Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 154

Search results for: Salmonella spp.

154 Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Salmonella spp. Isolate from Chickens at Slaughterhouses in Northeast of Thailand

Authors: Seree Klaengair, Sunpetch Angkititrakul, Dusadee Phongaran, Chaiyaporn Soikum

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The objectives of this study is to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella spp. isolated from chickens at slaughterhouses in northeast of Thailand. During 2015-2016, all samples were isolated and identified by ISO 6579:2002. A total of 604 samples of rectal swab were collected and isolated for the presence of Salmonella. Salmonella was detected in 109 of 604 (18.05%) samples. The most prevalent serovars were Salmonella Kentucky (22.94%), Give (20.18%) and Typhimurium (7.34%). In this study, 66.97% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug and 38.39% were multidrug resistant. The highest resistances were found in nalidixic acid (49.54%), ampicillin (30.28%), tetracycline (27.52%), amoxicillin (26.61%), ciprofloxacin (23.85) and norfloxacin (19.27%). The results showed high prevalence of Salmonella spp. in chickens and antimicrobial resistance patterns. Prevention and control of Salmonella contamination in chickens should be consumer healthy.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, Salmonella spp., chicken, slaughterhouse

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
153 Salmonella Spp. and Essential Oil of Laurus nobilis

Authors: Karima Oldyerou, B. Meddah, A. Tirtouil

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The food borne infections have a significant impact on public health. Salmonella is the first bacterial cause, especially because of its general availability in the intestinal tract of poultry, pigs and cattle. This bacteria and essential oil of Laurus nobilis subject in this article. In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial activity shows a sensitivity of Salmonella spp. with a MIC of 2.5 mg.ml -1 in vivo after infection of wistar rats and administered orally this essential oil, microbiological results fecal material shows the antibacterial effect of this oil on Salmonella spp.

Keywords: Laurus nobilis, essential oil, salmonella, antibacterial activity, fecal matte

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
152 Genotyping of Salmonella enterica Collected from Poultry Farms Located in Riyadh, KSA by Multiplex-PCR

Authors: Moussa I. Mohamed, Turki, K. A. Al-Faraj, Abdullah A. Al-Arfaj, Ashgan M. Hessain

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The objective of the present study is to detect the incidences of Salmonella enterica from different poultry farms located in Egypt on molecular basis. During the summer of 2012, a total of 1800 cloacal swabs were collected from poultry farms located I Cairo, Egypt to be subjected for isolation of Salmonella enteric. Moreover, a total of 300 samples of poultry and poultry products were collected from different retail establishment markets in Cairo, Egypt including, 150 local whole frozen chickens, 50 imported whole frozen chickens, 100 local chicken cut samples. The highest rate of isolation 8% was obtained from imported frozen chickens and local chicken cuts, followed by local frozen chickens 6.66% and finally rectal swabs from apparently health chickens 6.4 %. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis were most frequent among the total Salmonella isolates. Multiplex-PCR for the rapid detection of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis from field samples especially after pre-enrichment on Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) selective broth (PCR-RV), revealed the same positive samples. Therefore PCR-RV technique is rabid, time saving and applicable to detect Salmonella serovars directly from chicken samples. Moreover, detecting Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis by this assay was carried out within 2 days opposed to 5–6 d by the bacteriological and serological methods.

Keywords: Salmonella enterica, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis enrichment, multiplex-PCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
151 Virulence Genes of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis Isolated from Milk and Dairy Products

Authors: E. Rahimi, S. Shaigannia

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Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis are important infectious agents causing food poisoning and food-borne gastrointestinal diseases. This study was carried out in order to investigate the distribution of virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance properties of S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis isolated from ruminant milk and dairy products in Iran. Overall 360 raw and pasteurized milk and traditional and commercial dairy products were purchased from random selected supermarkets and retail stories of Isfahan province, Iran. Samples were cultured immediately and those found positive for Salmonella were analyzed for the presence of S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis and several putative genes using PCR. Totally, 13 (3.61%), 8 (2.22%), 1 (0.27%) and 4 (1.11%) samples were found to be contaminated with Salmonella spp., S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis and other species of Salmonella, respectively. PCR results showed that invA, rfbJ, fliC and spv were the detected virulence genes in S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis positive samples. To the authors’ knowledge, the present study is the first prevalence report of virulence genes of S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis isolated from ruminant milk and traditional and commercial dairy products in Iran.

Keywords: Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, virulence genes, ruminant milk, dairy products

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150 Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Pigs at Slaughterhouses in Northeast of Thailand

Authors: Sunpetch Angkititrakul, Seree Klaengair, Dusadee Phongaran, Arunee Ritthipanun

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The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella spp. isolated from pigs at slaughterhouses in the northeast of Thailand. During 2015-2016, all samples were isolated and identified by ISO 6579:2002. A total of 699 samples of rectal swab were collected and isolated for the presence of Salmonella. Salmonella was detected in 275 of 699 (39.34%) samples. 24 serovars were identified in the 275 isolates. The most prevalent serovars were rissen (36.97%), S. enterica ser.4,5,12:i: (25.35%) and typhimurium (21.33%). In this study, 76.30% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug and 38.39% were multidrug resistant. The highest resistances were found in ampicillin (69.20%), tetracycline (66.35%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (35.55%) and chloramphenicol (9.00%) The results showed high prevalence of Salmonella spp. in pigs and high antimicrobial resistance among the isolates, and indicated the need for monitoring program to control Salmonella contamination and reduce the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in pig supply chain.

Keywords: prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, Salmonella spp., pig

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
149 The Determination of Total Microbial Count and Prevalence of Salmonella in the Shrimp Supply in Khuzestan Province

Authors: Sana Mohammad Jafar

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Salmonella is one of the major causes of foodborne diseases throughout the world. Shrimp are an important commodity in world fishery trade. The microbiological quality of shrimp must be evaluated for assurance of shrimp. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality and to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in shrimp sold in Khuzestan province. In this study, a total of 245 samples of shrimp sold in Khuzestan province were tested for Salmonella prevalence and total microbial population. The mean aerobic bacterial count in 50.2% of samples was 2200, in 29.8% of samples was 13,600, in 20% of samples was 36,700, and the mean aerobic bacterial count in the total samples was 20,000. (20,000 cfu/cc). Of the total samples, 33 samples were positive for Salmonella and the prevalence of Salmonella was determined 13.4%. These results indicate the possibility that shrimp contribute to foodborne infections. The improvement of shrimp quality is an important issue, and shrimp before consuming should be washed with water containing chlorine, with the aim of increasing safety. In addition, it should be avoided to eat shrimp as raw or not cooked properly.

Keywords: determination, total microbial, Salmonella, shrimp

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
148 Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Salmonella from Retail Dressed Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Wet Markets of Cavite, Philippines

Authors: Chester Joshua V. Saldana, Yolanda A. Ilagan

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This study determines the prevalence of Salmonella from retail dressed chickens using chicken wings as samples in five wet city markets of Cavite, Philippines, compares the prevalence among the markets' samples and determines the serotypes and antibiotic resistance pattern of Salmonella isolates. The overall prevalence of Salmonella in five wet markets in Cavite was 13.33 percent. Samples from Bacoor yielded the highest prevalence rate of 26.6 percent, followed by Imus (23.3%), Dasmarinas (11.6%), Trece Martires (3.3%) and Tagaytay (1.6%). Seven serotypes (serogroups B, C2, C3, D1 and E1) were isolated which include Salmonella weltevreden, S. derby, S. newport, S. albany, S. typhimurium, and S. enteritidis. Salmonella weltevreden was the predominant serotype while S. typhi and S. albany were the least common. Among the 15 antibiotics tested, resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, and cephalexin was exhibited by all the isolates while 5 percent showed resistance to gentamicin, 2.5 percent to streptomycin and 12.5 percent to nitrofurantoin. One isolate was resistant to four antibiotics whereas most isolates of S. enteritidis were resistant to 2 to 5 antibiotics. Four resistance patterns were recorded. This study revealed the emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serotypes from chicken meat in Cavite, Philippines.

Keywords: antibiotics, dressed chickens, resistance patterns, Salmonella serovars

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
147 Changes in the fecal Microbiome of Periparturient Dairy Cattle and Associations with the Onset of Salmonella Shedding

Authors: Lohendy Munoz-Vargas, Stephen O. Opiyo, Rose Digianantonio, Michele L. Williams, Asela Wijeratne, Gregory Habing

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Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic pathogen with critical importance in animal and public health. The persistence of Salmonella on farms affects animal productivity and health, and represents a risk for food safety. The intestinal microbiota plays a fundamental role in the colonization and invasion of this ubiquitous microorganism. To overcome the colonization resistance imparted by the gut microbiome, Salmonella uses invasion strategies and the host inflammatory response to survive, proliferate, and establish infections with diverse clinical manifestations. Cattle serve as reservoirs of Salmonella, and periparturient cows have high prevalence of Salmonella shedding; however, to author`s best knowledge, little is known about the association between the gut microbiome and the onset of Salmonella shedding during the periparturient period. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the association between changes in bacterial communities and the onset of Salmonella shedding in cattle approaching parturition. In a prospective cohort study, fecal samples from 98 dairy cows originating from four different farms were collected at four time points relative to calving (-3 wks, -1 wk, +1 wk, +3 wks). All 392 samples were cultured for Salmonella. Sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina platform was completed to evaluate the fecal microbiome in a selected sample subset. Analyses of microbial composition, diversity, and structure were performed according to time points, farm, and Salmonella onset status. Individual cow fecal microbiomes, predominated by Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Spirochaetes, and Proteobacteria phyla, significantly changed before and after parturition. Microbial communities from different farms were distinguishable based on multivariate analysis. Although there were significant differences in some bacterial taxa between Salmonella positive and negative samples, our results did not identify differences in the fecal microbial diversity or structure for cows with and without the onset of Salmonella shedding. These data suggest that determinants other than the significant changes in the fecal microbiome influence the periparturient onset of Salmonella shedding in dairy cattle.

Keywords: dairy cattle, microbiome, periparturient, Salmonella

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
146 Fecal Prevalence, Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella in Dairy Cattle in Central Ethiopia

Authors: Tadesse Eguale, Ephrem Engdawork, Wondwossen Gebreyes, Dainel Asrat, Hile Alemayehu, John Gunn

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Salmonella is one of the major zoonotic pathogens affecting wide range of vertebrates and humans worldwide. Consumption of contaminated dairy products and contact with dairy cattle represent the common sources of non-typhoidal Salmonella infection in humans. Fecal samples were collected from 132 dairy herds in central Ethiopia and cultured for Salmonella to determine the prevalence, serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility. Salmonella was recovered from the feces of at least one cattle in 10(7.6%) of the dairy farms. Out of 1193 fecal samples 30(2.5%) were positive for Salmonella. Large farm size, detection of diarrhea in one or more animals during sampling and keeping animals completely indoor compared to occasional grazing outside were associated with Salmonella positivity of the farms. Farm level prevalence of Salmonella was significantly higher in young animals below 6 months of age compared to other age groups(X2=10.24; p=0.04). Nine different serotypes were isolated. The four most frequently recovered serotypes were S. Typhimurium (23.3%),S. Saintpaul (20%) and S. Kentucky and S. Virchow (16.7%) each. All isolates were resistant or intermediately resistant to at least one of the 18 drugs tested. Twenty-six (86.7%), 20(66.7%), 18(60%), 16(53.3%) of the isolates were resistant to streptomycin, nitrofurantoin, sulfisoxazole and tetracycline respectively. Resistance to 2 drugs was detected in 93.3% of the isolates. Resistance to 3 or more drugs were detected in 21(70%) of the total isolates while multi-drug resistance (MDR) to 7 or more drugs were detected in 12 (40%) of the isolates. The rate of occurrence of MDR in Salmonella strains isolated from dairy farms in Addis Ababa was significantly higher than those isolated from farms outside of Addis Ababa((p= 0.009). The detection of high MDR in Salmonella isolates originating from dairy farms warrants the need for strict pathogen reduction strategy in dairy cattle and spread of these MDR strains to human population.

Keywords: salmonella, antimicrobial resistance, fecal prevalence

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
145 Comparison of the Isolation Rates and Characteristics of Salmonella Isolated from Antibiotic-Free and Conventional Chicken Meat Samples

Authors: Jin-Hyeong Park, Hong-Seok Kim, Jin-Hyeok Yim, Young-Ji Kim, Dong-Hyeon Kim, Jung-Whan Chon, Kun-Ho Seo

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Salmonella contamination in chicken samples can cause major health problems in humans. However, not only the effects of antibiotic treatment during growth but also the impacts of poultry slaughter line on the prevalence of Salmonella in final chicken meat sold to consumers are unknown. In this study, we compared the isolation rates and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella between antibiotic-free, conventional, conventional Korean native retail chicken meat samples and clonal divergence of Salmonella isolates by multilocus sequence typing. In addition, the distribution of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes in ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates was analyzed. A total of 72 retail chicken meat samples (n = 24 antibiotic-free broiler [AFB] chickens, n = 24 conventional broiler [CB] chickens, and n = 24 conventional Korean native [CK] chickens) were collected from local retail markets in Seoul, South Korea. The isolation rates of Salmonella were 66.6% in AFB chickens, 45.8% in CB chickens, and 25% in CK chickens. By analyzing the minimum inhibitory concentrations of β -lactam antibiotics with the disc-diffusion test, we found that 81.2% of Salmonella isolates from AFB chickens, 63.6% of isolates from CB chickens, and 50% of isolates from CK chickens were ESBL producers; all ESBL-positive isolates had the CTX-M-15 genotype. Interestingly, all ESBL-producing Salmonella were revealed as ST16 by multilocus sequence typing. In addition, all CTX-M-15-positive isolates had the genetic platform of blaCTX-M gene (IS26-ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-15-IS903), to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in Salmonella around the world. The Salmonella ST33 strain (S. Hadar) isolated in this study has never been reported in South Korea. In conclusion, our findings showed that antibiotic-free retail chicken meat products were also largely contaminated with ESBL-producing Salmonella and that their ESBL genes and genetic platforms were the same as those isolated from conventional retail chicken meat products.

Keywords: antibiotic-free poultry, conventional poultry, multilocus sequence typing, extended-spectrum β-lactamase, antimicrobial resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
144 Survey of Selected Pathogenic Bacteria in Chickens from Rural Households in Limpopo Province

Authors: M. Lizzy Madiwani, Ignatious Ncube, Evelyn Madoroba

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This study was designed to determine the distribution of pathogenic bacteria in household raised chickens and study their virulence and antibiotic profiles. For this purpose, 40 chickens were purchased from families in the Capricorn district and sacrificed for sampling. Tissues were cultured on different bacteriological media followed by biotyping using Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-time of Flight (MALDI-TOF). Disk diffusion test was performed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of these bacteria. Out of a total of 160 tissue samples evaluated, E. coli and Salmonella were detected in these tissues. Furthermore, determination of the pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella strains at species level using primer sets that target selected genes of interest in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was employed. The invA gene, a confirmatory gene of Salmonella was detected in all the Salmonella isolates. The study revealed that there is a high distribution of Salmonella and pathogenic E. coli in these chickens. Therefore, further studies on identification at the species level are highly recommended to provide management and sanitation practices to lower this prevalence. The antimicrobial susceptibly data generated from this study can be a valuable reference to veterinarians for treating bacterial diseases in poultry.

Keywords: antimicrobial, Escherichia coli, pathogens, Salmonella

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143 Food Poisoning (Salmonellosis) as a Public Health Problem Through Consuming the Meat and Eggs of the Carrier Birds

Authors: M.Younus, M. Athar Khan, Asif Adrees

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The present research endeavour was made to investigate the Public Health impact of Salmonellosis through consuming the meat and eggs of the carrier’s birds and to see the prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from poultry feed, poultry meat, and poultry eggs and their role in the chain of transmission of salmonellae to human beings and causing food poisoning. The ultimate objective was to generate data to improve the quality of poultry products and human health awareness. Salmonellosis is one of the most wide spread food borne zoonoses in all the continents of the world. The etiological agents Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium not only produce the disease but during the convalescent phase (after the recovery of disease) remain carriers for indefinite period of time. The carrier state was not only the source of spread of disease with in the poultry but also caused typhoid fever in humans. The chain of transmission started from poultry feed to poultry meat and ultimately to humans as dead end hosts. In this experiment a total number of 200 samples of human stool and blood were collected randomly (100 samples of human stool and 100 samples of human blood) of 100 patients suspected from food poisoning patients from different hospitals of Lahore area for the identification of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium through PCR method in order to see the public health impact of Salmonellosis through consuming the meat and eggs of the carrier birds. On the average 14 and 10 stool samples were found positive against Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from each of the 25 patients from each hospital respectively in case of suspected food poisoning patients. Similarly on an average 5% and 6% blood samples were found positive from 25 patients of each hospital respectively. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) in the sero positivity of stool and blood samples of suspected food poisoning patients as far as Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium was concerned. However there was no significant difference (P<0.05) between the hospitals.

Keywords: salmonella, zoonosis, food, transmission, eggs

Procedia PDF Downloads 575
142 Same-Day Detection Method of Salmonella Spp., Shigella Spp. and Listeria Monocytogenes with Fluorescence-Based Triplex Real-Time PCR

Authors: Ergun Sakalar, Kubra Bilgic

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Faster detection and characterization of pathogens are the basis of the evoid from foodborne pathogens. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are common foodborne bacteria that are among the most life-threatining. It is important to rapid and accurate detection of these pathogens to prevent food poisoning and outbreaks or to manage food chains. The present work promise to develop a sensitive, species specific and reliable PCR based detection system for simultaneous detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. For this purpose, three genes were picked out, ompC for Salmonella spp., ipaH for Shigella spp. and hlyA for L. monocytogenes. After short pre-enrichment of milk was passed through a vacuum filter and bacterial DNA was exracted using commercially available kit GIDAGEN®(Turkey, İstanbul). Detection of amplicons was verified by examination of the melting temperature (Tm) that are 72° C, 78° C, 82° C for Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and L. monocytogenes, respectively. The method specificity was checked against a group of bacteria strains, and also carried out sensitivity test resulting in under 10² CFU mL⁻¹ of milk for each bacteria strain. Our results show that the flourescence based triplex qPCR method can be used routinely to detect Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and L. monocytogenes during the milk processing procedures in order to reduce cost, time of analysis and the risk of foodborne disease outbreaks.

Keywords: evagreen, food-born bacteria, pathogen detection, real-time pcr

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
141 Effects of Environmental Parameters on Salmonella Contaminated in Harvested Oysters (Crassostrea lugubris and Crassostrea belcheri)

Authors: Varangkana Thaotumpitak, Jarukorn Sripradite, Saharuetai Jeamsripong

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Environmental contamination from wastewater discharges originated from anthropogenic activities introduces the accumulation of enteropathogenic bacteria in aquatic animals, especially in oysters, and in shellfish harvesting areas. The consumption of raw or partially cooked oysters can be a risk for seafood-borne diseases in human. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the presence of Salmonella in oyster meat samples, and environmental factors (ambient air temperature, relative humidity, gust wind speed, average wind speed, tidal condition, precipitation and season) by using the principal component analysis (PCA). One hundred and forty-four oyster meat samples were collected from four oyster harvesting areas in Phang Nga province, Thailand from March 2016 to February 2017. The prevalence of Salmonella of each site was ranged from 25.0-36.11% in oyster meat. The results of PCA showed that ambient air temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation were main factors correlated with Salmonella detection in these oysters. Positive relationship was observed between positive Salmonella in the oysters and relative humidity (PC1=0.413) and precipitation (PC1=0.607), while the negative association was found between ambient air temperature (PC1=0.338) and the presence of Salmonella in oyster samples. These results suggested that lower temperature and higher precipitation and higher relative humidity will possibly effect on Salmonella contamination of oyster meat. During the high risk period, harvesting of oysters should be prohibited to reduce pathogenic bacteria contamination and to minimize a hazard of humans from Salmonellosis.

Keywords: oyster, Phang Nga Bay, principal component analysis, Salmonella

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
140 Prevalence and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Dodonaea viscosa Extract and Antibacterial Agents against Salmonella spp. Isolated from Poultry

Authors: Shayma Munqith Al-Baker, Fadhl Ahmed Saeed Al-Gasha’a, Samira Hamid Hanash, Ahmed Ali Al-Hazmi

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A total of 200 samples (180 fecal materials and 20 organ samples) were collected from (5 different poultry farms, 10 local poultry shops, 5 houses poultry, 5 Eggs stores shops and 5 hand slaughters centers) in Ibb city, Yemen, 2014. According to morphological, cultural, as well as biochemical characterization and serological tests, 59 29.5% isolates were identified as Salmonella spp. and all Salmonella isolates were categorized by serotype, which comprised of, 37 62.71% Salmonella Typhimurium serovar, 21 35.59%. Salmonella Enteritidis serovar and 11.69% Salmonella Heidelberg serovar. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done for bacterial isolates and the results showed there were clear differences in antibiotic resistant. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates varies as follows: Ofloxacin 79.66%, Ciprofloxacin 67.80%, Colistin 59.32% and Gentamycin 52.54%. All of isolates were resistant to Erythromycin, Penicillin and Lincomycin. Antibacterial activity was done for both aqueous and ethanol extracts of Dodonaea viscosa plant by using well and disc diffusion assay. The results indicated that well diffusion assay had best results than disc diffusion assay, the highest inhibition zone was 22 mm for well diffusion and 15 mm for disc diffusion assay, the results observed that ethanol extract had best antibacterial effect than aqueous extract which the percentage of bacterial isolates affected with ethanol extract was 71.19% comparing with aqueous extract 28.81% by using disc diffusion assay, while the percentage of bacterial isolates affected with ethanol extract was 88.13% comparing with aqueous extract 52.54% by using will diffusion assay.

Keywords: Salmonella spp, Dodonaea viscosa, antimicrobial and salmonellosis

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139 Prevalence, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern and Associated Risk Factors for Salmonella Species and Escherichia Coli from Raw Meat at Butchery Houses in Mekelle, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

Authors: Haftay Abraha Tadesse, Dawit Gebreegziabiher Hagos, Atsebaha Gebrekidan Kahsay, Mahumd Abdulkader

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Background: Salmonella species and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are important foodborne pathogens affecting humans and animals. They are among the most important causes of infection that are associated with the consumption of contaminated food. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associated risk factors for Salmonella species and E. coli in raw meat from butchery houses of Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to December 2019. Socio-demographic data and risk factors were collected using a predesigned questionnaire. Meat samples were collected aseptically from the butchery houses and transported using icebox to Mekelle University, College of Veterinary Sciences for the isolation and identification of Salmonella species and E. coli. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined using Kirby disc diffusion method. Data obtained were cleaned and entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22 and logistic regression models with odds ratio were calculated. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: A total of 153 out of 384 (39.8%) of the meat specimens were found to be contaminated. The contamination of Salmonella species and E. coli were 15.6% (n=60) and 20.8%) (n=80), respectively. Mixed contamination (Salmonella species and E. coli) was observed in 13 (3.4 %) of the analyzed. Poor washing hands regularly (AOR = 8.37; 95% CI: 2.75-25.50) and not using gloves during meat handling (AOR=11. 28; 95% CI:(4.69 27.10) were associated with overall bacterial contamination. About 100% of the tested isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, Co trimoxazole , sulphamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, and trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and norfloxacine of E. coli and Salmonella species, respectively, while the resistance of amoxyclav_amoxicillin and erythromycin were both isolated bacteria species. The overall multidrug resistance pattern for Salmonella and E. coli were 51.4% (n=19) and 31.8% (14), respectively. Conclusion: Of the 153 (153/384) contaminated raw meat, 60 (15.6%) and 80 (20.8%) were contaminated by Salmonella species and E. coli, respectively. Poor handwashing practice and not using glove during meat handling showed a significant association with bacterial contamination. Multidrug-resistant showed in Salmonella species, and E. coli were 19 (51.4%) and 14 (31.8%), respectively.

Keywords: antimicrobial susceptibility test, butchery houses, E. coli, raw meat, salmonella species

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138 Pefloxacin as a Surrogate Marker for Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Salmonella: Study from North India

Authors: Varsha Gupta, Priya Datta, Gursimran Mohi, Jagdish Chander

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Fluoroquinolones form the mainstay of therapy for the treatment of infections due to Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. There is a complex interplay between several resistance mechanisms for quinolones and various fluoroquinolones discs, giving varying results, making detection and interpretation of fluoroquinolone resistance difficult. For detection of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella ssp., we compared the use of pefloxacin and nalidixic acid discs as surrogate marker. Using MIC for ciprofloxacin as the gold standard, 43.5% of strains showed MIC as ≥1 μg/ml and were thus resistant to fluoroquinoloes. Based on the performance of nalidixic acid and pefloxacin discs as surrogate marker for ciprofloxacin resistance, both the discs could correctly detect all the resistant phenotypes; however, use of nalidixic acid disc showed false resistance in the majority of the sensitive phenotypes. We have also tested newer antimicrobial agents like cefixime, imipenem, tigecycline and azithromycin against Salmonella spp. Moreover, there was a comeback of susceptibility to older antimicrobials like ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole. We can also use cefixime, imipenem, tigecycline and azithromycin in the treatment of multidrug resistant S. typhi due to their high susceptibility.

Keywords: salmonella, pefloxacin, surrogate marker, chloramphenicol

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
137 How to Break an Outbreak: Containment Measures of a Salmonella Outbreak Associated with Egg Consumption

Authors: Gal Zagron, Nitza Abramson, Deena R. Zimmerman, Chen Stein-Zamir

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Background: Salmonella enteritidis is a common cause of foodborne outbreaks, primarily associated with poultry eggs. S. enteritidis This is the only Salmonella type that is found inside the eggshell. A rise in Salmonella enteritidis notifications was noted in spring 2017. Aims: The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological investigation of the outbreak in the Jerusalem district, along with the containment measures taken. Methods: This study is a population-based epidemiological study with a description of environmental control activities. Results: During the months May - July, 2017 848 salmonellosis cases were reported to the Jerusalem district health office compared to 294 cases May - July 2016. Salmonella enteritidis was isolated in 58% of reported cases. Clusters and outbreaks ( > 2 cases) were reported among nursery schools, nursing homes, persons residing in one kibbutz and several cases in different food service establishments in the Jerusalem district. Epidemiological investigations revealed eggs consumption as a common feature among the cases (uncooked or undercooked eggs in most cases). A national investigation among egg suppliers revealed that most cases consumed eggs provided by a single provider with isolation of Salmonella enteritidis at the source as well. Containment measures were taken to control the epidemic including distributing information via electronic and written media to the public, searching for all egg distribution centers, informing local authorities, the poultry council and food stores. The eggs originating from the provider were recalled and extinguished. Written instructions to all food preparation facilities in the district were distributed regarding the proper storage and preparation of eggs. The number of reported cases declined and the outbreak vanished during correlating months of 2018. Conclusions: The investigation of Salmonella enteritidis outbreaks should include epidemiological and laboratory investigations, tracing the source of the eggs and testing the eggs and the source of eggs. Health education activities are essential as to the proper handling of eggs and egg products aiming to minimize susceptibility to Salmonella infection.

Keywords: epidemiological investigation, food-borne disease, food safety, Salmonella enteritidis

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136 Evaluation of the Antibacterial Effects of Turmeric Oleoresin, Capsicum Oleoresin and Garlic Essential Oil against Salmonella enterica Typhimurium

Authors: Jun Hyung Lee, Robin B. Guevarra, Jin Ho Cho, Bo-Ra Kim, Jiwon Shin, Doo Wan Kim, Young Hwa Kim, Minho Song, Hyeun Bum Kim

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Salmonella is one of the most important swine pathogens, causing acute or chronic digestive diseases, such as enteritis. The acute form of enteritis is common in young pigs of 2-4 months of age. Salmonellosis in swine causes a huge economic burden to swine industry by reducing production. Therefore, it is necessary that swine industries should strive to decrease Salmonellosis in pigs in order to reduce economic losses. Thus, we tested three types of natural plant extracts(PEs) to evaluate antibacterial effects against Salmonella enterica Typhimurium isolated from the piglet with Salmonellosis. Three PEs including turmeric oleoresin (containing curcumin 79 to 85%), capsicum oleoresin (containing capsaicin 40%-40.1%), and garlic essential oil (100% natural garlic) were tested using the direct contact agar diffusion test, minimum inhibitory concentration test, growth curve assay, and heat stability test. The tests were conducted with PEs at each concentration of 2.5%, 5%, and 10%. For the heat stability test, PEs with 10% concentration were incubated at each 4, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 °C for 1 hour; then the direct contact agar diffusion test was used. For the positive and negative controls, 0.5N HCl and 1XPBS were used. All the experiments were duplicated. In the direct contact agar diffusion test, garlic essential oil with 2.5%, 5%, and 10% concentration showed inhibit zones of 1.5cm, 2.7cm, and 2.8cm diameters compared to that of 3.5cm diameter for 0.5N HCl. The minimum inhibited concentration of garlic essential oil was 2.5%. Growth curve assay showed that the garlic essential oil was able to inhibit Salmonella growth significantly after 4hours. The garlic essential oil retained the ability to inhibit Salmonella growth after heat treatment at each temperature. However, turmeric and capsicum oleoresins were not able to significantly inhibit Salmonella growth by all the tests. Even though further in-vivo tests will be needed to verify effects of garlic essential oil for the Salmonellosis prevention for piglets, our results showed that the garlic essential oil could be used as a potential natural agent to prevent Salmonellosis in swine.

Keywords: garlic essential oil, pig, salmonellosis, Salmonella enterica

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135 Microbial Quality of Raw Camel Milk Produced in South of Morocco

Authors: Maha Alaoui Ismaili, Bouchta Saidi, Mohamed Zahar, Abed Hamama

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Thirty one samples of raw camel milk obtained from the region of Laâyoune (South of Morocco) were examined for their microbial quality and presence of some pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella sp.). pH of the samples ranged from 6.31 to 6.64 and their titratable acidity had a mean value of 18.56 °Dornic. Data obtained showed a strong microbial contamination with an average total aerobic flora of 1.76 108 ufc ml-1 and a very high fecal counts: 1.82 107 ; 3.25 106 and 3.75 106 ufc.ml-1 in average for total coliforms, fecal coliforms and enterococci respectively. Yeasts and moulds were also found at average respective levels of 3.13 106 and 1.60 105 ufc.ml-1. Salmonella sp. and S. aureus was detected respectively in 13% and 30% of the milk samples. These results indicate clearly the lack of hygienic conditions of camel milk production and storage in this region. Lactic acid bacteria were found at the following average numbers: 4.25 107 ; 4.45 107 and 3.55 107 ufc.ml-1 for Lactococci, Leuconostocs and Lactobacilli respectively.

Keywords: camel milk, microbial quality, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus

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134 Inactivation and Stress Response of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium lt21 upon Cold Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment

Authors: Zoran Herceg, Tomislava Vukušić, Anet Režek Jambrak, Višnja Stulić

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Today one of the greatest challenges are directed to the safety of food supply. If food pathogens are ingested they can cause human illnesses. Because of that new technologies that are effective in microbial reduction are developing to be used in food industries. One of such technology is cold gas phase plasma. Salmonella enterica was studied as one of the pathogenes that can be found in food. The aim of this work was to examine the inactivation rate and stress response of plasma treated cells of Salmonella enterica inoculated in apple juice. After the treatment cellular leakage, phenotypic changes in plasma treated cells-biofilm formation and degree of recovery were conducted. Sample volume was inoculated with 5 mL of pure culture of Salmonella enterica and 15 mL of apple juice. Statgraphics Centurion software (StatPoint Technologies, Inc., VA, USA) was used for experimental design and statistical analyses. Treatment time (1, 3, 5 min) and gas flow (40, 60, 80 L/min) were changed. Complete inactivation and 0 % of recovery after the 48 h was observed at these experimental treatments: 3 min; 40 L/min, 3 min; 80 L/min, 5 min; 40 L/min. Biofilm reduction was observed at all treated samples. Also, there was an increase in cellular leakage with a longer plasma treatment. Although there were a significant reduction and 0 % of recovery after the plasma treatments further investigation of the method is needed to clarify whether there are sensorial, physical and chemical changes in juices after the plasma treatment. Acknowledgments: The authors would like to acknowledge the support by Croatian Science Foundation and research project 'Application of electrical discharge plasma for the preservation of liquid foods'.

Keywords: salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium lt21, gas-phase plasma treatment, inactivation, stress response

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133 Isolation and Characterization of Ant-Salmonella Lactic Acid Bacteria from Dairy Products

Authors: Najie Hassanzade, Mohammad Rabbani Khorasgani

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Dairy products have been regarded as the natural source of lactic acid bacteria with potential characteristics of probiotics; therefore, a lot of research and practical works have been carried out about the isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from dairy products, especially traditional yogurt and related products. Interest in traditional dairy products continues in the area of isolation of new LAB that can complement or replace currently used starters and/or that can be candidates as beneficial microorganisms for prevention or treatment purposes. In this perspective, such products are potentially good candidates for isolating new strains of probiotics. On the other hand, some infectious diseases such as salmonellosis have expressed resistance against many antibiotics; therefore, many attempts have been performed to use an alternative approach to overcome antibiotic resistance. The current research focuses on the isolation of LAB from dairy products, especially traditional dairy products and screening of them for anti-Salmonella activities. Twenty-five samples, including 15 sheep milk samples, one camel milk sample and seven cow milk samples from different areas of Iran and 2 yogurt samples from Herat, Afghanistan are collected. 20 bacteria are isolated by culturing the samples on MRS agar specific medium; among them 4 Lactobacillus strains, including 3L. plantarum strains and one L.gasseri strain, are identified by analyzing the biochemical tests and PCR tests in which 27F and 1492R primers are used. Then, their effects against Salmonella typhimurium using the well-diffusion method are evaluated.

Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, probiotics, dairy products Salmonella

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132 Health Outcomes from Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella in High-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Andrea Parisi, Samantha Vilkins, Luis Furuya-Kanamori, John A. Crump, Benjamin P. Howden, Darren Gray, Kathryn Glass, Martyn Kirk

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Objectives: Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne enterocolitis worldwide. Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections that are Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) (non-susceptible to ≥1 agent in ≥3 antimicrobial categories) may result in more severe outcomes, although these effects have not been systematically examined. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine impacts of MDR NTS on health in high-income settings. Methods: We systematically reviewed the literature from scientific databases, including PubMed, Scopus and grey literature sources, using PRISMA guidelines. We searched for data from case-control studies, cohorts, outbreaks, reports and theses, imposing no language restriction. We included only publications from January 1990 to September 2016 from high income countries as classified by World Bank. We extracted data from papers on duration of illness, hospitalisation rates, morbidity and mortality for MDR and non-MDR NTS strains. Results: After removing duplicates, the initial search revealed 4258 articles. After further screening, we identified 16 eligible studies for the systematic review, and 9 of these were included in meta-analysis. NTS serotypes differed among the reported studies but serotype Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Newport and Heidelberg were among the most often reported as MDR pathogens. Salmonella infections that were MDR were associated with excess bloodstream infections (OR 1.63; 95%CI 1.18-2.26), excess hospitalisations (OR 2.77; 95%CI 1.47-5.21) and higher mortality (OR 3.54; 95%CI 1.10-11.40). Conclusions: MDR NTS infections are a serious public health concern. With the emergence of MDR Salmonella strains in the high-income countries, it is crucial to restrict the use of antimicrobials both in animals and humans, and intervene to prevent foodborne infections.

Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance, Bloodstream Infection, Health Outcomes, Hospitalisation, Invasive Disease, Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR), Mortality, Nontyphoidal Salmonella

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
131 Comparison between Two Groups of Pathogenic Bacteria under Different Essential Oil Extract of Ocimum basilicum L.

Authors: A. M. Daneshian Moghaddam, J. Shayegh, J. Dolghari Sharaf

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This study was conducted to assessment the antibacterial activities of different part of basil essential oil on the standard gram-negative bacteria include Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and gram-positive ones including Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogen. The basil essential oil was provided from two part of plant (leaf and herb) at the two different developmental stage. The antibacterial properties of basil essential oil was studied Also agar disk diffusion, minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were detected. The results of agar disk diffusion tests showed the inhibition zones as follow: Listeria monocytogen 17.11-17.42 mm, St. aureus 29.20-30.56 mm, B. cereus 14.73-16.06 mm, E. coli 21.60-23.58 mm, Salmonella typhi 21.63-24.80 mm and for P. aeruginosa the maximum inhibition zones were seen on leaf essential oil. From the herb part of basil almost similar results were obtained: Listeria monocytogen 17.02-17.67 mm, St. aureus 29.60-30.41 mm, B. cereus 10.66-16.11 mm, E. coli 17.48-23.54 mm, Salmonella typhi 21.58-21.64 mm and for P. aeruginosa the maximum inhibition zones were seen. The MICs for gram-positive bacteria were as: B. cereus ranging 36-18 μg/mL, S. aureus 18 μg/mL, Listeria monocytogen 18-36 μg/mL and for gram-negative bacteria of E. coli, Salmonella typhi and P. aeruginosa were 18-9 μg/mL.

Keywords: basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oil, gram-positive and gram negative bacteria, antibacterial activity, MIC, MBC

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130 Potency of Some Dietary Acidifiers on Productive Performance and Controlling Salmonella enteritidis in Broilers

Authors: Mohamed M. Zaki, Maha M. Hady

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Salmonella spp. have been categorized as the world’s biggest threats to human health and poultry products are mostly incriminated sources. In Egypt, it was found that S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium are the most prevalent ones in poultry farms. It is recommended to eliminate salmonella from living bird by competing for salmonella contamination in feed in order to establish a healthy gut. The Feed acidifiers are the group of feed additives containing low-molecular-weight organic acids and/ or their salts which act as performance promoters by lowering the pH in the gut, optimizes digestion and inhibit bacterial growth. The inclusion of organic acid in pure form nonetheless effective in feed, yet, it is difficult to handle in feed mills as it is corrosive and produce more losses during pelleting process. The current study aimed at to evaluate the impact of incorporation of sodium diformate (SDF) and a commercial acidifier, CA (a mixture of butyric and propionic acids and their ammonium salts) at 0.4% dietary levels on broilers performance and the control S. enteritidis infection. Two hundreds and seventy unsexed cobb chickens were allotted in one of three treatments (90/ group) which were, the control (no acidifier, C- &C+), the 0.4% SDF (SDF- & SDF +) and the 0.4% CA (CA- & CA +) dietary levels for 35 days. Before the allocation of the groups, ten extra birds and a diet sample were bacteriologically examined to ensure negative contamination with salmonella. The birds were raised on deep-litter separated pens and had free access to feed and water all the time. The experimentally formulated diets were kept at 40C. After 24h access to the different dietary treatments, all the birds in the positive groups (n=15/ replicate) were inoculated intra-crop with 0.2 ml of 24 h broth culture of S. entertidis containing 1X 107 organisms while the negative-treated groups were inoculated with the same amount of the negative broth and second inoculation was done at 22 d of age. Colocal swabs were collected individually from all birds 2 h pre-inoculation to assure the absence of salmonella, then 1, 3, 5, 7, 21 days post-inoculation to recover salmonella. Performance parameter (body weight gain and feed efficiency) were calculated. Mortalities were recorded and reisolation of the salmonella was adopted to ensure it was the inoculated ones. The results revealed that the dietary acidification with sodium diformate significantly improved broilers performance and tends to produce heavier birds as compared to the negative control and CA groups. Moreover, the dietary inclusion of both acidifiers at level of 0.4% was able to eliminate mortalities completely at the relevant inoculation time. Regarding the shedding of S. enteritidius in positive groups, the SDF treatment resulted in significant (p<0.05) cessation of the shedding at 3 days post-inoculation compared to 7 days post-inoculation for the CA-group. In conclusion, sodium diformate at 0.4% dietary level in broiler diets has a valuable effect not only on broilers performance but also by eliminating S. enteritidis the main source of salmonella contamination in poultry farms which is feed.

Keywords: acidifier, broilers, Salmonalla spp, sodium diformate

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129 Bacterial Contamination of Kitchen Sponges and Cutting Surfaces and Disinfection Procedures

Authors: Hayyan I Al Taweil

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Background: The most common of bacterium in kitchen sponges and cutting surfaces which can play a task within the cross-contamination of foods, fomites and hands by foodborne pathogens. Aims and Objectives: This study investigated the incidence of bacterium in kitchen Sponge, and cutting surfaces. Material and methods: a complete of twenty four kitchen Sponges were collected from home kitchens and therefore the numbers of mesotrophic microorganism, coliform microorganism, E. coli, Salmonella, genus {pseudomonas|bacteria genus} and staphylococci in every kitchen Sponges were determined. Microbiological tests of all sponges for total mesophilic aerobic microorganism, S. aureus, Pseudomonas, Salmonella spp., and E. coli were performed on days 3, 7, and 14 by sampling. The sponges involved in daily use in kitchens countenosely with the dishwasher detergent a minimum of doubly daily Results: Results from the overall mesophilic aerobic microorganism, indicate a major increase within the variety of log CFU/ml. the amount of E. coli was reduced, Salmonella spp. was stabled, S. aureus was enhanced from the sponges throughout fourteen days. Genus Pseudomonas was enhanced and was the dominant micro flora within the sponges throughout fourteen days.

Keywords: Kitchen Sponges, Microbiological Contamination, Disinfection; cutting surface; , Cross-Contamination

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128 Molecular Biomonitoring of Bacterial Pathogens in Wastewater

Authors: Desouky Abd El Haleem, Sahar Zaki

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This work was conducted to develop a one-step multiplex PCR system for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of three different bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella spp, directly in wastewater without prior isolation on selective media. As a molecular confirmatory test after isolation of the pathogens by classical microbiological methods, PCR-RFLP of their amplified 16S rDNA genes was performed. It was observed that the developed protocols have significance impact in the ability to detect sensitively, rapidly and specifically the three pathogens directly in water within short-time, represents a considerable advancement over more time-consuming and less-sensitive methods for identification and characterization of these kinds of pathogens.

Keywords: multiplex PCR, bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp.

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
127 Assessment of Microbiological Feed Safety from Serbian Market from 2013 to 2017

Authors: Danijela Vuković, Radovan Čobanović, Milorad Plačkić

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The expansion of population imposes increase in usage of animal meat, on whose quality directly affects the quality of the feed that the animals are fed with. The selection of raw materials, hygiene during the technological process, various hydrothermal treatments, methods of mixing etc. have an influence on the quality of feed. Monitoring of the feed is very important to obtain information about the quality of feed and the possible prevention of animal diseases which can lead to different human diseases outbreaks. In this study parameters of feed safety were monitored. According to the mentioned, the goal of this study was to evaluate microbiological safety of feed (feedstuffs and complete mixtures). Total number of analyzed samples was 4399. Analyzed feed samples were collected in various retail shops and feed factories during the period of 44 months (from January 2013 untill September 2017). Samples were analyzed on Salmonella spp. and Clostridium perfringens in quantity of 50g according to Serbian regulation. All microorganisms were tested according to ISO methodology: Salmonella spp. ISO 6579:2002 and Clostridium perfringens ISO 7937:2004. Out of 4399 analyzed feed samples 97,5% were satisfactory and 2,5% unsatisfactory concerning Salmonella spp. As far as Clostridium perfringens is concerned 100% of analyzed samples were satisfactory. The obtained results suggest that technological processing of feed in Serbia is at high level when it comes to safety and hygiene of the products, but there are still possibilities for progress and improvement which only can be reached trough the permanent monitoring of feed.

Keywords: microbiology, safety, hygiene, feed

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126 Evaluation of Anti-Typhoid Effects of Azadirachta indica L. Fractions

Authors: A. Adetutu, T. M. Awodugba, O. A. Owoade

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The development of resistance to currently known conventional anti-typhoid drugs has necessitated search into cheap, more potent and less toxic anti-typhoid drugs of plant origin. Therefore, this study investigated the anti-typhoid activity of fractions of A. indica in Salmonella typhi infected rats. Leaves of A. indica were extracted in methanol and fractionated into n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl-acetate, and aqueous fractions. The anti-salmonella potentials of fractions of A. indica were assessed via in-vitro inhibition of S. typhi using agar well diffusion, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and biofilm assays. The biochemical and haematological parameters were determined by spectrophotometric methods. The histological analysis was performed using Haematoxylin and Eosin staining methods. Data analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA. Results of this study showed that S. typhi was sensitive to aqueous and chloroform fractions of A. indica, and the fractions showed biofilm inhibition at concentrations of 12.50, 1.562, and 0.39 mg/mL. In the in-vivo study, the extract and chloroform fraction had significant (p < 0.05) effects on the number of viable S. typhi recovered from the blood and stopped salmonellosis after 6 days of treatment of rats at 500 mg/kg b.w. Treatments of infected rats with chloroform and aqueous fractions of A. indica normalized the haematological parameters in the animals. Similarly, treatment with fractions of the plants sustained a normal antioxidant status when compared with the normal control group. Chloroform and ethyl-acetate fractions of A. indica reversed the liver and intestinal degeneration induced by S. typhi infection in rats. The present investigation indicated that the aqueous and chloroform fractions of A. indica showed the potential to provide an effective treatment for salmonellosis, including typhoid fever. The results of the study may justify the ethno-medicinal use of the extract in traditional medicine for the treatment of typhoid and salmonella infections.

Keywords: Azadirachta indica L, salmonella, typhoid, leave fractions

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125 Antimicrobial Activity of Sour Cherry Pomace

Authors: Sonja Djilas, Aleksandra Velićanski, Dragoljub Cvetković, Siniša Markov, Eva Lončar, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Milica Vinčić

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Due to high content of bioactive compounds, sour cherry possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Additionally, waste material from industrial processing of sour cherry is also a good source of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to screen the antimicrobial activity and determine the minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of sour cherry pomace extract. Tested strains were Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 and wild isolates Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp.), Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 11632, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876 and wild isolates Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Bacillus sp.) and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae 112, Hefebank Weihenstephan and Candida albicans ATCC 10231). Antimicrobial activity was tested by disc-diffusion method and agar-well diffusion method. MIC and MBC were determined by microdilution method. Screening tests showed that Gram-negative bacteria were resistant to tested extract, with exception of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella sp. for which only zones of reduced growth appeared. However, Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive where the highest clear zones appeared with 100 µl of extract applied. There was no activity against tested yeasts. MIC and MBC values were in the range 3.125-37.5 mg/ml and 6.25-100 mg/ml, respectively. The most susceptible strain was Staphylococcus aureus while the most resistant was Bacillus sp. where MBC was not found in tested concentration range. Sour cherry pomace possesses high antibacterial potential, which indicates that this waste material is a promising source of bioactive compounds and could be used as a functional food ingredient.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, sour cherry, pomace, bioactive compounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 206