Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 62

Search results for: moderation

62 The Relationship between Interpersonal Relationship and the Subjective Well-Being of Chinese Primary and Secondary Teachers: A Mediated Moderation Model

Authors: Xuling Zhang, Yong Wang, Xingyun Liu, Shuangxue Xu

Abstract:

Based on positive psychology, this study presented a mediated moderation model in which character strengths moderated the relationship between interpersonal relationship, job satisfaction and subjective well-being, with job satisfaction taking the mediation role among them. A total of 912 teachers participated in four surveys, which include the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, Values in Action Inventory of Strengths, job satisfaction questionnaire, and the interpersonal relationship questionnaire. The results indicated that: (1) Taking interpersonal relationship as a typical work environmental variable, the result shows that it is significantly correlated to subjective well-being. (2) The character strengths of "kindness", “authenticity” moderated the effect of the teachers’ interpersonal relationship on subjective well-being. (3) The teachers’ job satisfaction mediated the above mentioned moderation effects. In general, this study shows that the teachers’ interpersonal relationship affects their subjective well-being, with their job satisfaction as mediation and character strengths of “kindness” and “authenticity” as moderation. The managerial implications were also discussed.

Keywords: character strength, subjective well-being, job satisfaction, interpersonal relationship

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61 Mindfulness, Reinvestment, and Rowing under Pressure: Evidence for Moderated Moderation of the Anxiety-Performance Relationship

Authors: Katherine Sparks, Christopher Ring

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This study aimed to investigate whether dispositional sport-specific mindfulness moderated the moderation effect of conscious processing on the relationship between anxiety and rowing race performance. Using a sport-specific (Rowing-Specific) Reinvestment Scale (RSRS) to measure state conscious processing, we examined the effects of trait sport-related mindfulness on the conscious processes of rowers under competitive racing pressure at a number of UK regattas. 276 rowers completed a survey post competitive race. The survey included the RSRS, mindfulness, a perceived performance rating scale, demographic and race information to identify and record the rower’s actual race performance. Results from the research demonstrated that high levels of dispositional mindfulness are associated with a superior performance under pressure. In relation to the moderating moderation effect, conscious processing amplifies the detrimental effects of anxiety on performance. However, mindfulness, mindful awareness, and mindful non-judgement all proved to attenuate this amplification effect by moderating the conscious processing moderation on the anxiety-performance relationship. Therefore, this study provides initial support for the speculation that dispositional mindfulness can help prevent the deleterious effects of rowing-specific reinvestment under pressure.

Keywords: mindful, reinvestment, under pressure, performance, rowing

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
60 The Moderation Effect of Critical Item on the Strategic Purchasing: Quality Performance Relationship

Authors: Kwong Yeung

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Theories about strategic purchasing and quality performance are underdeveloped. Understanding the evolving role of purchasing from reactive to proactive is a pressing strategic issue. Using survey responses from 176 manufacturing and electronics industry professionals, we study the relationships between strategic purchasing and supply chain partners’ quality performance to answer the following questions: Can transaction cost economics be used to elucidate the strategic purchasing-quality performance relationship? Is this strategic purchasing-quality performance relationship moderated by critical item analysis? The findings indicate that critical item analysis positively and significantly moderates the strategic purchasing-quality performance relationship.

Keywords: critical item analysis, moderation, quality performance, strategic purchasing, transaction cost economics

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59 Impact of Job Burnout on Job Satisfaction and Job Performance of Front Line Employees in Bank: Moderating Role of Hope and Self-Efficacy

Authors: Huma Khan, Faiza Akhtar

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The present study investigates the effects of burnout toward job performance and job satisfaction with the moderating role of hope and self-efficacy. Findings from 310 frontline employees of Pakistani commercial banks (Lahore, Karachi & Islamabad) disclosed burnout has negative significant effects on job performance and job satisfaction. Simple random sampling technique was used to collect data and inferential statistics were applied to analyzed the data. However, results disclosed no moderation effect of hope on burnout, job performance or with job satisfaction. Moreover, Data significantly supported the moderation effect of self-efficacy. Study further shed light on the development of psychological capital. Importance of the implication of the current finding is discussed.

Keywords: burnout, hope, job performance, job satisfaction, psychological capital, self-efficacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
58 Business Model Innovation and Firm Performance: Exploring Moderation Effects

Authors: Mohammad-Ali Latifi, Harry Bouwman

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Changes in the business environment accelerated dramatically over the last decades as a result of changes in technology, regulation, market, and competitors’ behavior. Firms need to change the way they do business in order to survive or maintain their growth. Innovating business model (BM) can create competitive advantages and enhance firm performance. However, many companies fail to achieve expected outcomes in practice, mostly due to irreversible fundamental changes in key components of the company’s BM. This leads to more ambiguity, uncertainty, and risks associated with business performance. However, the relationship among BM Innovation, moderating factors, and the firm’s overall performance is by and large ignored in the current literature. In this study, we identified twenty moderating factors from our comprehensive literature review. We categorized these factors based on two criteria regarding the extent to which: the moderating factors can be controlled and managed by firms, and they are generic or specific changes to the firms. This leads to four moderation groups. The first group is BM implementation, which includes management support, employees’ commitment, employees’ skills, communication, detailed plan. The second group is called BM practices, which consists of BM tooling, BM experimentation, the scope of change, speed of change, degree of novelty. The third group is Firm characteristics, including firm size, age, and ownership. The last group is called Industry characteristics, which considers the industry sector, competitive intensity, industry life cycle, environmental dynamism, high-tech vs. low-tech industry. Through collecting data from 508 European small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and using the structural equation modeling technique, the developed moderation model was examined. Results revealed that all factors highlighted through these four groups moderate the relation between BMI and firm performance significantly. Particularly, factors related to BM-Implementation and BM-Practices are more manageable and would potentially improve firm overall performance. We believe that this result is more important for researchers and practitioners since the possibility of working on factors in Firm characteristics and Industry characteristics groups are limited, and the firm can hardly control and manage them to improve the performance of BMI efforts.

Keywords: business model innovation, firm performance, implementation, moderation

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57 On-Line Impulse Buying and Cognitive Dissonance: The Moderating Role of the Positive Affective State

Authors: G. Mattia, A. Di Leo, L. Principato

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The purchase impulsiveness is preceded by a lack of self-control: consequently, it is legitimate to believe that a consumer with a low level of self-control can result in a higher probability of cognitive dissonance. Moreover, the process of purchase is influenced by the pre-existing affective state in a considerable way. With reference to on-line purchases, digital behavior cannot be merely ascribed to the rational sphere, given the speed and ease of transactions and the hedonistic dimension of purchases. To our knowledge, this research is among the first cases of verification of the effect of moderation exerted by the positive affective state in the on-line impulse purchase of products with a high expressive value such as a smartphone on the occurrence of cognitive dissonance. To this aim, a moderation analysis was conducted on a sample of 212 impulsive millennials buyers. Three scales were adopted to measure the constructs of interest: IBTS for impulsivity, PANAS for the affective state, Sweeney for cognitive dissonance. The analysis revealed that positive affective state does not affect the onset of cognitive dissonance.

Keywords: cognitive dissonance, impulsive buying, online shopping, online consumer behavior

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56 The Association between Facebook Emotional Dependency with Psychological Well-Being in Eudaimonic Approach among Adolescents 13-16 Years Old

Authors: Somayyeh Naeemi, Ezhar Tamam

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In most of the countries, Facebook allocated high rank of usage among other social network sites. Several studies have examined the effect of Facebook intensity on individuals’ psychological well-being. However, few studies have investigated its effect on eudaimonic well-being. The current study explored how emotional dependency to Facebook relates to psychological well-being in terms of eudaimonic well-being. The number of 402 adolescents 13-16 years old who studied in upper secondary school in Malaysia participated in this study. It was expected to find out a negative association between emotional dependency to Facebook and time spent on Facebook and psychological well-being. It also was examined the moderation effects of self-efficacy on psychological well-being. The results by Structural Equation Modeling revealed that emotional dependency to Facebook has a negative effect on adolescents’ psychological well-being. Surprisingly self-efficacy did not have moderation effect on the relationship between emotional dependency to Facebook and psychological well-being. Lastly, the emotional dependency to Facebook and not the time spent on Facebook lessen adolescents’ psychological well-being, suggesting the value of investigating Facebook usage among college students in future studies.

Keywords: emotional dependency to facebook, psychological well-being, eudaimonic well-being, self-efficacy, adolescent

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55 The Effects of Anthropomorphism on Complex Technological Innovations

Authors: Chyi Jaw

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Many companies have suffered as a result of consumers’ rejection of complex new products and experienced huge losses in the market. Marketers have to understand what block from new technology adoption or positive product attitude may exist in the market. This research examines the effects of techno-complexity and anthropomorphism on consumer psychology and product attitude when new technologies are introduced to the market. This study conducted a pretest and a 2 x 2 between-subjects experiment. Four simulated experimental web pages were constructed to collect data. The empirical analysis tested the moderation-mediation relationships among techno-complexity, technology anxiety, ability, and product attitude. These empirical results indicate (1) Techno-complexity of an innovation is negatively related to consumers’ product attitude, as well as increases consumers’ technology anxiety and reduces their self-ability perception. (2) Consumers’ technology anxiety and ability perception towards an innovation completely mediate the relationship between techno-complexity and product attitude. (3) Product anthropomorphism is positively related to consumers’ attitude of new technology, and also significantly moderates the effect of techno-complexity in the hypothesized model. In this work, the study presents the moderation-mediation model and the effects of anthropomorphized strategy, which describes how managers can better predict and influence the diffusion of complex technological innovations.

Keywords: ability, anthropomorphic effect, innovation, techno-complexity, technology anxiety

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54 A Study on the Effect of the Work-Family Conflict on Work Engagement: A Mediated Moderation Model of Emotional Exhaustion and Positive Psychology Capital

Authors: Sungeun Hyun, Sooin Lee, Gyewan Moon

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Work-Family Conflict has been an active research area for the past decades. Work-Family Conflict harms individuals and organizations, it is ultimately expected to bring the cost of losses to the company in the long run. WFC has mainly focused on effects of organizational effectiveness and job attitude such as Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover Intention variables. This study is different from consequence variable with previous research. For this purpose, we selected the positive job attitude 'Work Engagement' as a consequence of WFC. This research has its primary research purpose in identifying the negative effects of the Work-Family Conflict, and started out from the recognition of the problem that the research on the direct relationship on the influence of the WFC on Work Engagement is lacking. Based on the COR(Conservation of resource theory) and JD-R(Job Demand- Resource model), the empirical study model to examine the negative effects of WFC with Emotional Exhaustion as the link between WFC and Work Engagement was suggested and validated. Also, it was analyzed how much Positive Psychological Capital may buffer the negative effects arising from WFC within this relationship, and the Mediated Moderation model controlling the indirect effect influencing the Work Engagement by the Positive Psychological Capital mediated by the WFC and Emotional Exhaustion was verified. Data was collected by using questionnaires distributed to 500 employees engaged manufacturing, services, finance, IT industry, education services, and other sectors, of which 389 were used in the statistical analysis. The data are analyzed by statistical package, SPSS 21.0, SPSS macro and AMOS 21.0. The hierarchical regression analysis, SPSS PROCESS macro and Bootstrapping method for hypothesis testing were conducted. Results showed that all hypotheses are supported. First, WFC showed a negative effect on Work Engagement. Specifically, WIF appeared to be on more negative effects than FIW. Second, Emotional exhaustion found to mediate the relationship between WFC and Work Engagement. Third, Positive Psychological Capital showed to moderate the relationship between WFC and Emotional Exhaustion. Fourth, the effect of mediated moderation through the integration verification, Positive Psychological Capital demonstrated to buffer the relationship among WFC, Emotional Exhastion, and Work Engagement. Also, WIF showed a more negative effects than FIW through verification of all hypotheses. Finally, we discussed the theoretical and practical implications on research and management of the WFC, and proposed limitations and future research directions of research.

Keywords: emotional exhaustion, positive psychological capital, work engagement, work-family conflict

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53 Examining the Mediating and Moderating Role of Relationships in the Association between Poverty and Children’s Subjective Well-Being

Authors: Esther Yin-Nei Cho

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There is inconsistency among studies about whether there is an association between poverty and the subjective wellbeing of children. Some have found a positive association, though its magnitude could be limited, others have shown no association. One possible explanation for this inconsistency is that household income, an often-adopted measure of child poverty, may not accurately and stably reflect the actual life experience of children. Some studies have suggested, however, that material deprivation covering various dimensions of children’s lives could be a better measure of child poverty. Another possible explanation for the inconsistency is that the link between poverty and subjective wellbeing of children may not be that straightforward, as there could be underlying mechanisms, such as mediation and moderation, influencing its direction or strength. While a mediator refers to the mechanism through which an independent variable affects a dependent variable, a moderator changes the direction or strength of the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable. As suggested by empirical evidence, family relationships and friendships could be potential mediators or moderators of the link between poverty and subjective well-being: poverty affects relationships; relationships are an important element in children’s subjective well-being; and economic status affects child outcomes, though not necessarily subjective wellbeing, through relationships. Since the potential links have not been adequately understood, this study fills this gap by examining the possible role of family relationships and friendships as mediators or moderators between poverty (using child-derived material deprivation as measure) and the subjective wellbeing of children. Improving subjective wellbeing is increasingly considered as a policy goal. The finding of no or a limited association between poverty and subjective wellbeing of children could be a justification for less effort to improve poverty in this regard. But if the observed magnitude of that association is due to some underlying mechanisms at work, the effect of poverty may be underestimated and the potentially useful strategies that take into account both poverty and other mediators or moderators for improving children’s subjective well-being may be overlooked. Multiple mediation, and multiple moderation models, based on regression analyses, are performed to a sample of approximately 1,600 children, who are aged 10 to 15, from the wellbeing survey conducted by The Children’s Society in England from 2010 to 2011. Results show that the effect of children’s material deprivation on their subjective well-being is mediated by their family relationships and friendships. Moreover, family relationships are a significant moderator. It is found that the negative impact of child deprivation on subjective wellbeing could be exacerbated if family relationships are not going well, while good family relationships may prevent the further decline in subjective well-being. Policy implications of the findings are discussed. In particular, policy measures that focus on strengthening the family relationships or nurturing home environment through supporting household’s economic security and parental time with children could promote the subjective wellbeing of children.

Keywords: child poverty, mediation, moderation, subjective well-being of children

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52 Relation Between Marital Adjustment and Parenting: The Moderating Effect of Children´s Temperament

Authors: Ester Ato, Maria Angeles Fernández-Vilar, Maria Dolores Galián

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The aim of this work was to analyze the relation between children´s effortful control, marital adjustment and parenting practices in a sample of 345 Spanish children aged between 6 and 8 years. Traditionally, the literature confirms that a higher level of marital conflict has been associated with less effective and less positive parenting, but there are few studies that include the effect that children´s effortful control exert to this relation. To measure marital adjustment, parenting practices and children’s temperament, parents were given the Marital Adjustment Test (MAT), the Spanish version of the PCRI (Parent-Child Relationship Inventory), and the TMCQ (Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire). The results confirmed that higher marital satisfaction predicted more positive parenting practices, whereas lower marital adjustment scores predicted less parenting support and control. Using a statistical modeling approach, we tested a moderation model that revealed the moderating role of effortful control in the relation between marital adjustment and parenting. Concretely, higher marital satisfaction predicts higher parenting communication and involvement, but only in children with low levels of effortful control. Therefore, a difficult temperament interferes in a less negative way in the family system when parents are satisfied and united. And a better self-regulated child predicts more effective parenting practice regardless of the parents´ marital satisfaction. The clinical implications of the present findings should be considered. Specifically, difficult children must be detected and evaluated in community settings, such as school or community programs, in order to take into account the marital adjustment and parenting practices of their parents, and to be able to design adequate family interventions and prevent future pathologizing patterns.

Keywords: effortful control, marital adjustment, parenting, moderation

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51 The Moderating Effect of Pathological Narcissism in the Relationship between Victim Justice Sensitivity and Anger Rumination

Authors: Isil Coklar-Okutkan, Miray Akyunus

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Victim sensitivity is a form of justice sensitivity that reflects the tendency to perceive injustice to one’s disadvantage. Victim sensitivity is considered as a dysfunctional trait that predicts anger, aggression, uncooperative behavior, depression and anxiety. Indeed, exploring the mechanism of association between victim sensitivity and anger is clinically important since it can lead to externalizing and internalizing problems. This study aims to investigate the moderating role of pathological narcissism in the relationship between victim sensitivity and anger rumination. Through testing different models where subtypes of narcissism and anger rumination components are included independently, the specific mechanism of different ruminative processes in anger is investigated. The sample consisted of 311 undergraduate students from Turkey, 107 of whom were males, and 204 were females. Participants completed Justice Sensitivity Inventory-Victim Subscale, Pathological Narcissism Inventory and Anger Rumination Scale. In the proposed double moderation model, vulnerable and grandiose narcissism was the moderators in the relationship between victim justice sensitivity and anger rumination. Four separate models were tested where one of the four components of anger rumination (angry afterthoughts, thoughts of revenge, angry memories, understanding of causes) were the dependent variable in each model. Results revealed that two of the moderation models are significant. Firstly, grandiose narcissism is the only moderator in the relationship between victim sensitivity and thoughts of revenge. Secondly, vulnerable narcissism is the only moderator in the relationship between victim sensitivity and understanding causes. Accordingly, grandiose narcissism is positively associated with the thoughts of revenge, and vulnerable narcissism is positively associated with understanding causes, only when the level of victim sensitivity is high. To summarize, increased victim sensitivity leads to ruminative thoughts of revenge in individuals with grandiose narcissism, whereas it leads to rumination on causes of the incident in individuals with vulnerable narcissism. The clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

Keywords: anger rumination, victim sensitivity, grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism

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50 Eating Constitutes Human Dignity: A Metaphysical Anthropology Perspective

Authors: Sri Poedjiastoeti

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One of the traits of living beings is eating. As the living beings, people must provide their life by taking material. They must assimilate for themselves with substances. They grow and develop themselves by changing what they eat and digest into their own substance. This happened in the so-called eating. This article aims to analyze distinction between human beings and other infrahumans when facing and eating food. It uses the analytical description with metaphysical anthropology approach. As a result, to give the expression that eating is not simply to put food in mouth, chew and swallow it. Eating constitutes a sacred ceremonial if it is done in accordance with human dignity. They face food with distance and moderation as well as civilize or make their behaviour better for it. Accordingly, they are being to be human.

Keywords: human beings, behaviour, eating, dignity

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49 The Enlightenment Project in the Arab World: Saudi Arabia as a Case Study in Modern Islamic Thought

Authors: Khawla Almulla

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It is noticed that many Arab intellectuals have called to the need and the importance of enlightenment and its application in their communities, such as Saudi Arabia. To every Islamic state, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia represents a strategic cornerstone, since it is considered the cradle of Islam. It is the Land of the Two Holy Mosques: the Holy Mosque in Makkah surrounding the Kaaba, towards which all Muslims around the world turn while performing daily prayers and even travel to if possible in order to perform the Hajj (Pilgrimage). It also has the Prophet'ـ‘s Holy Mosque in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, which contains the tomb of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). Therefore, Saudi Arabia occupies an eminent position among Arab and Islamic countries on a religious level. Saudi Arabia has become the most influential country in the Arab world, since it has one-third of the oil resources outside Central Asia, China and Russia .It is the world’s largest producer and exporter of oil. Discovering oil in Saudi Arabia converted it from an important country for Muslims-only to an important country for the major industrial countries and also the developing countries, as well. For various reasons, the diversity of intellectual currents can play a significant role in each community by way of cultural improvement, the development of civilization and the education of people until they become accustomed to accepting or rejecting opinions or ideas which differ from or oppose their own. In addition, the intellectual pluralism and cultural diversity can play a variety of roles. This helps promote dialogue and understanding between different groups or schools of thought. It can also develop cognitive skills, by exchanging ideas and views between different schools and intellectual currents. However, in Saudi Arabia there is much to oppose this plurality. The situation today shows that having a variety of ideologies and differences of cultures are not considered a reasonable way to develop intellectually as an individual or as a country. Rather the opposite is recommended, such that the ideologies of different groups are enough to bring out intellectual conflict and then to the segregation of society. As a consequence, extremism of thought from the different currents in Saudi Arabia has become apparent. This research is of great importance in its exploration of two significant themes. First, it highlights the Saudi Arabian background, in particular the historical, religious and social contexts, in order to understand the background of each religious or liberal movement and find the core of the intellectual differences between them. In addition, the aim of this research is to show the importance of moderation in Islamic thought in Saudi Arabia by tracing the thoughts and views of Dr Salman Al-Odah, whom he has considered to be the most important moderate thinker in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, intellectual movements, religious movements, extremism, moderation, Salafism, liberalism, Salman Al-Odah

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48 Translation, Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Hungarian Version of Self- Determination Scale

Authors: E. E. Marschalko, K. Kalcza-Janosi, I. Kotta, B. Bibok

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Cultural moderation aspects have been highlighted in the literature on self-determination behavior in some cultures, including in the Hungarian population. There is a lack of validated instruments in Hungarian for the assessment of self-determination related behaviors. In order to fill in this gap, the aim of this study was the translation, cultural adaptation and validation of Self Determination Scale (Sheldon, 1995) for the Hungarian population. A total of 4335 adults participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 27.97 (SD=9.60). The sample consisted mostly from females, less than 20% were males. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed for adequacy checking. Cronbach’s alpha was used to examine the reliability of the factors. Our results revealed that the Hungarian version of SDS has good psychometric properties and it is a reliable tool for psychologist who would like to study or assess self-determination in their clients. The final, adapted and validated SDS items are presented in this paper.

Keywords: self-determination scale, Hungarian, adaptation, validation, reliability

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47 Distorted Digital Mediated Communication: An Analysis of the Effect of Smartphone on Family Communication in Nigeria

Authors: Peter E. Egielewa

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Communication through the smartphone connects people globally. However, since the last 10 years, there has been an increasing shift from the social engagement in the family to the digital mediated communication aided by the smartphone. The traditional family communication had largely been oral and relational, which the smartphone is now digitally mediating. The study employs mixed research method of quantitative and qualitative research design and deploys questionnaire to elicit responses from both parents and children of 50 purposively selected families from five villages in Southern Nigeria that are very active with smartphone use. Based on the Theory of Family Systems, preliminary findings show that the smartphone is becoming an addiction among Nigerian family members and has shifted the dynamics of family communication from relational to digital culture. The research concludes that smartphone use affects family communication negatively and recommends the moderation of smartphone use in the family and the search for alternative platforms for family communication that minimises smartphone addiction.

Keywords: digital, distorted communication, family, Nigeria, smartphone

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
46 Gender Moderates the Association Between Symbolization Trait (But Not Internalization Trait) and Smoking Behaviour

Authors: Kuay Hue San, Muaz Haqim Shaharum, Nasir Yusoff

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Gender plays a big role in psychosocial development. This study aimed to investigate whether gender moderates the relationship between moral identity (internalization and symbolization) and risk-smoking behavior. An online cross-sectional study was carried out on 388 (61% female) youths who fulfilled the study’s inclusion and exclusion criteria. While viewing images of smoking behavior, participants rated their emotional state, which ranged from unpleasant to pleasant. Participants were also asked to fill out the eight-item Moral Identity Scale and provide their socio-demographic information. Gender significantly moderated the relationship between symbolization and smoking behavior. However, the moderation effect was not shown by internalization Finding highlights the implication of gender on moral identity and smoking behavior and the importance of considering this in the public health intervention and program.

Keywords: smoking behaviour, gender, emotion, moral identity

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45 Authentic Leadership, Task Performance, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Authors: C. V. Chen, Y. H. Jeng, S. J. Wang

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Leadership is essential to enhancing followers’ psychological empowerment and has an effect on their willingness to take on extra-role behavior and aim for greater performance. Authentic leadership is confirmed to promote employees’ positive affect, psychological empowerment, well-being, and performance. Employees’ spontaneous undertaking of organizationally desired behaviors allows organizations’ gaining the edge in the fiercely competitive business environment. Apart from the contextual factor of leadership, individuals’ goal orientation is found to be highly related to his/her performance. To better understand the psychological process and potential moderation of personal goal orientation, this study investigates the effect of authentic leadership on employees’ task performance and organizational citizenship behavior by including psychological empowerment as the mediating factor and goal orientation as the moderating factor.

Keywords: authentic leadership, task performance, organizational citizenship behavior, goal orientation

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44 The Moderating Effects of Attachment Style on the Relationship between the Psychological Symptoms and Well-Being of Mental Health Practitioners in Rehabilitation Centers: A Preliminary Study

Authors: Amaba, Marinela C., Espino, Gianne Ericka S. J. Valencia, Zeia Beatriz C.

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This study aims to determine the moderating role of attachment style on the relationship between psychological symptoms and well-being of mental health practitioners in rehabilitation centers that are accredited of the Department of Health in Pampanga. Using the data gathered from 46 mental health practitioners, multiple regression models were conducted to test the main and moderating effects of attachment styles. The findings show that all three psychological symptoms namely depression, anxiety, and stress have main effects on their general well-being on a negative direction. However, attachment style did not moderate the relationship between the psychological symptoms and general well-being. On one hand, results about the relationship of psychological symptoms and well-being are consistent to previous findings of other studies while on the other hand, results in moderation were contradicting.

Keywords: attachment style, psychological symptoms, well-being, mental health practitioners, rehabilitation centers

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43 Moderation Effects of Legal Origin on Corruption and Corporate Performance

Authors: S. Sundarasen, I. Ibrahim

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This study examines whether the legal origin of a country alters the association between corruption and corporate performance in the East Asia and South East Asia Region. A total of 18,286 companies from 14 countries in the East Asia and South East Asia Region are tested using Generalized Least Square (GLS) panel and pool data analysis with the cross-section being the income level. The data is further analyzed in terms of high income, upper middle income and low-income countries within the East and South Asia region. The empirical results indicate that legal origin positively moderates the relationship between a country’s corruption level and firm performance. As for the sub-analysis, legal origin positively moderates only in the high and upper middle-income countries. As for the low-income countries, no significance is documented in both the common and civil law.

Keywords: corruption, performance, legal origin, East Asia and South East Asia Region

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42 Foreign Direct Investment and Its Impact on the Economic Growth of Emerging Economies: Does Ease of Doing Business Matter?

Authors: Mutaju Marobhe, Pastory Dickson

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This study explores the role of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in stimulating economic growth of emerging economies. FDIs have been associated with higher economic growth rates in developed countries due to the presence of conducive business conditions e.g. advanced financial markets which may accelerate the rate at which FDI boosts economic growth. So this study sets out to evaluate this macroeconomic phenomenon in emerging economies using the case study of Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) countries. The study uses Ease of Doing Business Index as a variable that moderates the relationship between FDI and economic growth. Panel data ranging from 2010 to 2019 from all SADC members are used and due to the unbalanced nature of the data, fixed effects regression analysis with moderation effect is used to assess this phenomenon. The conclusions and recommendations generated by this study will enable emerging economies to depict how they can be able to significantly improve FDI’s role in accelerating economic growth similarly to developed economies.

Keywords: ease of doing business, economic growth, emerging economies, foreign direct investment

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41 Gender Differences in the Prediction of Smartphone Use While Driving: Personal and Social Factors

Authors: Erez Kita, Gil Luria

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This study examines gender as a boundary condition for the relationship between the psychological variable of mindfulness and the social variable of income with regards to the use of smartphones by young drivers. The use of smartphones while driving increases the likelihood of a car accident, endangering young drivers and other road users. The study sample included 186 young drivers who were legally permitted to drive without supervision. The subjects were first asked to complete questionnaires on mindfulness and income. Next, their smartphone use while driving was monitored over a one-month period. This study is unique as it used an objective smartphone monitoring application (rather than self-reporting) to count the number of times the young participants actually touched their smartphones while driving. The findings show that gender moderates the effects of social and personal factors (i.e., income and mindfulness) on the use of smartphones while driving. The pattern of moderation was similar for both social and personal factors. For men, mindfulness and income are negatively associated with the use of smartphones while driving. These factors are not related to the use of smartphones by women drivers. Mindfulness and income can be used to identify male populations that are at risk of using smartphones while driving. Interventions that improve mindfulness can be used to reduce the use of smartphones by male drivers.

Keywords: mindfulness, using smartphones while driving, income, gender, young drivers

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40 A Longitudinal Study of Academic Achievement: Parental Warm Support and Moderating Role of Teacher’s Emotional Support and Mediating Role of Self Control on Academic Achievement

Authors: Maaza Saeed, Caina Li

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The current 2-wave longitudinal study attempts to illuminate the well-established association between parental warm support and academic achievement through the mediating role of self-control while taking into account the moderating role of teacher emotional support. The present research has assessed 2569 Chinese students (aged 10-18 years, M = 13.27, SD = 0.67). They were recruited from the three public middle schools in Xi’an, a middle-sized city in the central part of China. Meditation analysis revealed that self-control mediated the relationship between parental warm support and academic achievement. Additionally, it was found the direct effect of parental warm support was not significant after controlling for the age and gender. Furthermore, moderation analysis revealed high parental warm support and higher teacher emotional support was related to increased self-control compared to lower teacher emotion support. The findings highlighted the importance of parental warm support, teacher emotional support, and self-control on academic achievement.

Keywords: self control, academic achievement, teacher emotional support/conflict, adolescent

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39 Redefining of Islamic Unity based on Imam Khomeini Points of View

Authors: Mohammad Molavi, Mohsen Nourai

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The emancipation of the Muslim nation from the numerous problems and achieving to the decent position is one of the old desires of Muslim. Increasing efforts to realize this wish based on religious and rational teachings is the main goal for Muslim reformist. Almost all scholars relying on the Qur'an teaching emphasize on the significant role of Islamic Unity for the revival of Islamic civilization. But their methods for achieving to the Islamic Unity are not so clear. Generally speaking, failure to provide specific solutions, uncertainty in the face of universal literature in politics and governance, and etc. are some of the challenges facing the Islamic Unity.This paper via the descriptive-analytical method and by focusing on theoretical aspects of the subject has attempted to analyze Imam Khomeini points of view. Research findings show that there are several significant differences between Imam Khomeini's idea of Islamic Unity and ideas like 'Pan-Turkism', 'Pan-Arabism' and so on. Some of Imam Khomeini's principles in this regard are as follow: Strategic approach to unity, relying on juridical certain and systematic attitude, comprehensive approach, Holistic, rationality, and moderation. So, there is no any generality speaking or ambiguity in Khomeini's thought.

Keywords: Qur'an, Imam Khomeini, islamic unity, islamic nation, islamic political thought

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38 The Impact of Internal and External CSR on Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Performance: Mediation of Organizational Identification and Moderation of Ethical Leadership. A Cross-Cultural Study

Authors: Huma Sarwar, Muhammad Ishtiaq Ishaq, Junaid Aftab

Abstract:

The hospitality sector contributes significantly to the global economy but it is also responsible for imposing adverse influences both environmentally and socially. The objective of this research is two-fold: (1) examining the direct impact of internal CSR and external CSR and indirect impact via organizational identification on creative performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and (2) determining the moderating role of ethical leadership in the relationships of internal- and external- CSR with organizational identification in a cross-cultural context. The data was were collected using multi-respondents and time-lagged data from 260 Pakistani and 239 UK respondents working in upscale hotels of the United Kingdom and Pakistan. The results demonstrate significant differences in both cultures as external CSR has a more substantial impact on organizational identification in the UK, whereas organizational identification has a relatively stronger influence on OCB and creative performance in collectivistic culture (i.e., Pakistan). The findings also confirmed that ethical leadership significantly moderates the relationship of internal- and external - CSR on organizational identification.

Keywords: Huma Sarwar, Muhammad Ishtiaq Ishaq, Junaid Aftab

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37 The Effect of Job Insecurity on Attitude towards Change and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Moderating Role of Islamic Work Ethics

Authors: Khurram Shahzad, Muhammad Usman

Abstract:

The main aim of this study is to examine the direct and interactive effects of job insecurity and Islamic work ethics on employee’s attitude towards change and organizational citizenship behavior. Design/methodology/approach: The data was collected from 171 male and female university teachers of Pakistan. Self administered, close ended questionnaires were used to collect the data. Data was analyzed through correlation and regression analysis. Findings: Through the analysis of data, it was found that job insecurity has a strong negative effect on the attitude towards change of university teachers. On the contrary, job insecurity has no significant effect on organizational citizenship behavior of university teachers. Our results also show that Islamic work ethics does not moderate the relationship of job insecurity and attitude towards change, while a strong moderation effect of Islamic wok ethics is found on the relationship of job insecurity and organizational citizenship behavior. Originality/value: This study for the first time examines the relationship of job insecurity with employee’s attitude towards change and organizational citizenship behavior with the moderating effect of Islamic work ethics.

Keywords: job security, islamic work ethics, attitude towards change, organizational citizenship behavior

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36 Fear of Negative Evaluation, Social Support and Wellbeing in People with Vitiligo

Authors: Rafia Rafique, Mutmina Zainab

Abstract:

The present study investigated the relationship between fear of negative evaluation (FNE), social support and well-being in people with Vitiligo. It was hypothesized that low level of FNE and greater social support is likely to predict well-being. It was also hypothesized that social support is likely to moderate the relationship between FNE and well-being. Correlational research design was used for the present study. Non-probability purposive sampling technique was used to collect a sample (N=122) of people with Vitiligo. Hierarchical Moderated Regression analysis was used to test prediction and moderation. Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and Mental Health Continuum-Short form (MHC-SF) were used to evaluate the study variables. Fear of negative evaluation negatively predicted well-being (emotional and psychological). Social support from significant others and friends predicted social well-being. Social Support from family predicted emotional and psychological well-being. It was found that social support from significant others moderated the relationship between FNE and emotional well-being and social support from family moderated the relationship between FNE and social well-being. Dermatologists treating people with Vitiligo need to educate them and their families about the buffering role of social support (family and significant others). Future studies need to focus on other important mediating factors that can possibly explain the relationship between fear of negative evaluation and wellbeing.

Keywords: fear of negative evaluation, hierarchical moderated regression, vitiligo, well-being

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35 The Moderation Effect of Smart Phone Addiction in Relationship between Self-Leadership and Innovative Behavior

Authors: Gi-Ryun Park, Gye-Wan Moon, Dong-Hoon Yang

Abstract:

This study aims to explore the positive effects of self-leadership and innovative behavior that'd been proven in the existing researches proactively and understand the regulation effects of smartphone addiction which has recently become an issue in Korea. This study conducted a convenient sampling of college students attending the four colleges located at Daegu. A total of 210 questionnaires in 5-point Likert scale were distributed to college students. Among which, a total of 200 questionnaires were collected for our final analysis data. Both correlation analysis and regression analysis were carried out to verify those questionnaires through SPSS 20.0. As a result, college students' self-leadership had a significantly positive impact on innovative behavior (B= .210, P= .003). In addition, it is found that the relationship between self-leadership and innovative behavior can be adjusted depending on the degree of smartphone addiction in college students (B= .264, P= .000). This study could first understand the negative effects of smartphone addiction and find that if students' self-leadership is improved in terms of self-management and unnecessary use of smartphone is controlled properly, innovative behavior can be improved. In addition, this study is significant in that it attempts to identify a new impact of smartphone addiction with the recent environmental changes, unlike the existing researches that'd been carried out from the perspective of organizational behavior theory.

Keywords: innovative behavior, revolutionary behavior, self-leadership, smartphone addiction

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34 Moderating Role of Psychological Contract in Relationship between Moral Disengagement and Counterproductive Work Behavior

Authors: Afsheen Masood, Sumaira Rashid, Nadia Ijaz, Shama Mazahir

Abstract:

The current study examined the relationship between moral disengagement, psychological contract, organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. It is hypothesized that there is likely to be a significant relationship between moral disengagement, psychological contract, organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. It is hypothesized that moral disengagement is likely to significantly predict counterproductive work behavior. It is hypothesized that psychological contract is likely to moderate the relationship between moral disengagement, and counterproductive work behavior. Cross-sectional survey research design was used for the study. The sample consisted of 500 middle managers, age ranging between 30-45 years working in private and public sector. The measures used were Moral Disengagement Scale, Psychological Contract Scale, and Counterproductive Work Behavior. Series of Correlation analyses, Regression analysis, moderation analysis and t-test was run in order to execute descriptive and inferential analyses. The findings revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between moral disengagement and counterproductive work behaviors. Psychological contract significantly mediated the relationship between moral disengagement and counterproductive work behaviors. There were significant gender differences reported in psychological contract and counterproductive work behaviors. The insightful findings carry significant implication for organizational psychologists and organizational stakeholders.

Keywords: psychological contract, moral disengagement, counterproductive work behaviors, mediation analysis

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33 Morality in Actual Behavior: The Moderation Effect of Identification with the Ingroup and Religion on Norm Compliance

Authors: Shauma L. Tamba

Abstract:

This study examined whether morality is the most important aspect in actual behavior. The prediction was that people tend to behave in line with moral (as compared to competence) norms, especially when such norms are presented by their ingroup. The actual behavior that was tested was support for a military intervention without a mandate from the UN. In addition, this study also examined whether identification with the ingroup and religion moderated the effect of group and norm on support for the norm that was prescribed by their ingroup. The prediction was that those who identified themselves higher with the ingroup moral would show a higher support for the norm. Furthermore, the prediction was also that those who have religion would show a higher support for the norm in the ingroup moral rather than competence. In an online survey, participants were asked to read a scenario in which a military intervention without a mandate was framed as either the moral (but stupid) or smart (but immoral) thing to do by members of their own (ingroup) or another (outgroup) society. This study found that when people identified themselves with the smart (but immoral) norm, they showed a higher support for the norm. However, when people identified themselves with the moral (but stupid) norm, they tend to show a lesser support towards the norm. Most of the results in the study did not support the predictions. Possible explanations and implications are discussed.

Keywords: morality, competence, ingroup identification, religion, group norm

Procedia PDF Downloads 333