliance as a population with a single covariate. This leads to a standard use of the logistic map to analyze the dynamics of non-compliance growth or decay over a sequence of periods. This formulation gives the same results as the tax gap studies performed over the past fifty years in the U.S. given the published margins of error. Limitations and recommendations for future work are discussed, along with some implications for tax policy.

Keywords: income tax, logistic map, tax compliance, tax law

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673 Assessment of Patient Cooperation and Compliance in Three Stages of Orthodontic Treatment in Adult Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Hafsa Qabool, Rashna Sukhia, Mubassar Fida


Introduction: Success of orthodontic mechanotherapy is highly dependent upon patient cooperation and compliance throughout the duration of treatment. This study was conducted to assess the cooperation and compliance of adult orthodontic patients during the leveling and alignment, space closure/molar correction, and finishing stages of tooth movement. Materials and Methods: Patient cooperation and compliance among three stages of orthodontic treatment were assessed using the Orthodontic Patient Cooperation Scale (OPCS) and Clinical Compliance Evaluation (CCE) form. A sample size of 38 was calculated for each stage of treatment; therefore, 114 subjects were included in the study. Shapiro-Wilk test identified that the data were normally distributed. One way ANOVA was used to evaluate the percentage cooperation and compliance among the three stages. Pair-wise comparisons between the three stages were performed using Post-hoc Tukey. Results: Statistically significant difference was seen for scores of patient compliance using CCE (p = 0.01); however, the results of the OPCS showed a non-significant difference for patient cooperation (p = 0.16) among the three stages of treatment. Post-hoc analysis showed significant differences (p = 0.01) in patient cooperation and compliance between space closure and the finishing stage. Highly significant (p < 0.001) decline in oral hygiene was found with the progression of orthodontic treatment. Conclusions: Improvement in the cooperation and compliance levels for adult orthodontic patients was observed during space closure & molar correction stage, which then showed a decline as treatment progressed. Oral hygiene was progressively compromised as orthodontic treatment progressed.

Keywords: patient compliance, adult orthodontics, orthodontic motivation, orthodontic patient adherence

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672 The Effect of Motivational Postures as a Concomitant Factor and Peer Reporting Behavior on Taxpayer Compliance Decisions

Authors: Elen Puspitasari, Yeye Susilowati, Wahyu Meiranto


This study uses an experiment to examine the effect of motivational postures and peer’s reporting behavior on taxpayer compliance decisions. The motivational postures of taxpayers placed as a concomitant variable. Taxpayers were randomly assigned to alternate peer reporting behavior as an experimental variable with two level treatments and then responded to tax reporting scenarios. A motivational posture was measured with 29 statements developed by Braithwaite. Therefore, this experimental research uses Quasi-Experimental Design Between-Subject with Covariate with random assignment method. The subject in this experiment is the taxpayers who has a tax ID and have experience in reporting their tax revenue. The most important is that they earn income from their own business. The analysis technique used was Analysis of Covariate. The results showed that the posture of motivation as concomitant factors does not affect tax compliance decisions. Furthermore, this study proves that peer reporting behavior will determine the decisions of tax compliance. The findings in this study are intended to provide some practical implications for improving tax compliance.

Keywords: motivational postures, concomitant, tax compliance decisions, peer reporting behavior

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671 Nutritional Allowance Support Affecting Treatment Compliance among TB Patients in Western, Nepal

Authors: Yadav R. K., Baral S.


Introduction: Nepal is one of the world’s least developed countries and has a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB). The TB prevalence survey in 2019 showed 69,000 Nepalese is developing TB and 4,000 die every year. Given its disproportionate impact on the impoverished segments of society, TB often thrusts patients into extreme poverty or exacerbates their existing economic struggles. Consequently, not only the patients but also their families suffer from the loss of livelihood. This study aims to assess the support of nutritional allowance on treatment compliance among retreatment tuberculosis patients in Nepal. This is a secondary analysis of data from HMIS (Health Management Information System) to investigate treatment compliance among tuberculosis patients and its association with nutritional allowance. The study population consisted of all individuals (N=2972) who had received services from July 16, 2021, to December 14, 2022. The SPSS 21version was used to conduct descriptive and bivariate analysis. Out of the total TB patients (n=2972), a third-fourth (65.9%) of TB patients were male. More than one-tenth (12.3%) of respondents received a nutrition support allowance. The TB treatment compliance rate was more (89.91%) in the nutrition support allowance group compared to the non-nutritional support group (87.98%). TB patients who received the nutritional support allowance were nearly twice as likely to have a higher TB treatment compliance rate compared to those who did not receive the nutritional support allowance. Providing nutritional allowance support to tuberculosis (TB) patients can play a significant role in improving treatment compliance and outcomes. Age and the type of TB are important factors that have shown statistical significance in relation to treatment compliance. Therefore, it is recommended to provide nutritional allowance support to both new and retreatment TB patients. To enhance treatment compliance among TB patients, it is beneficial to provide timely nutrition allowances and arrange home visits by TB focal persons.

Keywords: nutrition, support, treatment compliance, TB, Nepal

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670 SOUL Framework in Theology and Islamic Philosophy

Authors: Khan Shahid, Shahid Zakia


This article explores the fields of Theology and Islamic Philosophy in alignment with the SOUL (Sincere act, Optimization efforts, Ultimate goal, Law compliance) framework. It examines their historical development and demonstrates how embracing sincerity, optimization, ultimate goals, and law compliance enhances these disciplines within the Islamic context. By emphasizing the importance of Sincere acts, Optimization efforts, Ultimate goal, and Law compliance, this article provides a framework for enriching Theology and Islamic Philosophy.

Keywords: SOUL framework, Theology, Islamic Philosophy, Sincerity act, Optimization effort, Ultimate goal, Law compliance

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669 The Nexus between Manpower Training and Corporate Compliance

Authors: Timothy Wale Olaosebikan


The most active resource in any organization is the manpower. Every other resource remains inactive unless there is competent manpower to handle them. Manpower training is needed to enhance productivity and overall performance of the organizations. This is due to the recognition of the important role of manpower training in attainment of organizational goals. Corporate Compliance conjures visions of an incomprehensible matrix of laws and regulations that defy logic and control by even the most seasoned manpower training professionals. Similarly, corporate compliance can be viewed as one of the most significant problems faced in manpower training process for any organization, therefore, commands relevant attention and comprehension. Consequently, this study investigated the nexus between manpower training and corporate compliance. Collection of data for the study was effected through the use of questionnaire with a sample size of 265 drawn by stratified random sampling. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of the study show that about 75% of the respondents agree that there is a strong relationship between manpower training and corporate compliance, which brings out the organizational attainment from any training process. The findings further show that most organisation do not totally comply with the rules guiding manpower training process thereby making the process less effective on organizational performance, which may affect overall profitability. The study concludes that formulation and compliance of adequate rules and guidelines for manpower trainings will produce effective results for both employees and the organization at large. The study recommends that leaders of organizations, industries, and institutions must ensure total compliance on the part of both the employees and the organization to manpower training rules. Organizations and stakeholders should also ensure that strict policies on corporate compliance to manpower trainings form the heart of their cardinal mission.

Keywords: corporate compliance, manpower training, nexus, rules and guidelines

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668 Ballast Water Management Triad: Administration, Ship Owner and the Seafarer

Authors: Rajoo Balaji, Omar Yaakob


The Ballast Water Convention requires less than 5% of the world tonnage for ratification. Consequently, ships will have to comply with the requirements. Compliance evaluation and enforcement will become mandatory. Ship owners have to invest in treatment systems and shipboard personnel have to operate them and ensure compliance. The monitoring and enforcement will be the responsibilities of the Administrations. Herein, a review of the current status of the Ballast Water Management and the issues faced by these are projected. Issues range from efficacy and economics of the treatment systems to sampling and testing. Health issues of chemical systems, paucity of data for decision support etc., are other issues. It is emphasized that management of ballast water must be extended to ashore and sustainable solutions must be researched upon. An exemplar treatment system based on ship’s waste heat is also suggested.

Keywords: Ballast Water Management, compliance evaluation, compliance enforcement, sustainability

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667 The Tense Dichotomy Between Shari'ah Compliance and the Goals of an Economic Bank

Authors: Camille Paldi


The tense dichotomy between Shari’ah compliance and the economic goals of an Islamic Bank produces a proliferation of reverse engineered products, which are barely in compliance with Islamic law. The result is basically a hybrid conventional banking system with conventional products in Islamic disguise using Arabic and Islamic terminology. Many Islamic financial professionals and academics advocate for the use of conventional products and devices despite their non-Shari’ah compliance based on commercial necessity and the need to compete. However, this dangerous trend will lead to the demise of the Islamic finance industry. Rather than thoughtlessly following conventional products and practice, Islamic finance professionals should delve into the Shari’ah to find the answers to the current Islamic banking conundrum and lead the industry on the right path of developing Shari’ah based products and using Shari’ah devices to hedge risk.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Shari'ah, finance, investment

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666 Creep Compliance Characteristics of Cement Dust Asphalt Concrete Mixtures

Authors: Ayman Othman, Tallat Abd el Wahed


The current research is directed towards studying the creep compliance characteristics of asphalt concrete mixtures modified with cement dust. This study can aid in assessing the permanent deformation potential of asphalt concrete mixtures. Cement dust was added to the mixture as mineral filler and compared with regular lime stone filler. A power law model was used to characterize the creep compliance behavior of the studied mixtures. Creep testing results have revealed that the creep compliance power law parameters have a strong relationship with mixture type. Testing results of the studied mixtures, as indicated by the creep compliance parameters revealed an enhancement in the creep resistance, Marshall stability, indirect tensile strength and compressive strength for cement dust mixtures as compared to mixtures with traditional lime stone filler. It is concluded that cement dust can be successfully used to decrease the potential of asphalt concrete mixture to permanent deformation and improve its mechanical properties. This is in addition to the environmental benefits that can be gained when using cement dust in asphalt paving technology.

Keywords: cement dust, asphalt concrete mixtures, creep compliance, Marshall stability, indirect tensile strength, compressive strength

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665 The Mediating Effect of Taxpayers’ Compliance on Internal Business Process-Tax Revenue Relationship: A Case Study at the Directorate General of Taxation in Indonesia

Authors: Efrizal, Ferdiansyah, Noorlailie Soewarno, Bambang Tjahjadi


Tax revenue plays an important role in the State Budget of the Government of Indonesia (GOI). The GOI keeps raising tax revenue portion of the Budget from year to year. The low tax ratio of 11 percent in Indonesia shows a big opportunity to collect taxes in the future. The Directorate General of Taxation (DGT) is the institution mandated by the Law to collect tax revenue. This is a case study using quantitative and qualitative approaches. This study introduces contingent factors of taxpayers’ compliance as the mediating variable and internal business process as the independent variable. This study aims to empirically test the contingency theory, especially the mediating effect of taxpayers’ compliance on internal business process-tax revenue relationship. Internal business processes of the DGT include servicing, counseling, expanding, supervising, inspecting, and enforcing. The secondary data of 31 regional offices representing 293 tax offices in Indonesia was collected and analyzed using Partial Least Square. The result showed the following: (1) internal business process affected tax revenue; (2) taxpayers’ compliance did not mediate internal business processes - tax revenue relationship, and (3) taxpayers’ compliance affected tax revenue. In-depth interviews revealed that the DGT needs to make more innovations in business processes in the future.

Keywords: innovations, internal business process, taxpayers’ compliance, tax revenue

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664 The Impact of Shariah Non-Compliance Risk on Islamic Financial Institutions

Authors: Ibtissam Mharzi Alaoui, Camélia Sehaqui


The success of a bank depends upon its effective risk management. With the growing complexity and diversity of financial products and services, as well as the accelerating pace of globalization over the past decade, risk management is becoming increasingly difficult. thus, all measurement and monitoring functions must be much more vigorous, relevant and adequate. The Shariah non-compliance risk is specific aspect of Islamic finance which ipso facto, deserves particular attention. It affects the validity of all Islamic financial contracts and it turns out to be likely to result in considerable losses on the overall Islamic financial institutions (IFIs). The purpose of this paper is to review the theoretical literature on Shariah non-compliance risk in order to give a clearer understanding of its sources, causes and consequences. Our intention through this work is to bring added value to the Islamic finance industry all over the world. The findings provide a useful reference work for the Islamic banks in structuring (or restructuring) of their own system of shariah risk management and internal control.

Keywords: Shariah non-compliance, risk management, financial products, Islamic finance.

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663 Interrelationship of Socio-Demographic Factors, Health Belief Dimensions and Compliance to Measles Vaccination among Filipino Mothers

Authors: Beryl Rene R. Lopez, Lesley Anne M. Lipat, Rhogene Barbette C. Lirio, Laurice Joy H. Llanes, Karl Philippe M. Llapitan, Einstein James R. Lopez, Socorro S. GuanHing


Background: Measles remain as one of the most common childhood diseases despite the availability of the vaccine that is safe and cost-effective. Because of morbidity and mortality associated with the recent measles outbreak in the Philippines, there is an increasing concern from the health care professionals. Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the compliance of Filipino mothers to measles vaccination and their health beliefs when grouped according to the given socio-demographic factors using a researcher-made questionnaire. Research Methodology: This research utilized the descriptive-correlational research design. With the use of purposive sampling technique, the study involved 200 Filipino mothers aged 18 years old and above excluding those who are healthcare professionals with children aged 2-3 years old with either urban or rural as their settlements. Pre-testing was done prior to the actual data gathering. A questionnaire composed of 26 items involving socio-demographic, compliance, and health beliefs was distributed to the sample population. Statistical analysis was done with the use of Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) for the first research question and Structural Equation Model (SEM) for the second research question. Results: Four dimensions were generated with the use of EFA namely: Vulnerability-Oriented Beliefs (VOB), Knowledge-Oriented Beliefs (KOB), Accessibility-Oriented Beliefs (AOB), and Outcomes-Oriented Beliefs (OOB). These were then correlated with the mothers’ socio-demographic factors (age, educational attainment, the area of residence, the number of children, and family income) and their compliance to the measles vaccination schedule. Results showed significant and direct relationships between area of residence and compliance, family income and compliance, KOB and compliance, education and KOB, KOB and VOB, KOB and OOB, AOB and KOB, AOB and OOB, AOB and VOB, and lastly, OOB and VOB. Conclusion: The Knowledge – Oriented Belief dimension greatly influence compliance to measles vaccination. Other determinants of compliance like the area of residence, educational attainment, and family income significantly increase the Filipino mothers’ likelihood of compliance to measles vaccination, which have implications to health education.

Keywords: socio-demographic, health beliefs, compliance, measles vaccination

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662 Knowledge, Attitude and Compliance of Secondary School Students Towards School Discipline Policy in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: S. Yakubu, E. A. Isah


One of the objectives of the school discipline policy is to instill discipline among students. However, despite the availability of this policy in various secondary schools in Nigeria, there seem to be numerous cases of indiscipline among students, which has become a source of concern to all stakeholders in the education sector. In an attempt to proffer possible solutions to this unending challenge, the study investigated the influence of knowledge and attitude on compliance of secondary school students towards school discipline policy in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey research design was employed to collect the requisite data. The multi-stage sampling procedure was adopted to select 570 respondents as the sample for the study. The data collected were analyzed using statistical measures of Mean, Standard deviation and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The findings of the study showed that knowledge and compliance of school discipline policy among secondary school students in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State were significantly related (r =0.330, p<0.05). The study also revealed a significant relationship between attitude and compliance of school discipline policy among secondary school students in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State (r = 0.593, p<0.05). Based on the findings, it was recommended that school rules and regulations should be emphasized and given more awareness for easy compliance. Also, students should be encouraged to portray a positive attitude towards their respective rules and regulations.

Keywords: knowledge, attitude, compliance, school discipline policy

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661 The Introduction of a Tourniquet Checklist to Identify and Record Tourniquet Related Complications

Authors: Akash Soogumbur


Tourniquets are commonly used in orthopaedic surgery to provide hemostasis during procedures on the upper and lower limbs. However, there is a risk of complications associated with tourniquet use, such as nerve damage, skin necrosis, and compartment syndrome. The British Orthopaedic Association (BOAST) guidelines recommend the use of tourniquets at a pressure of 300 mmHg or less for a maximum of 2 hours. Research Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a tourniquet checklist in improving compliance with the BOAST guidelines. Methodology: This was a retrospective study of all orthopaedic procedures performed at a single institution over a 12-month period. The study population included patients who had a tourniquet applied during surgery. Data were collected from the patients' medical records, including the duration of tourniquet use, the pressure used, and the method of exsanguination. Findings: The results showed that the use of the tourniquet checklist significantly improved compliance with the BOAST guidelines. Prior to the introduction of the checklist, compliance with the guidelines was 83% for the duration of tourniquet use and 73% for pressure used. After the introduction of the checklist, compliance increased to 100% for both duration of tourniquet use and pressure used. Theoretical Importance: The findings of this study suggest that the use of a tourniquet checklist can be an effective way to improve compliance with the BOAST guidelines. This is important because it can help to reduce the risk of complications associated with tourniquet use. Data Collection: Data were collected from the patients' medical records. The data included the following information: Patient demographics, procedure performed, duration of tourniquet use, pressure used, method of exsanguination. Analysis Procedures: The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The compliance with the BOAST guidelines was calculated as the percentage of patients who met the guidelines for the duration of tourniquet use and pressure used. Question Addressed: The question addressed by this study was whether the use of a tourniquet checklist could improve compliance with the BOAST guidelines. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the use of a tourniquet checklist can be an effective way to improve compliance with the BOAST guidelines. This is important because it can help to reduce the risk of complications associated with tourniquet use.

Keywords: tourniquet, pressure, duration, complications, surgery

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660 Current Environmental Accounting Disclosure Requirements and Compliance by Nigerian Oil Companies

Authors: Amina Jibrin Ahmed


The environment is mankind's natural habitat. Industrial activities over time have taken their toll on it in the form of deterioration and degradation. The petroleum industry is particularly notorious for its negative impact on its host environments. The realization that this poses a threat to sustainability led to the increased awareness and subsequent recognition of the importance of environmental disclosure in financial statements. This paper examines the laws and regulations put in place by the Nigerian Government to mitigate this impact, and the level of compliance by Shell Nigeria, the pioneer and largest oil company in the country. Based on the disclosure made, this paper finds there is indeed a high level of compliance by that company, and voluntary disclosure moreover.

Keywords: environmental accounting, legitimacy theory, environmental impact assessment, environmental disclosure, host communities

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659 Strategies to Enhance Compliance of Health and Safety Standards at the Selected Mining Industries in Limpopo Province, South Africa: Occupational Health Nurse’s Perspective

Authors: Livhuwani Muthelo


The health and safety of the miners in the South African mining industry are guided by the regulations and standards which are anticipated to promote a healthy work environment and fatalities. It is of utmost importance for the miners to comply with these regulations/standards to protect themselves from potential occupational health and safety risks, accidents, and fatalities. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate strategies to enhance compliance with the Health and safety standards within the mining industries of Limpopo province in South Africa. A mixed-method exploratory sequential research design was adopted. The population consisted of 5350 miners. Purposive sampling was used to select the participants in the qualitative strand and stratified random sampling in the quantitative strand. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among the occupational health nurse practitioners and the health and safety team. Thematic analysis was used to generate an understanding of the interviews. In the quantitative strand, a survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analysed using SPSS version 26.0. A descriptive statistical test was used in the analysis of data including frequencies, means, and standard deviation. Cronbach's alpha test was used to measure internal consistency. The integrated results revealed that there are diverse experiences related to health and safety standards compliance among the mineworkers. The main findings were challenges related to leadership compliance and also related to the cost of maintaining safety, Miner's behavior-related challenges; the impact of non-compliance on the overall health of the miners was also described, the conflict between production and safety. Health and safety compliance is not just mere compliance with regulations and standards but a culture that warrants the miners and organization to take responsibility for their behavior and actions towards health and safety. Thus taking responsibility for your well-being and other miners.

Keywords: perceptions, compliance, health and safety, legislation, standards, miners

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658 Safety Management and Occupational Injuries Assessing the Mediating Role of Safety Compliance: Downstream Oil and Gas Industry of Malaysia

Authors: Muhammad Ajmal, Ahmad Shahrul Nizam Bin Isha, Shahrina Md. Nordin, Paras Behrani, Al-Baraa Abdulrahman Al-Mekhlafi


This study aims to investigate the impact of safety management practices via safety compliance on occupational injuries in the context of downstream the oil and gas industry of Malaysia. However, it is still challenging for researchers and academicians to control occupational injuries in high-safety-sensitive organizations. In this study response rate was 62%, and 280 valid responses were used for analysis through SmartPLS. The study results revealed that safety management practices (management commitment, safety training, safety promotion policies, workers’ involvement) play a significant role in lowering the rate of accidents in downstream the oil and gas industry via safety compliance. Furthermore, the study results also revealed that safety management practices also reduce safety management costs of organizations, e.g., lost work days and employee absenteeism. Moreover, this study is helpful for safety leaders and managers to understand the importance of safety management practices to lower the ratio of occupational injuries.

Keywords: safety management, safety compliance, occupational injuries, oil and gas, Malaysia

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657 Governance, Risk Management, and Compliance Factors Influencing the Adoption of Cloud Computing in Australia

Authors: Tim Nedyalkov


A business decision to move to the cloud brings fundamental changes in how an organization develops and delivers its Information Technology solutions. The accelerated pace of digital transformation across businesses and government agencies increases the reliance on cloud-based services. They are collecting, managing, and retaining large amounts of data in cloud environments makes information security and data privacy protection essential. It becomes even more important to understand what key factors drive successful cloud adoption following the commencement of the Privacy Amendment Notifiable Data Breaches (NDB) Act 2017 in Australia as the regulatory changes impact many organizations and industries. This quantitative correlational research investigated the governance, risk management, and compliance factors contributing to cloud security success. The factors influence the adoption of cloud computing within an organizational context after the commencement of the NDB scheme. The results and findings demonstrated that corporate information security policies, data storage location, management understanding of data governance responsibilities, and regular compliance assessments are the factors influencing cloud computing adoption. The research has implications for organizations, future researchers, practitioners, policymakers, and cloud computing providers to meet the rapidly changing regulatory and compliance requirements.

Keywords: cloud compliance, cloud security, data governance, privacy protection

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656 Compliance with the Health and Safety Standards/Regulations in the South African Mining Industry: A Literature Review

Authors: Livhuwani Muthelo, Tebogo Maria Mothiba, Rambelani Nancy Malema


Background: Despite occupational legislation/standards being in place in the industry, there are many reported health and safety incidents, including both occupational injuries and illnesses in the South African mining industry. Purpose: This systematic literature review aimed to describe and identify the existing gaps in health and safety compliance within the South African mining industry and propose future research areas. Methodology: A systematic literature review was conducted using the key concepts of health and safety, compliance, standards, and mining. A total of 102 papers issued from 1994 to April 2020 were extracted from an online database search, which included a combination of South African and international government OHS legislation documents, policies, standards, reports from the mineral departments and international labour office, qualitative and quantitative journal articles, dissertations, seminars and conference proceedings. Results: The literature review revealed that, though there are laws, regulations, standards to guide the industry on health and safety issues in South Africa, the main challenge is with the compliance with the existing health and safety systems, wherein systems are not being implemented. Conclusion: Gaps between research, policy, and implementation in occupational health practice in the South African mining industry were also identified.

Keywords: circumstances, non-compliance, health and safety, standards, mining industry

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655 Investigating the Behavior of Individual Business Taxpayers: Behavioral Economics Approach

Authors: Yeganeh Mousavi Jahromi, Sahar Dehghan


In Direct Tax Act, penalties and incentives are two strategies for realization of the expected tax revenues. In this study, the interaction between individual businesses' taxpayers' behaviors and National Tax Administration is investigated by using prospect theory which is based on behavioral economics approach. For this purpose, the structure of the tax compliance of the mentioned taxpayers is evaluated via the changes in penalty and incentive rates. In this way, a special questionnaire regarding the items of individual businesses sector of Direct Tax Act was designed for tax compliance evaluation, and the results were obtained using Bayesian Hierarchical method. The results indicate that the investigated individual business taxpayers, at all income levels, were more sensitive toward incentive rates so that this result can be useful for tax policymakers.

Keywords: behavioral economics, prospect theory, tax compliance, penalties, incentives

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654 Identifying the Determinants of Compliance with Maritime Environmental Legislation in the North and Baltic Sea Area: A Model Developed from Exploratory Qualitative Data Collection

Authors: Thea Freese, Michael Gille, Andrew Hursthouse, John Struthers


Ship operators on the North and Baltic Sea have been experiencing increased political interest in marine environmental protection and cleaner vessel operations. Stricter legislation on SO2 and NOx emissions, ballast water management and other measures of protection are currently being phased in or will come into force in the coming years. These measures benefit the health of the marine environment, while increasing company’s operational costs. In times of excess shipping capacity and linked consolidation in the industry non-compliance with environmental rules is one way companies might hope to stay competitive with both intra- and inter-modal trade. Around 5-15% of industry participants are believed to neglect laws on vessel-source pollution willingly or unwillingly. Exploratory in-depth interviews conducted with 12 experts from various stakeholder groups informed the researchers about variables influencing compliance levels, including awareness and apprehension, willingness to comply, ability to comply and effectiveness of controls. Semi-structured expert interviews were evaluated using qualitative content analysis. A model of determinants of compliance was developed and is presented here. While most vessel operators endeavour to achieve full compliance with environmental rules, a lack of availability of technical solutions, expediency of implementation and operation and economic feasibility might prove a hindrance. Ineffective control systems on the other hand foster willing non-compliance. With respect to motivations, lacking time, lacking financials and the absence of commercial advantages decrease compliance levels. These and other variables were inductively developed from qualitative data and integrated into a model on environmental compliance. The outcomes presented here form part of a wider research project on economic effects of maritime environmental legislation. Research on determinants of compliance might inform policy-makers about actual behavioural effects of shipping companies and might further the development of a comprehensive legal system for environmental protection.

Keywords: compliance, marine environmental protection, exploratory qualitative research study, clean vessel operations, North and Baltic Sea area

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653 Application of Non-Smoking Areas in Hospitals

Authors: Nur Inayah Ismaniar, Sukri Palutturi, Ansariadi, Atjo Wahyu


Background: In various countries in the world, the problem of smoking is now considered something serious because of the effects of smoking which can not only lead to addiction but also have the potential to harm health. Public health authorities have concluded that one solution that can be done to protect the public from active smokers is to issue a policy that requires public facilities to be completely smoke-free. The hospital is one of the public facilities that has been designated as a smoke-free area. However, the implementation and maintenance of a successful program based on a smoke-free hospital are still considered an ongoing challenge worldwide due to the very low level of adherence. The low level of compliance with this smoke-free policy is also seen in other public facilities. The purpose of the literature review is to review the level of compliance with the application of the Non-Smoking Area policy, how this policy has succeeded in reducing smoking activity in hospitals, and what factors lead to such compliance in each country in the world. Methods: A literature review of articles was carried out on all types of research methods, both qualitative and quantitative. The sample is all subjects who are in the research location, which includes patients, staff and hospital visitors. Results: Various variations in the level of compliance were found in various kinds of literature. The literature with the highest level of compliance is 88.4%. Furthermore, several determinants that are known to affect the compliance of the Non-Smoking Area policies in hospitals include communication, information, knowledge, perceptions, interventions, attitudes and support. Obstacles to its enforcement are the absence of sanctions against violators of the Non-Smoking Area policy, the ineffectiveness of the function of policymakers in hospitals, and negative perceptions of smoking related to mental health. Conclusion: Violations of the Non-Smoking Area policy are often committed by the hospital staff themselves, which makes it difficult for this policy to be fully enforced at various points in the hospital.

Keywords: health policy, non-smoking area, hospital, implementation

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652 Identifying the Determinants of the Shariah Non-Compliance Risk via Principal Axis Factoring

Authors: Muhammad Arzim Naim, Saiful Azhar Rosly, Mohamad Sahari Nordin


The objective of this study is to investigate the factors affecting the rise of Shariah non-compliance risk that can bring Islamic banks to succumb to monetary loss. Prior literatures have never analyzed such risk in details despite lots of it arguing on the validity of some Shariah compliance products. The Shariah non-compliance risk in this context is looking to the potentially failure of the facility to stand from the court test say that if the banks bring it to the court for compensation from the defaulted clients. The risk may also arise if the customers refuse to make the financing payments on the grounds of the validity of the contracts, for example, when relinquishing critical requirement of Islamic contract such as ownership, the risk that may lead the banks to suffer loss when the customer invalidate the contract through the court. The impact of Shariah non-compliance risk to Islamic banks is similar to that of legal risks faced by the conventional banks. Both resulted into monetary losses to the banks respectively. In conventional banking environment, losses can be in the forms of summons paid to the customers if they won the case. In banking environment, this normally can be in very huge amount. However, it is right to mention that for Islamic banks, the subsequent impact to them can be rigorously big because it will affect their reputation. If the customers do not perceive them to be Shariah compliant, they will take their money and bank it in other places. This paper provides new insights of risks faced by credit intensive Islamic banks by providing a new extension of knowledge with regards to the Shariah non-compliance risk by identifying its individual components that directly affecting the risk together with empirical evidences. Not limited to the Islamic banking fraternities, the regulators and policy makers should be able to use findings in this paper to evaluate the components of the Shariah non-compliance risk and make the necessary actions. The paper is written based on Malaysia’s Islamic banking practices which may not directly related to other jurisdictions. Even though the focuses of this study is directly towards to the Bay Bithaman Ajil or popularly known as BBA (i.e. sale with deferred payments) financing modality, the result from this study may be applicable to other Islamic financing vehicles.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Islamic finance, Shariah Non-compliance risk, Bay Bithaman Ajil (BBA), principal axis factoring

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651 Variation of the Dynamic Characteristics of a Spindle with the Change of Bearing Preload

Authors: Shinji Oouchi, Hajime Nomura, Kung-Da Wu, Jui-Pin Hung


This paper presents the variation of the dynamic characteristics of a spindle with the change of bearing preload. The correlations between the variation of bearing preload and fundamental modal parameters were first examined by conducting vibration tests on physical spindle units. Experimental measurements show that the dynamic compliance and damping ratio associated with the dominating modes were affected to vary with variation of the bearing preload. When the bearing preload was slightly deviated from a standard value, the modal frequency and damping ability also vary to different extent, which further enable the spindle to perform with different compliance. For the spindle used in this study, a standard preload value set on bearings would enable the spindle to behave a higher stiffness as compared with others with a preload variation. This characteristic can be served as a reference to examine the variation of bearing preload of spindle in assemblage or operation.

Keywords: dynamic compliance, bearing preload, modal damping, standard preload

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650 Managing Uncertainty in Unmanned Aircraft System Safety Performance Requirements Compliance Process

Authors: Achim Washington, Reece Clothier, Jose Silva


System Safety Regulations (SSR) are a central component to the airworthiness certification of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). There is significant debate on the setting of appropriate SSR for UAS. Putting this debate aside, the challenge lies in how to apply the system safety process to UAS, which lacks the data and operational heritage of conventionally piloted aircraft. The limited knowledge and lack of operational data result in uncertainty in the system safety assessment of UAS. This uncertainty can lead to incorrect compliance findings and the potential certification and operation of UAS that do not meet minimum safety performance requirements. The existing system safety assessment and compliance processes, as used for conventional piloted aviation, do not adequately account for the uncertainty, limiting the suitability of its application to UAS. This paper discusses the challenges of undertaking system safety assessments for UAS and presents current and envisaged research towards addressing these challenges. It aims to highlight the main advantages associated with adopting a risk based framework to the System Safety Performance Requirement (SSPR) compliance process that is capable of taking the uncertainty associated with each of the outputs of the system safety assessment process into consideration. Based on this study, it is made clear that developing a framework tailored to UAS, would allow for a more rational, transparent and systematic approach to decision making. This would reduce the need for conservative assumptions and take the risk posed by each UAS into consideration while determining its state of compliance to the SSR.

Keywords: Part 1309 regulations, risk models, uncertainty, unmanned aircraft systems

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